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Guangdong
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{{distinguish|text=Guandong}}{{short description|Most populous province of the People's Republic of China}}







factoids
0.1emProvinces of China>Province| translit_lang1 = NameChinese}}zh|GuÇŽngdōng ShÄ›ng}})Abbreviation}}Yuè, Jyutping: Jyut6}})| translit_lang1_type2 =  | translit_lang1_info2 =| translit_lang1_type3 =| translit_lang1_info3 =| translit_lang1_type4 =| translit_lang1_info4 =| translit_lang1_type5 =| translit_lang1_info5 =| translit_lang1_type6 =| translit_lang1_info6 =| translit_lang2 =| translit_lang2_type =| translit_lang2_info =| translit_lang2_type1 =| translit_lang2_info1 =| image_map = Guangdong in China (+all claims hatched).svg| mapsize = 275px| map_alt = Map showing the location of Guangdong Province| map_caption = Map showing the location of Guangdong Province23.4113.5type:adm1stdisplay=it}}zhzhSong dynasty>Song China) }} = wide, vast, expanse}} = east literally, "At the East of the Expanse" (Guangxi being the West)(and largest city)}}| seat = Guangzhou| seat1_type =| seat1 =| parts_type = Divisions| parts_style = paraPrefectures of China>prefecturesCounties of China>countiesTownships of China>townshipsParty chief of the Communist Party of China>SecretaryLi Xi (born 1956)>Li Xi| leader_title1 = Governor| leader_name1 = Ma XingruiPUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF COMMERCE – PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=5 AUGUST 2013, dmy-all, | area_total_km2 = 179800List of Chinese administrative divisions by area>15th| elevation_max_m = 1902| elevation_max_point =| elevation_max_ft =| elevation_max_rank =| elevation_min_m =| elevation_min_point =| elevation_min_ft =| elevation_min_rank =PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINADATE=6 MARCH 2015ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160419130250/HTTP://DATA.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/EASYQUERY.HTM?CN=E0103DF=DMY-ALL, PUBLISHER=GUANGDONG PROVINCIAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS DATE=2019-02-27, | population_as_of = 2018List of Chinese administrative divisions by population>1st| population_density_km2 = autoList of Chinese administrative divisions by population density>7th| demographics_type1 = Demographics| demographics1_footnotes = | demographics1_title1 = Ethnic compositionHan Chinese>Han – 99%Zhuang people – 0.7%Yao people>Yao – 0.2%| demographics1_title2 = Languages and dialectsCantonese and Yue Chinese>other Yue languages, Hakka Chinese, Southern Min>Min Nan languages (Teochew dialect & Leizhou Min), Shaozhou Tuhua>Tuhua, Mandarin Chinese, Zhuang languages>Zhuang| iso_code = CN-GDGross domestic product>GDP {{nobold|(2018)}}Renminbi>CNY 9.73 trillionUS$1.47 trillion (1st)| blank1_name_sec1 =  â€¢ per capitaRenminbi>CNY 87,763 US$13,257 (8th)| blank2_name_sec1 =  â€¢ growth| blank2_info_sec1 =Human Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2017)}}PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEACCESSDATE=2017-12-05ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170107005006/HTTP://WWW.CN.UNDP.ORG/CONTENT/DAM/CHINA/DOCS/PUBLICATIONS/UNDP-CH-%20NHDR%202016%20EN.PDFDF=DMY-ALL, (high) (5th)weblink}} {{zh-hans icon}}| footnotes =}}







factoids
|bpmf=ㄍㄨㄤˇ   ã„‰ã„¨ã„¥|gr=Goangdong|w=Kuang3-tung1|tp=GuÇŽngdong|myr=GwÇŽngdÅ«ng|mps=GuÇŽngdÅ«ngg3d1}}|wuu=kuaon tong|h=Gong3dung1 or Kóng-tûng|y=Gwóngdùng orGwóngdÅ«nggw2d7}} or{{IPAc-yueong.ung|1}}|j=Gwong2dung1|gd=Guong2-dung1|toi=Kwong˧˥ tungË¥|poj=KÅ„g-tang|tl=KÅ„g-tang|hain=Kèng-dang|lizu=Gèng-tang|buc=Guōng-dĕ̤ng|mc=kwangX tung|showflag=yp|altname=Abbreviation|t2=ç²µ|s2=粤|l2=[an ancient name for southern China's Yue people]|p2=Yuè|bpmf2=ㄩㄝˋ|gr2=Yueh|w2=Yüeh4|tp2=Yuè|myr2=Ywè|mps2=Yuèyue|4}}|h2=Yet6 or Ye̍t|y2=Yuhtj6}}|j2=Jyut6|gd2=Yüd6|toi2=Yut ˨|poj2=Oa̍t|tl2=Ua̍t|lizu2=O̍et|order=st}}Guangdong (also known as Canton Province and alternately romanized as Kwangtung) is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of South China Sea. Its capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 113.46 million (as of 2018WEB,weblink National DATA of China, China NBS, 2019-07-23, 2019-07-23, ) across a total area of about {{convert|179,800|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the 6th largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP size of 1.47 trillion US dollars (9.73 trillion Chinese yuan) in 2018. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities.The province of Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year;English people.com.cn {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060310192937weblink |date=10 March 2006 }}WEB,weblink Chinadaily.com, Chinadaily.com, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121004144351weblink">weblink 4 October 2012, dmy-all, the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population.China NBS: 6th National Population Census – DATA {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130707111020weblink |date=7 July 2013 }} This makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab2017 Pakistani Census {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171015113737weblink |date=15 October 2017 |accessdate=9 February 2018 }} and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.WEB, census of india,weblink Census of India, 2011, Government of India, 31 March 2011, 9 February 2018, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110403034618weblink">weblink 3 April 2011, Its population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-12-19, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160102055635weblink">weblink 2 January 2016, dmy-all, Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, a.k.a. Taiwan), and were previously part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170109042157weblink">Sovereignty over the Spratly IslandsENCYCLOPEDIA, Spratly Islands,weblink Microsoft, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091029063837weblink">weblink 2009-10-29, dead, Guangdong has a highly diversified economy. Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. As of 2018, Guangdong's GDP reached 1.47 trillion US dollars (CNY 9.73 trillion), exceeding that of Spain with GDP of 1.43 trillion US dollars, the 13th largest in the world.the historical PPP GDP figures of Mainland China and exchange rates of Chinese yuan to Int'l. dollar are based on the World Economic Outlook Database April 2019 PRESS_RELEASE,weblink Download WEO Data: April 2019 Edition, International Monetary Fund, April 9, 2019, April 12, 2019, The province contributes approximately 12% of the total economic output of mainland China, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong has benefited from its proximity to the financial hub of Hong Kong, which it borders to the south. Guangdong also hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou.After the unification of Lingnan region in the Qin Dynasty, the immigrants from the Central Plains moved in and formed the local culture with a unique style. With the outward movement of the Guangdong people, the Hakka and Cantonese languages, music{{dn|date=September 2019}}, cuisine, opera and tea ceremony have been spread throughout the nation, Southeast Asia and other countries. The two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao fall within the scope of Guangdong cultural influence, and Guangdong culture still has profound influences on the Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia.

Name

"Guǎng" ({{zh|t=廣|s=广}}) means "wide" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226.BOOK, Regional China: A Business and Economic Handbook, 2013, Palgrave Macmillan, Rongxing Gao, 77, 9781137287670, The name "Guang" ultimately came from Guangxin (廣信; 广信), an outpost established in Han dynasty near modern Wuzhou, whose name is a reference to an order by Emperor Wu of Han to "widely bestow favors and sow trust". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong (Liangkwang; {{zh|first=t|t=兩廣|s=两广||cy=léuhng gwóng |p=liǎng guǎng}}) During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù ({{zh|first=t|t=廣南東路|s=广南东路|l=East Circuit in Southern Guang |labels=no}}) and Guǎngnán Xīlù ({{zh|first=t|t=廣南西路|s=广南西路|l=West Circuit in Southern Guang |labels=no}}), which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù ({{zh|first=t|t=廣東路|s=广东路 |labels=no}}) and Guǎngxī Lù ({{zh|first=t|t=廣西路|s=广西路 |labels=no}})."Canton", though etymologically derived from (the Portuguese transliteration of "Guangdong"), usually by itself refers to the provincial capital Guangzhou.BOOK,weblink The Treaty Ports of China and Japan, Nicholas Belfield Dennys, Cambridge University Press, 116, 978-1108045902, BOOK,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 5, 11th, Hugh Chisholm, 1910, 218, Historically, Canton was also used for the province itself,BOOK,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 4, Part 1, Colin Macfarquhar, George Gleig, 1797, 126, 3rd, but often either specified as a province (e.g. Canton Province), or written as Kwangtung in the Wade–Giles system and now most commonly as Guangdong in Pinyin.BOOK,weblink The Golden Ghetto: The American Commercial Community at Canton and the Shaping of American China Policy, 1784-1844, Jacques M. Downs, Frederic D. Grant, Jr., 345, Hong Kong University Press; Reissue edition, 2015, 978-9888139095, The local people of the city of Guangzhou (Canton) and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital.{{Citation needed|date=June 2019}}

History

File:Kwangtung Provincial Government.jpg|thumb|Kwangtung Provincial Government of the Republic of China ]]The Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta () 7,000 years before present (BP), with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP (c. 5050–3050 BC), and the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP (c. 3050–1550 BC). In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was likely introduced from the middle Yangtze River area (Jiao 2013). In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present (BP). The Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture (), which occurred from 4600–4200 BP (c. 2650–2250 BC).Jiao, Tianlong. 2013. "The Neolithic Archaeology of Southeast China." In Underhill, Anne P., et al. A Companion to Chinese Archaeology, 599-611. Wiley-Blackwell.Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue ("Hundred Yue"), the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou. The region was an independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE.{{citation needed|date=August 2014}}As time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong gradually shifted to (Han) Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, and abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030529135953weblink">weblink dead, 29 May 2003, nhyz.org, nhyz.org, 25 April 2012, As more migrants arrived, the local population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese cultureJOURNAL, 11836649, Phylogeographic differentiation of mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese, The American Journal of Human Genetics, March 2002, 10.1086/338999, 70, 3, 384943, 635–51, Yao, Yong-Gang, Kong, Qing-Peng, Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen, Kivisild, Toomas, Zhang, Ya-Ping, or displaced.Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit (political division Circuit), or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit in 971 during the Song dynasty (960–1279). "Guangnan East" ({{Zh-no-labels|t=廣南東}}) is the source of the name "Guangdong" ({{Zh-no-labels|t=廣東|s=广东|first=t}}).BOOK, zh:中国历史地名大词典, 史为乐 (Shǐ Wéilì), 邓自欣 (Dèng Zìxīn), 朱玲玲 (Zhū Línglíng), China Social Sciences Press, 2005, 978-7500449294, 史为乐 (Shǐ Wéilì), 1st, Beijing, zh-Hans-cn, Zhōngguó Lìshǐ Dìmíng Dà Cídiǎn, Large Dictionary of Chinese Historical Place Names, 61167815, {{Page reference|227}}As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou. The defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty (960–1279).WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2018-02-07, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170829110014weblink">weblink 29 August 2017, dmy-all, During the Mongol Yuan dynasty, large parts of current Guangdong belonged to Jiangxi.Zhang Tingyu, et al. (1739). "History of Ming". Vol. 45, Records XXI, Geography VI: {{zh icon}} Its present name, "Guangdong Province" was given in early Ming dynasty.Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive trade links with the rest of the world. European merchants coming northwards via the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea, particularly the Portuguese and British, traded extensively through Guangzhou. Macau, on the southern coast of Guangdong, was the first European settlement in 1557.{{citation needed|date=August 2014}}In the 19th century, the opium traded through Guangzhou triggered the First Opium War, opening an era of Western imperialists' incursion and intervention in China. In addition to Macau, which was then a Portuguese colony, Hong Kong was ceded to the British, and Kwang-Chou-Wan (modern day area of Zhanjiang) to the French.{{citation needed|date=October 2014}}Due to the large number of people that emigrated out of the Guangdong province, and in particular the ease of immigration from Hong Kong to other parts of the British Empire(later British Commonwealth), many overseas Chinese communities have their origins in Guangdong and/or Cantonese culture. In particular, the Cantonese and Teochew dialects have proportionately more speakers among overseas Chinese people than Mandarin-speaking Chinese. Additionally, many Cantonese-speaking Chinese emigrated to Western countries, with the results that many Western versions of Chinese words were derived from the Cantonese dialects rather than through the main stream Mandarin language, such as "dim sum". Some Mandarin Chinese words originally of foreign origin also came from the original foreign language by way of Cantonese. For example, the Mandarin word {{transl|zh|níngméng}} ({{zh|s=柠檬|t=檸檬}}), meaning "Lemon", came from Cantonese, in which the characters are pronounced as {{transl|zh|lìng mung}}.BOOK,weblink Translingual practice: literature, national culture, and translated modernity—China, 1900–1937, 1995, Lydia He Liu, Stanford University Press, illustrated, annotated, 978-0-8047-2535-4county-level city of Taishan, Guangdong>Taishan (Toisan in Cantonese), who speak a distinctive dialect related to Cantonese called Taishanese (or Toishanese).During the 1850s, the Taiping Rebellion, whose leader Hong Xiuquan was born in Guangdong and received a pamphlet from a Protestant Christian missionary in Guangdong, became a widespread civil war in southern China. Because of direct contact with the West, Guangdong was the center of anti-Manchu and anti-imperialist activity. The generally acknowledged founder of modern China, Sun Yat-sen, was also from Guangdong.During the early 1920s of the Republic of China, Guangdong was the staging area for the Kuomintang (KMT) to prepare for the Northern Expedition, an effort to bring the various warlords of China back under a unified central government. Whampoa Military Academy was built near Guangzhou to train military commanders.In recent years, the province has seen extremely rapid economic growth, aided in part by its close trading links with Hong Kong, which borders it. It is now the province with the highest gross domestic product in China.In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. Hainan Island was originally part of Guangdong, but it was separated into its own province in 1988.

Geography

File:虎门大桥.JPG|Pearl River and Humen BridgeHumen BridgeGuangdong faces the South China Sea to the south and has a total of {{convert|4,300|km|abbr=on}} of coastline. The Leizhou Peninsula is on the southwestern end of the province. There are a few inactive volcanoes on Leizhou Peninsula. The Pearl River Delta is the convergent point of three upstream rivers: the East River, North River, and West River. The river delta is filled with hundreds of small islands. The province is geographically separated from the north by a few mountain ranges collectively called the Nan Mountains (Nan Ling). The highest peak in the province is Shikengkong with an elevation of 6,240 feet (1,902 meters) above sea level.Guangdong borders Fujian to the northeast, Jiangxi and Hunan to the north, Guangxi autonomous region to the west, and Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions to the south. Hainan is offshore across from the Leizhou Peninsula. The Pratas Islands, which were traditionally governed as part of Guangdong, are now administered by the Republic of China on Taiwan.WEB,weblink Sovereignty over the Spratly Islands – The China Post 22 June 2009, Chinapost.com.tw, 22 June 2009, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120924083855weblink">weblink 24 September 2012, dmy-all, Cities around the Pearl River Delta include Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Shunde, Taishan, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Other cities in the province include Chaozhou, Chenghai, Nanhai, Shantou, Shaoguan, Zhanjiang, Zhaoqing, Yangjiang and Yunfu.Guangdong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa inland, Cwa along the coast), though nearing a tropical climate in the far south. Winters are short, mild, and relatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and very wet. Average daily highs in Guangzhou in January and July are {{convert|18|°C|°F}} and {{convert|33|°C|°F}}, respectively, although the humidity makes it feel much hotter in summer. Frost is rare on the coast but may happen a few days each winter well inland.

Economy

The economy of Guangdong is large enough to be compared to that of many countries. In 2017, the gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1331.19 billion, Guangdong has been the largest province by GDP since 1989 in Mainland China. Guangdong is responsible for 10.87 percent of the China' $12.25 trillion GDPweblink In 2015, Guangdong's GDP was slightly larger than that of Mexico ranking 15th in terms of US dollar or Purchasing Power Parity. Comparable to that of country subdivisions in dollar terms, Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of all but 6 country subdivisions: England, California, Texas, New York and Tokyo. It is comparable to the GDP of the Los Angeles metropolitan area.File:Guangzhou-electronic-components-shop-0481.jpg|thumb|Shops in one of the streets of Guangzhou specialize in selling various electronic components, supplying the needs of local consumer electronics manufacturers. The shop in front is in the LEDLEDThis is a trend of official estimates of the gross domestic product of the Province of Guangdong with figures in millions of Chinese Yuan:{|table class="wikitable sortable" Historical GDP of Guangdong Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008)China NBS / Bulletin on Reforming Guangdong's GDP Accounting and Data Release System: gdstats.gov.cn (9-Dec-17) {{webarchiveweblink >date=22 December 2017 }} (Chinese)(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Geary–Khamis dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to International Monetary Fund>IMF 'World Economic Outlook (October 2017' {{webarchive>url=http://archive.wikiwix.com/cache/20110717100927weblink China Statistical Yearbook {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151020062416weblink |date=20 October 2015 }}.) align=center year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc) based on mid-year population Reference index align=center GDP in millions realgrowth(%) GDPpc exchange rate1 foreign currency to CNY align=centerCNYUSDPurchasing power parity(Geary–Khamis dollar>Int'l$.)CNYUSDPPP(Int'l$.)USD 1Int'l$. 1(PPP) align=right20168,085,4911,217,2732,306,1217.574,01611,14321,1116.64233.5061 align=right20157,402,7431,188,5462,085,8098.068,62911,01919,3376.22843.5491 align=right20146,890,1431,121,6621,940,7217.864,49110,49918,1656.14283.5503 align=right20136,345,5441,024,5991,774,0348.559,7569,64916,7066.19323.5769 align=right20125,799,354918,7101,633,2538.254,9738,70915,4826.31253.5508 align=right20115,395,920835,4371,539,27310.051,5237,97714,6986.45883.5055 align=right20104,657,712688,0441,406,90912.445,2846,68913,6786.76953.3106 align=right20052,272,329277,394794,79914.124,8283,0318,6848.19172.8590 align=right20001,081,021130,583397,53611.512,8181,5484,7148.27842.7193 align=right1990155,90332,59491,56811.62,4845191,4594.78321.7026 align=right198024,96516,66116,69316.64813213221.49841.4955 align=right197818,58511,0391.03702201.6836After the communist revolution and until the start of the Deng Xiaoping reforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly joined to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarky made Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.{{Citation needed|date=April 2008}}Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation system was reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.{{Citation needed|date=April 2008}}Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economic growth of Guangdong province owes much to the low-value-added manufacturing which characterized (and in many ways still defines) the province's economy following Deng Xiaoping's reforms. Guangdong is not only China's largest exporter of goods, it is the country's largest importer as well.WEB,weblink Guangdong Province: Economic News and Statistics for Guangdong's Economy, Thechinaperspective.com, 25 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120502105943weblink">weblink 2 May 2012, dmy-all, The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the most billionaires in mainland China,WEB, (GMT+8),weblink Guangdong Has Most Billionaires in China|Economy|Topics|WantChinaTimes.com, Wantchinatimes.com, 10 November 2010, 25 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120314232138weblink">weblink 14 March 2012, dmy-all, the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. In 2011, Guangdong's aggregate nominal GDP reached 5.30 trillion RMB (US$838.60 billion) with a per capita GDP of 47,689 RMB.WEB,weblink Three provinces lower GDP targets, Chinadaily.com.cn, 14 February 2011, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023210046weblink">weblink 23 October 2012, dmy-all, By 2015, the local government of Guangdong hopes that the service industry will account for more than 50 percent of the provinces GDP and high-tech manufacturing another 20 percent.In 2009, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 201 billion yuan, 1.93 trillion yuan, and 1.78 trillion yuan, respectively.WEB,weblink GDP of 31 provinces in China released, English.peopledaily.com.cn, 26 February 2010, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112064039weblink">weblink 12 January 2012, dmy-all, Its per capita GDP reached 40,748 yuan (about US$5,965).WEB,weblink zh:经统计局核定2009年广东省人均GDP接近6000美元, Gov.cn, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120309020117weblink">weblink 9 March 2012, dmy-all, Guangdong contributes approximately 12% of the total national economic output.WEB,weblink 02-04-2006, News.xinhuanet.com, 4 February 2006, 25 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121024022034weblink">weblink 24 October 2012, dmy-all, Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantou and Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.In 2008 its foreign trade also grew 7.8% from the previous year and is also by far the largest of all of China. By numbers, Guangdong's foreign trade accounts for more than a quarter of China's US$2.56 trillion foreign trade or roughly US$683 billion.WEB,weblink Guangdong reports 20% foreign trade growth, Chinadaily.com.cn, 13 January 2008, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121006093200weblink">weblink 6 October 2012, dmy-all,

Economic and technological development zones

  • Shenzhen Export Processing Zone
  • Shenzhen Futian Free Trade ZoneWEB,weblink Shenzhen Futian Free Trade Zone, RightSite.asia, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120426182059weblink">weblink 26 April 2012, dmy-all,
  • Shenzhen Hi-Tech Industrial Park
  • Yantian Port Free Trade Zone
  • Foshan National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development ZoneWEB,weblink Foshan Hi-Tech Development Zone, RightSite.asia, 25 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120426182040weblink">weblink 26 April 2012, dmy-all,
  • Guangzhou Development District
  • Guangzhou Export Processing Zone
  • Guangzhou Free Trade Zone
  • Guangzhou Nansha Economic and Technical Development Zone
  • Guangzhou Nanhu Lake Tourist Holiday Resort (Chinese Version)
  • Guangzhou New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Huizhou Dayawan Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Huizhou Export Processing Zone
  • Huizhou Zhongkai Hi-Tech Development Zone
  • Nansha Free Trade Zone
  • Shantou Free Trade Zone
  • Shatoujiao Free Trade Zone
  • Zhanjiang Economic and Technological Development Zone (Chinese Version)
  • Zhuhai National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Zhuhai Free Trade Zone
  • Zhongshan Torch High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Demographics

File:Guangzhou skyline.jpg|left|thumb{{Historical populations|title = Historical population|footnote = Hainan Province part of Guangdong Province until 1988.Guangzhou part of Guangdong Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Guangdong Province.ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032922/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO2.HTMLDF=DMY-ALL, |28,011,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032924/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO3.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |32,428,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032925/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO4.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |32,453,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130913053600/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO5.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |27,210,000PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090805174810/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16767.HTM DF=DMY-ALL, |34,770,059PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120914173158/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16768.HTM DF=DMY-ALL, |42,800,849PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120510075429/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16769.HTM DF=DMY-ALL, |59,299,220PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120619002216/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16772.HTM DF=DMY-ALL, |62,829,236PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120829052024/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020331_15435.HTM DF=DMY-ALL, |85,225,007PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130727021210/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/NEWSANDCOMINGEVENTS/T20110429_402722516.HTM DF=DMY-ALL, |104,303,132}}Guangdong officially became the most populous province in 2005. Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the 4th-most populous province of China with about 80 million people, though an influx of migrants, temporary workers, and newly settled individuals numbered around 30 million.WEB,weblink media163, media163, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120625190924weblink">weblink 25 June 2012, dmy-all, The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor. If Guangdong were an independent nation, it would rank among the twenty largest countries of the world by population, more populous than France, Germany, or the United Kingdom, and more populous than the largest three US states (California, Texas, and Florida) combined. Guangdong's population is 70.7% urban and 29.3% rural.Guangdong is also the ancestral home of large numbers of overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, Western United States and Panama in the 19th century came from Guangdong. Many people from the region also travelled to the US / California during the gold rush of 1849, and also to Australia during its gold rush a decade or so later.The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese. Within the Han Chinese, the largest subgroup in Guangdong are the Cantonese people. Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang. There is a small Yao population in the north. Other smaller minority groups include She, Miao, Li, and Zhuang.{{Pie chart|thumb = rightSCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据 CHINESE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES >LANGUAGE=ZH-HANS PAGE=13, {{webarchiveweblink >date=9 August 2014 }}Chinese folk religion>traditional faithsNote that this includes China's predominant religious category, Daoism|value1 = 92.7|color1 = HoneydewBuddhism in China>Buddhism|value2 = 6.2|color2 = YellowProtestantism in China>Protestantism|value3 = 0.8|color3 = DodgerBlue|label4 = Catholicism|value4 = 0.2|color4 = DarkOrchid}}Guangdong has a highly unbalanced gender ratio that is among the highest of all provinces in China. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1–4 age group, there are over 130 boys for every 100 girls.WEB,weblink China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey – Zhu et al. 338, bmj.com, 25 April 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120101005559weblink">weblink 1 January 2012, dmy-all,

Religion

According to a 2012 survey only around 7% of the population of Guangdong belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.2%, followed by Protestants with 0.8% and Catholics with 0.2%. Around 93% of the population is either irreligious or may be involved in Chinese folk religions worshipping nature gods, ancestral deities, popular sects, Taoist traditions, Buddhist religious traditions & Confucian religious traditions.According to a survey conducted in 2007, 43.71% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration,Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Results reported by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150925123928weblink |date=25 September 2015 }} the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines.{{multiple image| align = center| direction = horizontal| width = 150| image1 = 容桂雨花寺.jpgRonggui Subdistrict>Ronggui, Shunde.| image2 = Wong Tai Sin Temple Canton.jpg| caption2 = Temple of Huang Daxian in Guangzhou.| image3 = Guangzhou Nanhaishen Miao 2013.10.01 10-31-35.jpg| caption3 = Temple of Nanhaishen (God of the Southern Sea) in Guangzhou.| image4 = Chiwan Tianhou Temple 20140515.JPGMazu (deity)>Tianhou in Chiwan, Shenzhen.| image5 = 揭阳城隍庙.JPG| caption5 = Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Jieyang.| image6 = Guangzhou Dafo Si 2014.01.26 14-46-33.jpg| caption6 = Temple of the Great Buddha in Guangzhou.}}{{clear}}

Politics

Guangdong is governed by a dual-party system like the rest of China. The Governor is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Communist Party Secretary, often from outside of Guangdong, keeps the Governor in check.

Relations with Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal, respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government.

Media

Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area are served by several Radio Guangdong stations, Guangdong Television, Southern Television Guangdong, Shenzhen Television, and Guangzhou Television. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.

Culture

{{See also|Music of Guangdong}}{{unreferenced section|date=July 2014}}{{expand section|date=July 2014}}The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Yue Chinese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has slightly diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, along with Hailufeng people in Shanwei, speak Teochew, which is a Min dialect closely related to mainstream Southern Min (Hokkien) and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also well-known and has a unique form.The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera ({{zh|s=汉剧 |t=漢劇}}), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs ().Zhanjiang in southern Guangdong is dominated by the Leizhou dialect, a variety of Minnan; Cantonese and Hakka are also spoken there.Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong and dominant position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local languages and dialects are non-Yue ones.Guangdong Province is notable for being the birthplace of many famed Xiangqi (Chinese chess) grandmasters such as Lü Qin, Yang Guanli, Cai Furu and Xu Yinchuan.

Education

Guangdong Province Department of Education is the department of the provincial government that oversees education.

Colleges and universities

{{See also|List of universities and colleges in Guangdong}}

National

Provincial

Sports

List of current professional sports based in Guangdong:{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:70%;"!Sport!League!Tier!Club!City!StadiumAssociation football>Football|Chinese Super League1st|Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C.|Guangzhou|Tianhe StadiumAssociation football>Football|Chinese Super League1st|Guangzhou R&F F.C.|Guangzhou|Yuexiushan StadiumAssociation football>Football|Hong Kong Premier League1stR&F (Hong Kong)>R&F|Guangzhou|Yanzigang StadiumAssociation football>Football|China League One2nd|Shenzhen F.C.|Shenzhen|Shenzhen StadiumAssociation football>Football|China League One2nd|Meizhou Hakka F.C.Wuhua County>Wuhua|Wuhua County StadiumAssociation football>Football|China League One2nd|Meizhou Meixian Techand F.C.|Meizhou|Meixian Tsang Hin-chi StadiumAssociation football>Football|China League Two3rd|Shenzhen Ledman F.C.|Shenzhen|Bao'an StadiumAssociation football>Football|China League Two3rd|Shenzhen Pengcheng F.C.|Shenzhen|Xixiang Sports CenterAssociation football>Football|China Women's League One2ndMeizhou Hunjun F.C.>Meizhou HunjunWuhua County>Wuhua|Wuhua County Stadium|Futsal|China Futsal Super League1st|Shenzhen Nanling Tielang|Shenzhen|Qiushanshui Park Sports Centre|Futsal|China Futsal Super League1st|Yingde Yanjiyou|Yingde|Yingde Gymnasium|Futsal|China Futsal Super League1st|Zhuhai Mingshi|Zhuhai|Zhuhai Sports Centre|Basketball|Chinese Basketball Association1st|Guangdong Southern Tigers|Dongguan|Nissan Sports Centre|Basketball|Chinese Basketball Association1st|Shenzhen Leopards|Shenzhen|Shenzhen Universiade Sports Centre|Basketball|Chinese Basketball Association1st|Guangzhou Long-Lions|Guangzhou|Tianhe Gymnasium|Basketball|ASEAN Basketball League1st|Zhuhai Wolf Warriors|ZhuhaiJinan University>Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus)|BasketballWomen's Chinese Basketball Association>Women's Basketball Association1st|Guangdong Asia Aluminum|Zhaoqing|Zhaoqing Stadium|VolleyballChinese Volleyball League>Men's Volleyball League Div A1st|Guangdong GSports|Shenzhen|Shenzhen Gymnasium|VolleyballChinese Volleyball League>Women's Volleyball League Div A1stGuangdong Evergrande Women's Volleyball Club>Guangdong Evergrande|Shenzhen|Shenzhen Gymnasium|VolleyballChinese Volleyball League>Women's Volleyball League Div B2nd|Guangdong JianlongTaishan, Guangdong>Taishan|Taishan Stadium|Baseball|China Baseball League1st|Guangdong Leopards|Guangzhou|Huangcun Stadium|Table Tennis|China Table Tennis Super League1st|Shenzhen Bao'an Mingjinhai|Shenzhen|Bao'an Stadium

Tourism

Notable attractions include Danxia Mountain in Shaoguan, Yuexiu Hill, Baiyun Mountain in Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain in Zhaoqing, the Huangmanzhai waterfalls in Jieyang, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-sen in Zhongshan.

Administrative divisions

Guangdong is divided into twenty-one prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including two sub-provincial cities):{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; font-size:smaller; text-align:center"! colspan=12 | Administrative divisions of Guangdong! colspan=12 style="font-size:larger" | (File:Guangdong prfc map.png|450px){{color box|#7C9973|border=darkgray}} {{small|Prefecture-level city district areas}} {{color box|#729996|border=darkgray}} {{small|County-level cities}}! rowspan=2 | No.! rowspan=2 | Division codeWEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码, Ministry of Civil Affairs, ! rowspan=2 | prefecture levelcities! rowspan=2 | Area in km2{{zh}}BOOK, zh, Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics, China Statistics Print, zh:《深圳统计年鉴2014》,weblink 2015-05-29, ! rowspan=2 | Population 2010BOOK, Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, zh:中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 1, ! rowspan=2 | Seat! colspan=4 | DivisionsBOOK, zh-hans, Ministry of Civil Affairs, zh:《中国民政统计年鉴2014》, August 2014, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-7130-9, style="width:45px;"! Districts! Counties! Aut. counties! CL cities style="font-weight: bold"! 440000 !! Guangdong ProvinceGuangzhou>| 20 style="background:#98fb98;"! 9 !! 440100 !! GuangzhouYuexiu District > style="background:gray;" ! 2 !! 440200 !! ShaoguanZhenjiang District >| 2 style="background:#98fb98;"! 21 !! 440300 !! ShenzhenFutian District > style="background:gray;" ! 20 !! 440400 !! ZhuhaiXiangzhou District, Zhuhai>Xiangzhou District 3 style="background:gray;" style="background:gray;" |! 14 !! 440500 !! ShantouJinping District > style="background:gray;" |! 8 !! 440600 !! FoshanChancheng District > style="background:gray;" ! 18 !! 440700 !! JiangmenPengjiang District > style="background:gray;" | 4! 15 !! 440800 !! ZhanjiangChikan District > 3! 16 !! 440900 !! MaomingMaonan District > style="background:gray;" | 3! 6 !! 441200 !! ZhaoqingDuanzhou District > 1! 11 !! 441300 !! HuizhouHuicheng District > style="background:gray;" |! 4 !! 441400 !! MeizhouMeijiang District > 1! 12 !! 441500 !! ShanweiChengqu, Shanwei>Cheng District 1 2 style="background:gray;" | 1! 3 !! 441600 !! HeyuanYuancheng District > style="background:gray;" |! 17 !! 441700 !! YangjiangJiangcheng District > 1! 1 !! 441800 !! QingyuanQingcheng District >| 2! 10 !! 441900 !! Dongguan **Nancheng Subdistrict, Dongguan>Nancheng Subdistrict style="background:gray;" style="background:gray;" ! 19 !! 442000 !! Zhongshan **Dongqu Subdistrict > style="background:gray;" style="background:gray;" |! 5 !! 445100 !! Chaozhou Xiangqiao District > style="background:gray;" |! 13 !! 445200 !! Jieyang Rongcheng District > 1! 7 !! 445300 !! Yunfu Yuncheng District > 1 class="sortbottom" {{legendSub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China>border=1px solid #AAAAAA}}
  • - not including the new districts which are not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
    • - direct-piped cities - does not contain any county-level divisions
{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"! colspan=5 | Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations! English !! Chinese !! Pinyin !! Guangdong RomanizationGuangdong Province >Guǎngdōng Shěng >| guong2 dung1 sang2Guangzhou>Guangzhou City
Guǎngzhōu Shì guong2 zeo1 xi5Shaoguan>Shaoguan City Sháoguān Shì xiu4 guan1 xi5Shenzhen>Shenzhen City Shēnzhèn Shì sem1 zen3 xi5Zhuhai>Zhuhai City Zhūhǎi Shì ju1 hoi2 xi5Shantou>Shantou City Shàntóu Shì san3 teo4 xi5Foshan>Foshan City Fóshān Shì fed6 san1 xi5Jiangmen>Jiangmen City Jiāngmén Shì gong1 mun4 xi5Zhanjiang>Zhanjiang City Zhànjiāng Shì zam3 gong1 xi5Maoming>Maoming City Màomíng Shì meo6 ming4 xi5Zhaoqing>Zhaoqing City Zhàoqìng Shì xiu6 hing3 xi5Huizhou>Huizhou City Huìzhōu Shì wei6 zeo1 xi5Meizhou>Meizhou City Méizhōu Shì mui4 zeo1 xi5Shanwei>Shanwei City Shànwěi Shì san3 méi5 xi5Heyuan>Heyuan City Héyuán Shì ho4 yun4 xi5Yangjiang>Yangjiang City Yángjiāng Shì yêng4 gong1 xi5Qingyuan>Qingyuan City Qīngyuǎn Shì qing1 yun5 xi5Dongguan>Dongguan City Dōngguǎn Shì dung1 gun2 xi5Zhongshan>Zhongshan City Zhōngshān Shì zung1 san1 xi5Chaozhou>Chaozhou City Cháozhōu Shì qiu4 zeo1 xi5Jieyang>Jieyang City Jiēyáng Shì kid3 yêng4 xi5Yunfu>Yunfu City Yúnfú Shì wen4 feo4 xi5The twenty-one Prefecture of Guangdong are subdivided into 119 county-level divisions (64 districts, 20 county-level cities, 34 counties, and 3 autonomous counties). For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.

Urban areas{| class"wikitable sortable collapsible" style"font-size:90%;"

! colspan=6 | Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities! # !! Cities !! style="background-color: #aaaaff;"|Urban area !! style="background-color: #aaffaa;" | District area !! style="background-color: #ffaaaa;" | City properBOOK, 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编, 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-6659-6, !! Census dateShenzhen >| 2010-11-01Guangzhou{{efn>name=GuangzhouConghua District>Conghua Conghua CLC), Zengcheng District. These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} >| 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new districts)}}{{efnsee Guangzhou}} 2010-11-01Dongguan >| 2010-11-01Foshan >| 2010-11-01Shantou >| 2010-11-01Zhongshan >| 2010-11-01Huizhou >| 2010-11-01Jiangmen >| 2010-11-01Zhuhai >| 2010-11-01Zhanjiang >| 2010-11-01Puning >see Jieyang}} 2010-11-01Jieyang{{efn>name=JieyangJiedong District>Jiedong (Jiedong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 734,670 746,354 5,884,347 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Jieyang}} 2010-11-01Shaoguan >| 2010-11-01Qingyuan{{efn>name=QingyuanQingxin District>Qingxin (Qingxin County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 639,659 811,233 3,698,412 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Qingyuan}} 2010-11-01Maoming{{efn>name=MaomingDianbai District>Dianbai (Dianbai County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 637,879 1,217,596 5,817,494 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Maoming}} 2010-11-01Lufeng, Guangdong>Lufeng 579,527 1,358,265 {{smallsee Shanwei}} >| 2010-11-01Zhaoqing{{efn>name=ZhaoqingGaoyao District>Gaoyao (Gaoyao CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 559,887 644,032 3,916,467 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Zhaoqing}} 2010-11-01Yangjiang{{efn>name=YangjiangYangdong District>Yangdong (Yangdong County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 499,053 676,857 2,421,748 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Yangjiang}} 2010-11-01Heyuan >| 2010-11-01Chaozhou{{efn>name=ChaozhouChao'an District>Chao'an (Chao'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 448,226 452,469 2,669,466 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Chaozhou}} 2010-11-01Taishan, Guangdong>Taishan 394,855 941,095 {{smallsee Jiangmen}} >| 2010-11-01Xingning, Guangdong>Xingning 392,000 962,883 {{smallsee Meizhou}} >| 2010-11-01Kaiping >see Jiangmen}} 2010-11-01Shanwei >| 2010-11-01Lianjiang, Guangdong>Lianjiang 359,225 927,275 {{smallsee Zhanjiang}} >| 2010-11-01Sihui >see Zhaoqing}} 2010-11-01Meizhou{{efn>name=MeizhouMeixian District>Meixian (Meixian County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 353,769 380,771 4,238,461 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Meizhou}} 2010-11-01Gaozhou >see Maoming}} 2010-11-01Yingde >see Qingyuan}} 2010-11-01Leizhou >see Zhanjiang}} 2010-11-01Xinyi, Guangdong>Xinyi 333,965 913,708 {{smallsee Maoming}} >| 2010-11-01Wuchuan, Guangdong>Wuchuan 332,672 1,443,099 {{smallsee Zhanjiang}} >| 2010-11-01Huazhou, Guangdong>Huazhou 320,418 1,178,809 {{smallsee Maoming}} >| 2010-11-01Heshan, Guangdong>Heshan 282,580 494,938 {{smallsee Jiangmen}} >| 2010-11-01Luoding >see Yunfu}} 2010-11-01Enping >see Jiangmen}} 2010-11-01Yunfu{{efn>name=YunfuYun'an District>Yun'an (Yun'an County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}} 242,040 318,145 2,367,154 2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efnsee Yunfu}} 2010-11-01Lechang >see Shaoguan}} 2010-11-01Lianzhou >see Qingyuan}} 2010-11-01Nanxiong >see Shaoguan}} 2010-11-01Yangchun >see Yangjiang}} 2010-11-01{{notelist}}

International relations

Guangdong is twinned with:
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}}{{flagdeco|Aichi}} Aichi Prefecture, JapanWEB,weblink ja:ベルギー3地域と「友好交流及び相互協力に関する覚書」を締結, 15 May 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170828190416weblink">weblink 28 August 2017, dmy-all,

See also

References

Citations

{{Reflist |colwidth = 30em }}

Sources

Economic data

External links

{{Wiktionary|Guangdong}}{{commons+cat|Guangdong|Guangdong}} {{Geographic location|Centre = Guangdong|North = Jiangxi|Northeast = FujianTaiwan Strait{{flagu>Kaohsiung}}, {{flaguTainan}}, {{flaguname=Taiwan (Republic of China)}}|Southeast = South China SeaMacau}}{{flagu|Hong Kong}}South China SeaHà Tĩnh Province>Hà Tĩnh, Nghệ An Province and Thanh Hóa Provinces, {{flagu>Vietnam}}Qiongzhou StraitHainanGuangxiGulf of TonkinHaiphong, Nam Định Province>Nam Định, Quảng Ninh Province and Thái Bình Provinces, {{flagu>Vietnam}}|Northwest = Hunan}}{{Guangdong topics}}{{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China}}{{Guangdong}}{{Authority control}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2012}}

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