Google Chrome

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Google Chrome
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{{About|the web browser|the operating system|Chrome OS|5=Chrome (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{Short description|Web browser developed by Google}}{{Use mdy dates|date=June 2019}}

HTTPS://CHROMIUM.GOOGLESOURCE.COM/CHROMIUM/SRC/+/MASTER/STYLEGUIDE/STYLEGUIDE.MD >TITLE=CHROMIUM CODING STYLE DATE= PUBLISHER= FIRST=VINCENT DATE=JANUARY 2010 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=MAY 30, 2012, }} {edih}Blink (browser engine)>Blink (WebKit on iOS), V8| platform = IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7, ARMv8-A| language count = 47WEBSITE=GOOGLE PLAY CONSOLE HELP, December 18, 2015, | language = | genre = Web browser, mobile browserProprietary software>Proprietary freeware, based on open source components.HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM/INTL/EN/CHROME/BROWSER/PRIVACY/EULA_TEXT.HTML>TITLE=GOOGLE CHROME TERMS OF SERVICE, Chrome's WebKit & Blink (browser engine) layout engines and its V8 (JavaScript engine)>V8 JavaScript engine are each free and open-source software, while its other components are each either open-source or proprietary. However, section 9 of Google Chrome's Terms of Service designates the whole package as proprietary freeware.weblink}}}}Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, and was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android. The browser is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as the platform for web apps.Most of Chrome's source code comes from Google's open-source Chromium project, but Chrome is licensed as proprietary freeware. WebKit was the original rendering engine, but Google eventually forked it to create the Blink engine; all Chrome variants except iOS now use Blink.WEB, Peter, Bright, Google going its own way, forking WebKit rendering engine,weblink Ars Technica, Conde Nast, April 3, 2013, March 9, 2017, {{As of|July 2019}}, StatCounter estimates that Chrome has a 71%WEB,weblink Desktop Browser Market Share Worldwide, StatCounter Global Stats, en, July 31, 2019, worldwide browser market share on traditional PCs and 63.34%WEB,weblink Browser Market Share Worldwide, StatCounter Global Stats, en, May 2, 2019, share across all platforms. Because of this success, Google has expanded the "Chrome" brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox, and Chromebase.


{{See also|History of Google}}Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a small company", and he did not want to go through "bruising browser wars". After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt admitted that "It was so good that it essentially forced me to change my mind."WEB, Angwin, Julia, July 9, 2009,weblink Sun Valley: Schmidt Didn't Want to Build Chrome Initially, He Says, WSJ Digits Blog, May 25, 2010, In September 2004, rumors of Google building a web browser first appeared. Online journals and U.S. newspapers stated at the time that Google was hiring former Microsoft web developers among others. It also came shortly after the final 1.0 release of Mozilla Firefox, which was surging in popularity and taking market share from Internet Explorer, which was suffering from major security problems.WEB,weblink Rumours surround Google browser,


The release announcement was originally scheduled for September 3, 2008, and a comic by Scott McCloud was to be sent to journalists and bloggers explaining the features within the new browser.WEB, McCloud, Scott, September 1, 2008,weblink Surprise!, Google Blogoscoped, September 1, 2008, Copies intended for Europe were shipped early and German blogger Philipp Lenssen of Google BlogoscopedWEB, Lenssen, Philipp, September 1, 2008, Google Chrome, Google's Browser Project,weblink September 1, 2008, made a scanned copy of the 38-page comic available on his website after receiving it on September 1, 2008.WEB, Lenssen, Philipp, September 1, 2008, Google on Google Chrome – comic book,weblink Google Blogoscoped, September 1, 2008, Google subsequently made the comic available on Google BooksWEB,weblink Google Chrome comic, Google Book Search, September 1, 2008, September 2, 2008, and mentioned it on their official blog along with an explanation for the early release. The product was allegedly named "Chrome" because Google wanted to minimize the chrome of the browser,NEWS,weblink Sundar Pichai of Google Talks About Phone Intrusion, April 25, 2019, Dougerty, Conor, July 12, 2015, New York Times, though this meaning was added somewhat post-hoc, the code name before release apparently chosen from a connotation of speed.WEB,weblink Google Chrome - The reason behind its name revealed!, The Windows Club, September 3, 2015,

Public release

(File:File-Chromium-Linux-Alpha.png|thumb|An early version of Chromium for Linux, explaining the difference between Chrome and Chromium)The browser was first publicly released on September 2, 2008 for Windows XP and later, with 43 supported languages, officially a beta version,WEB,weblink It was when not if... Google Chrome, September 2008, June 21, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2016, unfit, and as a stable public release on December 11, 2008.On the same day, a CNET news itemWEB, Ina, Fried, Be sure to read Chrome's fine print,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 7, 2008, March 9, 2017, drew attention to a passage in the Terms of Service statement for the initial beta release, which seemed to grant to Google a license to all content transferred via the Chrome browser. This passage was inherited from the general Google terms of service.WEB,weblink Google Terms of Service – Policies & Principles – Google,, March 1, 2012, March 30, 2013, Google responded to this criticism immediately by stating that the language used was borrowed from other products, and removed this passage from the Terms of Service.Chrome quickly gained about 1% usage share.WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, A fresh take on the browser,weblink Official Google Blog, Google, September 1, 2008, March 9, 2017, WEB, Rafe, Needleman, Google Chrome update: First screenshot, and live-blog alert,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, September 2, 2008, March 9, 2017, NEWS,weblink Google launches Chrome web browser, September 2, 2008, Associated Press, The Canadian Press, September 2, 2008, After the initial surge, usage share dropped until it hit a low of 0.69% in October 2008. It then started rising again and by December 2008, Chrome again passed the 1% threshold.NEWS, Wolfgang, Gruener,weblink Google Chrome crosses 1% market share again, TG Daily, Chicago (IL), United States, January 3, 2009, July 11, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 10, 2009, In early January 2009, CNET reported that Google planned to release versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux in the first half of the year.WEB, Stephen, Shankland, Chrome gets Mac deadline, extensions foundation,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, January 9, 2009, March 9, 2017, The first official Chrome OS X and Linux developer previewsWEB,weblink Early Access Release Channels,, April 8, 2012, were announced on June 4, 2009, with a blog postWEB,weblink Danger: Mac and Linux builds available, June 9, 2009, saying they were missing many features and were intended for early feedback rather than general use.In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux.WEB, Mark, Larson, Beta Update: Linux, Mac, and Windows,weblink Chrome Releases, Google, December 8, 2009, March 9, 2017, WEB, Brian, Rakowski, Google Chrome for the holidays: Mac, Linux and extensions in beta,weblink Official Google Blog, Google, December 8, 2009, March 9, 2017, Google Chrome 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to support all three platforms.WEB, Brian, Rakowski, A new Chrome stable release: Welcome, Mac and Linux!,weblink Chrome Blog, Google, May 25, 2010, March 9, 2017, Chrome was one of the twelve browsers offered to European Economic Area users of Microsoft Windows in 2010.NEWS,weblink Microsoft offers browser choices to Europeans, BBC News, March 1, 2010, July 11, 2012,


Chrome was assembled from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties such as Mozilla's Netscape Portable Runtime, Network Security Services, NPAPI (dropped as of version 45),WEB,weblink NPAPI deprecation: developer guide - The Chromium Projects,, September 3, 2015, Skia Graphics Engine, SQLite, and a number of other open-source projects.WEB,weblink Code reuse in Google Chrome Browser, Krumins, Peteris, September 5, 2008, May 13, 2010, The V8 JavaScript virtual machine was considered a sufficiently important project to be split off (as was Adobe/Mozilla's Tamarin) and handled by a separate team in Denmark coordinated by Lars Bak in Aarhus. According to Google, existing implementations were designed "for small programs, where the performance and interactivity of the system weren't that important", but web applications such as Gmail "are using the web browser to the fullest when it comes to DOM manipulations and JavaScript", and therefore would significantly benefit from a JavaScript engine that could work faster.Chrome initially used the WebKit rendering engine to display web pages. In 2013, they forked the WebCore component to create their own layout engine Blink. Based on WebKit, Blink only uses WebKit's "WebCore" components, while substituting other components, such as its own multi-process architecture, in place of WebKit's native implementation.Chrome is internally tested with unit testing, "automated user interface testing of scripted user actions", fuzz testing, as well as WebKit's layout tests (99% of which Chrome is claimed to have passed), and against commonly accessed websites inside the Google index within 20–30 minutes.Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically relating to the building of web applications, including offline support. Google phased out Gears as the same functionality became available in the HTML5 standards.WEB,weblink Hello HTML5, Google, Fette, Ian, February 19, 2010, July 11, 2012, On January 11, 2011, the Chrome product manager, Mike Jazayeri, announced that Chrome would remove H.264 video codec support for its HTML5 player, citing the desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the currently available open codecs available in the Chromium project, which Chrome is based on.WEB,weblink HTML Video Codec Support in Chrome,, January 11, 2011, April 8, 2012, Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows which added hardware-accelerated H.264 video decoding.WEB, Ami, Fischmann, Longer battery life and easier website permissions,weblink Chrome Blog, Google, November 6, 2012, March 9, 2017, In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was open-sourcing its H.264 codecs and will cover all fees required.WEB,weblink Open-Sourced H.264 Removes Barriers to WebRTC, December 22, 2013, Trollope, Rowan, December 22, 2013, On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 devices.NEWS,weblink Google Chrome Beta arrives on Android, Engadget, AOL, July 11, 2012, On many new devices with Android 4.1 and later preinstalled, Chrome is the default browser.WEB,weblink Chrome Out Of Beta, Default Browser Of Android 4.1, In May 2017, Google announced a version of Chrome for augmented reality and virtual reality devices.WEB,weblink Chrome is coming to augmented reality and Google Daydream, Lucas, Matney,

Version history


Google Chrome features a minimalistic user interface, with its user-interface principles later being implemented into other browsers. For example, the merging of the address bar and search bar into the omnibox.WEB, Rafe, Needleman, The future of the Firefox address bar,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, June 12, 2008, March 9, 2017, Chrome also has a reputation for strong browser performance.WEB, Stephen, Shankland, Speed test: Google Chrome beats Firefox, IE, Safari,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 7, 2008, March 9, 2017, WEB,weblink Lifehacker Speed Tests: Safari 4, Chrome 2, and More – Browsers, Purdy, Kevin, Lifehacker, June 11, 2009, May 13, 2010,

Bookmarks and settings synchronization

Chrome allows users to synchronize their bookmarks, history, and settings across all devices with the browser installed by sending and receiving data through a chosen Google Account, which in turn updates all signed-in instances of Chrome. This can be authenticated either through Google credentials, or a sync passphrase.

Web standards support

File:Acid3-Chrome4Dev.PNG|thumb|The results of the Acid3Acid3The first release of Google Chrome passed both the Acid1 and Acid2 tests. Beginning with version 4.0, Chrome has passed all aspects of the Acid3 test.{{as of|2011|May|}}, Chrome has very good support for JavaScript/ECMAScript according to Ecma International's ECMAScript standards conformance Test 262WEB,weblink ECMAScript test262, May 6, 2011,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2011, (version ES5.1 May 18, 2012). This test reports as the final score the number of tests a browser failed; hence lower scores are better. In this test, Chrome version 37 scored 10 failed/11578 passed. For comparison, Firefox 19 scored 193 failed/11752 passed and Internet Explorer 9 has a score of 600+ failed, while Internet Explorer 10 has a score of 7 failed.In 2011, on the official CSS 2.1 test suite by standardization organization W3C, WebKit, the Chrome rendering engine, passes 89.75% (89.38% out of 99.59% covered) CSS 2.1 tests.WEB,weblink CSS 2.1 Test Suite RC6 Results, May 6, 2011, W3C, On the HTML5 web standards test, Chrome 41 scores 518 out of 555 points, placing it ahead of the five most popular desktop browsers.WEB,weblink HTML5 test desktop, March 19, 2015, Visred, WEB,weblink HTML5 test desktop browser comparison, March 19, 2015, Visred, Chrome 41 on Android scores 510 out of 555 points.WEB,weblink HTML5 test Android Chrome 41 Galaxy S5, March 19, 2015, Visred, WEB,weblink HTML5 test tablet, March 19, 2015, Sights, WEB,weblink HTML5 test mobile, March 19, 2015, Sights, Chrome 44 scores 526, only 29 points less than the maximum score.WEB,weblink HTML5test - How well does your browser support HTML5?,, October 29, 2015,


{{See also|Browser security}}Chrome periodically retrieves updates of two blacklists (one for phishing and one for malware), and warns users when they attempt to visit a site flagged as potentially harmful. This service is also made available for use by others via a free public API called "Google Safe Browsing API".Chrome uses a process-allocation model to sandbox tabs.WEB,weblink chromes-process model explained, Marc, Chung, September 5, 2008, September 10, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2009, Using the principle of least privilege, each tab process cannot interact with critical memory functions (e.g. OS memory, user files) or other tab processes{{snd}} similar to Microsoft's "Protected Mode" used by Internet Explorer 9 or greater. The Sandbox Team is said to have "taken this existing process boundary and made it into a jail". This enforces a computer security model whereby there are two levels of multilevel security (user and sandbox) and the sandbox can only respond to communication requests initiated by the user.WEB, Adam, Barth, Collin, Jackson, Charles, Reis, The Google Chrome Team, The Security Architecture of the Chromium Browser, Stanford Security Laboratory,weblink PDF, September 11, 2008, On Linux sandboxing uses the seccomp mode.WEB, Gutschke, Markus, Re: (PATCH 2/2) x86-64: seccomp: fix 32/64 syscall hole,weblink May 6, 2009, February 17, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2013, dead, WEB, Edge, Jake, Google's Chromium sandbox,weblink August 19, 2009, February 17, 2011, Since 2008, Chrome has been faulted for not including a master password to prevent casual access to a user's passwords. Chrome developers have indicated that a master password does not provide real security against determined hackers and have refused to implement one. Bugs filed on this issue have been marked "WontFix".WEB, 53, Issue 53 - chromium - No Master Password Option, Google, September 2, 2008, August 13, 2013, WEB, Kember, Elliott,, Chrome's Password Security Strategy Is Insane,, August 7, 2013, August 13, 2013, {{As of|2014|02}}, the Windows version asks the user to enter the Windows account password before showing saved passwords.WEB, //, Issue 53 - chromium - No Master Password Option (post #151), May 3, 2014, In January 2015, TorrentFreak reported that using Chrome when connected to the internet using a VPN can be a serious security issue due to the browser's support for WebRTC.Huge Security Flaw Leaks VPN Users’ Real IP-addresses (January 30, 2015). Retrieved on February 21, 2015.On September 9, 2016, it was reported that starting with Chrome 56, users will be warned when they visit insecure HTTP websites to encourage more sites to make the transition to HTTPS.WEB,weblink InsightPortal {{!, QualityTaskForce {{!}} Chrome will start flagging insecure HTTP sites|last=Bates|first=Adam||language=en-gb|access-date=August 8, 2017}}On December 4, 2018, Google announced its Chrome 71 release with new security features, including a built-in ad featuring system. In addition, Google also announced its plan to crack down websites that make people involuntarily subscribe to mobile subscription plans.Cimpanu, Catalin, ZDNet. "Google releases Chrome 71 with a focus on security features." December 4, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2019.

Security vulnerabilities

{{See also|Comparison of web browsers#Security and vulnerabilities}}No security vulnerabilities in Chrome were exploited in the three years of Pwn2Own from 2009–2011.WEB, Keizer, Gregg,weblink Google's Chrome untouched at Pwn2Own hack match, Computerworld, March 10, 2011, At Pwn2Own 2012, Chrome was defeated by a French team who used zero day exploits in the version of Flash shipped with Chrome to take complete control of a fully patched 64-bit Windows 7 PC using a booby-trapped website that overcame Chrome's sandboxing.WEB,weblink Pwn2Own 2012: Google Chrome browser sandbox first to fall, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, March 7, 2012, April 8, 2012, Chrome was compromised twice at the 2012 CanSecWest Pwnium.WEB,weblink CanSecWest Pwnium: Google Chrome hacked with sandbox bypass, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, March 7, 2012, April 8, 2012, WEB,weblink Teenager hacks Google Chrome with three 0day vulnerabilities, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, March 9, 2012, April 8, 2012, Google's official response to the exploits was delivered by Jason Kersey, who congratulated the researchers, noting "We also believe that both submissions are works of art and deserve wider sharing and recognition."WEB,weblink Chrome Stable Update, March 10, 2012, Kersey, Jason, March 10, 2012, Fixes for these vulnerabilities were deployed within 10 hours of the submission.WEB, Dan, Goodin, Google Chrome exploit fetches "Pinkie Pie" $60,000 hacking prize,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, October 10, 2012, March 9, 2017, WEB,weblink Pwnium 2: results and wrap-up, Chromium Blog, October 10, 2012, A significant number of security vulnerabilities in Chrome occur in the Adobe Flash Player. For example, the 2016 Pwn2Own successful attack on Chrome relied on four security vulnerabilities. Two of the vulnerabilities were in Flash, one was in Chrome, and one was in the Windows kernel.WEB,weblink Pwn2own Day 1 Exploits: Google Chrome, Adobe Flash, Apple Safari, September 20, 2016, In 2016, Google announced that it was planning to phase out Flash Player in Chrome, starting in version 53. The first phase of the plan is to disable Flash for ads and "background analytics", with the ultimate goal of disabling it completely by the end of the year, except on specific sites that Google has deemed to be broken without it. Flash would then be re-enabled with the exclusion of ads and background analytics on a site-by-site basis.WEB,weblink Google targets HTML5 default for Chrome instead of Flash in Q4 2016, VentureBeat, September 20, 2016, Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013–2016, detail the capabilities of the CIA, such as the ability to compromise web browsers (including Google Chrome).NEWS,weblink WikiLeaks posts trove of CIA documents detailing mass hacking, March 7, 2017, CBS News, en, NEWS,weblink How the CIA Can Hack Your Phone, PC, and TV (Says WikiLeaks), Greenberg, Andy, March 7, 2017, WIRED, en-US,

Malware blocking and ad blocking

Google introduced download scanning protection in Chrome 17.WEB,weblink Chrome Browser,, April 21, 2014, In February 2018, Google introduced an ad blocking feature based on recommendations from the Interactive Advertising Bureau. Sites that employ invasive ads are given a 30-day warning, after which their ads will be blocked.NEWS,weblink Google’s Chrome ad blocker means the Web’s largest ad company is also now advertising’s biggest traffic cop, Tsukayama, Hayley, The Washington Post, February 15, 2018, February 15, 2018, Consumer Reports recommended users install dedicated ad-blocking tools instead, which offer increased security against malware and tracking.NEWS,weblink Want to Protect Against Websites That Spy on You? Get an Ad Blocker., Chaikivsky, Andrew, Consumer Reports, February 15, 2018, February 15, 2018,


  • Chrome supported, up to version 45, plug-ins with the Netscape Plugin Application Programming Interface (NPAPI),WEB,weblink Google Chrome FAQ for web developers, Google, April 8, 2012,weblink September 4, 2008, so that plug-ins (for example Adobe Flash Player) run as unrestricted separate processes outside the browser and cannot be sandboxed as tabs are. ActiveX is not supported. Since 2010, Adobe Flash has been integral to Chrome and does not need be installed separately. Flash is kept up to date as part of Chrome's own updates.WEB,weblink Google bakes Flash into Chrome, hopes to improve plug-in API, March 14, 2010, Paul, Ryan, March 2010, Java applet support was available in Chrome with Java 6 update 12 and above.WEB,weblink Java and Google Chrome,, December 11, 2009, Support for Java under OS X was provided by a Java Update released on May 18, 2010.WEB,weblink Issue 10812 – chromium – No java plugin support yet, Google, May 18, 2010,
  • On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a replacement for NPAPI that is more portable and more secureWEB,weblink,, February 24, 2012, March 23, 2013, called Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI).WEB,weblink Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI),, March 23, 2013, The default bundled PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) was available on Chrome OS first, then replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Linux from Chrome version 20, on Windows from version 21 (which also reduced Flash crashes by 20%),WEB,weblink Chromium Blog: The road to safer, more stable, and flashier Flash,, August 8, 2012, August 29, 2012, and eventually came to OS X at version 23.
  • On September 23, 2013, Google announced that it will be deprecating and then removing NPAPI support. NPAPI support was removed from Linux in Chrome release 35.WEB,weblink Chromium Blog: Saying Goodbye to Our Old Friend NPAPI, Chromium Blog, July 13, 2015, NPAPI plugins like Java can no longer work in Chrome (but there are workarounds for Flash by using PPAPI Flash Player on Linux including for Chromium).WEB,weblink PSA: Chrome for Linux planning to drop NPAPI support as soon as April, Another thing I found last night is a Debian package called PepperFlashPlayer. Apparently it works the same way as the existing FlashPlayer package (which downloads Adobe Flash from Adobe and installs it) -- it downloads Chrome from Google, extracts the PPAPI Flash plugin, and installs it for Chromium. That might be a good work-around for Chromium users in the interim. (Note: I am not endorsing this method, just making people aware of it.) But obviously it would be better if PPAPI Flash were available in a more "official" context., April 22, 2015,
  • On April 14, 2015, Google released Chrome v42, disabling the NPAPI by default. This makes plugins that do not have a PPAPI plugin counterpart incompatible with Chrome, such as Java, Silverlight and Unity. However, NPAPI support could be enabled through the chrome://flags{{dead link|date=October 2017 |bot=Jarble |fix-attempted=yes }} menu, until the release of version 45 in September 2015, that removed NPAPI support entirely.WEB,weblink, NPAPI deprecation: developer guide,


Incognito mode

missing image!
- Google Chrome Incognito.png -
Google Chrome Incognito mode message
The private browsing feature called Incognito mode prevents the browser from permanently storing any history information, cookies, site data, or form inputs.WEB,weblink Browse in private - Computer - Google Chrome Help,, en, April 1, 2018, Downloaded files and bookmarks will be stored. In addition, user activity is not hidden from visited websites or the Internet service provider.Incognito mode is similar to the private browsing feature in other web browsers. It does not prevent saving in all windows: "You can switch between an incognito window and any regular windows you have open. You'll only be in incognito mode when you're using the incognito window".WEB,weblink Explore Google Chrome Features: Incognito Mode, September 2, 2008, September 4, 2008,

Listening capabilities

In June 2015, the Debian developer community discovered that Chromium 43 and Chrome 43 were programmed to download the Hotword Shared Module, which could enable the OK Google voice recognition extension, although by default it was "off". This raised privacy concerns in the media.NEWS,weblink Google Chrome Listening In To Your Room Shows The Importance Of Privacy Defense In Depth, Falkvinge, Rick, June 18, 2015, Private Internet Access Blog, April 7, 2018, en-US, Rick Falkvinge, NEWS,weblink Not OK, Google: Chromium voice extension pulled after spying concerns, Bright, Peter, Ars Technica, April 7, 2018, en-us, The module was removed in Chrome 45, which was released on September 1, 2015, and was only present in Chrome 43 and 44.WEB,weblink Diff - 0366a5184a70b3eefb5fcef2c2e13721669f00d8^! - chromium/src - Git at Google,, September 26, 2017, WEB,weblink Chrome Releases: Stable Channel Update,, September 1, 2015,

{{Anchor|User tracking}}User tracking concerns

Chrome sends details about its users and their activities to Google through both optional and non-optional user tracking mechanisms.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, April 7, 2018, Welcome to the Botnet, April 7, 2018, April 7, 2018, Some of the tracking mechanisms can be optionally enabled and disabled through the installation interfaceJOURNAL,weblink Google Chrome Privacy Notice, Google, December 13, 2011, February 4, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }} and through the browser's options dialog. Unofficial builds, such as SRWare Iron, seek to remove these features from the browser altogether. The RLZ feature is not included in the Chromium browser either.In March 2010, Google devised a new method to collect installation statistics: the unique ID token included with Chrome is now used for only the first connection that Google Update makes to its server.WEB,weblink Google Chrome Unique Identifier Change, March 16, 2010, March 24, 2010, The optional suggestion service included in Google Chrome has been criticized because it provides the information typed into the Omnibox to the search provider before the user even hits return. This allows the search engine to provide URL suggestions, but also provides them with web use information tied to an IP address.WEB, Ina, Fried, Google's Omnibox could be Pandora's box,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 7, 2008, March 9, 2017, The optional feature to use a web service to help resolve spelling errors has privacy implications.WEB,weblink Chrome's privacy settings, April 25, 2013, {| class="wikitable"|+ Tracking methods! MethodWEB,weblink SRWare Iron webpage, October 12, 2008, ! Information sent! When! Optional?! (wiktionary:opt-in|Opt-in?) Installation| Randomly generated token included in installer; used to measure success rate of Google Chrome once at installation|On installation| {{no}}| {{n/a}} RLZ identifierHTTP://FOLIOVISION.COM/2008/12/09/ADWORDS-PPC-ORGANIC-RLZ/ >TITLE=&RLZ= IN GOOGLE REFERRER: ORGANIC TRAFFIC OR ADWORDS?, February 27, 2009, Code>Encoded string, according to Google, contains non-identifying information on where Chrome was downloaded from and its installation week; is used to measure promotional campaigns; Google provides source code to decode this stringCan be disabled in Chrome Operating System. For Chrome browsers running in all other operating systems:
  • Desktops can avoid it by downloading the browser directly from
  • Phones, tablets, maybe laptops: Google has not said that it can be disabled|
  • On Google search query
  • On first launch and first use of address bar
FORMAT=PDF, April 8, 2012, | {{no}} clientIDHTTP://BLOGOSCOPED.COM/ARCHIVE/2008-09-09-N68.HTML >TITLE=GOOGLE REACTS TO SOME CHROME PRIVACY CONCERNS, September 24, 2008, | Unique identifier along with user preferences, logs of use metrics and crashes| {{unk}}| {{yes}}Controlled by the setting "Send usage statistics and error reports"; default off| {{yes}} Omnibox predictions| Text typed into the address bar| While typing| {{yes}}| {{no}} Page not found| Text typed into the address bar| On receiving "Server not found" response| {{yes}}| {{no}} Google Update| Information about how often Chrome is used, details about the OS and Chrome version| Periodically, December 12, 2014, | {{no}}

Do Not Track

In February 2012, Google announced that Chrome would implement the Do Not Track (DNT) standard to inform websites the user's desire to be not tracked. The protocol was implemented in version 23. In line with the W3's draft standard for DNT,WEB,weblink W3C, December 17, 2015, Tracking DNT, it is turned off by default in Chrome.WEB,weblink Google and Chrome To Support Do Not Track, March 3, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2012,


The JavaScript virtual machine used by Chrome, the V8 JavaScript engine, has features such as dynamic code generation, hidden class transitions, and precise garbage collection.In 2008, several websites performed benchmark tests using the SunSpider JavaScript Benchmark tool as well as Google's own set of computationally intense benchmarks, which include ray tracing and constraint solving.WEB,weblink V8 Benchmark suite, September 3, 2008, Google Code, dead, September 4, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink They unanimously reported that Chrome performed much faster than all competitors against which it had been tested, including Safari (for Windows), Firefox 3.0, Internet Explorer 7, Opera, and Internet Explorer 8.WEB, Google Chrome – first benchmarks. Summary: wow,weblink Goodwins, Rupert, September 2, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 3, 2008, WEB,weblink Google Chrome Javascript Benchmarks,, September 1, 2008, April 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 7, 2012, WEB, Google Chrome is insanely fast ... faster than Firefox 3.0, Adrian, Kingsley-Hughes, September 2, 2008,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, WEB,weblink Chrome: Benchmarks and more, Limi, Alexander, September 2, 2008, May 13, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2010, WEB,weblink Safari 4 vs. Firefox 3 vs. Google Chrome vs. Opera 10, 9.6 vs. Internet Explorer 8, 7, Lipskas, Vygantas, Favbrowser, March 1, 2009, May 13, 2010, However, on October 11, 2010, independent tests of JavaScript performance, Chrome has been scoring just behind Opera's Presto engine since it was updated in version 10.5.WEB, Firefox in the dust: Opera poised to reclaim browser performance lead,weblink Scott M. Fulton, III, October 11, 2010, November 6, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2011, On September 3, 2008, Mozilla responded by stating that their own TraceMonkey JavaScript engine (then in beta), was faster than Chrome's V8 engine in some tests.WEB, Stephen, Shankland, Firefox counters Google's browser speed test,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 7, 2008, March 9, 2017, WEB, Brendan, Eich, Brendan Eich,weblink TraceMonkey Update, September 3, 2008, WEB,weblink Third Chrome beta another notch faster – News, Shankland, Stephen, Builder AU, November 3, 2008, May 13, 2010, John Resig, Mozilla's JavaScript evangelist, further commented on the performance of different browsers on Google's own suite, commenting on Chrome's "decimating" of the other browsers, but he questioned whether Google's suite was representative of real programs. He stated that Firefox 3.0 performed poorly on recursion-intensive benchmarks, such as those of Google, because the Mozilla team had not implemented recursion-tracing yet.WEB, John, Resig, John Resig,weblink JavaScript Performance Rundown, September 3, 2008, Two weeks after Chrome's launch in 2008, the WebKit team announced a new JavaScript engine, SquirrelFish Extreme,WEB,weblink WebKit blog: Introducing SquirrelFish Extreme, Stachowiak, Maciej, September 18, 2008, May 13, 2010, citing a 36% speed improvement over Chrome's V8 engine.WEB,weblink SquirrelFish Extreme has landed!, Zwarich, Cameron, September 18, 2008, May 13, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 27, 2009, WEB,weblink Step aside, Chrome, for Squirrelfish Extreme – News, Shankland, Stephen, Builder AU, September 22, 2008, May 13, 2010, WEB,weblink SquirrelFish Extreme: Fastest JavaScript Engine Yet, Ying, Charles, September 19, 2008, May 13, 2010, Like most major web browsers, Chrome uses DNS prefetching to speed up website lookups,WEB,weblink Three hidden Chrome features you'll love, Gralla, Preston, September 3, 2008, September 16, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 23, 2008, as do other browsers like Firefox,WEB,weblink DNS prefetching for Firefox, November 8, 2008, Safari,WEB,weblink What's new in Safari 5, Apple Inc., June 7, 2010, July 6, 2010, Internet Explorer (called DNS Pre-resolution),WEB,weblink Internet Explorer 9 Network Performance Improvements,, March 17, 2011, April 8, 2012, and in Opera as a UserScript (not built-in).WEB, Eiras, João,weblink Page prefetcher,, April 8, 2012, Chrome formerly used their now deprecated SPDY protocol instead of only HTTPWEB,weblink chrome] Index of /trunk/src/net/spdy – Chromium SPDY client implementation,, April 8, 2012, WEB,weblink SPDY Proxy Examples – The Chromium Projects,, April 8, 2012, when communicating with servers that support it, such as Google services, Facebook, Twitter. SPDY support was removed in Chrome version 51. This was due to SPDY being replaced by HTTP/2, a standard that was based upon it.


(File:Chrome-crash.png|thumb|Screenshot of Chrome browser crash)A multi-process architecture is implemented in ChromeWEB,weblink Multi-process Architecture, Reisn, Charlie, September 11, 2008, September 12, 2008, where, by default, a separate process is allocated to each site instance and plugin. This procedure is termed process isolation,WEB,weblink Process Models, September 3, 2008, The Chromium Projects, Google, September 12, 2008, and it prevents tasks from interfering with each other, raising security and stability. An attacker successfully gaining access to one application gains access to no others,WEB,weblink Google Chrome Puts Security in a Sandbox, Prince, Brian, December 11, 2008,, Ziff Davis Enterprise Holdings Inc, June 4, 2010, and failure in one instance results in a Sad Tab screen of death, similar to the well-known Sad Mac, but only one tab crashes instead of the whole application. This strategy exacts a fixed per-process cost up front, but results in less memory bloat over time as fragmentation is confined to each instance and no longer needs further memory allocations. This architecture was adopted in SafariWEB,weblink [webkit-dev] Announcing WebKit2,, April 8, 2012, and Firefox.WEB,weblink Firefox Lorentz beta available for download and testing, April 8, 2010, Mozilla, Chrome includes a process management utility called Task Manager which lets users see what sites and plugins are using the most memory, downloading the most bytes and overusing the CPU and provides the ability to terminate them. Chrome Version 23 ensures its users an improved battery life for the systems supporting Chrome's GPU accelerated video decoding.WEB,weblink Chrome 23 Closes 15 Security Vulnerabilities, Promises Longer Battery Life & Added Do Not Track (DNT), November 9, 2012,

User interface

{{Multiple image| direction = vertical| width = 150| header = Google Chrome logos| image1 = Chrome Logo.svg| caption1 = 3D motif from first public release September 2008 until March 2011| image2 = Google Chrome icon (2011).svg| caption2 = 2D motif from March 2011 until October 2015| image3 = Google Chrome for Android Icon 2016.svg| caption3 = Material Design motif used from September 2014 onward for mobile version and October 2015 onward for desktop version}}By default, the main user interface includes back, forward, refresh/cancel and menu buttons. A home button is not shown by default, but can be added through the Settings page to take the user to the new tab page or a custom home page.WEB,weblink Set your home page, May 22, 2012, Google, 2012, Tabs are the main component of Chrome's user interface and have been moved to the top of the window rather than below the controls. This subtle change contrasts with many existing tabbed browsers which are based on windows and contain tabs. Tabs, with their state, can be transferred seamlessly between window containers by dragging. Each tab has its own set of controls, including the Omnibox.The Omnibox is a URL box that combines the functions of both the address bar and search box. If a user enters the URL of a site previously searched from, Chrome allows pressing Tab to search the site again directly from the Omnibox. When a user starts typing in the Omnibox, Chrome provides suggestions for previously visited sites (based on the URL or in-page text), popular websites (not necessarily visited before{{snd}} powered by Google Instant), and popular searches. Although Instant can be turned off, suggestions based on previously visited sites cannot be turned off. Chrome will also autocomplete the URLs of sites visited often. If a user types keywords into the Omnibox that don't match any previously visited websites and presses enter, Chrome will conduct the search using the default search engine.One of Chrome's differentiating features is the New Tab Page, which can replace the browser home page and is displayed when a new tab is created. Originally, this showed thumbnails of the nine most visited web sites, along with frequent searches, recent bookmarks, and recently closed tabs; similar to Internet Explorer and Firefox with Google Toolbar, or Opera's Speed Dial. In Google Chrome 2.0, the New Tab Page was updated to allow users to hide thumbnails they did not want to appear.WEB, Darin, Fisher, A Speedier Google Chrome for all users,weblink Chrome Blog, Google, May 21, 2009, March 9, 2017, Starting in version 3.0, the New Tab Page was revamped to display thumbnails of the eight most visited web sites. The thumbnails could be rearranged, pinned, and removed. Alternatively, a list of text links could be displayed instead of thumbnails. It also features a "Recently closed" bar that shows recently closed tabs and a "tips" section that displays hints and tricks for using the browser.WEB, Anthony, LaForge, Google Chrome after a year: Sporting a new stable release,weblink Official Google Blog, Google, September 15, 2009, March 9, 2017, Chrome includes a bookmarks submenu that lists the user's bookmarks, provides easy access to Chrome's Bookmark Manager, and allows the user to toggle a bookmarks bar on or off.For web developers, Chrome features an element inspector (Inspect Element), similar to the Firebug browser extension, which allows users to look into the DOM and see what makes up the webpage.Chrome has special URLs that load application-specific pages instead of websites or files on disk. Chrome also has a built-in ability to enable experimental features. Originally called about:labs, the address was changed to about:flags to make it less obvious to casual users.WEB,weblink Chromium, September 1, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 8, 2010, NEWS,weblink Chrome's About:Labs Renamed to About:Flags, Adds a Warning, October 19, 2010, Pash, Adam, October 2010, LifeHacker, In March 2011, Google introduced a new simplified logo to replace the previous 3D logo that had been used since the project's inception. Google designer Steve Rura explained the company reasoning for the change: "Since Chrome is all about making your web experience as easy and clutter-free as possible, we refreshed the Chrome icon to better represent these sentiments. A simpler icon embodies the Chrome spirit{{snd}} to make the web quicker, lighter, and easier for all."In September 2013, Google started making Chrome apps "For your desktop". This meant offline access, desktop shortcuts, and less dependence on Chrome—apps launch in a window separate from Chrome, and look more like native applications.WEB, Erik, Kay, A new breed of Chrome Apps,weblink Chrome Blog, Google, September 5, 2013, March 9, 2017, On January 2, 2019, Google introduced Native Dark Theme for Chrome on Windows 10.Danica Simic, ValueWalk. "Google To Introduce Native Dark Theme For Chrome On Windows 10." January 2, 2019. Retrieved January 4, 2019.

Desktop shortcuts and apps

Chrome allows users to make local desktop shortcuts that open web applications in the browser. The browser, when opened in this way, contains none of the regular interface except for the title bar, so as not to "interrupt anything the user is trying to do". This allows web applications to run alongside local software (similar to Mozilla Prism and Fluid).This feature, according to Google, will be enhanced with the Chrome Web Store, a one-stop web-based web applications directory which opened in December 2010.WEB,weblink Chrome Web Store, May 19, 2010, Google, May 24, 2010, WEB,weblink The Chrome Web Store, Lay, Erik, May 19, 2010, Google, May 24, 2010,

Chrome Web Store

Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store allows users to install web applications as extensions to the browser, although most of these extensions function simply as links to popular web pages and/or games, but some of the apps like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the new store, allowing users to search the entire catalog of Chrome extras.WEB, Ryan, Paul, Chrome Web Store: a solution in search of a problem?,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, December 9, 2010, March 9, 2017, The Chrome Web Store was opened on February 11, 2011, with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.WEB, Erik, Kay, Aaron, Boodman, A dash of speed, 3D and apps,weblink Chrome Blog, Google, February 3, 2011, March 9, 2017,


Google Chrome Extensions are browser extensions that modify Google Chrome.WEB
, Google Chrome Extensions Blog Announcement
, Brian, Rakowski
, Google
, December 8, 2009
, February 25, 2010
, These extensions are written using web technologies like HTML, JavaScript, and CSS.WEB
, Google Chrome Extensions Help Page
, Google
, February 25, 2010
,weblink" title="">weblink
, February 8, 2010
, dead
, They are distributed through Chrome Web StoreWEB
, 20 best Chrome extensions
, David
, Nield
, TechRadar
, April 20, 2012
, May 16, 2012
,weblink" title="">weblink
, May 3, 2012
, dead

(which was originally called the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery). All users with a Google Account are able to add extensions after developing them.WEB
, Publish in the Chrome Web Store
, Google
, September 7, 2018
, Many Chrome extensions, once installed, have access to the user's data. There are three levels of permissions that an app or extension may request.WEB,weblink Chrome Web Store Help, Google, April 8, 2012, On September 9, 2009, Google enabled extensions by default on Chrome's developer channel, and provided several sample extensions for testing.WEB
, Extensions Status: On the Runway, Getting Ready for Take-Off
, Boodman
, Aaron
, Google
, September 9, 2009
, May 13, 2010
, In December, the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery beta began with approximately 300 extensions.WEB,weblink Extensions beta launched, with over 300 extensions!, Kay, Erik, Google, December 8, 2009, May 13, 2010, It was launched on January 25, 2010 along with Google Chrome 4.0, containing approximately 1500 extensions.WEB, Nick, Baum, Over 1,500 new features for Google Chrome,weblink Chrome Blog, Google, January 25, 2010, March 9, 2017, In 2014, Google started preventing some Windows users from installing extensions not hosted on the Chrome Web Store.WEB,weblink Chrome For Windows Will Now Only Install Extensions From Google’s Web Store, TechCrunch, en-US, December 14, 2018, WEB,weblink Protecting Chrome users from malicious extensions, Google Chrome Blog, en, December 14, 2018, The following year Google reported a "75% drop in customer support help requests for uninstalling unwanted extensions" which led them to expand this restriction to all Windows and Mac users.WEB,weblink Continuing to protect Chrome users from malicious extensions, Chromium Blog, en, December 15, 2018,

Notable examples

{{See also category|Google Chrome extensions}}{{colbegin|colwidth=20em}} {{colend}}


Starting with Google Chrome 3.0, users can install themes to alter the appearance of the browser.WEB, Glen, Murphy, Mark, Sabec, A splash of color to your browser: Artist Themes for Google Chrome,weblink Chrome Blog, Google, October 5, 2009, March 9, 2017, Many free third-party themes are provided in an online gallery,WEB,weblink Chrome Web Store, Google, April 8, 2012, accessible through a "Get themes" button in Chrome's options.WEB,weblink Basic settings: Change browser theme, Google Chrome Help,

Automatic web page translation

Starting with Google Chrome 4.1 the application added a built-in translation bar using Google Translate. Translation is currently available for 52 languages.WEB,weblink Change Chrome languages & translate webpages,, When Chrome detects a foreign language other than the user's preferred language as set during the installation time, it asks the user whether or not to translate.

{{Anchor|Pre-releases}}Release channels, cycles and updates

The first production release on December 11, 2008, marked the end of the initial Beta test period and the beginning of Production. Shortly thereafter, on January 8, 2009, Google announced an updated release system with three channels: Stable (corresponding to the traditional Production), Beta, and Developer preview (also called the "Dev" channel). Where there were before only two channels: Beta and Developer, now there were three. Concurrently, all Developer channel users were moved to the Beta channel along with the promoted Developer release. Google explained that now the Developer channel builds would be less stable and polished than those from the initial Google Chrome's Beta period. Beta users could opt back to the Developer channel as desired.Each channel has its own release cycle and stability level. The Stable channel updated roughly quarterly, with features and fixes that passed "thorough" testing in the Beta channel. Beta updated roughly monthly, with "stable and complete" features migrated from the Developer channel. The Developer channel updated once or twice per week and was where ideas and features were first publicly exposed "(and sometimes fail) and can be very unstable at times". [Quoted remarks from Google's policy announcements.]WEB, Larson, Mark, January 8, 2009,weblink Google Chrome Release Channels, January 9, 2009, WEB, Larson, Mark, January 8, 2009,weblink Dev update: New WebKit version, new features, and a new Dev channel, January 9, 2009, WEB, Fette, Ian, December 11, 2008,weblink Thanks For All Your Help, May 1, 2015, (File:Chrome Canary.png|thumb|128px|Google Chrome Canary Application Icon)On July 22, 2010, Google announced it would ramp up the speed at which it releases new stable versions; the release cycles were shortened from quarterly to six weeks for major Stable updates.WEB, Laforge, Anthony, July 22, 2010,weblink Release Early, Release Often, July 25, 2010, Beta channel releases now come roughly at the same rate as Stable releases, though approximately one month in advance, while Dev channel releases appear roughly once or twice weekly, allowing time for basic release-critical testing.WEB, The Chromium Authors,weblink Chrome Release Channels, October 29, 2014, This faster release cycle also brought a fourth channel: the "Canary" channel, updated daily from a build produced at 09:00 UTC from the most stable of the last 40 revisions.WEB, Irish, Paul, November 2, 2012,weblink Chrome Canary for Developers, October 29, 2014, The name refers to the practice of using canaries in coal mines, so if a change "kills" Chrome Canary, it will be blocked from migrating down to the Developer channel, at least until fixed in a subsequent Canary build.WEB, Bridge, Henry, Google Chrome in a Coal Mine,weblink Chromium Blog, March 19, 2015, August 2, 2010, Canary is "the most bleeding-edge official version of Chrome and somewhat of a mix between Chrome dev and the Chromium snapshot builds". Canary releases run side-by-side with any other channel; it is not linked to the other Google Chrome installation and can therefore run different synchronization profiles, themes, and browser preferences. This ensures that fallback functionality remains even when some Canary update may contain release-breaking bugs.WEB, Lee, Mathews, July 23, 2010,weblink Google drops Chrome Canary build down the Chrome mineshaft, July 25, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2010, It does not natively include the option to be the default browser, although on Windows and OS X it can be set through System Preferences. Canary was Windows-only at first; an OS X version was released on May 3, 2011.WEB,weblink Adding more yellow to the Mac color scheme,, May 2, 2011, February 4, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }}.The Chrome beta channel for Android was launched on January 10, 2013; like Canary, it runs side-by-side with the stable channel for Android.WEB,weblink Chrome beta for Android on Google Play,, March 23, 2013, Chrome Dev for Android was launched on April 29, 2015.WEB,weblink Google Launches Dev Channel for Chrome on Android, Chrome Story, July 13, 2015, All Chrome channels are automatically distributed according to their respective release cycles. The mechanism differs by platform. On Windows, it uses Google Update, and auto-update can be controlled via Group Policy.WEB,weblink Google Update Releases Update Controls, Dorwin, David, May 14, 2009, May 13, 2010, Alternatively, users may download a standalone installer of a version of Chrome that does not auto-update.WEB,weblink Alternate (offline) Google Chrome installers for Windows - Chrome Help, WEB,weblink Get a fast, free web browser, Google,, February 17, 2017, On OS X, it uses Google Update Service, and auto-update can be controlled via the OS X "defaults" system.WEB,weblink Google Help page "Managing updates in Google Software Update", On Linux, it lets the system's normal package management system supply the updates. This auto-updating behavior is a key difference from Chromium, the non-branded open-source browser which forms the core of Google Chrome. Because Chromium also serves as the pre-release development trunk for Chrome, its revisions are provided as source code and buildable snapshots are produced continuously with each new commit, requiring users to manage their own browser updates.WEB,weblink Tour of the Chromium Buildbot Waterfall - The Chromium Projects, December 2, 2014,

Release version numbers

Releases are identified by a four-part version number, e.g. 42.0.2311.90 (Windows Stable release April 14, 2015). The components are,weblink Chromium Development Calendar and Release Info, The Chromium Projects, May 1, 2015, WEB,weblink Version Numbers, The Chromium Projects, May 1, 2015, March 14, 2014, Mike Frysinger,
Major.minor reflects scheduling policy Build.patch identifies content progression
  • Major represents a product release. These are scheduled 7–8 per year, unlike other software systems where the major version number updates only with substantial new content.
  • Minor is usually 0. References to version 'x' or 'x.0', e.g. 42.0, refer to this major.minor designation.
  • Build is ever increasing. For a release cycle, e.g. 42.0, there are several builds in the Canary and Developer period. The last build number from Developer is kept throughout Beta and Stable and is locked with the major.minor for that release.
  • Patch resets with each build, incrementing with each patch. The first patch is 0, but usually the first publicly released patch is somewhat higher. In Beta and Stable, only patch increments.
Chromium and Chrome release schedules are linked through Chromium(Major) version Branch Point dates, published annually. The Branch Points precede the final Chrome Developer build (initial) release by 4 days (nearly always) and the Chrome Stable initial release by roughly 53 days.WEB,weblink Chrome Release Cycle -12/16/2010accessdate=May 1, 2015author=Anthony LaForge, Example: The version 42 Branch Point was February 20, 2015. Developer builds stopped advancing at build 2311 with release 42.0.2311.4 on February 24,WEB, Version 42 Developer Update,weblink Chrome Releases, Google, December 28, 2015, February 26, 2015, 4 days later. The first Stable release, 42.0.2311.90, was April 14, 2015,WEB, Version 42 Stable Release,weblink Chrome Releases, Google, December 28, 2015, April 14, 2015, 53 days after the Branch Point.

Color management

Chrome supports color management by using the system-provided ICC v2 and v4 support on macOS, and from version 22 supports ICC v2 profiles by default on other platforms.


In Chrome, when not connected to the Internet and an error message displaying "There is no Internet" is shown, on the top, an "8-bit" Tyrannosaurus rex is shown, but when pressing the space bar on a keyboard, mouse-clicking on it or tapping it on touch devices, the T-Rex instantly jumps once and dashes across a cactus-ridden desert, revealing it to be an Easter egg in the form of a platform game.WEB,weblink Google Chrome Easter Egg T-Rex Mini Game, Business Insider, WEB,weblink Play Google Chrome’s Secret Offline Game, WEB,weblink How do I find the secret dinosaur game on Google Chrome when my internet connection is down?, RadioTimes, WEB,weblink Google Chrome's 'Unable to connect to the Internet' page has a hidden endless runner game, The Independent, The game itself is an infinite runner, and there is no time limit in the game as it progresses faster and periodically tints to a black background. A school Chromebook administrator can disable the game.WEB,weblink Issue 462221 - chromium - Disable offline game (T-Rex) if device is enrolled - Monorail, February 26, 2015, Google,, February 26, 2015, July 27, 2016,


Chrome runs on: {{As of|2016|4}}, stable 32-bit and 64-bit builds are available for Windows, with only 64-bit stable builds available for Linux and macOS.WEB, 64-bit Support – The Chromium Projects,weblink Google, March 5, 2012, WEB,weblink Download Chrome for Linux, Google, 64-bit Windows builds became available in the developer channel and as canary builds on June 3, 2014,WEB, Try out the new 64-bit Windows Canary and Dev channels,weblink Google, July 1, 2014, in beta channel on July 30, 2014,WEB, Announcing the Chrome 64-bit Beta Channel for Windows!,weblink Google, August 11, 2014, and in stable channel on August 26, 2014.WEB,weblink 64 bits of awesome: 64-bit Windows Support, now in Stable!, August 26, 2014, August 27, 2014, 64-bit OS X builds became available as canary builds on November 7, 2013,WEB, [chromium-dev] Yesterday’s Mac canary was 64-bit,weblink Google, July 1, 2014, WEB, Re: [chromium-dev] Re: Chromium 64-bit on Mac OS,weblink Google, July 1, 2014, in beta channel on October 9, 2014,WEB, Beta Channel Update,weblink Google, October 9, 2014, October 10, 2014, and in stable channel on November 18, 2014.WEB, Stable Channel Update,weblink Google, November 18, 2014, November 18, 2014,


{{Google Chrome release compatibility}}


A beta version for Android 4.0 devices was launched on February 7, 2012, available for a limited number of countries from Google Play.WEB,weblink Install Chrome for Android Beta – Google Chrome Help, Google, April 6, 2012, Notable features: synchronization with desktop Chrome to provide the same bookmarks and view the same browser tabs,WEB,weblink Beta version of Chrome for Android 4.0 released,, February 9, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }}. page pre-rendering,WEB,weblink Google Operating System: Chrome for Android,, February 27, 2004, February 9, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }}. hardware acceleration.Many of the latest HTML5 features: almost all of the Web Platform's features: GPU-accelerated canvas, including CSS 3D Transforms, CSS animations, SVG, WebSocket (including binary messages), Dedicated Workers; it has overflow scroll support, strong HTML5 video support, and new capabilities such as IndexedDB, WebWorkers, Application Cache and the File APIs, date- and time-pickers, parts of the Media Capture API.JOURNAL,weblink Bringing Google Chrome to Android, Beverloo, Peter, January 30, 2012, February 9, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }}. Also supports mobile oriented features such as Device Orientation and Geolocation.Mobile customizations: swipe gesture tab switching, link preview allows zooming in on (multiple) links to ensure the desired one is clicked, font size boosting to ensure readability regardless of the zoom level.Features missing in the mobile version include sandboxed tabs,JOURNAL,weblink Security overview, Google, February 9, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }}. Safe Browsing, apps or extensions,JOURNAL,weblink Google Chrome for Android – 23 Questions and Answers, Chrome Story, February 9, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }} Adobe Flash (now and in future), Native Client.Development changes: remote debugging,JOURNAL,weblink Google Chrome for Android: Remote Debugging, Google, February 9, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }}. part of the browser layer has been implemented in Java, communicating with the rest of the Chromium and WebKit code through Java Native Bindings. The code of Chrome for Android is a fork of the Chromium project. It is a priority to upstream most new and modified code to Chromium and WebKit to resolve the fork.The April 17, 2012 update included availability in 31 additional languages and in all countries where Google Play is available. A desktop version of a website can also be requested as opposed to a mobile version. In addition, Android users can now add bookmarks to their Android home screens if they choose and decide which apps should handle links opened in Chrome.WEB, Lardinois, Frederic, April 17, 2012,weblink Chrome For Android Gets Desktop View, Home Screen Bookmarks, File Downloads, On June 27, 2012, Google Chrome for Android exited beta and became stable.JOURNAL,weblink Google Chrome for Android comes out of beta, Hits Play today, Engadget, AOL, June 27, 2012, June 27, 2012, {{inconsistent citations, }}.Chrome 18.0.1026311, released on September 26, 2012, was the first version of Chrome for Android to support mobile devices based on Intel x86.WEB,weblink Chrome for Android Update,, September 26, 2012, March 23, 2013, Starting from version 25, the Chrome version for Android is aligned with the desktop version, and usually new stable releases are available at the same time between the Android and the desktop version. Google released a separate Chrome for Android beta channel on January 10, 2013, with version 25.WEB, Emil, Protalinski, Google launches Chrome Beta channel for Android 4.0+ phones and tablets, releases version 25,weblink The Next Web, January 10, 2013, March 9, 2017, {{As of | 2013}} a separate beta version of Chrome is available in the Google Play store{{snd}} it can run side-by-side with the stable release.WEB,weblink Chrome Beta for Android,, May 26, 2013, July 4, 2013,

Chrome OS

Google Chrome is the basis of Google's Chrome OS operating system that ships on specific hardware from Google's manufacturing partners.WEB,weblink Gadget Lab Hardware News and Reviews Google Chrome OS: Ditch Your Hard Drives, the Future Is the Web, November 19, 2009, Dylan F. Tweney, Wired (magazine), Wired, Condé Nast, November 22, 2009,weblink April 9, 2014, The user interface has a minimalist design resembling the Google Chrome browser. Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Web; the only applications on the devices are a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager.WEB, Caesar, Sengupta, Matt, Papakipos, Releasing the Chromium OS open source project,weblink Official Google Blog, Google, November 19, 2009, March 9, 2017, WEB, Jon, Stokes, Google talks Chrome OS, HTML5, and the future of software,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, January 20, 2010, March 9, 2017, WEB, Womack, Brian, July 8, 2009, July 8, 2009,weblink Google to Challenge Microsoft With Operating System, Bloomberg, NEWS, Hansell, Saul, New York Times,weblink July 8, 2009, July 8, 2009, Would you miss Windows with a Google operating system?, WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, Introducing the Google Chrome OS,weblink Official Google Blog, Google, July 7, 2009, March 9, 2017, Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009.WEB,weblink Google Announces Chrome OS, Mediati, Nick, PC World, IDG, July 7, 2009, July 8, 2009,


{{anchor|iOS version}}Chrome is available on Apple's mobile iOS operating system as Google Chrome for iOS. Released in the Apple App Store on June 26, 2012, it supports the iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch, and requires that the device has iOS 11.0 or greater installed.WEB,weblink Chrome entry - Apple's App Store, In accordance with Apple's requirements for browsers released through their App Store, this version of Chrome uses the iOS WebKit{{snd}} which is Apple's own mobile rendering engine and components, developed for their Safari browser{{snd}} therefore it is restricted from using Google's own V8 JavaScript engine.WEB,weblink Google Chrome on iOS Hits #1 Free App, Forbes, WEB,weblink iOS 8 WebKit changes finally allow all apps to have the same performance as Safari, Chrome is the default web browser for the iOS Gmail application, but it cannot be used as the device-wide default application for opening webpages because Apple has not provided iOS users with the option to change the default from Safari.WEB, Kovach, Steve,weblink Here's Even More Evidence That Google Is Trying To Take Over The iPhone, Business Insider, May 8, 2013, June 10, 2013, In a review by Chitika, Chrome was noted as having 1.5% of the iOS web browser market {{as of|2012|July|18|lc=y|df=US}}.WEB, Don, Reisinger, Chrome already nabs 1.5 percent of iOS browser market,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, July 18, 2012, March 9, 2017, In October 2013, Chrome had 3% of the iOS browser market.WEB,weblink Chrome's Share of iOS Usage Doubles Year-Over-Year to 3%, Mac Rumors, October 11, 2013, April 21, 2014,


On Linux distributions, support for 32-bit Intel processors ended in March 2016 although Chromium is still supported.WEB,weblink Google ends 32-bit Linux support for Chrome, OSNews, As of Chrome version 26, Linux installations of the browser may be updated only on systems that support GCC v4.6 and GTK v2.24 or later. Thus deprecated systems include (for example) Debian 6's 2.20, and RHEL 6's 2.18.WEB,weblink Chrome stops declaring Linux systems obsolete - The H Open: News and Features, February 14, 2013,, March 30, 2013,


Support for Google Chrome on Windows XP and Windows Vista ended in April 2016.WEB,weblink Updates to Chrome platform support, Pawliger, Marc, November 10, 2015, Chrome Blog, Google, March 9, 2017, The last release of Google Chrome that can be run on Windows XP and Windows Vista was version 49.0.2623.112,NEWS, Cunningham, Andrew, Chrome 50 ends support for Windows XP, OS X 10.6, other old versions,weblink October 9, 2016, ArsTechnia, April 14, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2016, en, released on April 7, 2016,WEB,weblink Stable Channel Update,, August 10, 2016, then re-released on April 11, 2016.WEB,weblink Google Chrome 49.0.2623.112,, August 10, 2016, "Windows 8 mode" was introduced in 2012 and has since been discontinued. It was provided to developer channel, which enabled Windows 8 and 8.1 users to run Chrome with a full-screen, tablet-optimized interface, with access to snapping, sharing, and search functionalities.WEB, Newman, Jared, Google Chrome Gets Early Metro-Style App for Windows 8,weblink PCWorld, IDG, June 13, 2012, In October 2013, Windows 8 mode on developer channel changed to use a desktop environment mimicking the interface of Chrome OS with a dedicated windowing system and taskbar for web apps.WEB, Google is building Chrome OS straight into Windows 8,weblink The Verge, October 5, 2013, This was discontinued as of version 49 and users that have upgraded to Windows 10 will lose this feature.WEB,weblink Unable to open Google Chrome in windows 8 mode - Google Product Forums, September 29, 2016,


Google dropped support for Mac OS X 10.5 with the release of Chrome 22.WEB,weblink Chrome no longer supports Mac OS X 10.5, Google,weblink March 29, 2015, Support for 32-bit versions of Chrome ended in October 2014 with the release of Chrome 39.WEB,weblink Chrome updates on Mac 32-bit, Chrome help, Google, WEB,weblink Google to Discontinue 32-bit Chrome for Mac Next Month, OMG! Chrome!, Support for Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, and 10.8 ended in April 2016 with the release of Chrome 50. Support for OS X 10.9 ended in April 2018 with the release of Chrome 66.{{Citation needed|date=July 2018}}


{{update|section|date=June 2019}}Google Chrome was met with acclaim upon release. In 2008, Matthew Moore of The Daily Telegraph summarized the verdict of early reviewers: "Google Chrome is attractive, fast and has some impressive new features..."NEWS, Matthew, Moore, Google Chrome browser: Review of reviews,weblink September 24, 2011, September 2, 2008, Daily Telegraph, Initially, Microsoft reportedly played down the threat from Chrome and predicted that most people would embrace Internet Explorer 8. Opera Software said that "Chrome will strengthen the Web as the biggest application platform in the world".JOURNAL,weblink Google polishes product line with Chrome browser, Michael, Liedtke, September 3, 2008, Associated Press, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 23, 2012, But by February 25, 2010, BusinessWeek had reported that "For the first time in years, energy and resources are being poured into browsers, the ubiquitous programs for accessing content on the Web. Credit for this trend{{snd}} a boon to consumers{{snd}} goes to two parties. The first is Google, whose big plans for the Chrome browser have shaken Microsoft out of its competitive torpor and forced the software giant to pay fresh attention to its own browser, Internet Explorer. Microsoft all but ceased efforts to enhance IE after it triumphed in the last browser war, sending Netscape to its doom. Now it's back in gear."JOURNAL,weblink Browser Wars: The Sequel, Rich, Jaroslovsky, BusinessWeek, February 25, 2010, Mozilla said that Chrome's introduction into the web browser market comes as "no real surprise", that "Chrome is not aimed at competing with Firefox", and furthermore that it would not affect Google's revenue relationship with Mozilla.WEB,weblink Thoughts on Chrome & More, John's Blog, September 1, 2008, May 13, 2010, JOURNAL,weblink Mozilla: Google's not trying to kill us, Barry, Collins, September 2, 2008, PC Pro, Dennis Publishing, July 11, 2012, }}With its dominance in the web browser market, Google has been accused of using Chrome and Blink development to push new web standards, that are proposed in-house by Google and subsequently implemented by its services first and foremost. These have led to performance disadvantages and compatibility issues with competing browsers, and in some cases, developers intentionally refusing to test their websites on any other browser than Chrome. The Verge went as far as comparing Chrome to Internet Explorer 6—the Windows XP default browser that was often targeted over competitors due to its similar ubiquity in the early-2000s.WEB,weblink Google's Chrome Becomes Web 'Gatekeeper' and Rivals Complain, May 28, 2019, Bloomberg, May 28, 2019, WEB,weblink Chrome is turning into the new Internet Explorer 6, Warren, Tom, January 4, 2018, The Verge, May 28, 2019, In 2019, Google similarly faced criticism over planned changes to its extensions API for Chrome (dubbed "Manifest V3"), which would inhibit the effectiveness of certain forms of ad blocking software by preventing use of the WebRequest API to block and modify network connections. Google intends extensions to transition to another API known as DeclarativeWebRequest, which allows the extension to set up pre-configured rules that are processed by the browser itself rather than through the extension. However, concerns over how well the API would perform, in combination with concerns over a cap on the number of entries that may be blacklisted, led to criticism that these changes were designed to inhibit ad blocking (citing Google's vested interest in the online advertising industry). Google cited performance issues associated with WebRequest, as it requires all network traffic to go through the extension before the page is loaded, as well as its use in malicious extensions, as justification for these changes. In June 2019, it announced that it would increase the aforementioned cap from 30,000 to 150,000 entries to help quell concerns.WEB,weblink Google promises to play nice with ad blockers (again), Cimpanu, Catalin, ZDNet, en, 2019-06-13, WEB,weblink Google Chrome could soon kill off most ad-blocker extensions, Tung, Liam, ZDNet, en, 2019-06-13, WEB,weblink Google says Chrome isn't killing ad blockers, Mihalcik, Carrie, CNET, en, 2019-06-13,


Market share

{{Further|Usage share of web browsers|Browser wars}}File:Web browser usage share, May 2017.svg|thumb|Usage share of web browsers according to StatCounterStatCounter{{Countries by most used web browser}}Chrome overtook Firefox in November 2011, in worldwide usage. {{As of|2016|06}}, according to StatCounter, Google Chrome had 62% worldwide desktop usage share, making it the most widely used web browser, while Firefox had 16% and Internet Explorer had 12%.WEB,weblink Top 9 Desktop Browsers from W01 2015 to W27 2016, StatCounter, For additional sources see Usage share of web browsers#Summary tableAlong with Safari and Mozilla Firefox, Chrome receives a weekend "bump", which boosts its market share by as much as three percentage points on week-ends, at the expense of Internet Explorer.WEB,weblink Global Web Browser Marketshares, Clicky Analytics, April 8, 2012, It was reported by StatCounter, a web analytics company, that for the single day of Sunday, March 18, 2012, Chrome was the most used web browser in the world for the first time. Chrome secured 32.7% of the global web browsing on that day, while Internet Explorer followed closely behind with 32.5%.WEB,weblink Chrome is world's number one browser for a day, StatCounter, March 21, 2012, From May 14–21, 2012, Google Chrome was for the first time responsible for more Internet traffic than Microsoft's Internet Explorer, which long had held its spot as the most used web browser in the world.NEWS,weblink Chrome overtakes Internet Explorer as No. 1 browser -- maybe, CNN, May 21, 2012, May 21, 2012, According to StatCounter, 31.88% of web traffic was generated by Chrome for a sustained period of one week and 31.47% by Internet Explorer. Though Chrome had topped Internet Explorer for single day's usage in the past, this was the first time it had led for one full week.WEB,weblink Google Chrome Now the No. 1 Browser in the World,, May 21, 2012, Pachal, Peter, At the 2012 Google I/O developers' conference, Google claimed that there were 310 million active users of Chrome, almost double the number in 2011, which was stated as 160 million active users.WEB,weblink Chrome tops 310 million users, almost 100% growth over last year, June 28, 2012, In June 2013, according to StatCounter, Chrome overtook Internet Explorer for the first time in the US.WEB,weblink Stats Counter US Monthly bar graph, June 2013, July 25, 2013, In August 2013, Chrome was used by 43% of internet users worldwide. This study was done by Statista, which also noted that in North America, 36% of people use Chrome, the lowest in the world.WEB, Fox, Zoe, August 14, 2013,weblink 43% of Global Web Surfers Choose Google Chrome, {{bar box|title=Desktop/laptop browser statistics|titlebar=#DDD|float = center|width=440px|barwidth=250px|bars={{bar percent|Google Chrome|#A3FFA3|70.88|70.88%}}{{bar percent|Mozilla Firefox|#A3D3FF|9.5|9.5%}}{{bar percent|Internet Explorer|#A3D3FF|5.741|5.74%}}{{bar percent|Safari|#A3D3FF|5.15|5.15%}}{{bar percent|Microsoft Edge|#A3D3FF|4.41|4.41%}}{{bar percent|Others|#A3A3A3|4.33|4.33%}}{{bar gap|height=11}}StatCounter for January 2019.HTTP://GS.STATCOUNTER.COM/BROWSER-MARKET-SHARE/DESKTOP/WORLDWIDE/#MONTHLY-201901-201901-BARWORK=STATCOUNTER, January 31, 2019, }}{{As of|2018|02}}, Chrome is the most used browser in virtually all countries, with most exceptions in Africa.WEB,weblink Browser Market Share Worldwide {{!, StatCounter Global Stats|website=StatCounter Global Stats|language=en|access-date=March 7, 2018}}

Enterprise deployment

In December 2010, Google announced that to make it easier for businesses to use Chrome they would provide an official Chrome MSI package. For business use it is helpful to have full-fledged MSI packages that can be customized via transform files (.mst){{snd}} but the MSI provided with Chrome is only a very limited MSI wrapper fitted around the normal installer, and many businesses find that this arrangement does not meet their needs.WEB,weblink Change MSI from a wrapper to "full" MSI, Google, January 4, 2011, April 8, 2012, The normal downloaded Chrome installer puts the browser in the user's local app data directory and provides invisible background updates, but the MSI package will allow installation at the system level, providing system administrators control over the update processWEB, Ryan, Paul, Google offering MSI to simplify Chrome enterprise deployment,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, December 16, 2010, March 9, 2017, {{snd}} it was formerly possible only when Chrome was installed using Google Pack. Google also created group policy objects to fine tune the behavior of Chrome in the business environment, for example by setting automatic updates interval, disabling auto-updates, and configuring a home page.WEB,weblink Google Update for Enterprise – Google Help, Google, July 11, 2012, Until version 24 the software is known not to be ready for enterprise deployments with roaming profiles or Terminal Server/Citrix environments.WEB,weblink Issue 2423 – chromium – Windows Roaming Profile support – An open-source browser project to help move the web forward. – Google Project Hosting, Google, September 17, 2008, April 8, 2012,


In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome's source code as an open-source project called Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to help port the browser to the macOS and Linux operating systems. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license.WEB, Home (Chromium Developer Documentation),weblink May 5, 2009, 2009, Chromium Developer Documentation, Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open-source licenses.WEB,weblink Chromium Terms and Conditions, September 2, 2008, September 3, 2008, Google Code, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2008, Chromium is similar to Chrome, but lacks built-in automatic updates and built-in Flash player, as well as Google branding and has a blue-colored logo instead of the multicolored Google logo.WEB,weblink ChromiumBrowserVsGoogleChrome, July 10, 2011, Chromium Project, March 2011, NEWS,weblink Building Google Chrome: A first look, McAllister, Neil, September 11, 2008, InfoWorld, IDG, September 16, 2008, As the name suggests, Chromium is a rawer, less polished version of Chrome. The UI is mostly identical, with only a few very minor visual differences. [...] The most readily evident difference is the logo, which sheds the Google colors in favor of a subdued blue design., dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 13, 2008, Chromium does not implement user RLZ tracking.WEB,weblink In The Open, For RLZ, The Chromium Blog, June 2, 2010, June 20, 2010, WEB, Google Chrome, Chromium, and Google,weblink October 1, 2008, The Chromium Blog, WEB, Differences between Google Chrome and Linux distro Chromium,weblink September 1, 2010, Google, 2010, Initially, the Google Chrome PDF viewer, PDFium, was excluded from Chromium, but was later made open-source in May 2014.WEB,weblink Chromium revision log: Changes in revision 271531, May 20, 2014, May 24, 2014, WEB,weblink Change log for Chromium wiki showing removal of a part that said PDF support were different between Chromium and Google Chrome, May 20, 2014, May 24, 2014, PDFium can be used to fill PDF forms.WEB,weblink Google throws PDFium into the open source community, Garthwaite, Emily, IT Pro Portal, September 11, 2016,

Developing for Chrome

It is possible to develop applications, extensions, and themes for Chrome. They are zipped in a .crx file and contain a manifest file that specifies basic information (such as version, name, description, privileges, etc.), and other files for the user interface (icons, popups, etc.). Google has an official developer's guide.WEB,weblink Developer's Guide - Google Chrome,, February 17, 2014, Chrome has its own web store where users and developers can upload and download these applications and extensions.WEB,weblink Chrome Web Store,,

See also




External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{official website}}
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