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Guangzhou
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{{Other uses}}{{hatnote|"" redirects here. For the South Korean city with the similar Hanja spelling , see Gwangju, Gyeonggi.}}{{hatnote|For other places with same name "Canton", see Canton.}}{{stack begin}}







factoids
| official_name = | other_name = Canton; Kwangchow0.1em}}}}#Names>othersPrefecture-level city>Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city| image_skyline = Guangzhou montage.pngTianhe District>Tianhe CBD, the Canton Tower and Chigang Pagoda, Haizhu Bridge, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall (Guangzhou), the The Legend of Five Goats>Five Goat Statue and Zhenhai Tower (Guangzhou) in Yuexiu Park, and Sacred Heart Cathedral of Guangzhou>Sacred Heart Cathedral.frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000frame-lat=23.132|frame-long=113.6}}| image_map1 = Guangdong subdivisions - Guangzhou.svg| map_caption1 = Location of Guangzhou City jurisdiction in Guangdong| pushpin_map = China Guangdong#China| pushpin_label_position = bottom| pushpin_map_caption = Location of the city center in Guangdong| pushpin_mapsize = | image_map2 = Guangzhou city map plan China Level 12 English.svg| mapsize2 = 250px| map_caption2 = Guangzhou city map plan| subdivision_type = CountryChina>People's Republic of ChinaProvinces of China>Province| subdivision_name1 = Guangdong| established_title = | established_date = | parts_type = | parts = | government_type = Sub-provincial cityMayor of Guangzhou>CPC Ctte Secretary| leader_name = Zhang ShuofuMayor of Guangzhou>Mayor| leader_name1 = Wen Guohui| area_total_km2 = 7434.4| area_total_sq_mi = 2870| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_km2 = 3843.43| area_urban_sq_mi = 1483.95PUBLISHER=STATISTICS BUREAU OF GUANGZHOUURL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVE-DATE=2015-03-23, | elevation_m = 21| elevation_ft = 68| elevation_footnotes = | population_total = 14,904,400| population_as_of = 2018 endACCESS-DATE=2019-03-16 ARCHIVE-DATE=2019-02-16, live, | population_density_km2 = auto| population_density_sq_mi = auto| population_urban = 11547491 URL-STATUS=DEAD TRANS-TITLE=STATISTICAL YEARBOOK 2014 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS BUREAU OF GUANGZHOU GUANGZHOU CANTONESE >DATE=7 APRIL 2015, 1 May 2015, | population_metro = 25 million| population_metro_footnotes =  (2010)Cantonese people>CantoneseTime in China>China standard time| utc_offset = +8| coor_pinpoint = Guangdong People's Government23.132113.266type:adm2nd_region:CN-44_source:Gaodedisplay=it}}List of postal codes in China>Postal code| postal_code = 510000Telephone numbers in China>(0)20CN-GD-01)URL=HTTPS://BAIJIAHAO.BAIDU.COM/S?ID=1589659984410441010&WFR=SPIDER&FOR=PC&ISFAILFLAG=1 PUBLISHER=BAIJIAHAO.BAIDU.COM ACCESS-DATE=2017-11-11 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180205072349/HTTPS://BAIJIAHAO.BAIDU.COM/S?ID=1589659984410441010&WFR=SPIDER&FOR=PC&ISFAILFLAG=1, 2018-02-05, | blank_info = 2018| blank1_name =  - TotalCNY>Â¥2.3 trillion$347 billion ($0.66 trillion, PPP)| blank2_name =  - Per capitaCNY>Â¥158,638$23,963 ($46,778, PPP)| blank3_name =  - Growth| blank3_info = {{increase}} 6.5%Vehicle registration plates of China>Licence plate prefixesBombax ceiba| blank6_name = City Bird| blank6_info = Chinese hwamei| blank7_name = LanguagesCantonese language>Cantonese, Mandarinenglish.gz.gov.cn}}}}







factoids
or{{IPA-yue>kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ́uy=Gwóngjàu or{{AudioGwóngjāupsp=CantonKwangchow Zh-Guangzhou.ogghelp=no}} g3zh1}} gr=Goangjou bpmf=ㄍㄨㄤˇ   ã„“ã„¡ h=Kong³-ziu¹ order=stChinese abbreviations>abbreviation w2=Sui⁴ gr2=Suey mi2={{IPAc-cmnweij2=Seoi6 ci2={{IPA-yue}}|showflag=yp}}







factoids
>j2=Naam4mou5sing4 ci2={{IPA-yue}} |l2=Southern Wuchengc3= >j3=Pun1jyu4 p3=Pānyú bpmf3=ㄆㄢ   ã„©ËŠ myr3=Pānyú p1yu|2}} t4= >s4= >l4=Broad Fu (country subdivision)provinces of China>Provincial City w4=Kuang³-fu³Shêng³-ch‘êng² gr4=GoangfuuSheengcherng mi4={{IPA-cmn}}{{IPA-cmn}} y4=GwóngfúSáangsìhng kʷɔ̌ːŋ.fǔːsǎːŋ.sÈ…Å‹|}}t5= >s5= >l5=Happy King w5=Hsing⁴-wang² gr5=Shinqwang mi5={{IPAc-cmning.2}} y5=Hìngwòhng or HÄ«ngwòhng hêŋ.wɔ̏ːŋor {{IPA-yue>héŋ.wɔ̏ːŋshowflag=yp}}







factoids
{{IPAc-cmn3yang.engj2=Joeng4sing4Ng5joeng4sing4 ci2={{IPA-yue}}{{IPA-yue}} |l2=Goat/Sheep CityFive Goat/Sheep Cityc3= >p3=Xiānchéng bpmf3=ㄒㄧㄢ   ã„”ㄥˊ myr3=Syānchéng x1ch2}} y3=SÄ«nsìhng síːn.sÈ…Å‹|}}c4= >p4=Huāchéng bpmf4=ㄏㄨㄚ   ã„”ㄥˊ myr4=Hwāchéng h1ch2}} y4=Fàsìhng or Fāsìhng fâː.sÈ…Å‹or {{IPA-yue>fáː.sÈ…Å‹|}}c5= >p5=Suìchéng bpmf5=ㄙㄨㄟˋ   ã„”ㄥˊ myr5=Swèichéng s4ch2}} y5=Seuihsìhng sɵ̀y.sÈ…Å‹l5=Rice-Ear (botany) City >showflag=yp}}{{stack end}}Guangzhou ({{zh|s=广州}}; {{IPA-yue|kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ̂u}} or {{IPA-yue|kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ́u||zh-yue-廣州.ogg}}; {{IPA-cmn|kwàŋ.ʈʂóu|-|zh-Guangzhou.ogg}}), also known as Canton and formerly romanized as Kwangchow or Kwong Chow,WEB,weblink Guangzhou CHINA, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., EN, 2019-04-27, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China.WEB, Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions,weblink PRC Central Government Official Website, 2014-05-17, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140619213210weblink">weblink 2014-06-19, On the Pearl River about {{convert|120|km|abbr=on}} north-northwest of Hong Kong and {{convert|145|km|abbr=on}} north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road,WEB, zh:海上丝绸之路的三大著名港口,weblink People.cn, 2014-05-20, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160603070339weblink">weblink 2016-06-03, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.WEB,weblink Tourism Administration of Guangzhou Municipality, visitgz.com, 2010-03-21, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100906143754weblink">weblink September 6, 2010, Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial statusWEB,weblink zh:中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号, docin.com, February 19, 1995, 2014-05-28, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140529084536weblink">weblink May 29, 2014, and is one of China's nine National Central Cities.NEWS, zh:全国乡镇规划确定五大中心城市,weblink Southern Metropolitan Daily, February 9, 2010, 2010-07-29, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130731074914weblink">weblink July 31, 2013, At the end of 2018, the population of the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year from the previous year.WEB,weblink 广州常住人口去年末超1490万, 2019-03-16,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190216065355weblink">weblink 2019-02-16, live, Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city.WEB, The World According to GaWC 2016, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, 2017-03-31,weblink 2017-04-17, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131010004859weblink">weblink 2013-10-10, There is a rapidly increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa.China cracks down on African immigrants and traders {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161116075754weblink |date=2016-11-16 }}, The Guardian, 6 October 2010JOURNAL, Huang, Junjie (黄俊杰), zh:广州一不小心成了"第三世界"首都?, 新周刊, 11 June 2008, 277,weblink 29 January 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161021151603weblink">weblink 2016-10-21, This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World".WEB,weblink 广州常住非裔人士或达30万 被称作第三世界首都, Chinese, zh:广州常住非裔人士或达30万 被称作第三世界首都,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201040019weblink">weblink 2017-12-01, dead, 2017-11-18, The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China.NEWS, Cheng, Andrew, Geng, Xiao, Unlocking the potential of Chinese cities,weblink 28 September 2017, China Daily, 6 April 2017, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170928150228weblink">weblink 2017-09-28, In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis.JOURNAL, Mensah Obeng, Mark Kwaku, 2018, Journey to the East: a study of Ghanaian migrants in Guangzhou, China, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 1–21, 10.1080/00083968.2018.1536557, Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years (2013–2015), Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.WEB, Guangzhou tops best mainland commercial cities rankings, chinadaily, December 16, 2014,weblink 2016-02-01, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160824022447weblink">weblink August 24, 2016, {{anchor|Etymology|Toponymy|Name}}

History

Etymology

File:Wuxian Xiadong.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|A Qing-era portrait of the Grotto of the Five Immortals, the Taoist temple around the five stones which gave Guangzhou its nickname "The City of Rams".]]GuÇŽngzhōu is the pinyin romanisation of the Chinese name , which was simplified in mainland China to in the 1950s. The name of the city is taken from the ancient Guang Province (Guang Zhou), after it had become the prefecture's seat of government, which is how some other Chinese cities, including Hangzhou, Suzhou, and Fuzhou got their names. The character or —which also appears in the names of the provinces Guangdong and Guangxi, together called the Liangguang—means "broad" or "expansive" and refers to the intention to dispense imperial grace broadly in the region with the founding of county of Guangxin in Han Dynasty.Before acquiring its current name, the town was known as Panyu, a name still borne by one of Guangzhou's districts not far from the main city. The origin of the name is still uncertain, with 11 various explanations being offered,{{citation |url=http://www.nanfangdaily.com.cn/epaper/nfrb/content/20081011/ArticelA11003FM.htm |script-title=zh:番禺求证}} including that it may have referred to two local mountains.{{citation |last=Xu |first=Jian |authorlink=Xu Jian (Tang dynasty) |date=c. 720 |script-title=zh:初學記 |trans-title=Chuxueji, Records for Initial Studies |language=zh}}{{citation |script-title=zh:中国古今地名大词典 |date=2005 |location=Shanghai |publisher=Shanghai Cishu Dacidian |p=2901}} The city has also sometimes been known as Guangzhou Fu or Guangfu after its status as the capital of a prefecture. From this latter name, Guangzhou was known to medieval Persians such as Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordadbeh{{citation |first=H |last=Yule |title=Cathay and the Way Thither |volume=Vol. I |location=London |publisher=Hakluyt Society |date=1916}} as Khanfu ().{{citation |first=Kees |last=Versteegh |author2=Mushira Eid |ref={{harvid|Kees & al.|2005}} |title=Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Vol. I |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SuNiAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA378 |year=2005 |publisher=Brill |location=Leiden |isbn=978-90-04-14473-6 |pp=378 ff |access-date=11 February 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170309075410weblink |archive-date=9 March 2017 |url-status=live |df=dmy-all }}. Under the Southern Han, the city was renamed Xingwang.BOOK, Ng Wing Chung, The Rise of Cantonese Opera, University of Illinois Press, 2015, 31,weblink 9780252097096, BOOK, Chin, Angelina, Bound to Emancipate: Working Women and Urban Citizenship in Early Twentieth-Century China and Hong Kong, Rowman & Littlefield, 2012, 202,weblink 9781442215610, The Chinese abbreviation for Guangzhou is "" (although the abbreviation on car license plates, as with the rest of the province, is ), after its nickname "Rice City". The city has long borne the nickname {{nowrap|City of Rams}} or {{nowrap|City of the Five Rams}} from the five stones at the old Temple of the Five Immortals said to have been the sheep or goats ridden by the Taoist culture heroes credited with introducing rice cultivation to the area around the time of the city's foundation.BOOK, 1834, 148, The Chinese Repository, Vol. II, 2nd, Kraus Reprint Ltd., The former name "City of the Immortals" came from the same story. The more recent {{nowrap|City of Flowers}} is usually taken as a simple reference to the area's fine greenery.The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese ' or ',{{citation |title=Santa Barbara Portuguese Studies, Vols. I–II |date=1994 |p=256 |publisher=Jorge de Sena Center for Portuguese Studies}} a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong"{{citation |title=T'ien Hsia Monthly, Vol. VIII |p=426 |date=1939 |publisher=Sun Yat-sen Institute}}{{citation |contribution-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=TAnheeIPcAEC&pg=PA181 |contribution=Can·ton·ese |title=Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed. |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=TAnheeIPcAEC |location=Springfield |publisher=Merriam-Webster |isbn=9780877798095 |year=2004 |access-date=2017-08-31 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110504023650weblink |archive-date=2011-05-04 |url-status=live }} (e.g., Hakka Kóng-tûng). Although it originally and chiefly applied to the walled city, it was occasionally conflated with Guangdong by some authors.{{refn|The lexicographer only accepted Canton as a proper noun referring to the city, and considered usages with reference to the province as an “ellipsis”, see Yule & al.{{citation |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=F51h6q-bB6sC&printsec=frontcover |last=Yule |first=Henry |authorlink=Henry Yule |author2=A.C. Burnell |title=Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India |publisher=reprinted by Oxford University Press, 2013 |editor=Kate Teltscher |at="Canton"|isbn=9780199601134 |date=2013-06-13 }}}}{{refn|A. Hamilton (1727) used Canton to refer to both the city and the province. But he used Canton for the city more frequently in the same work, especially when he wrote Canton without reference to “Quangtung”. See see Hamilton (1727; pp.224-238){{citation |url=https://archive.org/details/anewaccounteast00hamigoog/page/n251 |last=Hamilton |first=Alexander |authorlink=Alexander Hamilton|title= A New Account of the East Indies: Giving an Exact and Copious Description of the Situation|publisher=reprinted by Oxford University Press, 2013 |editor=Kate Teltscher |at="weblink"|year=1744 }}}} It was adopted as the Postal Map Romanization of Guangzhou and remained in common use until the gradual adoption of pinyin. As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language, cuisine and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region. The 19th-century name "{{nowrap|Kwang-chow foo}}"{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=37}} derived from Nanjing dialect of Mandarin and the town's status as a prefectural capital.

Prehistory

A settlement now known as Nanwucheng was present in the area by {{nowrap|1100 {{sc|bc}}}}.{{citation |last=Short |first=John R. |title=Human Settlement |p=212 |location=Oxford |publisher=Oxford University Press |date=1992}}{{citation |editor=Peter Haggett |title=Encyclopedia of World Geography |volume=Vol. 20: China and Taiwan |publisher=Marshall Cavendish |p=2844}} Some traditional Chinese histories placed Nanwucheng's founding during the reign of Ji Yan,{{harvp|Gray|1875|p=1–2}}{{harvp|ACC|1845|p=82}} king of Zhou from 314–256 {{sc|bc}}. It was said to have consisted of little more than a stockade of bamboo and mud.File:Si lü yu yi.JPG|thumb|left|upright=.9|The jade burial suit of Zhao Mo in Guangzhou's Nanyue King MuseumNanyue King Museum

Nanyue

Panyu was established on the east bank of the Pearl River{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=37}} in 214 {{sc|bc}} to serve as a base for the Qin Empire's first failed invasion of the Baiyue lands in southern China. Legendary accounts claimed the soldiers at Panyu were so vigilant that they did not remove their armor for three years.{{harvp|Gray|1875|p=3}} Upon the fall of the Qin, General Zhao Tuo established his own kingdom of Nanyue and made Panyu its capital in 204 {{sc|bc}}. It remained independent through the Chu-Han Contention, although Zhao negotiated recognition of his independence in exchange for his nominal submission to the Han in 196 {{sc|bc}}.{{citation |last=Taylor |first=Keith Weller |title=The Birth of Vietnam |p=24 |location=Berkeley |publisher=University of California Press |date=1991}} Archaeological evidence shows that Panyu was an expansive commercial centre: in addition to items from central China, archaeologists have found remains originating from Southeast Asia, India, and even Africa.{{citation |first2=Susan N. |last2=Erickson |last=Yi |first=Song-mi |authormask=Yi Song-mi |first3=Michael |last3=Nylan |contribution=The Archaeology of the Outlying Lands |editor-last=Nylan-Loewe |title=China's Early Empires |date=2010 |p=163}} Zhao Tuo was succeeded by Zhao Mo and then Zhao Yingqi. Upon Zhao Yingqi's death in {{nowrap|115 {{sc|bc}}}}, his younger son Zhao Xing was named as his successor in violation of Chinese primogeniture. By {{nowrap|113 {{sc|bc}}}}, his Chinese mother, the Empress Dowager Jiu (}}) had prevailed upon him to submit Nanyue as a formal part of the Han Empire. The native prime minister Lü Jia (}}) launched a coup, killing Han ambassadors along with the king, his mother, and their supporters.{{sfnp|Yü|1987|p=453}} A successful ambush then annihilated a Han force which had been sent to arrest him. The enraged Emperor Wu launched a massive river- and sea-borne invasion: six armies under Lu Bode and Yang Pu{{citation |last=Morton |first=W. Scott |last2=Lewis |first2=Charlton M. |date=2004 |ref={{harvid|Morton & al.|2004}} |title=China: Its History and Culture, 4th ed. |location=New York |publisher=McGraw-Hill |isbn=978-0-07-141279-7 |p=56}}. took Panyu and annexed Nanyue by the end of 111 {{sc|bc}}.{{sfnp|Yü|1987|p=453}}

Imperial China

File:Pearl River Yujitu (cropped).png|thumb|left|upright=.675|Guangzhou (as ) on the 1136 Map of the Tracks of Yu ]]File:Lai Afong, Canton commercial street view, c1880.jpg|thumb|left|upright=.675|lk=no|1880}}File:Canton River, 26 May 1841.jpg|thumb|left|upright=.9|Guangzhou ("Canton") and the surrounding islands of Henan ("Hanan"), Pazhou ("Whampoa"), Changzhou ("Dane's Island"), and Xiaoguwei ("French Island") during the First Opium War's Second Battle of Canton. The large East Indiamen of the Canton trade used the anchorage sheltered by these four islands, but the village and island of Huangpu for which it was named make up no part of present-day Guangzhou's Huangpu District.]]Incorporated into the Han Dynasty, Panyu became a provincial capital. In {{sc|ad}} 226, it became the seat of Guang Prefecture, which gave it its modern name. The Old Book of Tang described Guangzhou as an important port in southern China.刘煦.旧唐书·王方庆传〔M〕.北京:中华书局,1975 Direct routes connected the Middle East and China, as shown in records of a Chinese prisoner returning home from Iraq twelve years after his capture at Talas.{{citation |script-title=zh:杜佑.通典 |volume=卷191〔M〕|location=Beijing |publisher=中华书局 |date=1984}} Relations were not always peaceful: Muslims sacked the city on 30 October 758{{refn|group=n|Given in contemporary sources as the "Guisi Day" (}}) of the 9th lunar month of the first year of the Qianyuan Era under Emperor Suzong of the Tang.}}{{citation |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZPMZ0AkLzoC&pg=PA3 |title=On the Knowledge Possessed by the Ancient Chinese of the Arabs and Arabian Colonies and Other Western Countries, Mentioned in Chinese Books |first=E. |last=Bretschneider |year=1871 |publisher=Trübner & Co. |location=London |page=10 |access-date=2015-11-06 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170308221837weblink |archive-date=2017-03-08 |url-status=live }}{{citation |first=Frank |last=Welsh |authorlink=Frank Welsh (writer) |editor=Maya Rao |year=1974 |title=A Borrowed Place: The History of Hong Kong |isbn=978-1-56836-134-5 |page=13}}{{citation |first=Joseph |last=Needham |authorlink=Joseph Needham |title=Science & Civilisation in China |year=1954 |volume=Vol. I |p=179 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge}}BOOK, Sima Guang, Sima, Guang, Sima Guang, Zizhi Tongjian [Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government], Zizhi Tongjian, and were massacred by the Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with the city's Jews, Christians,{{citation |editor=Gabriel Ferrand |year=1922 |title=Voyage du Marchand Arabe Sulaymân en Inde et en Chine, Rédigé en 851, suivi de Remarques par Abû Zayd Hasan |page=76|language=fr}}{{citation |contribution-url=http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/judaism/kaifung.html |contribution=Kaifung Jews |title=Overview of World Religions |publisher=University of Cumbria}} (Abu Zayd Husayn al-Sirafi, Rihlat al-Sirafi, al-Mujamma' al-thaqafi, Abu Dhabi, 1990) and Parsis.{{citation |author=Abu Zayd as-Sirafi |script-title=ar:رحلة السيرافي |trans-title=The Journey of As-Sirafi |language=ar}}{{citation |last=Guy |first=John |date=1986 |title=Oriental Trade Ceramics in South-East Asia, Ninth to Sixteenth Centuries: With a Catalogue of Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai Wares in Australian Collections |p=7 |publisher=Oxford University Press |location=Oxford |url=https://books.google.com/?id=GxrrAAAAMAAJ}}Amid the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms that followed the collapse of the Tang dynasty, the Later Liang governor Liu Yan used his base at Panyu to establish a "Great Yue" or "Southern Han" empire, which lasted from 917 to 971. The region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic success in this period. From the 10th to 12th century, there are records that the large foreign communities were not exclusively male, but included "Persian women".BOOK,weblink Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (Oriental Library), No. 2, 1928, Toyo Bunko, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ann Arbor, 34, 2015-11-06,weblink 2016-05-16, live, JOURNAL, Les Persans à l'Extrémité Orientale de la Route Maritime (IIe A.E. -XVIIe Siècle), Archipel, Lombard-Salmon, Claudine, 2004, Archipel, 68, 40, 10.3406/arch.2004.3830, {{refn|group=n|The term "Persian" may, however, have been loosely applied and referred indifferently to any similar-looking foreign women.BOOK,weblink Isis, Vol. 30, 1939, University of Pennsylvania, 120, 2015-11-06,weblink 2016-02-15, live, }} Guangzhou was visited by the Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta during his 14th-century journey around the world;{{sfnp|Dunn|2005|p=259}} he detailed the process by which the Chinese constructed their large ships in the port's shipyards.{{clarify|date=June 2016}}Shortly after the Hongwu Emperor's declaration of the Ming dynasty, he reversed his earlier support of foreign trade and imposed the first of a series of sea bans (haijin).{{sfnp|Von Glahn|1996|p=90}} These banned private foreign trade upon penalty of death for the merchant and exile for his family and neighbors.{{sfnp|Li|2010|p=3}} The Yuan-era maritime intendancies of Guangzhou, Quanzhou, and Ningbo were closed in 1384{{sfnp|Von Glahn|1996|p=116}} and legal trade became limited to the tribute delegations sent to or by official representatives of foreign governments.{{sfnp|Von Glahn|1996|p=91}}Following the Portuguese conquest of Malacca, Rafael Perestrello travelled to Guangzhou as a passenger on a native junk in 1516.{{sfnp|Knight's|1841|p=135}} His report induced Fernão Pires de Andrade to sail to the city with eight ships the next year,{{sfnp|Knight's|1841|p=135}} but De Andrade's exploration{{sfnp|Cortesao|1944|p=xxxiv}} was understood as spying{{sfnp|Wills|1998|p=331}} and his brother Simão and others began attempting to monopolize trade,{{sfnp|Wills|1998|pp=331–2}} enslaving Chinese women{{sfnp|Douglas|2006|p=11}} and children,{{refn|group=n|"Buying and selling of children was scarcely unknown in Ming China, but the large new demands of the Portuguese may have stimulated kidnappings from good families..."{{sfnp|Wills & al.|2010|p=28}}}} engaging in piracy,{{sfnp|Dutra & al.|1995|p=426}} and fortifying the island of Tamão.{{sfnp|Wills|1998|pp=337–8}}{{sfnp|Cortesao|1944|p=xxxvii}} Rumors even circulated that Portuguese were eating the children.{{citation |p=130 |last=Subrahmanyam |first=Sanjay |title=The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500–1700: A Political and Economic History |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=h6gZXAcgRHcC&printsec=frontcover |publisher=Wiley Blackwell}}{{sfnp|Wills & al.|2010|p=28}}{{refn|group=n|"Some early Chinese historians go even so far as to give vivid details of the price paid for the children and how they were roasted."{{sfnp|Cortesao|1944|p=xxxix}}}} The Guangzhou administration was charged with driving them off:{{sfnp|Dutra & al.|1995|p=426}} they bested the Portuguese at the Battle of Tunmen{{sfnp|Wills|1998|p=339}} and in Xicao Bay; held a diplomatic mission hostage in a failed attempt to pressure the restoration of the sultan of Malacca,{{sfnp|Cortesao|1944|p=xl, xliii}} who had been accounted a Ming vassal;{{sfnp|Wills|1998|p=340}} and, after placing them in cangues and keeping them for most of a year, ultimately executed 23 by lingchi.{{sfnp|Cortesao|1944|p=xliv–v}}{{refn|group=n|"On the day of St Nicholas [6 Dec.] in the year 1522 they put boards on them with the sentence that they should die and be exposed in pillories as robbers. The sentences said: 'Petty sea robbers sent by the great robber falsely; they come to spy out our country; let them die in pillories as robbers.' A report was sent to the king according to the information of the mandarins, and the king confirmed the sentence. On 23 Sept. 1523 these twenty-three persons were each one cut in pieces, to wit, heads, legs, arms, and their private members placed in their mouths, the trunk of the body being divided into two pieces round the belly. In the streets of Canton, outside the walls, in the suburbs, through the principal streets they were put to death, at distances of one crossbow shot from one another, that all might see them, both those of Canton and those of the environs, in order to give them to understand that they thought nothing of the Portuguese, so that the people might not talk of the Portuguese. Thus... they were all killed, and their heads and private members were carried on the backs of the Portuguese in front of the mandarins of Canton with the playing of musical instruments and rejoicing, were exhibited suspended in the streets, and were then thrown into the dunghills. And from henceforth it was resolved not to allow any more Portuguese into the country nor other strangers."{{refn|Vieira{{citation |first=Cristóvão |last=Vieira |title=letter |at=fol. 109 |date=1524|language=pt}} in Cortesao.{{sfnp|Cortesao|1944|p=xliv–v}}}}}} With the help of local pirates, the "Folangji" then carried out smuggling at Macao, Lampacau, and {{nowrap|St John's}} Island (now Shangchuan),{{sfnp|Douglas|2006|p=11}} until Leonel de Sousa legalized their trade with bribes to Admiral Wang Bo (}}) and the 1554 Luso-Chinese Accord. The Portuguese undertook not to raise fortifications and to pay customs dues;{{sfnp|Willis|1998|p=343}} three years later, after providing the Chinese with assistance suppressing their former pirate allies,{{sfnp|Wills|1998|p=343–344}} the Portuguese were permitted to warehouse their goods at Macau instead of Guangzhou itself.{{citation |last=Porter |first=Jonathan |date=1996 |title=Macau, the Imaginary City: Culture and Society, 1557 to the Present |publisher=Westview Press |isbn=978-0-8133-3749-4}}After the fall of Fuzhou in October 1646, the Longwu Emperor's brother Zhu Yuyue fled by sea to Guangzhou. On 11 December, he declared himself the Shaowu Emperor, borrowing his imperial regalia from local theatre troupes.{{sfnp|Wakeman|1985|p=737}} He led a successful offense against his cousin Zhu Youlang but was deposed and executed on 20 January 1647 when the Ming turncoat Li Chengdong (}}) sacked the city on behalf of the Qing.{{sfnp|Wakeman|1985|p=738}}{{refn|group=n|The Shaowu Emperor's remains are buried in Yuexiu Park.}}The Qing became somewhat more open to foreign trade after gaining control of Taiwan in 1683.{{sfnp|Perdue|2009}} The Portuguese from Macau and Spaniards from Manila returned, as did private Muslim, Armenian, and English traders.{{sfnp|Gunn|p=208}} From 1699 to 1714, the French and British East India Companies sent a ship or two each year;{{sfnp|Gunn|p=208}} the Austrian Ostend General India Co. arrived in 1717,{{sfnp|Butel|1997|p=197}} the Dutch East India Co. in 1729,{{Citation |publisher = R. Phillips |location = London |title = An Authentic Account of the Embassy of the Dutch East-India Company, to the Court of the Emperor of China, in the years 1794 and 1795 |volume=Vols. I and II |first=Braam |last=Houckgeest |author2=Andre Everard Van ? |date = 1798 |oclc = 002094734}} the Danish Asiatic Co. in 1731,{{refn|group=n|In fact, the Danish Asiatic Company was formally chartered in April 1732 while this first ship, the , was on its return trip.{{citation |last=Bramsen |first=Christopher Bo |p=16 |title=Peace and Friendship: Denmark's Official Relations with China, 1674–2000 |author2=Lin Hua |date=2000 |publisher=Nordic Institute of Asian Studies |location=Copenhagen|language=en}}{{nbsp}}& {{zh icon}} Counting the Cron-Printz Christian, up to 1833, the DAC dispatched 130 ships to Guangzhou, losing five. The average voyage from Copenhagen took 216 days and the voyage back, 192.{{sfnp|Gunn|p=208}}}} and the Swedish East India Co. the next year.{{sfnp|Gunn|p=208}} These were joined by the occasional Prussian or Trieste Company vessel. The first independent American ship arrived in 1784 and the first colonial Australian one in 1788.{{citation needed|date=July 2016}} By that time, Guangzhou was one of the world's great ports, organised under the Canton System.{{sfnp|Kjellberg|1975|p=99}} The main exports were tea and porcelain.{{sfnp|Gunn|p=208}} As a meeting place of merchants from all over the world, Guangzhou became a major contributor to the rise of the modern global economy.{{citation |last=Van Dyke |first=Paul A. |title=The Canton Trade—Life and Enterprise on the China Coast, 1700–1845 |location=Hong Kong |date=2005 |p=161}}In the 19th century, most of the city's buildings were still only one or two storeys. The major structures were the Plain Minaret of the Huaisheng Mosque, the Flower Pagoda of the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, and the guard tower known as the 5-Storey Pagoda. The northern hills, since urbanized, were bare and covered with traditional graves. The brick city walls were about {{convert|6|mi|0}} in circumference, {{convert|25|ft|0}} high, and {{convert|20|ft|0}} wide. Its eight main gates and two water gates all held guards during the day and were closed at night. The wall rose to incorporate a hill on its northern side and was surrounded on the other three by a moat which, along with the canals, functioned as the city's sewer, emptied daily by the river's tides. A partition wall with four gates divided the northern "old town" from the southern "new town" closer to the river; the suburb of Xiguan ("West Gate") stretched beyond and the boats of fishers, traders, and Tanka ("boat people") almost entirely concealed the riverbank for about {{convert|4|mi|0}}. It was common for homes to have a storefront facing the street and to treat their courtyards as a kind of warehouse.{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=37}} The city was part of a network of signal towers so effective that messages could be relayed to Beijing—about {{convert|1200|mi|sp=us|0}} away—in less than 24 hours.{{sfnp|Kjellberg|1975|p=95}}The Canton System was maintained until the outbreak of the First Opium War in 1839. Following a series of battles in the Pearl River Delta, the British captured Guangzhou itself on 18 March 1841.{{sfnp|Bulletins &c.|1841|p=357}} The Second Battle of Canton was fought two months later.{{sfnp|MacPherson|1843|pp=312 & 315}} Following the Qing Empire's 1842 treaty with Great Britain, Guangzhou lost its privileged trade status as more and more treaty ports were opened to more and more countries, usually including extraterritorial enclaves. Amid the decline of Qing prestige and the chaos of the Taiping Rebellion, the Punti and Hakka waged a series of clan wars from 1855 to 1867 in which 1 million people died.The concession for the Guangzhou–Hankou railway was awarded to the American China Development Co. in 1898. It completed its branch line west to Foshan and Sanshui before being engulfed in a diplomatic crisis after a Belgian consortium bought a controlling interest and the Qing cancelled its concession. J.P. Morgan was awarded millions in damages{{citation |last=Lee |first=En-han |authormask=Lee En-han |date=1977 |title=China's Quest for Railway Autonomy, 1904–1911: A Study of the Chinese Railway-Rights Recovery Movement |publisher=Singapore University Press |location=Singapore}} and the line to Wuchang wasn't completed until 1936{{citation |contribution=Canton–Hankow Railway |title=The Sydney Morning Herald |date=9 June 1936}} and a unified Beijing–Guangzhou Railway waited until the completion of Wuhan's Yangtze River Bridge in 1957.

Modern China

Revolutions

File:黄花岗h - panoramio.jpg|thumb|left|upright=.9|Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs72 MartyrsDuring the late Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou was the site of failed revolts such as the Uprisings of 1895 and 1911 to overthrow the Qing; the 72 rebels whose bodies were found after the latter uprising are remembered and honoured as the city's 72 Martyrs in the Huanghuagang ("Yellow Flower Mound") Mausoleum.All these failed revolutionary attempts would eventually lead to the Xinhai Revolution which successfully overthrew the Qing Dynasty to establish a new Han Chinese republic.

Kuomintang rule

After the assassination of Song Jiaoren and Yuan Shikai's attempts to remove the Nationalist Party of China from power, the leader of Guangdong Hu Hanmin joined the 1913 Second Revolution against him{{citation |contribution-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=EisnZHAMbqkC&pg=PA298 |p=298 |contribution=Second Revolution |last=Lu |first=Fang-shang |authormask=Lu Fang-shang |title=Modern China |editor=Wang Ke-wen |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=EisnZHAMbqkC&printsec=frontcover |publisher=Garland Publishing |location=New York |date=1998 |access-date=2017-08-31 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140611222408weblink |archive-date=2014-06-11 |url-status=live }} but was forced to flee to Japan with Sun Yat-sen after its failure. The city came under national spotlight again in 1917, when Prime Minister Duan Qirui's abrogation of the constitution triggered the Constitutional Protection Movement. Sun Yat-sen came to head the Guangzhou Military Government supported by the members of the dissolved parliament and the Southwestern warlords. The Guangzhou government fell apart as the warlords withdrew their support. Sun fled to Shanghai in November 1918 until the Guangdong warlord Chen Jiongming restored him in October 1920 during the Yuegui Wars.{{sfnp|Beck|2007}} On 16 June 1922, Sun was ousted in a coup and fled on the warship Yongfeng after Chen sided with the Zhili Clique's Beijing government. In the following months Sun mounted a counterattack into Guangdong by rallying supporters from Yunnan and Guangxi, and in January established a government in the city for the third time.File:Naval Jack of the Republic of China.svg|thumb|left|upright=.9|Flag of KuomintangKuomintangFrom 1923 to 1926 Sun and the Kuomintang used the city as a base to prosecute a renewed revolution in China by conquering the warlords in the north. Although Sun was previously dependent on opportunistic warlords who hosted him in the city, with the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT developed its own military power to serve its ambition. The Canton years saw the evolution of the KMT into a revolutionary movement with a strong military focus and ideological commitment, setting the tone of the KMT rule of China beyond 1927.In 1924 the KMT made the momentous decision to ally with the Communist Party and the USSR. With Soviet help, KMT reorganized itself along the Leninist line and adopted a pro-labor and pro-peasant stance. The Kuomintang-CCP cooperation was confirmed in the First Congress of the KMT and the communists were instructed to join the KMT. The allied government set up the Peasant Movement Training Institute in the city, of which Mao Zedong was a director for one term. Sun and his military commander Chiang used Soviet funds and weapons to build an armed force staffed by communist commissars, training its cadres in the Whampoa Military Academy.{{sfnp|Beck|2007}} In August, the fledgling army suppressed the Canton Merchants' Corps Uprising. The next year the anti-imperialist May Thirtieth Movement swept the country, and the KMT government called for strikes in Canton and Hong Kong. The tensions of the massive strikes and protests led to the Shakee Massacre.After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925 the mood was changing in the party toward the communists. In August the left-wing KMT leader Liao Zhongkai was assassinated and the right-wing leader Hu Hanmin, the suspected mastermind, was exiled to the Soviet Union, leaving the pro-communist Wang Jingwei in charge. Opposing communist encroachment, the right-wing Western Hills Group vowed to expel the communists from the KMT. The "Canton Coup" on 20 March 1926 saw Chiang solidify his control over the Nationalists and their army against Wang Jingwei, the party's left wing, its Communist allies, and its Soviet advisors.{{citation |last=Van de Ven |first=Hans |date=2003 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=tx5H_DC5V-MC |title=War and Nationalism in China: 1925–1945 |series=Studies in the Modern History of Asia |publisher=RoutledgeCurzon |location=London |isbn=978-0-415-14571-8 |pp=101 ff |access-date=2017-08-31 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170225071802weblink |archive-date=2017-02-25 |url-status=live }}{{citation |author=Ah Xiang |contribution-url=http://www.republicanchina.org/Zhongshan-Warship-Incident.pdf |contribution=The Zhongshan Warship Incident |title=Tragedy of Chinese Revolution |date=1998}} By May, he had ended civilian control of the military and begun his Northern Expedition against the warlords of the north. Its success led to the split of the KMT between Wuhan and Nanking and the purge of the communists in the Shanghai Massacre. Immediately afterwards Canton joined the purge under the auspice of Li Jishen, resulting in the arrest of communists and the suspension of left wing KMT apparatuses and labor groups. Later in 1927 when Zhang Fakui, a general supportive of the Wuhan faction seized Canton and installed Wang Jingwei's faction in the city, the communists saw an opening and launched the Guangzhou Uprising. Prominent communist military leaders Ye Ting and Ye Jianying led the failed defense of the city. Soon, control of the city reverted to Li Jishen.Li was deposed in the War between Chiang and Guangxi Clique. By 1929, Chen Jitang had established himself as the powerholder of Guangdong. In 1931 he threw his weight behind the anti-Chiang schism by hosting a separate Nationalist government in Guangzhou.李洁之,陈济棠主粤始末,《广州文史》第三十七辑。 Opposing Chiang's alleged dictatorship, the separatists included KMT leaders like Wang Jingwei, Sun Fo and others from diverse factions. The peace negotiations amidst the armed stand-off led to the 4th National Congress of Kuomintang being held separately by three factions in Nanjing, Shanghai and Canton. Resigning all his posts, Chiang pulled off a political compromise that reunited all factions. While the intraparty division was resolved, Chen kept his power until he was defeated by Chiang in 1936.During World War II, the "Canton Operation" subjected the city to Japanese occupation by the end of December 1938.

Communist rule

Amid the closing months of the Chinese Civil War, Guangzhou briefly served as the capital of the Republic of China after the taking of Nanjing by the PLA in April 1949. The People's Liberation Army entered the city on 14 October 1949. Amid a massive exodus to Hong Kong and Macau, the Nationalists blew up the Haizhu Bridge across the Pearl River in retreat. The Cultural Revolution had a large effect on the city with much of its temples, churches and other monuments destroyed during this chaotic period.The People's Republic of China initiated building projects including new housing on the banks of the Pearl River to adjust the city's boat people to life on land. Since the 1980s, the city's close proximity to Hong Kong and Shenzhen and its ties to overseas Chinese have made it one of the first beneficiaries of China's opening up under Deng Xiaoping. Beneficial tax reforms in the 1990s have also helped the city's industrialisation and development.The municipality was expanded in the year 2000, with Huadu and Panyu joining the city as urban districts and Conghua and Zengcheng as more rural counties. The former districts of Dongshan and Fangcun were abolished in 2005, merged into Yuexiu and Liwan respectively. The city acquired Nansha and Luogang. The former was carved out of Panyu, the latter from parts of Baiyun, Tianhe, Zengcheng, and an exclave within Huangpu. The National People's Congress approved a development plan for the Pearl River Delta in January 2009; on March 19 the same year, the Guangzhou and Foshan municipal governments agreed to establish a framework to merge the two cities.WEB,weblink Guangzhou and Foshan signed "City Merge Cooperation Framework", News.xinhuanet.com, 2010-05-06, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090705135320weblink">weblink 2009-07-05, In 2014, Luogang merged into Huangpu and both Conghua and Zengcheng counties were upgraded to districts. Guangzhou was then the most populous consolidated district-governed city in China until Beijing overtook it the next year.

Gallery

{{Clear}}File:Nieuhof-Ambassade-vers-la-Chine-1665 0744-2.tif|Nieuhof's imaginative 1665 map of "Kanton",{{citation|last=La Carpentier|first=Jean-Baptiste|authorlink=Jean-Baptiste Le Carpentier|title=L'Ambassade de la Compagnie Orientale des Provinces Unies vers l'Empereur de la Chine [Embassy of the United Provinces' East India Company to the Emperor of China]|date=1655|language=fr}} made from second-hand accounts while Europeans were still forbidden from entering the walled cityFile:Canton factories.jpg|The Thirteen Factories {{c.|1805|lk=no}}, displaying the flags of Denmark, Spain, the United States, Sweden, Britain, and the NetherlandsFile:Shop of Tingqua, the painter.jpg|An 1855 painting of the gallery of Tingqua, one of the most successful suppliers of "export paintings" for Guangzhou's foreign traders.Common themes included the Thirteen Factories, the Whampoa Anchorage (now Pazhou), and the Sea-Banner Temple (now Hoi Tong Monastery)File:Canton1860.jpg|Vrooman's 1860 map of the "City and Entire Suburbs of Canton", one of the first made after the treaties of Tianjin and Beijing permitted foreigners full access to Guangzhou's walled cityFile:Flowery Pagoda.jpg|The Flowery Pagoda at the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees in 1863File:Lai Afong, Five Stories Pagoda Guangzhou, c1880.JPG|The Five-storey Pagoda atop Yuexiu Hill {{c.|1880|lk=no}}File:Lai Afong, Sacred Heart Cathedral Guangzhou, c1880.JPG|The Sacred Heart Cathedral towering over the one- and two-storey homes of old Guangzhou {{c.|1880|lk=no}}File:Canton street scene, 1919.jpg|Street scene in Guangzhou, 1919File:Canton1920 d006 map of of the city.jpg|The US Navy's Dept of Navigation's 1920 map of "Canton"{{citation|url=https://archive.org/stream/cantonchina00unitrich#page/4/mode/2up|title=US Navy Ports of the World: Canton|publisher=US Bureau of Navigation|series=Ditty Box Guide Book Series|at="Canton"}}File:Whampoa3.jpg|Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek at the opening of the Whampoa Military Academy on 16 June 1924File:The Bund Canton.jpg|The Guangzhou Bund in 1930, with rows of Tanka boats.File:1937 Canton, China VP8.webm|A short film of Guangzhou in 1937File:PLA Troops entered to Guangzhou.jpg|The People's Liberation Army entering Guangzhou on 14 October 1949

Geography

File:Tiantang Peak.jpg|thumb|Tiantang PeakTiantang PeakThe old town of Guangzhou was near Baiyun Mountain on the east bank of the Pearl River (Zhujiang) about {{convert|80|mi|0}} from its junction with the South China Sea and about {{convert|300|mi|0}} below its head of navigation.{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=37}} It commanded the rich alluvial plain of the Pearl River Delta, with its connection to the sea protected at the Humen Strait.{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=37}} The present city spans {{convert|7434.4|sqkm|1}} on both sides of the river from {{nowrap|112° 57′}} to {{nowrap|114° 03′ E}} longitude and {{nowrap|22° 26′}} to {{nowrap|23° 56′ N}} latitude in south-central Guangdong. The Pearl is the 4th-largest river of China.WEB,weblink The longest & largest rivers in China, Major rivers in China, topchinatravel.com, 2019-01-28,weblink 2018-07-25, live, Baiyun Mountain is now locally referred to as the city's "lung" (}}).WEB,weblink Baiyun Mountain Scenic Area, Baiyunshan.com.cn, 11 September 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131008222711weblink">weblink 8 October 2013, {{why?|date=July 2016}}The elevation of the prefecture generally increases from southwest to northeast, with mountains forming the backbone of the city and the ocean comprising the front. Tiantang Peak (, "Heavenly Peak") is the highest point of elevation at {{convert|1210|m|ft|abbr=out|0}} above sea level.{{Adjacent communities|width=auto|Centre = Guangzhou|North = Qingyuan|Northeast = Shaoguan|East = Huizhou|Southeast = Dongguan|South = Zhongshan, South China Sea|Southwest = Foshan, Zhongshan|West = Foshan|Northwest = Qingyuan}}

Natural resources

There are 47 different types of minerals and also 820 ore fields in Guangzhou, including 18 large and medium-sized oil deposits. The major minerals are granite, cement limestone, ceramic clay, potassium, albite, salt mine, mirabilite, nepheline, syenite, fluorite, marble, mineral water, and geothermal mineral water. Since Guangzhou is located in the water-rich area of southern China, it has a wide water area with lots of rivers and water systems, accounting for 10% of the total land area. The rivers and streams improve the landscape and keep the ecological environment of the city stable.WEB,weblink Guangzhou International, english.gz.gov.cn, 2016-11-08, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161109085733weblink">weblink 2016-11-09,

Climate

Despite being located just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Guangzhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) influenced by the East Asian monsoon. Summers are wet with high temperatures, high humidity, and a high heat index. Winters are mild and comparatively dry. Guangzhou has a lengthy monsoon season, spanning from April through September. Monthly averages range from {{convert|13.9|°C|1}} in January to {{convert|28.9|°C|1}} in July, while the annual mean is {{convert|22.6|°C|1}}. Autumn, from October to December, is very moderate, cool and windy, and is the best travel time.WEB,weblink Travel China Guide: Fascinating Guangzhou, Blogger (service), Blogspot, 12 August 2008, 21 August 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110708072658weblink">weblink 8 July 2011, The relative humidity is approximately 68 percent, whereas annual rainfall in the metropolitan area is over {{convert|1700|mm|abbr=on}}. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 17 percent in March and April to 52 percent in November, the city receives 1,628 hours of bright sunshine annually, considerably less than nearby Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Extreme temperatures have ranged from {{convert|0|°C}} to {{convert|39.1|°C|1}}. The last recorded snowfall in the city was on 24 January 2016, 87 years after the second last recorded snowfall.NEWS, zh:广州全城多处降雪 广州塔顶现厚厚积雪,weblink southcn.com, 24 January 2016, 24 January 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160125090429weblink">weblink 25 January 2016, {{Guangzhou weatherbox}}

Administrative divisions

Guangzhou is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over eleven districts:{|class="wikitable" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"{{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Guangzhou 2.png|width=450|link=}}{{Image label|x=155|y=645|scale=450/750|text=Liwan}}{{Image label|x=200|y=600|scale=450/750|text=Yuexiu}}{{Image label|x=230|y=640|scale=450/750|text=Haizhu}}{{Image label|x=265|y=580|scale=450/750|text=Tianhe}}{{Image label|x=240|y=470|scale=450/750|text=Baiyun}}{{Image label|x=340|y=540|scale=450/750|text=Huangpu}}{{Image label|x=280|y=700|scale=450/750|text=Panyu}}{{Image label|x=160|y=360|scale=450/750|text=Huadu}}{{Image label|x=340|y=850|scale=450/750|text=Nansha}}{{Image label|x=400|y=230|scale=450/750|text=Conghua}}{{Image label|x=500|y=440|scale=450/750|text=Zengcheng}}{{Image label end}}|{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"! colspan="10" |Administrative divisions of Guangzhou!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |DivisioncodeWEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码, Ministry of Civil Affairs, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402113603weblink">weblink 2015-04-02, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Division!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Area{{small|(km2)}}BOOK, zh-hans, Guangzhou Bureau of Statistics (广州市统计局), zh:《广州统计年鉴2013》, August 2013, China Statistics Print (中国统计出版社), 978-7-5037-6651-0, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Population{{small|(2010)}}BOOK, Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, zh:中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 1, !! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Seat!! scope="col" rowspan=2 |Postalcode!! scope="col" colspan=4 |SubdivisionsBOOK, zh-hans, Ministry of Civil Affairs, zh:《中国民政统计年鉴2014》, August 2014, China Statistics Print (中国统计出版社), 978-7-5037-7130-9, !! scope="col" |Subdistricts!! scope="col" |Towns!! scope="col" |Residentialcommunities!! scope="col" |Administrativevillages style="font-weight: bold"Yuexiu District>Yuexiu 510000 136 34 1533 1142Liwan District>Liwan 59.10 898,200 Shiweitang Subdistrict 510000 22 style="background:gray;" Yuexiu District>Yuexiu 33.80 1,157,666 Beijing Subdistrict, Guangzhou > 267 style="background:gray;"| Haizhu District>Haizhu 90.40 1,558,663 Jianghai Subdistrict 510000 18 style="background:gray;" Tianhe District>Tianhe 96.33 1,432,426 Tianyuan Subdistrict 510000 21 style="background:gray;" Baiyun District, Guangzhou>Baiyun 795.79 2,223,150 Jingtai Subdistrict 510000 18 4 253 118Huangpu District, Guangzhou>Huangpu 484.17 831,586 Luogang Subdistrict 510500 14 1 90 28Panyu District>Panyu 529.94 1,764,828 Shiqiao Subdistrict, Guangzhou >|177Huadu District>Huadu 970.04 945,005 Huacheng Subdistrict 510800 4 6 50 188Nansha District>Nansha 783.86 259,900 Huangge Town 511400 3 6 28 128Conghua District>Conghua 1,974.50 593,415 Jiekou Subdistrict 510900 3 5 46 221Zengcheng District>Zengcheng 1,616.47 1,037,109 Licheng Subdistrict 511300 4 7 55 282|{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"! colspan="5" |Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations! English !! Chinese !! Pinyin !! GuangdongRomanization !! KejiahuaPinyin Fang'anLiwan District >|lai4 van1 ki1Yuexiu District >|yet6 siu4 ki1Haizhu District >|hoi2 zu1 ki1Tianhe District >|tien1 ho2 ki1Baiyun District, Guangzhou>Baiyun District Báiyún QÅ« bak6 wan4 kêu1 pak6 yun2 ki1Huangpu District, Guangzhou>Huangpu District HuángpÇ” QÅ« wong4 bou3 kêu1 vong2 bu4 ki1Panyu District >|pan1 ngi2 ki1Huadu District >|fa1 du1 ki1Nansha District >|nam2/lam2 sa1 ki1Conghua District >|vung2 fa3 ki1Zengcheng District >|zen1 sang2 ki1! Guangzhou City !! !!GuÇŽngzhōu Shì !!guong2 zeo1 xi5 !!kong3 ziu1 si4{{anchor|Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center}}

Economy

File:1957 Canton Fair.jpg|thumb|upright=.9|The first Canton Fair (1957) at the Sino-Soviet Friendship Building]]Guangzhou is the main manufacturing hub of the Pearl River Delta, one of mainland China's leading commercial and manufacturing regions. In 2017, the GDP reached ¥2,150 billion (US$318 billion), per capita was ¥150,678 (US $22,317).WEB,weblink zh:广东统计年鉴2010, Gdstats.gov.cn, 2011-06-02, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110611114926weblink">weblink June 11, 2011, Guangzhou is considered one of the most prosperous cities in China. Owing to rapid industrialisation, it is also considered one of the most polluted cities once. But as city development goes greener, it is now one of the most livable cities in China.The Canton Fair, formally the "China Import and Export Fair", is held every year in April and October by the Ministry of Trade. Inaugurated in the spring of 1957, the fair is a major event for the city. It is the trade fair with the longest history, highest level, largest scale in China.WEB,weblink Canton Fair Online, 19 January 2016, 19 January 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123155215weblink">weblink 23 January 2016, From the 104th session onwards, the fair moved to the new Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center (}}) in Pazhou, from the older complex in Liuhua. The GICEC is served by two stations on Line 8 and three stations on Tram Line THZ1. Since the 104th session, the Canton Fair has been arranged in three phases instead of two phases.File:Guangzhou skyline.jpg|Guangzhou skylineFile:Canton Fair.jpg|The former Canton Fair site at Yuexiu's Liuhua ComplexFile:Canton Trade Fair (tarotastic).jpg|Interior of the current Canton Fair site in Pazhou

Local products

{{more citations needed section|date=June 2016}}

Industry

Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company produced the Peugeot 504 and Peugeot 505 automobiles from 1989 to 1997. The Export Processing Zone was founded in 2005. Its total planned area is {{convert|1.36|km2|2|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Guangzhou Nansha Export Processing Zone, RightSite.asia, 2010-05-06, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091119195012weblink">weblink 2009-11-19, It is located in Nansha District and it belongs to the provincial capital, Guangzhou. The major industries encouraged in the zone include automobile assembly, biotechnology and heavy industry. It is situated {{convert|54|km|abbr=off}} (70 minutes drive) south of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and close to Nansha Port. It also has the advantage of Guangzhou Metro line 4 which is being extended to Nansha Ferry Terminal.
  • Guangzhou Free Trade Zone
The zone was founded in 1992. It is located in the east of Huangpu District and near to Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone. It is also very close to Guangzhou Baiyun Airport.WEB,weblink Guangzhou Free Trade Zone, RightSite.asia, 2010-05-06, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091113050747weblink">weblink 2009-11-13, The major industries encouraged in the zone include international trade, logistics, processing and computer software.

Science City

Demographics

{{Historical populations|type=ChinaURL-STATUS=DEAD SCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:广州50年统计年鉴 256764536831044185363501863859425349943000|2002WEB
,weblink
, zh:广州市商业网点发展规划主报告(2003–2012)(下篇)
, Department of Market System Development, Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China
, zh-hans
, 2011-08-04
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051104054733weblink">weblink
, 2005-11-04
, |10106229|2005WEB
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091214182656weblink">weblink
, dead
, 2009-12-14
, Statistical Yearbook 2012
, zh:统计年鉴2012
, Statistics Bureau of Guangzhou
, zh-hans
, September 2012
, 2013-07-09
, |9496800996660010530100111534001186970012701948|2011WEB
,weblink
, Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook 2012–2015
, Major social and economic indicators in main years
, Statistics Bureau of Guangzhou
, 2015-05-01
, live
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160521003254weblink">weblink
, 2016-05-21
, |1275140012832900129268001308050014,904,400|footnote = Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.}The 2010 census found Guangzhou's population to be 12.78 million. {{As of|2014}}, it was estimated at 13,080,500, with 11,264,800 urban residents. Its population density is thus around 1,800 people per km2. The built-up area of the Guangzhou proper connects directly to several other cities. The built-up area of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone covers around {{Convert|17573|km2|mi2}} and has been estimated to house 22 million people, including Guangzhou's nine urban districts, Shenzhen (5.36m), Dongguan (3.22m), Zhongshan (3.12m), most of Foshan (2.2m), Jiangmen (1.82m), Zhuhai (890k), and Huizhou's Huiyang District (760k).{{citation needed|date=June 2016}} The total population of this agglomeration is over 28 million after including the population of the adjacent Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.{{citation needed|date=June 2016}} The area's fast-growing economy and high demand for labour has produced a huge "floating population" of migrant workers. Up to 10 million migrants reside in the area least six months each year.{{citation needed|date=June 2016}} In 2008, about 5 million of Guangzhou's permanent residents were hukouless migrants.{{citation |contribution-url=http://english.cri.cn/4026/2008/01/25/44@317459.htm |contribution=Migrants In Guangzhou |title=CRIEnglish |publisher=China Radio International |date=25 January 2008 |access-date=12 March 2013}}

Ethnicity and language

Most of Guangzhou's population is Han Chinese. Almost all of the local Cantonese people speak Cantonese as their first language,{{refn|The People's Daily,{{citation needed|date=June 2016}} cited by The Guardian.}} while most migrants speak forms of Mandarin. In 2010, each language was the native tongue of roughly half of the city's population,{{refn|The People's Daily,{{citation needed|date=June 2016}} cited by The Guardian.NEWS,weblink London, The Guardian, Protesters gather in Guangzhou to protect Cantonese language, Tania, Branigan, 25 July 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130915154652weblink">weblink 15 September 2013, }} although minor but substantial numbers speak other varieties as well.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}} In 2018, He Huifeng of the South China Morning Post stated that younger residents have increasingly favored using Mandarin instead of Cantonese in their daily lives, causing their Cantonese-speaking grandparents and parents to use Mandarin to communicate with them. He Huifeng stated that factors included local authorities discouraging the use of Cantonese in schools and the rise in prestige of Mandarin-speaking Shenzhen.NEWS, He, Huifeng,weblink Why has Cantonese fallen out of favour with Guangzhou youngsters?, South China Morning Post, 2018-03-12, 2018-07-07,weblink 2018-07-07, live, Guangzhou has a very unbalanced gender ratio, but its province has a higher imbalance than the rest of the country. While most areas of China have 112-120 boys per 100 girls, the Guangdong province that houses Guangzhou has more than 130 boys for every 100 girls.WEB,weblink Guangzhou Population 2019 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs), 2019-03-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190321104937weblink">weblink 2019-03-21, live, The influx of Chinese immigrants in Guangzhou also brought an estimated 300,000 prostitutes mostly from Sichuan from central China.WEB,weblink Prostitution in China - Chinese Women, 2019-03-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190321104941weblink">weblink 2019-03-21, live, Guangzhou now has a huge influx of migrants, with up to 30 million additional migrants living in the area for at least 6 months out of every year. This huge influx of people from other areas, called the floating population, is due to the city's fast-growing economy and high labor demands. Guangzhou Mayor Wan Qingliang told an urban planning seminar that Guangzhou is facing a very serious population problem stating that, while the city had 10.33 million registered residents at the time with targets and scales of land use based on this number, the city actually had a population with migrants of nearly 15 million. According to the Guangzhou Academy of Social Sciences researcher Peng Peng, the city is almost at its maximum capacity of just 15 million, which means the city is facing a great strain, mostly due to a high population of unregistered people.According to the 2000 National Census, marriage is one of the top 2 reasons for permanent migration and particular important for female as 29.3% of the permanent female migrants migrate for marriage [Liang et al.,2004]. Many of the economic migrant female marries men from Guangzhou in hopes of a better life.WEB,weblink Residents’ Intermarriage behavior in Guangzhou, China in Last 60 Years, 2019-03-21,weblink 2019-03-21, live, but like elsewhere in the People's Republic of China, the household registration system (hukou) limits migrants' access to residences, educational institutions and other public benefits. In May 2014, legally employed migrants in Guangzhou were permitted to receive a hukou card allowing them to marry and obtain permission for their pregnancies in the city, rather than having to return to their official hometowns as previously.NEWS, Tatlow, Didi Kirsten, July 9, 2014, Go South to Guangzhou, a ‘Home’ Away From Home,weblink New York Times, New York, New York, 2014-07-10, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714202651weblink">weblink July 14, 2014, Historically, the Cantonese people have made up a sizeable part of the 19th- and 20th-century Chinese diaspora and many overseas Chinese have ties to Guangzhou. This is particularly true in the United States,BOOK, Lai, H. Mark, Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions, AltaMira Press, 2004, 978-0-7591-0458-7, Canada,JOURNAL, 2006 Census Profile of Federal Electoral Districts (2003 Representation Order): Language, Mobility and Migration and Immigration and Citizenship, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, 2007, and Australia.Demographically, the only significant immigration into China has been by overseas Chinese, but Guangzhou sees many foreign tourists, workers, and residents from the usual locations such as the United States. Notably, it is also home to thousands of African immigrants, including people from Nigeria, Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Metropolitan area

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, {{As of|2010|lc=y}}, a population of 25 million.NEWS, CNBC.com, Justina Crabtree; special to, A tale of megacities: China’s largest metropolises,weblink CNBC, 20 September 2016, slide 3, live,weblink 9 December 2017, BOOK, 10.1787/9789264230040-en, OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 37, OECD iLibrary, en, 18 April 2015, 2306-9341, 9789264230033, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170327210032weblink">weblink 27 March 2017, OECD Urban Policy Reviews, Linked from the OECD here weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171209044027weblink |date=2017-12-09 }}{{Clear}}

Transportation

Urban mass transit

When the first line of the Guangzhou Metro opened in 1997, Guangzhou was the fourth city in Mainland China to have an underground railway system, behind Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai. Currently the metro network is made up of thirteen lines, covering a total length of {{convert|476.26|km||abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink About Guangzhou Metro, Guangzhou Metro, 2015-12-30, 2016-01-26, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171229172003weblink">weblink 2017-12-29, A long-term plan is to make the city's metro system expand to over {{convert|500|km|abbr=on}} by 2020 with 15 lines in operation. In addition to the metro system there is also the Haizhu Tram line which opened on 31 December 2014.WEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:广州首列新型有轨电车昨日开放试乘 有望年内上路, Liu, Yong, Mou, Xuaoyi, ycwb.com/, Guangdong Yangcheng Evening News Digital Media, 14 September 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140914112441weblink">weblink 14 September 2014, dmy-all, 广州首列新型有轨电车昨日开放试乘 有望年内上路, The Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit (GBRT) system which was introduced in 2010 along Zhongshan Road. It has several connections to the metro and is the world's 2nd-largest Bus Rapid Transit system with 1,000,000 passenger trips daily.NEWS,weblink Guangzhou's Remarkable Bus Rapid Transit System, April 5, 2011, Reuters, 2011-04-15, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130531075635weblink">weblink May 31, 2013, It handles 26,900 pphpd during the peak hour a capacity second only to the TransMilenio BRT system in Bogota.WEB,weblink Case Study of the Guangzhou BRT, International Public Transport Conference 2010, 2010-08-05, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110713173303weblink">weblink July 13, 2011, The system averages 1 bus every 10 seconds or 350 per hour in a single direction and contains the world's longest BRT stations—around {{convert|260|m|ft|abbr=on}} including bridges.

Motor transport

{{See also|List of Bus Routes in Guangzhou}}In the 19th century, city already boasted over 600 long, straight streets; these were mostly paved but still very narrow.{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=37}} In June 1919, work began on demolishing the city wall to make way for wider streets and the development of tramways. The demolition took three years in total.BOOK, Lee, Edward Bing-Shuey, Modern Canton, 1936, The Mercury Press, Shanghai, In 2009, it was reported that all 9,424 buses and 17,695 taxis in Guangzhou would be operating on LPG-fuel by 2010 to promote clean energy for transport and improve the environment ahead of the 2010 Asian Games which were held in the city.NEWS,weblink Guangzhou expects to run all buses and taxis on LPG for Asiad, Official website of the Chinese Olympic Committee, July 17, 2009, 2013-03-20, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120827083731weblink">weblink August 27, 2012, At present{{when|date=March 2014}}, Guangzhou is the city that uses the most LPG-fueled vehicles in the world, and at the end of 2006, 6,500 buses and 16,000 taxis were using LPG, taking up 85 percent of all buses and taxis.{{citation needed|date=March 2013}}Effective January 1, 2007, the municipal government banned motorcycles in Guangdong's urban areas. Motorcycles found violating the ban are confiscated.NEWS,weblink Guangzhou Bans Motorcycles, Life of Guangzhou, January 3, 2007, 2008-08-28, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081206010658weblink">weblink December 6, 2008, The Guangzhou traffic bureau claimed to have reported reduced traffic problems and accidents in the downtown area since the ban.NEWS,weblink Traffic Jam Improve after Motorcycle Ban, Life of Guangzhou, January 19, 2007, 2008-08-28, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081206010704weblink">weblink December 6, 2008,

Airports

Guangzhou's main airport is the Baiyun International Airport in Baiyun District; it opened on August 5, 2004.NEWS,weblink zh:广州新白云机场正式运营(图), Sina Corp, Sina News, 2004-08-06, 2014-05-02, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140502184419weblink">weblink 2014-05-02, This airport is the second busiest airport in terms of traffic movements in China. It replaced the old Baiyun International Airport, which was very close to the city centre but failed to meet the city's fast-growing air traffic demand. The old Baiyun International Airport was in operation for 72 years. Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport now has three runways, with two more planned.NEWS,weblink Guangzhou Airport Set to Open Its 3rd Runway on Feb. 5, wcarn.com, Jan 10, 2015, 2016-01-30, {{dead link|date=October 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} The Terminal 2 has opened on April 26, 2018.NEWS,weblink zh:确认过眼神,一图带你打开白云机场T2航站楼大门, xinhuanet.com, April 26, 2018, 2018-09-02, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180902043539weblink">weblink 2018-09-02, Another airport located in Zengcheng District is under planning.NEWS,weblink zh:广州第二机场选址获突破性进展, news.ifeng.com, November 20, 2017, 2018-09-02, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180902044026weblink">weblink 2018-09-02, Guangzhou is served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Lianhuashan Ferry Terminal and Nansha Ferry Port in Nansha District to the HKIA Skypier."Ferry Transfer {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180508152345weblink |date=2018-05-08 }}." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018. There are also coach bus services connecting Guangzhou with HKIA."Mainland Coaches {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180508154704weblink |date=2018-05-08 }}." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018.

Railways

{{further|Guangzhou railway station|Guangzhou East railway station|Guangzhou South railway station|Guangzhou North railway station}}Guangzhou is the terminus of the Beijing–Guangzhou, Guangzhou–Shenzhen, Guangzhou–Maoming and Guangzhou–Meizhou–Shantou conventional speed railways. In late 2009, the Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway started service, with multiple unit trains covering {{convert|980|km|2|abbr=on}} at a top speed of {{convert|320|km/h|0|abbr=on}}. In December 2014, the Guiyang–Guangzhou high-speed railway and Nanning-Guangzhou railway began service with trains running at top speeds of {{convert|250|km/h|0|abbr=on}} and {{convert|200|km/h|0|abbr=on}}, respectively.WEB, zh-hans,weblink Chen Qingjie (陈清浩), zh:贵广高铁正式开通运营 从贵阳到广州4小时可达, Southern Post (南方日报),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304095808weblink">weblink 2016-03-04, 2014-12-26, The Guangdong Through Train departs from the Guangzhou East railway station and arrives at the Hung Hom KCR station in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The route is approximately {{convert|182|km|abbr=on}} in length and the ride takes less than two hours. Frequent coach services are also provided with coaches departing every day from different locations (mostly major hotels) around the city. A number of regional railways radiating from Guangzhou started operating such as the Guangzhou–Zhuhai intercity railway and the Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing intercity railway.

Water transport

There are daily high-speed catamaran services between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou and the Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal, as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau Ferry Pier in Hong Kong.File:GongYuanQian-MTR-Gz.JPG|Gongyuanqian Station of the Guangzhou MetroFile:GBRT Tianhe Sports Center.JPG|Tianhe Sports Centre Station (GBRT)File:Guangzhou Baiyun Airport 2.JPG|Baiyun International Airport in Huadu DistrictFile:Guangzhou South Railway Station Platform CRH3 EMU.jpg|A CRH3 Train at Guangzhou South Railway StationFile:Wanshengwei Station with a tram.jpg|A Tram at Wanshengwei Station

Culture

(File:Guangzhou Opera House(Near).JPG|thumb|right|upright=.9|Guangzhou Opera House)Within China, the culture of the Cantonese people is a subset of the larger "Southern" or "Lingnan" cultural areas. Notable aspects of Guangzhou's cultural heritage include: Guangzhou Opera House & Symphony Orchestra also perform classical Western music and Chinese compositions in their style. Cantonese music is a traditional style of Chinese instrumental music, while Cantopop is the local form of pop music and rock-and-roll which developed from neighbouring Hong Kong.

Religions

Qing-era Guangzhou had around 124 religious pavilions, halls, and temples.{{sfnp|EB|1878|p=37}} Today, in addition to the Buddhist Association, Guangzhou also has a Taoist Association, a Jewish community,WEB,weblink Places of Worship and Associations in Guangzhou, 23 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110415061521weblink">weblink 15 April 2011, WEB,weblink Viii. Appendix Ii, China.hrw.org, December 28, 1997, 28 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111003101609weblink">weblink October 3, 2011, and a history with Christianity and Islam.{{clarify|date=July 2016}}

Daoism

Taoism and Chinese folk religion are still represented at a few of the city's temples. Among the most important is the Temple of the Five Immortals, honoring the five immortals credited with introducing rice cultivation at the foundation of the city. The five rams they rode were supposed to have turned into stones upon their departure and gave the city several of its nicknames.{{citation |last=Glancey |first=Jonathan |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_leHhzKlI7kC&printsec=frontcover |title=Architecture |series=Eyewitness Companions |location=Attleborough |publisher=CobaltId for Dorling Kindersley |editor=Paula Regan |editor2=Debra Wolter |editor3=Louise Dick |date=2006 |isbn=978-0-7566-1732-5 |p=177 |access-date=2016-06-30 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170308230138weblink |archive-date=2017-03-08 |url-status=live }} Another place of worship is the City God Temple. Guangzhou, like most of southern China, is also notably observant concerning ancestral veneration during occasions like the Tomb Sweeping and Ghost Festivals.

Buddhism

Buddhism is the most prominent religion in Guangzhou.WEB,weblink Six Banyan Trees Temple – Famous Buddhist temple of Guangzhou, Excelguangzhou.com, 2011-08-28, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110729215426weblink">weblink 2011-07-29, The Zhizhi Temple was founded in {{sc|ad}} 233 from the estate of a Wu official; it is said to comprise the residence of Zhao Jiande, the last of the Nanyue kings, and has been known as the Guangxiao Temple ("Temple of Bright Filial Piety") since the Ming. The missionary Bodhidharma is traditionally said to have visited Panyu during the Liu Song or Liang dynasties (5th or 6th century). Around {{sc|ad}} 520, Emperor Wu of the Liang ordered the construction of the Baozhuangyan Temple and the Xilai Monastery to store the relics of Cambodian Buddhist saints which had been brought to the city and to house the monks beginning to assemble there. The Baozhuangyan is now known as the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees, after a famous poem composed by Su Shi after a visit during the Northern Song.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}} The Xilai Monastery was renamed the Hualin Temple ("Flowery Forest Temple") after its reconstruction during the Qing.The temples were damaged by both the Republican campaign to "Promote Education with Temple Property" (}}) and the Maoist Cultural Revolution but have been renovated since the opening up that began in the 1980s. The Ocean Banner Temple on Henan Island, once famous in the west as the only tourist spot in Guangzhou accessible to foreigners, has been reopened as the Hoi Tong Monastery.

Christianity

Nestorian Christians first arrived in China via the overland Silk Road, but suffered during Emperor Wuzong's 845 persecution and were essentially extinct by the year 1000.BOOK, Keung, Ching Feng, 235, The Qing-era ban on foreigners limited missionaries until it was abolished following the First Opium War, although the Protestant Robert Morrison was able to perform some work through his service with the British factory. The Catholic Archdiocese of Guangzhou is housed at Guangzhou's Sacred Heart Cathedral, known locally as the "Stone House". A Gothic Revival edifice which was built by hand from 1861 to 1888 under French direction, its original Latin and French stained-glass windows were destroyed during the wars and amid the Cultural Revolution; they have since been replaced by English ones. The Canton Christian College (1888) and Hackett Medical College for Women (1902) were both founded by missionaries and now form part of Guangzhou's Lingnan. Since the opening up of China in the 1980s, there has been renewed interest in Christianity, but Guangzhou maintains pressure on underground churches which avoid registration with government officials.WEB,weblink CHINA Beijing and Guangzhou attack underground Churches – Asia News, Asianews.it, 2011-08-28, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110612140825weblink">weblink 2011-06-12, The Catholic archbishop Dominic Tang was imprisoned without trial for 22 years, but his present successor is recognised by both the Vatican and China's Patriotic Church.

Islam

Guangzhou has had a Muslim community since very early in the history of Islam; the native or nativised adherents of the faith are known as the Hui. Huaisheng Mosque was probably built during the Tang dynasty.BOOK, Jonathan Neaman, Lipman, University of Washington Press, 1997, 978-962-209-468-0, Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China,weblink 29, harv, 2017-08-28,weblink 2017-01-09, live, Muslims sacked the city in 758 and were massacred by the Chinese rebel Huang Chao in 878, along with the Jews, Christians, and Parsis. The modern city includes numerous halal restaurants.WEB,weblink Charaktereigenschaften der Guangzhouer – Guangzhou – Deutschabteilung Der SYSU, Fls.sysu.edu.cn, 9 October 2007, 28 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118191132weblink">weblink 18 January 2012, File:WuXianGuan-rams-0484.jpg|Guangzhou's Temple of the Five ImmortalsFile:John Thomson - Wah Lum Chu, Canton - cropped.jpg|{{nowrap|The Hall of the 500 Arhats}} at the {{nowrap|Flowery Forest Temple}} (Hualin) in the 1870sFile:The Mahavira Palace of Guangxiaosi.jpg|{{nowrap|The Temple of Bright Filial Piety}} (Guangxiao)File:Guangzhou Chenghuang Miao 2014.01.24 16-47-58.jpg|Guangzhou's City God TempleFile:The Sea-screen Temple at Honam Canton.png|The sacred pigs of the Ocean Banner Temple (Haichuan/{{nowrap|Hoi Tong)}} in the 1830sFile:Canton pagoda de las flores.JPG|{{nowrap|The Flower Pagoda}} at the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees (Liurong)File:Hoi Tong Monastery Pagoda.JPG|The Thousand Buddha Tower at the present-day {{nowrap|Hoi Tong Monastery}}File:Guangzhou Shishi Shengxin Dajiaotang 2012.11.15 10-46-30.jpg|Sacred Heart CathedralFile:Mosque, Canton.jpg|Huaisheng Mosque and its "Plain Pagoda" minaret in 1860File:廣州基督教天河堂.jpg|Tianhe Church, built in 2017

Sport

File:Stade Olympique Guangdong.JPG|thumb|upright=.9|Guangdong Olympic StadiumGuangdong Olympic StadiumFile:Tianhe Stadium.jpg|thumb|upright=.9|Tianhe Stadium is the home of Guangzhou EvergrandeGuangzhou EvergrandeThe 18,000 seat Guangzhou International Sports Arena will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.The Official website of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170527030949weblink |date=2017-05-27 }}, FIBA.com, Retrieved 9 March 2016.From 12–27 November 2010, Guangzhou hosted the 16th Asian Games. The same year, it hosted the first Asian Para Games from December 12 to 19. Combined, these were the largest sporting events the city ever hosted.NEWS, Guangzhou wins Asiad bid,weblink June 30, 2010, News Guangdong, July 2, 2004, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101127024559weblink">weblink November 27, 2010, Guangzhou also hosted the following major sporting events: Current professional sports clubs based in Guangzhou include:{|class="wikitable sortable"!Sport!League!Tier!Club!StadiumAssociation football>Football|Chinese Super League1stGuangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C.>Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao|Tianhe Stadium|Football|Chinese Super League1stGuangzhou R&F F.C.>Guangzhou R&F|Yuexiushan Stadium|Football|Hong Kong Premier League1stR&F (Hong Kong)>R&F|Yanzigang StadiumOverwatch (video game)>Overwatch|Overwatch League11th|Guangzhou Charge|Blizzard Arena|Basketball|Chinese Basketball Association1st|Guangzhou Loong Lions|Tianhe Gymnasium|Baseball|China Baseball League1st|Guangdong LeopardsTianhe Stadium>Tianhe Sports Center baseball fieldIn the early 2010s, Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C. has risen to be a powerhouse in association football in China, having won seven consecutive national titles between 2011 and 2017. The team has also won the AFC Champions League in 2013 and 2015. The club has competed at the 2013 and 2015 FIFA Club World Cup, where it lost 3–0 in the semi-final stage to the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League winners FC Bayern Munich and the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League winners FC Barcelona, respectively.NEWS,weblink Bayern Munich's Franck Ribéry leads rout of Guangzhou Evergrande, December 18, 2013, The Guardian, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131218162629weblink">weblink December 18, 2013,

Destinations

Eight Views

File:Guangzhou Tower.jpg|thumb|upright=.675|Canton TowerCanton TowerThe Eight Views of Ram City are Guangzhou's eight most famous tourist attractions. They have varied over time since the Song dynasty, with some being named or demoted by emperors. The following modern list was chosen through public appraisal in 2011:{{citation needed|date=July 2016}}{{div col|colwidth=40em}} {{div col end}}File:Pearl River Night Cruise.jpg|The Pearl River at Haiyin BridgeFile:Guangzhou BaiyunShan.jpg|Zhujiang New City from Pakwan or Baiyun MountainFile:刘庆伏狼驹3.jpg|A brick carving at the Guangzhou Folk Art Museum, housed in the Chen Clan Ancestral HallFile:Semal (Bombax ceiba) flowers in Kolkata W IMG 4132.jpg|thumb|upright=.9|Bombax ceiba, Guangzhou's official flowerofficial flower

Parks and gardens

{{div col|colwidth=26em}} {{div col end}}

Tourist attractions

Guangzhou attracts more than 100 million visitors each year.WEB,weblink zh:广州去年旅游业收入突破2500亿元, Feb 12, 2015, 2016-01-21, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161021152405weblink">weblink 2016-10-21, There are many tourist attractions, including:{{div col|colwidth=36em}} {{div col end}}{{wide image|PanoramaofCanton.jpg|1400px|Modern Guangzhou by day}}{{wide image|PanoramaofCantonatnight.jpg|1400px|Modern Guangzhou at night}}

Pedestrian streets

In every district there are many shopping areas where people can walk on the sidewalks; however most of them are not set as pedestrian streets. File:1 guangzhou shopping 2011.JPG|thumb|upright=.9|ShangxiajiuShangxiajiuThe popular pedestrian streets are:{{div col|colwidth=26em}} {{div col end}}

Malls and shopping centers

There are many malls and shopping centers in Guangzhou. The majority of the new malls are located in the Tianhe district.{{div col|colwidth=26em}} {{div col end}}

Major buildings

{{see also|List of historic buildings in Guangzhou}}
{{div col|colwidth=26em}} {{div col end}}File:OldGzCustoms3.JPG|Canton Custom House (est. 1916), one of the oldest surviving in ChinaFile:Ai Qun Hotel.JPG|Aiqun Hotel, Guangzhou's tallest building from 1937 to 1967File:Our Lady of Lourdes Chapel.jpg|Our Lady of Lourdes Chapel on ShamianFile:Dabenying (Generalissimo Sun Yat-sen%27s Mansion).jpg|The Canton Cement Factory (est. 1907), which housed Sun Yat-sen from 1923 to 1925File:Guangzhou Guangdong Ziyi Ju Jiuzhi 2014.01.24 15-05-46.jpg|The old provincial capitol, now the Museum of Revolutionary HistoryFile:Guangzhou (6344321124).jpg|Guangzhou's CBD, including the IFC (right)

Media

Guangzhou has two local radio stations: the provincial Radio Guangdong and the municipal Radio Guangzhou. Together they broadcast in more than a dozen channels. The primary language of both stations is Cantonese. Traditionally only one channel of Radio Guangdong is dedicated to Mandarin Chinese. However, in recent years there has been an increase in Mandarin programmes on most Cantonese channels. Radio stations from cities around Guangzhou mainly broadcast in Cantonese and can be received in different parts of the city, depending on the radio stations' locations and transmission power. The Beijing-based China National Radio also broadcasts Mandarin programmes in the city. Radio Guangdong has a 30-minute weekly English programme, Guangdong Today, which is broadcast globally through the World Radio Network. Daily English news programmes are also broadcast by Radio Guangdong.Guangzhou has some of the best Chinese-language newspapers and magazines in mainland China, most of which are published by three major newspaper groups in the city, the Guangzhou Daily Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation, and the Yangcheng Evening News Group. The two leading newspapers of the city are Guangzhou Daily and Southern Metropolis Daily. The former, with a circulation of 1.8 million, has been China's most successful newspaper for 14 years in terms of advertising revenue, while Southern Metropolis Daily is considered one of the most liberal newspapers in mainland China. In addition to Guangzhou's Chinese-language publications, there are a few English magazines and newspapers. The most successful is That's Guangzhou, which started more than a decade ago and has since blossomed into That's PRD, producing expatriate magazines in Beijing and Shanghai as well. It also produces In the Red.{{anchor|Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre}}

Education

File:North Square of SYSU.jpg|thumb|upright=.9|Sun Yat-sen UniversitySun Yat-sen University(File:Sun Yat-sen University.JPG|thumb|upright=.9|The College of Medical Science at Sun Yat-sen University)(File:Guangzhou Library 2013.11.15 18-30-36.jpg|thumb|upright=.9|Guangzhou Library)The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, also known as Guangzhou University Town (}}), is a large tertiary education complex located in the southeast suburbs of Guangzhou. It occupies the entirety of Xiaoguwei Island in Panyu District, covering an area of about {{convert|18|km2|0|abbr=out}}. The complex accommodates campuses from ten higher education institutions and can eventually accommodate up to 200,000 students, 20,000 teachers, and 50,000 staff.WEB,weblink 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080227005555weblink">weblink 27 February 2008, Mega Campus goes Wireless, Intel Corporation, 28 August 2008, The Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre higher education campuses: Guangzhou's other fully accredited and degree-granting universities and colleges include: The two main comprehensive libraries are Guangzhou Library and Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province. Guangzhou Library is a public library in Guangzhou. The library has moved to a new building in Zhujiang New Town, which fully opened on 23 June 2013.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130706152533weblink">weblink dead, 2013-07-06, New Guangzhou Library Opens, 2013-06-25, Guangzhou International, The brand-new Guangzhou Library officially opened on June 23 after six months of trial service., Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province has the largest collection of ancient books in Southern China.WEB,weblink Rare Collections, Sun Yat-sen Library of Guangdong Province, 2018-01-18, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180118182406weblink">weblink 2018-01-18,

International relations

{{More citations needed section|date=May 2017}}{{See also|List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_Asia#China|l1=List of twin towns and sister cities in China}}

Twin towns and sister cities

Guangzhou currently maintains sister city agreements with the following foreign cities.WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Guangzhou, 19 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111020140927weblink">weblink 20 October 2011, WEB,weblink Guangzhou and Rabat sign sister city agreement, 17 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402144635weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, {{div col|colwidth=25em}}
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Fukuoka, Japan (since 1979)
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Los Angeles, United States (since 1981)
  • {{flagdeco|PHL}} Manila, Philippines (since 1982)
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} Vancouver, Canada (since 1985)
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Sydney, Australia (since 1986)
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Bari, Italy (since 1986)
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Lyon, France (since 1988)
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Frankfurt, Germany (since 1988)
  • {{flagdeco|NZL}} Auckland, New Zealand (since 1989)
  • {{flagdeco|ROK}} Gwangju, South Korea (since 1996)
  • {{flagdeco|SWE}} Linköping, Sweden (since 1997)
  • {{flagdeco|SAF}} Durban, South Africa (since 2000)
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} Bristol, United Kingdom (since 2001)
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Yekaterinburg, Russia (since 2002)
  • {{flagdeco|PER}} Arequipa, Peru (since 2004)
  • {{flagdeco|INA}} Surabaya, Indonesia (since 2005)
  • {{flagdeco|LIT}} Vilnius, Lithuania (since 2006)
  • {{flagdeco|GB}} Birmingham, United Kingdom (since 2006)
  • {{flagdeco|SRI}} Hambantota, Sri Lanka (since 2007)
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Recife, Brazil (since 2007)
  • {{flagdeco|FIN}} Tampere, Finland (since 2008)
  • {{flagdeco|THA}} Bangkok, Thailand (since 2009)
  • {{flagdeco|MYS}} Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia (since 2011)
  • {{flagdeco|MYS}} Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (since 2012)
  • {{flagdeco|MAR}} Rabat, Morocco (since 2013)
  • {{flagdeco|IND}} Ahmedabad, India (since 2014)
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} Łódź, Poland (since 2014)
  • {{flagdeco|BAN}} Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} Ecatepec, Mexico (since 2016)WEB, Gestiona Ecatepec oportunidades para intercambios estudiantiles con Guangzhou, China,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160323083435weblink">weblink 2016-03-23, WEB, Relación México-Estados Unidos necesita puentes para construir paz, respeto y reconocimiento, no muros: EAV,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170905151736weblink">weblink 2017-09-05, WEB, Viajarán a China alumnos de Ecatepec,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160411091125weblink">weblink 2016-04-11, WEB, Gestiona Ecatepec oportunidades para Intercambios estudiantiles con Guangzhou, China,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170905053320weblink">weblink 2017-09-05, 2017-12-30,
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Genoa, Italy (since 2016)
{{div col end}}

See also

Notes

{{reflist|group=n}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist|30em}}

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Further reading

  • BOOK, The World in Guangzhou: Africans and other foreigners in South China's marketplace, 2017, University of Chicago Press, 9780226506074,
  • {{citation |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=j5EuAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover |title=Fourteen Months in Canton |first=Mrs. John Henry |last=Gray |year=1880 |publisher=William Clowes & Sons for Macmillan & Co. |location=London |page=444}}
  • {{Citation |last1=Foster|first1=Simon|last2=Lin-Liu|first2=Jen|last3=Pham|first3=Sherisse |author4=Beth Reiber |author5=Sharon Owyang |author6=Lee Wing-sze |author7=Christopher D. Winnan |title=Frommer's China |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=1DqjMGlyY5QC&pg=PA542 |date=2010 |publisher=Frommer's |isbn=978-0-470-52658-3 |pages=542 ff}}
  • BOOK, Johnson, Graham E., Historical Dictionary of Guangzhou (Canton) and Guangdong, 1999, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, MD, Lanham, 978-0-8108-3516-0,
  • BOOK, Lee, Edward Bing-Shuey, Modern Canton, 1936, The Mercury Press, Shanghai,
  • BOOK, Ng, Yong Sang, Canton, City of the Rams: A General Description and a Brief Historical Survey, 1936, M.S. Cheung, Canton, B0008D1HHO,
  • {{citation |last=Perdue |first=Peter C. |contribution-url=http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/rise_fall_canton_03/cw_essay01.html |contribution=Canton Trade |title=Rise & Fall of the Canton Trade System |series=Visualizing Cultures |publisher=MIT |date=2009}}
  • BOOK, Shaw, Samuel, The journals of Major Samuel Shaw : the first American consul at Canton : with a life of the author, Josiah Quincy, Josiah Quincy, Jr., 1847, Wm. Crosby and H.P. Nichols, Boston,weblink 2008-04-05,
  • BOOK, Vogel, Ezra F., Canton Under Communism: Programs and Politics in a Provincial Capital, 1949–1968, Ezra Vogel, 1969, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 978-0-674-09475-8,weblink
  • Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook 2016

External links

{{Commons category}}{{Wikivoyage|Guangzhou}}{{wikisource category|Guangzhou}} {{Navboxes|list ={{Guangzhou}}{{Guangdong}}{{Pearl River Delta}}{{Major cities along the Pearl River}}{{Metropolitan cities of the People's Republic of China}}{{Most populous cities in the People's Republic of China}}{{Guangdong topics}}{hide}Navboxes
|title= Cities of China and the World
|list =
{{Provincial capitals of China{edih}
{{World's most populated urban areas}}
{{Asian Games Host Cities}}
}}{{Dutch colonies|East India}}{{World's most populous urban areas}}}}{{Provincial capitals of China}}{{Authority control}}

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