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Growth factor
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{{redirect|Growth factors|the journal|Growth Factors (journal)}}{{refimprove|date=February 2014}}A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth,{{DorlandsDict|three/000038554|growth factor}} proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Usually it is a protein or a steroid hormone. Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes.Growth factors typically act as signaling molecules between cells. Examples are cytokines and hormones that bind to specific receptors on the surface of their target cells.They often promote cell differentiation and maturation, which varies between growth factors. For example, epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances osteogenic differentiation, JOURNAL, Del Angel-Mosqueda C, Gutiérrez-Puente Y, López-Lozano AP, Romero-Zavaleta RE, Mendiola-Jiménez A, Medina-De la Garza CE, Márquez-M M, De la Garza-Ramos MA, Epidermal growth factor enhances osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells in vitro, Head & Face Medicine, 11, 29, September 2015, 26334535, 10.1186/s13005-015-0086-5,weblink 4558932, while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation (angiogenesis).

Versus cytokines

Growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.BOOK, Thomas, Yorio, Abbot F., Clark, Martin B., Wax, vanc, Ocular Therapeutics: Eye on New Discoveries,weblink 28 November 2010, 15 October 2007, Academic Press, 978-0-12-370585-3, 88–, Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism.While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth factors, such as G-CSF and GM-CSF, others have an inhibitory effect on cell growth or proliferation. Some cytokines, such as Fas ligand, are used as "death" signals; they cause target cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis.The growth factor was first discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini, which won her a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Classes

{{Expand list|date=February 2011}}Individual growth factor proteins tend to occur as members of larger families of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins. There are many families, some of which are listed below:

In platelets

The alpha granules in blood platelets contain growth factors PDGF, IGF-1, EGF, and TGF-β which begin healing of wounds by attracting and activating macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells.

Uses in medicine

For the last two decades, growth factors have been increasingly used in the treatment of hematologic and oncologic diseases JOURNAL, Cottler-Fox M, Klein HG, Transfusion support of hematology and oncology patients. The role of recombinant hematopoietic growth factors, Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 118, 4, 417–20, April 1994, 7909429, JOURNAL, Aaronson SA, Growth factors and cancer, Science, 254, 5035, 1146–53, November 1991, 1659742, 10.1126/science.1659742, and cardiovascular diseasesJOURNAL, Domouzoglou EM, Naka KK, Vlahos AP, Papafaklis MI, Michalis LK, Tsatsoulis A, Maratos-Flier E, Fibroblast growth factors in cardiovascular disease: The emerging role of FGF21, American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 309, 6, H1029-38, September 2015, 26232236, 4747916, 10.1152/ajpheart.00527.2015, JOURNAL, Gorenoi, Vitali, Brehm, Michael U., Koch, Armin, Hagen, Anja, 2017, Growth factors for angiogenesis in peripheral arterial disease, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6, CD011741, 10.1002/14651858.CD011741.pub2, 1469-493X, 28594443, 6481523, such as:

See also

References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Signaling proteins}}{{Cytokines}}{{Wound healing}}{{Growth factor receptor modulators}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2011}}{{Authority control}}

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