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Gupta Empire
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{{short description|Indian empire existing from the 3rd-century CE to 543 CE}}{{Redirect|Golden age of India|that of Shah Jahan also known as the Golden age|Mughal Empire}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2019}}{{Use Indian English|date=October 2019}}







factoids
|government_type = MonarchyGupta (king)>Gupta(first)|year_leader1 = c. late 3rd centuryVishnugupta (Gupta Empire)>Vishnugupta|year_leader2 = c. 540 – c. 550 CELAST2=ADAMS LAST3=HALL DATE=DECEMBER 2006 URL=HTTP://JWSR.PITT.EDU/OJS/INDEX.PHP/JWSR/ARTICLE/VIEW/369/381 VOLUME=12 PAGE=223 ACCESS-DATE=16 SEPTEMBER 2016, |stat_area1 = 3500000DATE=1979 JOURNAL=SOCIAL SCIENCE HISTORY ISSUE=3/4 DOI=10.2307/1170959, 1170959, |stat_area2 = 1700000}}The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd century CE to 543 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 543 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091029013809weblink">weblink 29 October 2009, dead, This period is considered as the Golden Age of India by some historians.N. Jayapalan, History of India, Vol. I, (Atlantic Publishers, 2001), 130.{{#tag:ref|Although this characterisation has been disputed by D. N. Jha.BOOK, Ancient India in Historical Outline, Jha, D.N., Manohar Publishers and Distributors, 2002, 978-81-7304-285-0, Delhi, 149–73, |group=note}} The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by the king Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II alias Vikramaditya. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.Raghu Vamsa v 4.60–75{{npsn|date=August 2016}}The high points of this period are the great cultural developments which took place primarily during the reigns of Samudragupta, Chandragupta II and Kumaragupta I. Many of the literary sources, such as Mahabharata and Ramayana, were canonised during this period.Gupta dynasty (Indian dynasty) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100330100325weblink |date=30 March 2010 }}. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 21 November 2011. The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa,BOOK,weblink India: A history, Keay, John, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, 978-0-87113-800-2, 151–52, Kalidasa wrote ... with an excellence which, by unanimous consent, justifies the inevitable comparisons with Shakespeare ... When and where Kalidasa lived remains a mystery. He acknowledges no links with the Guptas; he may not even have coincided with them ... but the poet's vivid awareness of the terrain of the entire subcontinent argues strongly for a Guptan provenance., John Keay, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.{{sfn|Vidya Dhar Mahajan|1990|p=540}}BOOK,weblink India: A history, Keay, John, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, 978-0-87113-800-2, 132, The great era of all that is deemed classical in Indian literature, art and science was now dawning. It was this crescendo of creativity and scholarship, as much as ... political achievements of the Guptas, which would make their age so golden., John Keay, Gupta dynasty: empire in 4th century {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100330103811weblink |date=30 March 2010 }}. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 21 November 2011. Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era.BOOK,weblink India: A history, Keay, John, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000, 978-0-87113-800-2, 132, The great era of all that is deemed classical in Indian literature, art and science was now dawning. It was this crescendo of creativity and scholarship, as much as ... political achievements of the Guptas, which would make their age so golden., John Keay, The period gave rise to achievements in architecture, sculpture, and painting that "set standards of form and taste [that] determined the whole subsequent course of art, not only in India but far beyond her borders".{{sfn|J. C. Harle|1994|p=87}} Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural centre and established the region as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia.Trade | The Story of India – Photo Gallery {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100328013124weblink |date=28 March 2010 }}. PBS. Retrieved on 21 November 2011.{{unreliable source?|date=March 2016}} The Puranas, earlier long poems on a variety of subjects, are also thought to have been committed to written texts around this period.{{sfn|J.C. Harle|1994|p=87}}The empire eventually died out because of many factors such as substantial loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories, as well as the invasion by the Huna peoples (Kidarites and Alchon Huns) from Central Asia.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=264–69}}BOOK, The Empire of the Steppes, Grousset, Rene, Rutgers University Press, 1970, 978-0-8135-1304-1, 69, After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms.

Origin

{{Gupta Empire}}The homeland of the Guptas is uncertain.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=79}} According to one theory, they originated in the present-day eastern Uttar Pradesh, where most of the inscriptions and coins of the early Gupta kings have been discovered.{{sfn|Dilip Kumar Ganguly|1987|p=14}}{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=39}} The proponents of this theory argue that according to the Puranas, the territory of the early Gupta kings included Prayaga, Saketa, and other areas in the Ganges basin.{{sfn|Dilip Kumar Ganguly|1987|p=2}}{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=96}} Another prominent theory locates the Gupta homeland in the present-day Bengal region, based on the account of the 7th century Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing. According to Yijing, king Che-li-ki-to (identified with the dynasty's founder Shri Gupta) built a temple for Chinese pilgrims near Mi-li-kia-si-kia-po-no (apparently a transcription of Mriga-shikha-vana). Yijing states that this temple was located more than 40 yojanas east of Nalanda, which would mean it was situated somewhere in the modern Bengal region.{{sfn|Dilip Kumar Ganguly|1987|pp=7–11}} Another proposal is that the early Gupta kingdom extended from Prayaga in the west to northern Bengal in the east.{{sfn|Dilip Kumar Ganguly|1987|p=12}}The Gupta records do not mention the dynasty's varna (social class).{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=44}} Some historians, such as A.S. Altekar, have theorised that they were of Vaishya origin, as certain ancient Indian texts prescribe the name "Gupta" for the members of the Vaishya varna.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=82}}{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=42}} According to historian R. S. Sharma, the Vaishyas — who were traditionally associated with trade — may have become rulers after resisting oppressive taxation by the previous rulers.BOOK,weblink Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation, R. S. Sharma, Orient Longman, 2003, 9788125025238, Critics of the Vaishya-origin theory point out that the suffix Gupta features in the names of several non-Vaishyas before as well as during the Gupta period,{{sfn|R.C. Majumdar|1981|p=4}} and the dynastic name "Gupta" may have simply derived from the name of the family's first king Gupta.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=40}} Some scholars, such as S.R. Goyal, theorise that the Guptas were Brahmanas, because they had matrimonial relations with Brahmanas, but others reject this evidence as inconclusive.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|pp=43–44}} Based on the Pune and Riddhapur inscriptions of the Gupta princess Prabhavati-gupta, some scholars believe that the name of her paternal gotra (clan) was "Dharana", but an alternative reading of these inscriptions suggests that Dharana was the gotra of her mother Kuberanaga.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=83}}

History

Early rulers

File:Maharaja Sri Gupta inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.jpg|thumb|280px|Gupta script inscription "Maharaja Sri Gupta" (Great King, Lord Gupta"), mentioning the first ruler of the dynasty king Gupta. Inscription by Samudragupta on the Allahabad pillar, where Samudragupta presents king Gupta as his great-grandfather. Dated circa 350 CE.(:File:Allahabad stone pillar inscription of Samudragupta.jpg|Full inscription), BOOK,weblink Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol. 3, Fleet, John Faithfull, 1888, 1–17, ]]File:Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I on a coin of their son Samudragupta 350 380 CE.jpg|thumb|Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta IChandragupta IGupta (Gupta script: (File:Gupta allahabad gu.jpg|14px)(File:Gupta allahabad pt.jpg|12px), fl. late 3rd century CE) is the earliest known king of the dynasty: different historians variously date the beginning of his reign from mid-to-late 3rd century CE.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|pp=49–55}}{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=86}} "Che-li-ki-to", the name of a king mentioned by the 7th century Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing, is believed to be a transcription of "Shri-Gupta" (IAST: Śrigupta), "Shri" being an honorific prefix.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=84–85}} According to Yijing, this king built a temple for Chinese Buddhist pilgrims near "Mi-li-kia-si-kia-po-no" (believed to be a transcription of Mṛgaśikhāvana).{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=79–81}}In the Allahabad Pillar inscription, Gupta and his successor Ghatotkacha are described as Maharaja ("great king"), while the next king Chandragupta I is called a Maharajadhiraja ("king of great kings"). In the later period, the title Maharaja was used by feudatory rulers, which has led to suggestions that Gupta and Ghatotkacha were vassals (possibly of Kushan Empire).{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=85}} However, there are several instances of paramount sovereigns using the title Maharaja, in both pre-Gupta and post-Gupta periods, so this cannot be said with certainty. That said, there is no doubt that Gupta and Ghatotkacha held a lower status and were less powerful than Chandragupta I.{{sfn|R.C. Majumdar|1981|pp=6–7}}Chandragupta I married the Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi, which may have helped him extend his political power and dominions, enabling him to adopt the imperial title Maharajadhiraja.{{sfn|R.C. Majumdar|1981|p=10}} According to the dynasty's official records, he was succeeded by his son Samudragupta. However, the discovery of the coins issued by a Gupta ruler named Kacha have led to some debate on this topic: according to one theory, Kacha was another name for Samudragupta; another possibility is that Kacha was a rival claimant to the throne.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=71}}

Samudragupta

missing image!
- SamudraguptaCoin.jpg -
Coin of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar. British Museum.
Samudragupta succeeded his father around 335 or 350 CE, and ruled until c. 375 CE.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|pp=51–52}} The Allahabad Pillar inscription, composed by his courtier Harishena, credits him with extensive conquests.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=106–07}} The inscription asserts that Samudragupta uprooted 8 kings of Aryavarta, the northern region, including the Nagas.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=114}} It further claims that he subjugated all the kings of the forest region, which was most probably located in central India.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=117}} It also credits him with defeating 12 rulers of Dakshinapatha, the southern region: the exact identification of several of these kings is debated among modern scholars,{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=107}} but it is clear that these kings ruled areas located on the eastern coast of India.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=112}} The inscription suggests that Samudragupta advanced as far as the Pallava kingdom in the south, and defeated Vishnugopa, the Pallava regent of Kanchi.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=110}} During this southern campaign, Samudragupta most probably passed through the forest tract of central India, reached the eastern coast in present-day Odisha, and then marched south along the coast of Bay of Bengal.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|pp=80–81}}The Allahabad Pillar inscription mentions that rulers of several frontier kingdoms and tribal oligarchies paid Samudragupta tributes, obeyed his orders, and performed obeisance before him.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=84}}{{sfn|Upinder Singh|2017|p=343}} The frontier kingdoms included Samatata, Davaka, Kamarupa, Nepala, and Karttripura.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=112–18}} The tribal oligarchies included Malavas, Arjunayanas, Yaudheyas, Madrakas, and Abhiras, among others.{{sfn|Upinder Singh|2017|p=343}}Finally, the inscription mentions that several foreign kings tried to please Samudragupta by personal attendance; offered him their daughters in marriage (or according to another interpretation, gifted him maidens{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=125}}); and sought the use of the Garuda-depicting Gupta seal for administering their own territories.{{sfn|Shankar Goyal|2001|p=168}} This is an exaggeration: for example, the inscription lists the king of Simhala among these kings. It is known that from Chinese sources that the Simhala king Meghavarna sent rich presents to the Gupta king requesting his permission to build a Buddhist monastery at Bodh Gaya: Samudragupta's pangyerist appears to have described this act of diplomacy as an act of subservience.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=90}}Samudragupta appears to have been Vaishnavite, as attested by his Eran inscription,{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=68}}{{sfn|R.C. Majumdar|1981|p=32}} and performed several Brahmanical ceremonies.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=91}} The Gupta records credit him with making generous donations of cows and gold.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=68}} He performed the Ashvamedha ritual (horse sacrifice), which was used by the ancient Indian kings to prove their imperial sovereignty, and issued gold coins (see Coinage below) to mark this performance.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=125–26}}The Allahabad Pillar inscription presents Samudragupta as a wise king and strict administrator, who was also compassionate enough to help the poor and the helpless.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|pp=91, 94}} It also alludes to the king's talents as a musician and a poet, and calls him the "king of poets".{{sfn|R.C. Majumdar|1981|p=31}} Such claims are corroborated by Samudragupta's gold coins, which depict him playing a veena.{{sfn|Tej Ram Sharma|1989|p=94}}Samudragupta appears to have directly controlled a large part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in present-day India, as well as a substantial part of central India.{{sfn|R.C. Majumdar|1981|pp=23, 27}} Besides, his empire comprised a number of monarchical and tribal tributary states of northern India, and of the south-eastern coastal region of India.{{sfn|R.C. Majumdar|1981|p=22}}{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|p=112}}

Ramagupta

File:Standing Buddha Installed by Buddist Monk Yasadinna - Circa 5th Century CE - Jamalpur Mound - ACCN 00-A-5 - Government Museum Mathura Red background.jpg|thumb|Standing Buddha in red sandstone, Mathura, Gupta period circa 5th century CE. (Mathura Museum]].BOOK, Smith, Vincent Arthur, A history of fine art in India and Ceylon, from the earliest times to the present day, 1911, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 170–171,weblink )Although, the narrative of the Devichandragupta is not supported by any contemporary epigraphical evidence, the historicity of Rama Gupta is proved by his Durjanpur inscriptions on three Jaina images, where he is mentioned as the Maharajadhiraja. A large number of his copper coins also have been found from the Eran-Vidisha region and classified in five distinct types, which include the Garuda,{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=153–59}} Garudadhvaja, lion and border legend types. The Brahmi legends on these coins are written in the early Gupta style.BOOK,weblink Indian Numismatic Studies, Bajpai, K.D., Abhinav Publications, 2004, 978-81-7017-035-8, New Delhi, 120–21, In the opinion of art historian Dr. R. A. Agarawala, D. Litt., Rama Gupta may be the eldest son of Samudragupta. He became king because of him being the eldest. It is possible that he was overthrown because he was considered unfit to rule, and his younger brother Chandragupta II took over.{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}}

Chandragupta II "Vikramaditya"

File:GuptaEmpire300-550.png|thumb|Maximum extent of Gupta Empire during Chandragupta IIChandragupta IIAccording to the Gupta records, amongst his sons, Samudragupta nominated prince Chandragupta II, born of queen Dattadevi, as his successor. Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya (the Sun of Power), ruled from 375 until 415. He married a Kadamba princess of Kuntala and of Naga lineage (Nāgakulotpannnā), Kuberanaga. His daughter Prabhavatigupta from this Naga queen was married to Rudrasena II, the Vakataka ruler of Deccan.{{sfn|H.C. Raychaudhuri|1923|p=489}} His son Kumaragupta I was married to a Kadamba princess of the Karnataka region. Chandragupta II expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409. His main opponent Rudrasimha III was defeated by 395, and he crushed the Bengal chiefdoms. This extended his control from coast to coast, established a second capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire.
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- Two Gold coins of Chandragupta II.jpg -
Gold coins of Chandragupta II.
Despite the creation of the empire through war, the reign is remembered for its very influential style of Hindu art, literature, culture and science, especially during the reign of Chandragupta II. Some excellent works of Hindu art such as the panels at the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh serve to illustrate the magnificence of Gupta art. Above all, it was the synthesis of elements that gave Gupta art its distinctive flavour. During this period, the Guptas were supportive of thriving Buddhist and Jain cultures as well, and for this reason, there is also a long history of non-Hindu Gupta period art. In particular, Gupta period Buddhist art was to be influential in most of East and Southeast Asia. Many advances were recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Faxian in his diary and published afterwards.The court of Chandragupta was made even more illustrious by the fact that it was graced by the Navaratna (Nine Jewels), a group of nine who excelled in the literary arts. Amongst these men was Kālidāsa, whose works dwarfed the works of many other literary geniuses, not only in his own age but in the years to come. Kalidasa was mainly known for his subtle exploitation of the shringara (romantic) element in his verse.

Chandragupta II's Campaigns against Foreign Tribes

The 4th century Sanskrit poet Kalidasa credits Chandragupta Vikramaditya with conquering about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India. After finishing his campaign in East and West India, Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) proceeded northwards, subjugated the Parasikas, then the Hunas and the Kambojas tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys respectively. Thereafter, the king proceeded into the Himalaya mountains to reduce the mountain tribes of the Kinnaras, Kiratas, as well as India proper.{{npsn|date=August 2016}}The Brihatkathamanjari of the Kashmiri writer Kshemendra states, King Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Sakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas, Hunas, and others, by annihilating these sinful Mlecchas completely".ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah Mlechchana Kamboja. Yavanan neechan Hunan Sabarbran Tushara. Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan hatya bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate (Brahata Katha, 10/1/285-86, Kshmendra).{{npsn|date=August 2016}}Kathasritsagara 18.1.76–78Cf:"In the story contained in Kathasarit-sagara, king Vikarmaditya is said to have destroyed all the barbarous tribes such as the Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Tokharas and the, National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Recreational Reading – Sanskrit language.{{unreliable source?|date=August 2016}}

Faxian

Faxian (or Fa Hsien etc.), a Chinese Buddhist, was one of the pilgrims who visited India during the reign of the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II. He started his journey from China in 399 and reached India in 405. During his stay in India up to 411, he went on a pilgrimage to Mathura, Kannauj, Kapilavastu, Kushinagar, Vaishali, Pataliputra, Kashi, and Rajagriha, and made careful observations about the empire's conditions. Faxian was pleased with the mildness of administration. The Penal Code was mild and offences were punished by fines only. From his accounts, the Gupta Empire was a prosperous period. And until the Rome–China trade axis was broken with the fall of the Han dynasty, the Guptas did indeed prosper. His writings form one of the most important sources for the history of this period.

Kumaragupta I

File:Silver Coin of Kumaragupta I.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumaragupta I (Coin of his Western territories, design derived from the Western Satraps).Obv: Bust of king with crescents, with traces of corrupt Greek script.BOOK,weblink Coin splendour: a journey into the past, Prasanna Rao Bandela, Abhinav Publications, 2003, 978-81-7017-427-1, 112–, 21 November 2011, "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc...", p. cliRev: Garuda standing facing with spread wings. Brahmi legend: Parama-bhagavata rajadhirajarajadhirajaChandragupta II was succeeded by his second son Kumaragupta I, born of Mahadevi Dhruvasvamini. Kumaragupta I assumed the title, Mahendraditya.{{sfn|Ashvini Agrawal|1989|pp=191–200}} He ruled until 455. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley, the Pushyamitras, rose in power to threaten the empire. The Kidarites as well probably confronted the Gupta Empire towards the end of the rule of Kumaragupta I, as his son Skandagupta mentions in the Bhitari pillar inscription his efforts at reshaping a country in disarray, through reorganisation and military victories over the Pushyamitras and the Hunas.History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B.A. Litvinsky, UNESCO pp. 119–He was the founder of Nalanda University which on 15 July 2016 was declared as a UNESCO world heritage site.NEWS,weblink Nalanda University Ruins {{!, Nalanda Travel Guide {{!}} Ancient Nalanda Site |date=5 October 2016 |work=Travel News India |access-date=20 February 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170211075258weblink |archive-date=11 February 2017 |language=en-US |url-status=live}}

Skandagupta

Skandagupta, son and successor of Kumaragupta I is generally considered to be the last of the great Gupta rulers. He assumed the titles of Vikramaditya and Kramaditya.{{sfn|H.C. Raychaudhuri|1923|p=510}} He defeated the Pushyamitra threat, but then was faced with invading Kidarites (sometimes described as the Hephthalites or "White Huns", known in India as the Sweta Huna), from the northwest.He repelled a Huna attack around 455 CE, but the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. The Bhitari Pillar inscription of Skandagupta, the successor of Chandragupta, recalls the near-annihilation of the Gupta Empire following the attacks of the Kidarites.The Huns, Hyun Jin Kim, Routledge, 2015 pp. 50– The Kidarites seem to have retained the western part of the Gupta Empire.Skandagupta died in 467 and was succeeded by his agnate brother Purugupta.{{sfn|H.C. Raychaudhuri|1923|p=516}}

Decline of the empire

File:Mihirakula portrait.jpg|thumb|left|175px|The Alchon Huns under Toramana and his son (Mihirakula]] (here depicted) contributed to the fall of the Gupta Empire."The Alchon Huns....established themselves as overlords of northwestern India, and directly contributed to the downfall of the Guptas" in BOOK,weblink Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia, Neelis, Jason, 2010, BRILL, 9789004181595, 162, en, {{Citation |last=Bakker |first=Hans |title=Monuments of Hope, Gloom and Glory in the Age of the Hunnic Wars: 50 years that changed India (484–534) |url=https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/monuments-of-hope-gloom-and-glory |year=2017 |at=Section 4 |publisher=Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences |isbn=978-90-6984-715-3}})Following Skandagupta's death, the empire was clearly in decline.Sachchidananda Bhattacharya, Gupta dynasty, A dictionary of Indian history, (George Braziller, Inc., 1967), 393. He was followed by Purugupta (467–473), Kumaragupta II (473–476), Budhagupta (476–495), Narasimhagupta (495—530), Kumaragupta III (530—540), Vishnugupta (540—550), two lesser known kings namely, Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta.In the 480's the Alchon Huns under Toramana and Mihirakula broke through the Gupta defences in the northwest, and much of the empire in the northwest was overrun by the Huns by 500. The empire disintegrated under the attacks of Toramana and his successor Mihirakula. It appears from inscriptions that the Guptas, although their power was much diminished, continued to resist the Huns. The Hun invader Toramana was defeated by Bhanugupta in 510.Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p. 220Encyclopaedia of Indian Events & Dates by S B. Bhattacherje p. A15 The Huns were defeated and driven out of India in 528 by King Yashodharman from Malwa, and possibly Gupta emperor Narasimhagupta.Columbia Encyclopedia(File:South Asia historical AD550 EN.svg|thumb|The much-weakened Late Guptas, circa 550 CE.)These invasions, although only spanning a few decades, had long term effects on India, and in a sense brought an end to Classical Indian civilisation.The First Spring: The Golden Age of India by Abraham Eraly pp. 48– Soon after the invasions, the Gupta Empire, already weakened by these invasions and the rise of local rulers such as Yashodharman, ended as well.Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p. 221 Following the invasions, northern India was left in disarray, with numerous smaller Indian powers emerging after the crumbling of the Guptas.A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India p. 174 The Huna invasions are said to have seriously damaged India's trade with Europe and Central Asia. In particular, Indo-Roman trade relations, which the Gupta Empire had greatly benefited from. The Guptas had been exporting numerous luxury products such as silk, leather goods, fur, iron products, ivory, pearl, and pepper from centres such as Nasik, Paithan, Pataliputra, and Benares. The Huna invasion probably disrupted these trade relations and the tax revenues that came with them.Longman History & Civics ICSE 9 by Singh p. 81Furthermore, Indian urban culture was left in decline, and Buddhism, gravely weakened by the destruction of monasteries and the killing of monks by the hand of the vehemently anti-Buddhist Shaivist Mihirakula, started to collapse. Great centres of learning were destroyed, such as the city of Taxila, bringing cultural regression. During their rule of 60 years, the Alchons are said to have altered the hierarchy of ruling families and the Indian caste system. For example, the Hunas are often said to have become the precursors of the Rajputs.The succession of the 6th-century Guptas is not entirely clear, but the tail end recognised ruler of the dynasty's main line was king Vishnugupta, reigning from 540 to 550. In addition to the Hun invasion, the factors, which contribute to the decline of the empire include competition from the Vakatakas and the rise of Yashodharman in Malwa.BOOK,weblink A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Singh, Upinder, Pearson Education, 2008, 978-81-317-1677-9, New Delhi, 480, File:Maukharis of Kanauj. Isanavarman. Circa AD 535-553.jpg|thumb|Coin of King Iśanavarman of the Maukharis of Kannauj, successors of the Guptas in the Gangetic region. Circa 535-553 CE. The ruler faces to the left, whether in Gupta coinage the ruler faces to the right. This is possibly a symbol of antagonism and rivalry, as also seen on (:File:Toramana_coin_in_Western_Gupta_style.jpg|some similar coins) of (Toramana]].BOOK, Tripathi, Rama S., History of Kanauj: To the Moslem Conquest, 1989, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 9788120804043, 45 Note 1,weblink en, )The last known inscription by a Gupta emperor is from the reign of Vishnugupta (the Damodarpur copper-plate inscription),Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol.3 (inscriptions Of The Early Gupta Kings) p. 362 in which he makes a land grant in the area of Kotivarsha (Bangarh in West Bengal) in 542/543 CE.Indian Esoteric Buddhism: Social History of the Tantric Movement by Ronald M. Davidson p. 31 This follows the occupation of most of northern and central India by the Aulikara ruler Yashodharman circa 532 CE.A 2019 study by archaeologist Shanker Sharma has concluded that the cause of the Gupta empire's downfall was a devastating flood which happened around the middle of the 6th century in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.WEB,weblink Deluge drowned mighty Guptas: Study, www.telegraphindia.com, en, 19 August 2019,

Post-Gupta successor dynasties

In the heart of the former Gupta Empire, in the Gangetic region, the Guptas were succeeded by the Maukhari dynasty and the Pushyabhuti dynasty.BOOK, Ray, Himanshu Prabha, Negotiating Cultural Identity: Landscapes in Early Medieval South Asian History, 2019, Taylor & Francis, 9781000227932, 161–164,weblink en, The coinage of the Maukharis and Pushyabhutis followed the silver coin type of the Guptas, with portrait of the ruler in profile (although facing in the reverse direction compared to the Guptas, a possible symbol of antagonism) and the peacock on the reverse, the Brahmi legend being kept except for the name of the ruler. In the western regions, they were succeeded by the Gurjaras, the Pratiharas, and later the Chaulukya-Paramara dynasties, who issued so-called Indo-Sasanian coinage, on the model of the coinage of the Sasanian Empire, which had been introduced in India by the Alchon Huns.

Military organisation

(File:Vishnu sculpture.jpg|thumb|Sculpture of Vishnu (red sandstone), 5th century CE.)In contrast to the Mauryan Empire, the Gupta's introduced several military innovations to Indian warfare. Chief amongst these was the use of heavy cavalry archers and heavy sword cavalry. The heavy cavalry formed the core of the Gupta army and were supported by the traditional Indian army elements of elephants and light infantry.BOOK,weblink Warfare in Pre-British India, 1500 BCE to 1740 CE, Roy, Kaushik, 2015, Routledge, 978-1-315-74270-0, 56, The utilisation of horse archers in the Gupta period is evidenced on the coinage of Chandragupta II, Kumaragupta I and Prakasaditya (postulated to be Purugupta BOOK,weblink The Imperial Guptas and Their Times, Ganguly, Dilip Kumar, 1987, Abhinav Publications, 9788170172222, 92, ) that depicts the emperors as horse-archers.BOOK,weblink Warfare in Pre-British India, 1500 BCE to 1740 CE, Roy, Kaushik, 2015, Routledge, 978-1-315-74270-0, 57, BOOK,weblink The military system in ancient India, Majumdar, Bimal Kanti, 1960, Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 2, 118, File: ChandraguptaIIOnHorse.jpg|thumb|left|An 8 gm gold coin featuring 1910,0403.26|3137724}}Unfortunately there is a paucity of contemporary sources detailing the tactical operations of the Imperial Gupta Army. The best extant information comes from the Sanskrit mahakavya (epic poem) Raghuvaṃśa written by the Classical Sanskrit writer and dramatist Kalidasa. Many modern scholars put forward the view that Kalidasa lived from the reign of Chandragupta II to the reign of SkandaguptaBOOK,weblink Kālidāsa; Date, Life, and Works, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi and Narayan Raghunath Navlekar, Popular Prakashan, 1969, 9788171544684, 1–35, Ram Gopal. p.14BOOK,weblink Works of Kālidāsa, C. R. Devadhar, Motilal Banarsidass, 1999, 9788120800236, 1, vii–viii, {{harvnb|Gaurīnātha Śāstrī|1987|pp=77–78}} and that the campaigns of Raghu -- his protagonist in the Raghuvaṃśa -- reflect those of Chandragupta II.BOOK,weblink Warfare in Pre-British India, 1500 BCE to 1740 CE, Roy, Kaushik, 2015, Routledge, 978-1-315-74270-0, 58, In Canto IV of the Raghuvamsa, Kalidasa relates how the king's forces clash against the powerful, cavalry-centric, forces of the Persians and later the Yavanas (probably Huns) in the North-West. Here he makes special mention of the use horse-archers in the kings army and that the horses needed much rest after the hotly contested battles.BOOK,weblink The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa, Kale, Moreshwar Ramchandra, 1922, P.S. Rege, Canto IV,

Religion

File:Buddha in Sarnath Museum (Dhammajak Mutra).jpg|thumb|Meditating BuddhaBuddhaThe Guptas were traditionally a Hindu dynasty.A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India by Upinder Singh p. 521 They were orthodox Hindus, but did not force their beliefs on the rest of the population, as Buddhism and Jainism also were encouraged.The Gupta Empire by Radhakumud Mookerji pp. 133– Sanchi remained an important centre of Buddhism. Kumaragupta I (c. 414 – c. 455 CE) is said to have founded Nalanda.Some later rulers however seem to have especially favoured Buddhism. Narasimhagupta Baladitya (c. 495–?), according to contemporary writer Paramartha, was brought up under the influence of the Mahayanist philosopher, Vasubandhu. He built a sangharama at Nalanda and also a {{convert|300|feet|abbr=on}} high vihara with a Buddha statue within which, according to Xuanzang, resembled the "great Vihara built under the Bodhi tree". According to the Manjushrimulakalpa (c. 800 CE), king Narasimhsagupta became a Buddhist monk, and left the world through meditation (Dhyana). The Chinese monk Xuanzang also noted that Narasimhagupta Baladitya's son, Vajra, who commissioned a sangharama as well, "possessed a heart firm in faith".BOOK,weblink The University of Nālandā, Sankalia, Hasmukhlal Dhirajlal, B.G. Paul & co., 1934, Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia, {{rp|45}}BOOK,weblink Buddhist Monks And Monasteries of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture, Sukumar Dutt, George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London, 1988, 978-81-208-0498-2, First published in 1962, {{rp|330}}

Gupta administration

A study of the epigraphical records of the Gupta empire shows that there was a hierarchy of administrative divisions from top to bottom. The empire was called by various names such as Rajya, Rashtra, Desha, Mandala, Prithvi and Avani. It was divided into 26 provinces, which were styled as Bhukti, Pradesha and Bhoga. Provinces were also divided into Vishayas and put under the control of the Vishayapatis. A Vishayapati administered the Vishaya with the help of the Adhikarana (council of representatives), which comprised four representatives: Nagarasreshesthi, Sarthavaha, Prathamakulika and Prathama Kayastha. A part of the Vishaya was called Vithi.{{sfn|Vidya Dhar Mahajan|1990|pp=530–31}} The Gupta also had trading links with the Byzantine Empire.{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}}

Legacy

missing image!
- Radha-Krishna chess.jpg -
Later image of Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8 × 8 Ashtāpada
Scholars of this period include Varahamihira and Aryabhata, who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero, postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun, and studied solar and lunar eclipses. Kalidasa, who was a great playwright, who wrote plays such as Shakuntala, and marked the highest point of Sanskrit literature is also said to have belonged to this period. The Sushruta Samhita, which is a Sanskrit redaction text on all of the major concepts of ayurvedic medicine with innovative chapters on surgery, dates to the Gupta period.Chess is said to have developed in this period,BOOK
, Murray
, H.J.R.
, H. J. R. Murray
, A History of Chess
, Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press)
, 1913
, 978-0-936317-01-4
, 13472872
,weblink
, where its early form in the 6th century was known as {{IAST|caturaṅga}}, which translates as "four divisions [of the military]" – infantry, cavalry, elephantry, and chariotry – represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively. Doctors also invented several medical instruments, and even performed operations. The Indian numerals which were the first positional base 10 numeral systems in the world originated from Gupta India. The ancient Gupta text Kama Sutra by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana is widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behaviour in Sanskrit literature.
Aryabhata, a noted mathematician-astronomer of the Gupta period proposed that the earth is round and rotates about its own axis. He also discovered that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu, he explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth.Thomas Khoshy, Elementary Number Theory with Applications, Academic Press, 2002, p. 567. {{ISBN|0-12-421171-2}}.

Art and architecture

Sanchi_temple_17.jpg|A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.Mahabodhitemple.jpg|The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.Deogarh01.jpg|Dashavatara Temple is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the Gupta period.The Gupta period is generally regarded as a classic peak of North Indian art for all the major religious groups. Although painting was evidently widespread, the surviving works are almost all religious sculpture. The period saw the emergence of the iconic carved stone deity in Hindu art, as well as the Buddha-figure and Jain tirthankara figures, the latter often on a very large scale. The two great centres of sculpture were Mathura and Gandhara, the latter the centre of Greco-Buddhist art. Both exported sculpture to other parts of northern India. The most famous remaining monuments in a broadly Gupta style, the caves at Ajanta, Elephanta, and Ellora (respectively Buddhist, Hindu, and mixed including Jain) were in fact produced under later dynasties, but primarily reflect the monumentality and balance of Guptan style. Ajanta contains by far the most significant survivals of painting from this and the surrounding periods, showing a mature form which had probably had a long development, mainly in painting palaces.{{sfn|J.C. Harle|1994|pp=118–22, 123–26, 129–35}} The Hindu Udayagiri Caves actually record connections with the dynasty and its ministers,{{sfn|J.C. Harle|1994|pp=92–97}} and the Dashavatara Temple at Deogarh is a major temple, one of the earliest to survive, with important sculpture.{{sfn|J.C. Harle|1994|pp=113–14}}File:Vishnu Hood2 Deogarh.jpg|Vishnu reclining on the serpent Shesha (Ananta), Dashavatara Temple 5th centuryFile:Buddha from Sarnath.jpg|Buddha from Sarnath, 5–6th century CEFile:Elephanta tourists.jpg|The Colossal trimurti at the Elephanta CavesFile:Ajanta Padmapani.jpg|Painting of Padmapani Cave 1 at AjantaFile:Mukhalinga.JPG|The Shiva mukhalinga (faced-lingam) from the Bhumara TempleFile:Nalraja fort chilapata.JPG|Nalrajar Garh fortification wall is one of the last surviving fortification remains from the Gupta period currently 5-7 m highFile:Nalanda University India ruins.jpg|Nalanda university was first established under Gupta empireFile:Gupt kalin mandir bhitargaon.jpg|Bitargaon temple from the Gupta period provide one of the earliest examples of pointed arches any where in the worldFile:Ajanta-3-aurangabad.jpg|Ajanta caves from Gupta eraFile:Met, india (uttar pradesh), gupta period, krishna battling the horse demon keshi, 5th century.JPG|Krishna fighting the horse demon Keshi, 5th century

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

{{ref begin}}
  • BOOK, Ashvini Agrawal, Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas,weblink 1989, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-0592-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Dilip Kumar Ganguly, The Imperial Guptas and Their Times,weblink 1987, Abhinav, 978-81-7017-222-2, harv,
  • BOOK, H.C. Raychaudhuri, Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India: From the Accession of Parikshit to the Extinction of the Gupta Dynasty,weblink University of Calcutta, 978-1-4400-5272-9, 1923, harv,
  • BOOK, J.C. Harle, The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent,weblink 1994, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-06217-5, harv,
  • BOOK, R.C. Majumdar, R. C. Majumdar, A Comprehensive History of India, 3, Part I: A.D. 300-985,weblink 1981, Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House, 34008529, 17–52, harv,
  • BOOK, Shankar Goyal, Problems of Ancient Indian History: New Perspectives and Perceptions,weblink 2001, Book Enclave, 978-81-87036-66-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Tej Ram Sharma, A Political History of the Imperial Guptas: From Gupta to Skandagupta,weblink 1989, Concept, 978-81-7022-251-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Vidya Dhar Mahajan, 1990, A History of India,weblink State Mutual Book & Periodical Service, 978-0-7855-1191-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Upinder Singh, Upinder Singh, Political Violence in Ancient India,weblink 2017, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-98128-7, harv,
{{ref end}}

Notes

{{reflist|group=note|2}}

External links

{{Wikisource1911Enc|Gupta}}{{Commons category|Gupta Empire}} {{Middle kingdoms of India}}{{Empires}}

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