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HTML5
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{short description|Fifth and current version of the hypertext markup language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web}}







factoids
| standard = HTML Living Standard| free = Yes| url = | type code = TEXT PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. >DATE=17 NOVEMBER 2009, | owner = WHATWG| genre = Markup language| container for = | contained by = | extended to = XHTML }}







factoids
{{HTML}}HTML5 is a software solution stack that defines the properties and behaviors of web page content by implementing a markup based pattern to it. HTML5 is the fifth and current major version of HTML, and subsumes XHTML. The current standard, the HTML Living Standard is developed by WHATWG, which is made up of the major browser vendors (Apple, Google, Mozilla, and Microsoft), with the Living Standard also existing in an abridged version.HTML5 was first released in public-facing form on 22 January 2008, with a major update and "W3C Recommendation" status in October 2014.WEB,weblink HTML5 is a W3C recommendation, W3C Blog, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 28 October 2014, 28 October 2014, Its goals were to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia and other new features; to keep the language both easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices such as web browsers, parsers, etc., without XHTML's rigidity; and to remain backward-compatible with older software. HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML 4, but also XHTML 1 and DOM Level 2 HTML.WEB, HTML5 Differences from HTML4,weblink W3.org, W3C, 2 March 2018, HTML4 became a W3C Recommendation in 1997. While it continues to serve as a rough guide to many of the core features of HTML, it does not provide enough information to build implementations that interoperate with each other and, more importantly, with Web content. The same goes for XHTML1, which defines an XML serialization for HTML4, and DOM Level 2 HTML, which defines JavaScript APIs for both HTML and XHTML. HTML replaces these documents., Introduction, HTML5 includes detailed processing models to encourage more interoperable implementations; it extends, improves and rationalizes the markup available for documents, and introduces markup and application programming interfaces (APIs) for complex web applications.WEB, HTML5 Differences from HTML4,weblink W3.org, W3C, 19 October 2010, 4 December 2010, For the same reasons, HTML5 is also a candidate for cross-platform mobile applications, because it includes features designed with low-powered devices in mind.Many new syntactic features are included. To natively include and handle multimedia and graphical content, the new {{tag|video|o}}, {{tag|audio|o}} and {{tag|canvas|o}} elements were added, and support for scalable vector graphics (SVG) content and MathML for mathematical formulas. To enrich the semantic content of documents, new page structure elements such as {{tag|main|o}}, {{tag|section|o}}, {{tag|article|o}}, {{tag|header|o}}, {{tag|footer|o}}, {{tag|aside|o}}, {{tag|nav|o}}, and {{tag|figure|o}} are added. New attributes are introduced, some elements and attributes have been removed, and others such as {{tag|a|o}}, {{tag|cite|o}}, and {{tag|menu|o}} have been changed, redefined, or standardized.The APIs and Document Object Model (DOM) are now fundamental parts of the HTML5 specification and HTML5 also better defines the processing for any invalid documents.WEB, HTML 5.2 W3C Recommendation, § 1.10.2 Syntax Errors,weblink W3.org, W3C, 14 December 2017, 29 June 2017,

History

The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) began work on the new standard in 2004. At that time, HTML 4.01 had not been updated since 2000,WEB, HTML 4 Errata,weblink World Wide Web Consortium, 4 December 2010, and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was focusing future developments on XHTML 2.0. In 2009, the W3C allowed the XHTML 2.0 Working Group's charter to expire and decided not to renew it.The Mozilla Foundation and Opera Software presented a position paper at a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) workshop in June 2004,WEB,weblink Position Paper for the W3C Workshop on Web Applications and Compound Documents, W3.org, W3C, 30 December 2011, focusing on developing technologies that are backward-compatible with existing browsers,WEB,weblink W3C Workshop on Web Applications and Compound Documents (Day 1), 1 June 2004, W3.org, W3C, 30 December 2011, including an initial draft specification of Web Forms 2.0. The workshop concluded with a vote—8 for, 14 against—for continuing work on HTML.WEB,weblink W3C Workshop on Web Applications and Compound Documents (Day 2), 2 June 2004, W3.org, W3C, 30 December 2011, Immediately after the workshop, WHATWG was formed to start work based upon that position paper, and a second draft, Web Applications 1.0, was also announced.WEB,weblink [whatwg] WHAT open mailing list announcement, -Ian, Hickson, Ian Hickson, Lists.W3.org, W3C, 5 June 2004, 8 December 2015, The two specifications were later merged to form HTML5.WEB,weblink This Week in HTML 5 – Episode 5, Mark, Pilgrim, Mark Pilgrim, WHATWG Blog, WHATWG, 15 September 2008, 30 December 2011, The HTML5 specification was adopted as the starting point of the work of the new HTML working group of the W3C in 2007.WHATWG's Ian Hickson (Google) and David Hyatt (Apple) produced W3C's first public working draft of the specification on 22 January 2008.WEB,weblink HTML5: A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML, 22 January 2008, W3.org, W3C, 28 January 2009,

"Thoughts on Flash"

While some features of HTML5 are often compared to Adobe Flash, the two technologies are very different. Both include features for playing audio and video within web pages, and for using Scalable Vector Graphics. However, HTML5 on its own cannot be used for animation or interactivity â€“ it must be supplemented with CSS3 or JavaScript. There are many Flash capabilities that have no direct counterpart in HTML5 (see Comparison of HTML5 and Flash). HTML5's interactive capabilities became a topic of mainstream media attention around April 2010NEWS,weblink FOX News: No Flash on the iPhone? Apple's Steve Jobs Finally Explains Why, Fox News, 29 April 2010, NEWS,weblink TIME: Steve Jobs: 'Flash is No Longer Necessary' and Other Musings, Time, 29 April 2010, NEWS,weblink Steve Jobs: Why Apple Banned Flash, CBS News, WEB,weblink FastCompany: Steve Jobs: Adobe's Flash Is Old PC History, Open Web Is the Future, after Apple Inc.'s then-CEO Steve Jobs issued a public letter titled "Thoughts on Flash" in which he concluded that "Flash is no longer necessary to watch video or consume any kind of web content" and that "new open standards created in the mobile era, such as HTML5, will win".WEB,weblink 'Thoughts on Flash', by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple, Inc, Apple.com, 2014-01-08, This sparked a debate in web development circles suggesting that, while HTML5 provides enhanced functionality, developers must consider the varying browser support of the different parts of the standard as well as other functionality differences between HTML5 and Flash.WEB,weblink Is HTML5 Replacing Flash?, Lyquix.com, 2014-01-08, In early November 2011, Adobe announced that it would discontinue development of Flash for mobile devices and reorient its efforts in developing tools using HTML5.WEB,weblink Flash to Focus on PC Browsing and Mobile Apps; Adobe to More Aggressively Contribute to HTML5, adobe.com, 26 February 2012, On July 25, 2017, Adobe announced that both the distribution and support of Flash will cease by the end of 2020.WEB, Warren, Tom, Adobe will finally kill Flash in 2020,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, 25 July 2017,

Last call, candidacy, and recommendation stages

On 14 February 2011, the W3C extended the charter of its HTML Working Group with clear milestones for HTML5. In May 2011, the working group advanced HTML5 to "Last Call", an invitation to communities inside and outside W3C to confirm the technical soundness of the specification. The W3C developed a comprehensive test suite to achieve broad interoperability for the full specification by 2014, which was the target date for recommendation.WEB,weblink W3C Confirms May 2011 for HTML5 Last Call, Targets 2014 for HTML5 Standard, World Wide Web Consortium, 18 February 2011HTML Living Standard. The W3C nevertheless continued its project to release HTML5.HTTP://BLOG.WHATWG.ORG/HTML-IS-THE-NEW-HTML5 LAST=HICKSON AUTHOR-LINK=IAN HICKSON, 21 January 2011, In July 2012, WHATWG and W3C decided on a degree of separation. W3C will continue the HTML5 specification work, focusing on a single definitive standard, which is considered as a "snapshot" by WHATWG. The WHATWG organization continues its work with HTML5 as a "living standard". The concept of a living standard is that it is never complete and is always being updated and improved. New features can be added but functionality will not be removed.WEB,weblink HTML5 gets the splits, NetMagazine.com, 23 July 2012, In December 2012, W3C designated HTML5 as a Candidate Recommendation.WEB,weblink HTML5, W3.org, 2012-12-17, 2013-06-15, The criterion for advancement to W3C Recommendation is "two 100% complete and fully interoperable implementations".WEB,weblink When Will HTML5 Be Finished?, FAQ, WHAT Working Group, 29 November 2009, On 16 September 2014, W3C moved HTML5 to Proposed Recommendation.WEB,weblink Call for Review: HTML5 Proposed Recommendation Published W3C News, W3.org, W3C, 16 September 2014, 2014-09-27, On 28 October 2014, HTML5 was released as a W3C Recommendation,WEB,weblink Open Web Platform Milestone Achieved with HTML5 Recommendation, W3.org, W3C, 28 October 2014, 29 October 2014, bringing the specification process to completion. On 1 November 2016, HTML 5.1 was released as a W3C Recommendation.WEB, HTML 5.1 W3C Recommendation,weblink W3.org, W3C, 26 February 2017, On 14 December 2017, HTML 5.2 was released as a W3C Recommendation.WEB, HTML 5.2 W3C Recommendation,weblink W3.org, W3C, 14 December 2017,

Timeline

The combined timelines for HTML 5.0, HTML 5.1 and HTML 5.2:{| class="wikitable"! Version !! First draft !! Candidate recommendation !! RecommendationDATE=2007-05-03| 2014| 2016PUBLISHER= WORLD WIDE WEB CONSORTIUM | 2017DATE=14 DECEMBER 2017PUBLISHER=WORLD WIDE WEB CONSORTIUM| {{N/A}}

W3C and WHATWG conflict

{{See also|HTML#Transition of HTML Publication to WHATWG}}The W3C ceded authority over the HTML and DOM standards to WHATWG on 28 May 2019, recognizing that having 2 standards is harmful.WEB,weblink W3C and WHATWG to Work Together to Advance the Open Web Platform, Jaffe, Jeff, 28 May 2019, W3C Blog,weblink 29 May 2019, live, 29 May 2019, WEB,weblink W3C and the WHATWG Signed an Agreement to Collaborate on a Single Version of HTML and DOM, 28 May 2019, W3C,weblink 29 May 2019, live, 29 May 2019, WEB,weblink Memorandum of Understanding Between W3C and WHATWG, 28 May 2019, W3C,weblink 29 May 2019, live, 29 May 2019, NEWS, Cimpanu, Catalin, Browser vendors Win War with W3C over HTML and DOM standards,weblink 29 May 2019, ZDNet, 29 May 2019,weblink 29 May 2019, The HTML Living Standard is now authoritative. However, W3C will still participate in the development process of HTML.Before the ceding of authority, W3C and WHATWG had been characterized as both working together on the development of HTML5,WEB, HTML 5.2 W3C Recommendation, § 1.4 History,weblink W3.org, W3C, 14 December 2017, 9 August 2017, and yet also at cross purposes ever since the July 2012 split, creating WHATWG. The W3C standard was snapshot-based and static, while the WHATWG is a continually updated "living standard". The relationship had been described as "fragile", even a "rift",WEB, A Tale of Two Standards, Jay, Hoffmann, The History of the Web, 2017,weblink live,weblink 1 September 2017, 26 January 2018, (Original title: "When Standards Divide".) and characterized by "squabbling".WEB,weblink HTML5 specification finalized, squabbling over specs continues, Ars Technica, 29 October 2014, 29 October 2014, In at least one case, namely the permissible content of the {{tag|cite|o}} element, the two specifications directly contradicted each other ({{as of|lc=y|2018|07|post=),}} with the W3C definition being permissive and reflecting traditional use of the element since its introduction,WEB, § 4.5.6. The cite element, HTML 5.2 W3C Recommendation, 14 December 2017, W3.org, W3C,weblink 26 July 2018, but WHATWG limiting it to a single defined type of content (the title of the work cited).WEB, § 4.5.6 The cite element, HTML Living Standard, 25 July 2018, HTML.spec.WHATWG.org, WHATWG,weblink 26 July 2018, This is actually at odds with WHATWG's stated goals of ensuring backward compatibilityWEB, § 1.6 History, HTML Living Standard, 25 July 2018, HTML.spec.WHATWG.org, WHATWG,weblink 26 July 2018, and not losing prior functionality.The "Introduction" section in the WHATWG spec (edited by Ian "Hixie" Hickson) is critical of W3C, e.g. "{{em|Note:}} Although we have asked them to stop doing so, the W3C also republishes some parts of this specification as separate documents." In its "History" subsection it portrays W3C as resistant to Hickson's and WHATWG's original HTML 5 plans, then jumping on the bandwagon belatedly (though Hickson was in control of the W3C HTML 5 spec, too). Regardless, it indicates a major philosophical divide between the organizations:WEB, § 1 Introduction; §1.6 History, HTML Living Standard, 25 July 2018, HTML.spec.WHATWG.org, WHATWG,weblink 26 July 2018, The two entities signed an agreement to work together on a single version of HTML on May 28, 2019.WEB,weblink W3C and the WHATWG Signed an Agreement to Collaborate on a Single Version of HTML and DOM, W3C, May 28, 2019, May 29, 2019,

Differences between the two standards

In addition to the contradiction in the {{tag|cite|o}} element mentioned above, other differences between the two standards include at least the following, as of September 2018:{| class="wikitable"|+Content or Features Unique to W3C or WHATWG Standard!!W3CWEB,weblink HTML 5.2, www.w3.org, en, 2018-09-18, !WHATWGWEB,weblink HTML Standard, html.spec.whatwg.org, 2018-09-18, |Site pagination|WEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG, 2018-09-18, (allows global search of contents)|Chapters|MicrodataHTTPS://HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG/#MICRODATAWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG, 2018-09-19, §9 CommunicationWEB,weblink HTML Standard, Chapter 9: Communication, html.spec.whatwg.org, 2018-09-19, §10 Web workersWEB,weblink HTML Standard, Chapter 10: Web workers, html.spec.whatwg.org, 2018-09-19, §11 Web storageWEB,weblink HTML Standard, Chapter 11: Web storage, html.spec.whatwg.org, 2018-09-19, |Global attributesWEBSITE=WWW.W3.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-18, : class, idWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG, 2018-09-18, : autocapitalize, enterkeyhint, inputmode, is, itemid, itemprop, itemref, itemscope, itemtype, nonce|Chapter Elements of HTML|Custom elementsHTTPS://HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG/#CUSTOM-ELEMENTSWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG, 2018-09-18, |ElementsWEBSITE=WWW.W3.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-19, , HTTPS://WWW.W3.ORG/TR/HTML/TEXTLEVEL-SEMANTICS.HTML#THE-RTC-ELEMENT>TITLE=HTML 5.2: § 4.5.13. THE RTC ELEMENTLANGUAGE=EN, 2018-09-19, (See compatibility notes below.)WEB,weblink HTML 5.2: § 4.4.2. The address element, www.w3.org, en, 2018-09-19, is in section Grouping content.WEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORGWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORGWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG, 2018-09-19, (See compatibility notes below.)WEB,weblink HTML Standard, § 4.3.10 The address element, html.spec.whatwg.org, 2018-09-19, is in section Sections.|§ Other pragma directivesHTTPS://WWW.W3.ORG/TR/HTML/DOCUMENT-METADATA.HTML#OTHER-PRAGMA-DIRECTIVESWEBSITE=WWW.W3.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-19, , based on deprecated WHATWG procedureHTTPS://WIKI.WHATWG.ORG/WIKI/PRAGMAEXTENSIONS>TITLE=PRAGMAEXTENSIONS - WHATWG WIKILANGUAGE=ENQUOTE=THIS DOCUMENT IS OBSOLETE., .||§ Sections|Sample outlinesHTTPS://HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG/#SAMPLE-OUTLINESWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG, 2018-09-19, § 4.3.11.3 Exposing outlines to usersWEB,weblink HTML Standard, § 4.3.11.3 Exposing outlines to users, html.spec.whatwg.org, 2018-09-19, |Structured dataWEBSITE=WWW.W3.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-18, HTTPS://WWW.W3.ORG/TR/HTML/TEXTLEVEL-SEMANTICS.HTML#THE-TIME-ELEMENT>TITLE=HTML 5.2: § 4.5.16. THE TIME ELEMENTLANGUAGE=ENWEBSITE=WWW.W3.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-18, HTTPS://WWW.W3.ORG/TR/RDFA-LITE/>TITLE=RDFA LITE 1.1 - SECOND EDITIONLANGUAGE=EN, 2018-09-18, , no special attributes).WEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORGWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORGWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORGWEBSITE=HTML.SPEC.WHATWG.ORG, 2018-09-18, , spec chapter, special attributes).The following table provides data from the Mozilla Development Network on compatibility with major browsers, as of September 2018, of HTML elements unique to one of the standards:{| class="wikitable"!Element!Standard!Compatibility!Note: THE RUBY BASE ELEMENT>WEBSITE=MDN WEB DOCSACCESS-DATE=2018-09-19, |W3C|All browsers, except Edge|: THE RUBY TEXT CONTAINER ELEMENT>WEBSITE=MDN WEB DOCSACCESS-DATE=2018-09-19, |W3C|None, except Firefox|WEBSITE=MDN WEB DOCSACCESS-DATE=2018-09-19, |WHATWG|All browsers|"[Since] the HTML outline algorithm is not implemented in any browsers ... the semantics are in practice only theoretical."WEBSITE=MDN WEB DOCSACCESS-DATE=2018-09-19, |WHATWG|Full support only in Edge and Firefox desktop.Partial support in Firefox mobile.Supported in Opera with user opt-in.Not supported in other browsers. |Experimental technologyWEBSITE=MDN WEB DOCSACCESS-DATE=2018-09-19, |WHATWG|All browsers, except Edge and IE|Experimental technology

Features and APIs

{{Update|section|reason=Last sentence marks 2016 as the future instead of past|date=October 2018}}The W3C proposed a greater reliance on modularity as a key part of the plan to make faster progress, meaning identifying specific features, either proposed or already existing in the spec, and advancing them as separate specifications. Some technologies that were originally defined in HTML 5 itself are now defined in separate specifications:
  • HTML Working Group â€“ HTML Canvas 2D Context;
  • Web Apps Working Group â€“ Web Messaging, Web workers, Web storage, WebSocket, Server-sent events, Web ComponentsWEB,weblink PubStatus – WEBAPPS, W3.org, W3C, (this was not part of HTML 5, though); the Web Applications Working Group was closed in October 2015 and its deliverables transferred to the Web Platform Working Group (WPWG).
  • IETF HyBi Working Group â€“ WebSocket Protocol;
  • WebRTC Working Group â€“ WebRTC;
  • Web Media Text Tracks Community Group â€“ WebVTT.
After the standardization of the HTML 5 specification in October 2014,WEB,weblink HTML5: A Vocabulary and Associated APIs for HTML and XHTML, 10 March 2015, the core vocabulary and features are being extended in four ways.WEB,weblink HTML5 Became a Standard, HTML 5.1 and HTML 5.2 on the Way, Leslie Sikos, 10 March 2015, Likewise, some features that were removed from the original HTML 5 specification have been standardized separately as modules, such as Microdata and Canvas. Technical specifications introduced as HTML 5 extensions such as Polyglot Markup have also been standardized as modules. Some W3C specifications that were originally separate specifications have been adapted as HTML 5 extensions or features, such as SVG. Some features that might have slowed down the standardization of HTML 5 will be standardized as upcoming specifications, instead. HTML 5.1 was finalized in 2016, and it is currently on the standardization track at the W3C.

Features

Markup

HTML 5 introduces elements and attributes that reflect typical usage on modern websites. Some of them are semantic replacements for common uses of generic block ({{tag|div|open}}) and inline ({{tag|span|open}}) elements, for example {{tag|nav|open}} (website navigation block), {{tag|footer|open}} (usually referring to bottom of web page or to last lines of HTML code), or {{tag|audio|open}} and {{tag|video|open}} instead of {{tag|object|open}}.Introduction to HTML 5 videoIBM Developer Works New elements in HTML5: Structure and semanticsICAMD.org Finalcut Silverlight Films that Videographers share Quicktime in a Flash: Video on the Web using HTML5 and other CodecsSome deprecated elements from HTML 4.01 have been dropped, including purely presentational elements such as {{tag|font|open}} and {{tag|center|open}}, whose effects have long been superseded by the more capable Cascading Style Sheets.
WEB
,weblink
, 11 Obsolete features — HTML5
, W3C
, 2014-03-11, There is also a renewed emphasis on the importance of DOM scripting in Web behavior.
The HTML 5 syntax is no longer based on SGMLHTML5 DTD: "HTML5 is not SGML-based, and there will be no official DTD for it."HTML 5 Reference: "Although it is inspired by its SGML origins, in practice, it really only shares minor syntactic similarities. ... As HTML5 is no longer formally based upon SGML, the DOCTYPE no longer serves this purpose, and thus no longer needs to refer to a DTD." despite the similarity of its markup. It has, however, been designed to be backward-compatible with common parsing of older versions of HTML. It comes with a new introductory line that looks like an SGML document type declaration, , which triggers the standards-compliant rendering mode.WEB, Shannon Suetos, 26 April 2010,weblink HTML5: Worth the Hype?, instantshift.com, 21 October 2012, Since 5 January 2009, HTML 5 also includes Web Forms 2.0, a previously separate WHATWG specification.WEB, Web Forms 2.0,weblink 2014-02-11, 2009-01-05, obsolescence noticeWEB,weblink HTML, whatwg.org,

New APIs

(File:HTML5 APIs and related technologies taxonomy and status.svg|thumb|420px|HTML5 related APIsSergey Mavrody, Sergey's HTML5 & CSS3 Quick Reference, 2nd ed. Belisso Corp., 2012. {{ISBN|978-0-9833867-2-8}})In addition to specifying markup, HTML 5 specifies scripting application programming interfaces (APIs) that can be used with JavaScript. Existing Document Object Model (DOM) interfaces are extended and de facto features documented. There are also new APIs, such as: Not all of the above technologies are included in the W3C HTML 5 specification, though they are in the WHATWG HTML specification.WEB, href,weblink 1 Introduction — HTML Standard, Whatwg.org, 2014-01-08, Some related technologies, which are not part of either the W3C HTML 5 or the WHATWG HTML specification, are as follows. The W3C publishes specifications for these separately: HTML 5 cannot provide animation within web pages. Additional JavaScript or CSS3 is necessary for animating HTML elements. Animation is also possible using JavaScript and HTML 4WEB,weblink What HTML5 is (and what it isn't), James, Williamson, 2010, 2014-05-14, {{Failed verification|date=January 2011}}, and within SVG elements through SMIL, although browser support of the latter remains uneven as of 2011.

XHTML 5 (XML-serialized HTML 5)

XML documents must be served with an XML Internet media type (often called "MIME type") such as application/xhtml+xml or application/xml,WEB, Anne, van Kesteren, Simon, Pieters, HTML5 differences from HTML4,weblink World Wide Web Consortium, 29 June 2017, and must conform to strict, well-formed syntax of XML. XHTML 5 is simply XML-serialized HTML 5 data (that is, HTML 5 constrained to XHTML's strict requirements, e.g., not having any unclosed tags), sent with one of XML media types. HTML that has been written to conform to both the HTML and XHTML specifications  and which will therefore produce the same DOM tree whether parsed as HTML or XML is known as Polyglot markup.WEB, Graff, Eliot, Polyglot Markup: HTML-Compatible XHTML Documents,weblink W3C, 6 July 2013,

Error handling

CHECK, September 2017, HTML 5 is designed so that old browsers can safely ignore new HTML 5 constructs. In contrast to HTML 4.01, the HTML 5 specification gives detailed rules for lexing and parsing, with the intent that compliant browsers will produce the same results when parsing incorrect syntax.WEB,weblink FAQ – WHATWG Wiki, 26 August 2011, WHATWG, Although HTML 5 now defines a consistent behavior for "tag soup" documents, those documents are not regarded as conforming to the HTML 5 standard.

Popularity

According to a report released on 30 September 2011, 34 of the world's top 100 Web sites were using HTML 5{{spaced ndash}}the adoption led by search engines and social networks.WEB, Percentage of Web sites Using HTML5,weblink binvisions, 21 October 2011, Another report released in August 2013 has shown that 153 of the Fortune 500 U.S. companies implemented HTML5 on their corporate websites."HTML5 Popularity Among Fortune 500 Companies". INCORE. Retrieved 5 March 2013.Since 2014, HTML 5 is at least partially supported by most popular layout engines.

Differences from HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.x

The following is a cursory list of differences and some specific examples.
  • New parsing rules: oriented towards flexible parsing and compatibility; not based on SGML
  • Ability to use inline SVG and MathML in text/html
  • New elements: article, aside, audio, bdi, canvas, command, data, datalist, details, embed, figcaption, figure, footer, header, keygen, mark, meter, nav, output, progress, rp, rt, ruby, section, source, summary, time, track, video, wbr
  • New types of form controls: dates and times, email, url, search, number, range, tel, colorWEB, //www.w3.org/wiki/HTML5_form_additions, HTML5 form additions, World Wide Web Consortium, 13 October 2014,
  • New attributes: charset (on meta), async (on script)
  • Global attributes (that can be applied for every element): id, tabindex, hidden, data- (custom data attributes)
  • Deprecated elements will be dropped altogether: acronym, applet, basefont, big, center, dir, font, frame, frameset, isindex, noframes, strike, tt
W3C Working Group publishes "HTML5 differences from HTML 4",WEB,weblink HTML5 Differences from HTML4, FAQ, World Wide Web Consortium, 9 December 2014, 2 March 2018, which provides a complete outline of additions, removals and changes between HTML 5 and HTML 4.

Logo

(File:HTML5-logo.svg|thumb|120px|The W3C HTML5 logo)On 18 January 2011, the W3C introduced a logo to represent the use of or interest in HTML 5. Unlike other badges previously issued by the W3C, it does not imply validity or conformance to a certain standard. As of 1 April 2011, this logo is official.WEB,weblink W3C HTML5 Logo FAQ, World Wide Web Consortium, 21 January 2011, Is this W3C's "official" logo for HTML5? Yes, as of 1 April 2011., When initially presenting it to the public, the W3C announced the HTML 5 logo as a "general-purpose visual identity for a broad set of open web technologies, including HTML 5, CSS, SVG, WOFF, and others".WEB,weblink HTML5 Logo: Be Proud, But Don't Muddy the Waters!, The Web Standards Project, 22 January 2011, Some web standard advocates, including The Web Standards Project, criticized that definition of "HTML5" as an umbrella term, pointing out the blurring of terminology and the potential for miscommunication. Three days later, the W3C responded to community feedback and changed the logo's definition, dropping the enumeration of related technologies.WEB,weblink The HTML5 Logo Conversation, World Wide Web Consortium, 21 January 2011, The W3C then said the logo "represents HTML5, the cornerstone for modern Web applications".

Digital rights management

{{Update|section|reason=EME is now a W3C recommendation and thus this section seems outdated|date=June 2019}}Industry players including the BBC, Google, Microsoft, Apple Inc. have been lobbying for the inclusion of Encrypted Media Extensions (EME),Encrypted Media Extensions draft specification of the W3CWEB
, Netflix coming to HTML5 just as soon as the DRM ducks are in a row
,weblink
, Ars Technica
, 16 April 2013
, Peter Bright
, WEB
, DRM in HTML5
,weblink
, 26 January 2013
, Manu Sporny
, WEB
, Tell W3C: We don't want the Hollyweb
,weblink
, Free Software Foundation
, May 2013
, WEB
, HTML5 webpage locks 'would stifle innovation'
,weblink
, BBC News Online
, 30 May 2013
, a form of digital rights management (DRM), into the HTML 5 standard. As of the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013, 27 organisationsWEB, Une coalition de vingt-sept organisations demande au W3C de garder les menottes numériques (DRM) hors des standards du Web,weblink 2013-04-24, 2014-05-14, including the Free Software FoundationWEB,weblink Tell W3C: We don't want the Hollyweb - Free Software Foundation, www.defectivebydesign.org, have started a campaign against including digital rights management in the HTML 5 standard.WEB, The W3C's Soul at Stake,weblink Richard, Stallman, The Free Software Foundation, 2013-05-02, 2014-05-14, WEB, Netflix Wants to Go HTML5, but Not Without DRM,weblink Timothy, Lord, 2013-04-16, 2014-05-14, However, in late September 2013, the W3C HTML Working Group decided that Encrypted Media Extensions, a form of DRM, was "in scope" and will potentially be included in the HTML 5.1 standard.WEB, //lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-html-admin/2013Sep/0129.html, New Charter for the HTML Working Group from Philippe Le Hegaret on 2013-09-30 (public-html-admin@w3.org from September 2013), Lists.w3.org, 2013-09-30, 2014-01-08, WEB
,weblink
, Lowering Your Standards: DRM and the Future of the W3C
, Danny O'Brien
, Electronic Frontier Foundation
, 2013-10-02
, 2013-10-03
, WHATWG's "HTML Living Standard" continued to be developed without DRM-enabled proposals.Manu Sporny, a member of the W3C, said that EME will not solve the problem it's supposed to address.WEB
,weblink
, DRM in HTML5
, Manu Sporny
, The Beautiful, Tormented Machine
, Manu Sporny
, 2013-01-26
, 2014-05-16
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140425044032weblink">weblink
, 2014-04-25
, Opponents point out that EME itself is just an architecture for a DRM plug-in mechanism.WEB
,weblink
, DRM for the Web? Say It Ain't So
, Scott Gilbertson
, Webmonkey
, Condé Nast
, 2013-02-12
, 2013-03-21
,weblink
, 2013-04-06
, The initial enablers for DRM in HTML 5 were GoogleWEB
,weblink
, Releasenotes for Google Chrome 25.0.1364.87
, and Microsoft.WEB
,weblink
, HTML5 Video in IE 11 on Windows 8.1
, Supporters also include Adobe.Adobe Support for Encrypted Media Extensions Adobe.com. 19 June 2013. On 14 May 2014, Mozilla announced plans to support EME in Firefox, the last major browser to avoid DRM.WEB,weblink Reconciling Mozilla's Mission and W3C EME, Andreas, Gal, Mozilla, 2014-05-14, 2014-05-20, WEB,weblink DRM and the Challenge of Serving Users, Mitchell, Baker, Mozilla, 2014-05-14, 2014-05-20, Calling it "a difficult and uncomfortable step", Andreas Gal of Mozilla explained that future versions of Firefox would remain open source but ship with a sandbox designed to run a content decryption module developed by Adobe. While promising to "work on alternative solutions", Mozilla's Executive Chair Mitchell Baker stated that a refusal to implement EME would have accomplished little more than convincing many users to switch browsers. This decision was condemned by Cory Doctorow and the Free Software Foundation.WEB,weblink Firefox's adoption of closed-source DRM breaks my heart, Cory, Doctorow, The Guardian, 2014-05-14, 2014-05-20, WEB,weblink FSF condemns partnership between Mozilla and Adobe to support Digital Rights Management, Free Software Foundation, 2014-05-14, 2014-05-20,

See also

Notes

{{Notelist}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{sisterlinks|d=Q2053|b=HTML_5_Programming_and_Web_development|n=no|s=no|wikt=HTML5|q=no|v=HTML|m=no|mw=HTML5|species=no|c=Category:HTML5}} {{Web browsers|fsp}}{{Rich Internet applications}}{{W3C Standards}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2011}}

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