Golden Age of Porn

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Golden Age of Porn
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{{use mdy dates|date=January 2016 }}File:Deep Throat poster 2.jpg|thumb|right|200px|The film Deep Throat helped inaugurate the Golden Age of Porn.]]The term "Golden Age of Porn", or "porno chic", refers to a 15-year period (around 1969–1984) in commercial American pornography, which spread internationally,BOOK, Paasonen, Susanna, Saarenmaa, Laura, The Golden Age of Porn: Nostalgia and History in Cinema,weblink July 19, 2007, PDF, WordPress, April 30, 2017, BOOK, DeLamater, John, Plante, Rebecca F., John DeLamater, Handbook of the Sociology of Sexualities,weblink 416, June 19, 2015, Springer Publishing, April 30, 2017, in which sexually explicit films experienced positive attention from mainstream cinemas, movie critics, and the general public. It began with release of the 1969 film Blue Movie directed by Andy Warhol,NEWS, Canby, Vincent, Vincent Canby, Movie Review – Blue Movie (1968) Screen: Andy Warhol's 'Blue Movie',weblink July 22, 1969, New York Times, December 29, 2015, NEWS, Canby, Vincent, Vincent Canby, Warhol's Red Hot and 'Blue' Movie. D1. Print. (behind paywall),weblink August 10, 1969, New York Times, December 29, 2015, WEB, Comenas, Gary, Blue Movie (1968),weblink 2005,, December 29, 2015, and the 1970 film Mona produced by Bill Osco.WEB,weblink Pornography, Pornography Girl, July 16, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink May 6, 2008, The first explicitly pornographic film with a plot that received a general theatrical release in the U.S. is generally considered to be Mona (Mona the Virgin Nymph)..., WEB, Corliss, Richard, Richard Corliss, That Old Feeling: When Porno Was Chic,weblink March 29, 2005, Time (magazine), Time, January 27, 2016, These films were the first adult erotic films depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical release in the United States. Both influenced the making of films such as 1972's Deep Throat starring Linda Lovelace and directed by Gerard Damiano,WEB, Sex in Cinema: 1970 Greatest and Most Influential Erotic / Sexual Films and Scenes,weblink Film Site, January 16, 2012, 21, The storyline in the film Mona was later borrowed, to some degree, by Gerard Damiano in his film Deep Throat in 1972., Behind the Green Door starring Marilyn Chambers and directed by the Mitchell brothers,BOOK, San Francisco: The, 1-55152-188-1, 238–241, 1973's The Devil in Miss Jones also by Damiano, and 1976's The Opening of Misty Beethoven by Radley Metzger. According to Warhol, Blue Movie was a major influence in the making of Last Tango in Paris, an internationally controversial erotic drama film, starring Marlon Brando, and released a few years after Blue Movie was made.Following mentions by Johnny Carson on his popular Tonight Show and Bob Hope on TV as well, Deep Throat achieved major box-office success, despite being rudimentary by mainstream standards. In 1973, the more accomplished, but still low-budget, film The Devil in Miss Jones was the seventh most successful film of the year, and was well received by major media, including a favorable review by film critic Roger Ebert. The phenomenon of porn being publicly discussed by celebrities, and taken seriously by critics, a development referred to, by Ralph Blumenthal of The New York Times, as "porno chic", began for the first time in modern American culture. It became obvious that box-office returns of very low-budget adult erotic films could fund further advances in the technical and production values of porn, making it extremely competitive with Hollywood films. There was concern that, left unchecked, the vast profitability of such films would lead to Hollywood being influenced by pornography.Prior to this, thousands of U.S. state and municipal anti-obscenity laws and ordinances held that participating in the creation, distribution, or consumption of pornography, constituted criminal action. Multi-jurisdictional interpretations of obscenity made such films highly susceptible to prosecution and criminal liability for obscenity, thereby greatly restricting their distribution and profit potential. However, the US Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Miller v. California, narrowing and simplifying the definition of obscenity, resulted in dramatically fewer prosecutions nationwide. Freedom in creative license, higher movie budgets and payouts, and a "Hollywood mindset", all contributed to this period.However, with the increasing availability of videocassette recorders for private viewing in the 1980s, video supplanted film as the preferred distribution medium for pornography, which quickly reverted to being low-budget and openly gratuitous, ending this "Golden Age".BOOK, Lehman, Peter, Bad: Infamy, Darkness, Evil, and Slime on Screen, 2003, State University of New York Press, Albany, New York, 978-0791459409, 79–88,


Pornographic films were produced in the early 20th century as "stag" movies, intended to be viewed at male gatherings or in brothels. In the United States, social disapproval was so great that men in them sometimes attempted to conceal their face by subterfuge, such as a false mustache (used in A Free Ride) or even being masked.BOOK, Thompson, Dave, Black and White and Blue: Adult Cinema from the Victorian Age to the VCR, 2007, ECW Press, 9781554903023, 67–68,weblink {{Harvnb|Thompson|2007|p=39.}} Very few people were ever identified as appearing in such films; and performers were often presumed to have been prostitutes or criminals. Vincent Drucci is said to have performed in a pornographic film made in 1924weblink My Al Capone Museum "Vincent 'The Schemer' Drucci", Mario Gomes, accessed 14/6/14 Candy Barr, who appeared in the 1950s Smart Alec, was virtually unique among those appearing in stag films, having attained a degree of celebrity through her participation.WEB,weblink Candy Barr, 70, Stripper and Star of 1950's Stag Film, Dies, Martin, Douglas, January 4, 2006, The New York Times, June 17, 2013, In the US, during the late 1960s, there was regular semi-underground production of pornographic films on a modest scale. After answering New York City newspaper advertisements for nude models, Eric Edwards and Jamie Gillis, among others, appeared in these films, which were silent black and white 'loops' of low quality, often intended for peep booth viewing in the proliferation of adult video arcades around Times Square.NEWS, William J. Bratton, William J., Bratton, William, Andrews, What We’ve Learned About Policing, City Journal (New York), City Journal, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Spring 1999,weblink February 3, 2009, NEWS, George L., Kelling, James Q., Wilson, Broken Windows, The Atlantic, March 1982,weblink February 3, 2009, WEB,weblink Times Square New York City,, April 21, 2010, The product of the New York City porn industry was distributed nationwide by underworld figure Robert DiBernardo, who commissioned the production of much of the so-called 'Golden Age' era films made in New York City.BOOK, What Wild Ecstasy, John, Heidenry, 323, Simon & Schuster, 2002, 978-0743241847, BOOK, Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market, Eric Schlosser, Eric, Schlosser, Mariner Books, 2004, 978-0618446704, ???,weblink Although not the first adult film to obtain a wide theatrical release in the US, none had achieved a mass audience, and changed public attitude toward pornography, as Deep Throat did.

The era

(File:Andy Warhol by Jack Mitchell.jpg|thumb|Andy Warhol)


Blue Movie by Andy Warhol, released in June 1969, and, more freely, Mona, by Bill Osco, released afterwards in August 1970, were the first films depicting explicit sex to receive wide theatrical distribution in the United States. Although Blue Movie involved sexual intercourse, the film, starring Viva and Louis Waldon, included substantial dialogue about the Vietnam War and various mundane tasks. In comparison, the film Mona differed from Blue Movie by presenting more of a story plot: Mona (played by Fifi Watson) had promised her mother that she would remain a virgin until her impending marriage.WEB,weblink Flesh Gordon Interview 3,, July 16, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2008, Nonetheless, Blue Movie, besides being a seminal film in the 'Golden Age of Porn', was a major influence, according to Warhol, in the making of Last Tango in Paris (1972), an internationally controversial erotic drama film, starring Marlon Brando, and released a few years after Blue Movie was made.WEB, Staff, Blue Movie (1969),weblink IMDb, December 29, 2015, Also around this time, in June 1970, the 55th Street Playhouse began showing Censorship in Denmark: A New Approach, a film documentary study of pornography, directed by Alex de Renzy.NEWS, Canby, Vincent, Vincent Canby, The Screen: ‘Censorship in Denmark’ Begins Run,weblink June 17, 1970, The New York Times, June 2, 2019, According to Vincent Canby, a New York Times film reviewer, the narrator of the documentary noted that “pornography is more stimulating and cheaper than hormone injections” and "stresses the fact that since the legalization of pornography in Denmark, sex crimes have decreased." Nonetheless, on September 30, 1970, Assistant District Attorney, Richard Beckler, had the theater manager, Chung Louis, arrested on an obscenity charge, and the film seized as appealing to a (wikt:prurient|prurient interest) in sex. The presiding judge, Jack Rosenberg, stated, “[The film] is patently offensive to most Americans because it affronts contemporary community standards relating to the description or representation of sexual matters.”WEB, Staff, The Holbein Studios -- No. 154 West 55th Street,weblink August 3, 2012, DaytonianInManhattan, June 2, 2019, Nevertheless, afterwards, in October 1970, the History of the Blue Movie, another film documentary study of pornography directed by Alex de Renzy, was released and featured a compilation of early blue movie shorts dating from 1915 to 1970. Film critic Roger Ebert reviewed the film, rated it two-stars (of four), and noted that the narrator tells us "solemnly about the comic artistry of early stag movies".NEWS, Ebert, Roger, Roger Ebert, Historyof the Blue movie - Film Review,weblink August 25, 1971,, June 2, 2019, Somewhat later, in December 1971, the film Boys in the Sand, one of the first adult erotic films, after Blue Movie in 1969,WEB, Comenas, Gary, July 21, 1969: Andy Warhol's Blue Movie Opens,weblink 1969,, January 20, 2016, BOOK, Haggerty, George E., A Companion to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Studies,weblink 2015, John Wiley & Sons, 339, January 20, 2016, to be reviewed by Variety magazine,Stevenson p. 113 was released and opened in theaters across the United States and around the world.Rutledge (1989) p. 63 The film's title is a parodic reference to the 1968 play by Mart Crowley, and the related 1970 film adaptation, The Boys in the Band."MEMBERWIDE">FIRST=ED WORK=VILLAGE VOICE PUBLISHER= URL=HTTPS://WWW.VILLAGEVOICE.COM/2002/06/18/RETURN-TO-PARADISE/, November 10, 2017,

Deep Throat

The 'Golden Age of Porn' continued in 1972 with Deep Throat. It officially premiered at the World TheaterWorld Theater at in New York City on June 12, 1972 and was advertised in The New York Times under the bowdlerized title Throat. After Johnny Carson talked about the film on his nationally top-rated TV showBOOK, Lewis, Jon, Hollywood v. Hard Core: How the Struggle Over Censorship Created the Modern Film Industry, 2000, New York University Press, New York, New York, 978-0814751428, 260–67,weblink Chuck Traynor, speaking in the documentary Inside Deep Throat (2005)BOOK, Hard core: power, pleasure, and the "frenzy of the visible", University of California Press, Linda Williams (film critic), Williams, Linda, 1999,weblink 0-520-21943-0, 156–158, BOOK, Handbook of organized crime in the United States, Greenwood Publishing Group, Robert J. Kelly, Ko-lin Chin, Rufus Schatzberg, 1994,weblink 0-313-28366-4, 301–302, and Bob Hope, as well, mentioned it on TV, Deep Throat became very profitable and a box-office success, according to one of the figures behind the film. In its second year of release, Deep Throat just missed Variety's top 10. However, by then, it was often being shown in a double bill with the most successful of the top three adult erotic films released in the 1972–1973 era, The Devil in Miss Jones, which easily outperformed Deep Throat, while leaving Behind the Green Door trailing in third place.Lewis, p.211-212

The Devil in Miss Jones

The 1973 film The Devil in Miss Jones was ranked number seven in the Variety list of the top ten highest-grossing pictures of 1973, despite lacking the wide release and professional marketing of Hollywood and having been virtually banned across the country for half the year (see Miller v. California, below). Some critics have described the film as, along with Deep Throat, one of the "two best erotic motion pictures ever made".BOOK, Offensive literature: decensorship in Britain, 1960–1982, Rowman & Littlefield, Sutherland, John, 1983,weblink 0-389-20354-8, 136, William Friedkin called The Devil in Miss Jones a "great film", partly because it was one of the few adult erotic films with a proper storyline.BOOK, The erotic thriller in contemporary cinema, Indiana University Press, Williams, Linda Ruth, 2005,weblink 0-253-34713-0, 134, Roger Ebert referred to The Devil in Miss Jones as the "best" of the genre he had seen and gave it three-stars (of four).WEB, Ebert, Roger, Roger Ebert, The Devil In Miss Jones – Film Review,weblink June 13, 1973,, February 7, 2015, Ebert also suggested the film's box office receipts were inflated as a way of laundering the profits from illegal activities, although such a method would have required organised crime to be paying taxes on their illegally obtained income.NEWS, Ebert, Roger, Roger Ebert, Inside Deep Throat,weblink February 11, 2005, Chicago Sun-Times, February 8, 2016, Reefer Madness: Sex, Drugs, and Cheap Labor in the American Black Market, Eric Schlosser, p144The Devil in Miss Jones was one of the first films to be inducted into the XRCO Hall of Fame.WEB,weblink Hall of Fame, Dirty Bob/X-Rated Critics Organization, June 15, 2015, The sound-recording, cinematography, and story-line of The Devil in Miss Jones were of a considerably higher quality than any previous porn film. The lead, Georgina Spelvin, who had been in the original Broadway run of The Pajama Game, combined vigorous sex with an acting performance some thought as convincing as anything to be seen in a good mainstream production. She had been hired as a caterer, but Gerard Damiano, the film director, was impressed with her reading of Miss Jones's dialogue, while auditioning an actor for the non-sex role of 'Abaca'. According to Variety's review, "With The Devil in Miss Jones, the hard-core porno feature approaches an art form, one that critics may have a tough time ignoring in the future". The review also described the plot as comparable to Jean-Paul Sartre's play No Exit,Lewis, p.211 and went on to describe the opening scene as, "a sequence so effective it would stand out in any legit theatrical feature." It finished by stating, "Booking a film of this technical quality into a standard sex house is tantamount to throwing it on the trash heap of most current hard-core fare." WEB, History of Sex in Cinema: Porn Chic of the 1970s,weblink AMC Filmsite (AMC Networks), Tim, Dirks, n.d., September 12, 2013, BOOK, The encyclopedia of guilty pleasures: 1001 things you hate to love, Quirk Books, Sam Stall, Lou Harry, Julia Spalding, 2004,weblink 1-931686-54-8, 182, BOOK, The history of sex in American film, Greenwood Publishing Group, Pennington, Jody W., 2007,weblink 0-275-99226-8, 56, BOOK, Historical dictionary of the 1970s, Greenwood Publishing Group, Olson, James Stuart, 1999,weblink 0-313-30543-9, 125, BOOK, The Devil Made Me Do It, Georginas World, 2008, Georgina Spelvin, Georgina, Spelvin, 978-0615199078, ??, SF blogs, David-Elijah Nahmod Thu., October 10, 2013 Forty Years After The Devil in Miss Jones: Georgina Spelvin's Happy Ending

"Porno chic"

{{See also|Pornographication}}An influential five-page article in The New York Times Magazine in 1973 described the phenomenon of porn being publicly discussed by celebrities, and taken seriously by critics, a development referred to, by Ralph Blumenthal of The New York Times, as "porno chic".NEWS, Blumenthal, Ralph, Porno chic; 'Hard-core' grows fashionable-and very profitable,weblink January 21, 1973, The New York Times Magazine, January 20, 2016, WEB, Jan Willem, Geerinck, Porno Chic (blog),weblink, Some expressed the opinion that pornographic films would continue to extend their access to US theaters, and the mainstream film industry would gravitate toward the influence of porn.From a 1970s interview with Linda Lovelace, shown in the documentary Inside Deep Throat.NEWS, Mafia Money Infiltrates Pornos Movie Business,weblink Daytona Beach Morning Journal, October 12, 1975, September 5, 2016, "If the trend continues, these people are going to become a major force in the movie industry within a few years," said Capt. Lawrence Hepburn of the New York Police Department's organized crime division. "The movie business is going to be like the garment business, riddled with Mafia influence.",

Supreme Court's 1973 Miller v. California

Supreme Court's 1973 Miller v. California decision redefined obscenity from "utterly without socially redeeming value" to lacks "serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value". Crucially, it made 'contemporary community standards' the criterion, holding that obscenity was not protected by the First Amendment; the ruling gave leeway to local judges to seize and destroy prints of films adjudged to violate local community standards. The Miller decision stymied porn distribution.The Devil in Miss Jones, as well as Deep Throat and Behind the Green Door, was prosecuted successfully during the latter half of 1973; the Supreme Court's Miller decision closed much of America to the exhibition of adult erotic films, and often led to it being banned outright. Porn films would not feature as prominently in the mainstream movie business as they did in the Golden Age,BOOK, Green, Jonathon & Nicholas J. Karolides, Encyclopedia of Censorship, 2005, Facts on File, New York, NY, 978-0816044641, 44,weblink until the emergence of the internet in the 1990s.WEB, Tongue, Stewart, Crowdsourcing Column: Mainstream vs. Adult,weblink, Adult Video News, July 24, 2014,


In the aftermath of the Supreme Court's decision to have put mass box office returns beyond the reach of pornographic films, the leaps in the films' quality that had occurred between 1972 and 1973 were not sustained. With their relatively modest financial means, a predicted move of organized crime into Hollywood failed to materialize. Pornographic films continued to be a highly profitable business, and thrived throughout the rest of the 1970s, leading to the concept of porn "stars" gaining currency. Ostracism of porn performers meant they almost invariably used pseudonyms. Being outed as having appeared in porn usually put an end to an actor's hope of a mainstream career.Nitke Barbara, in WEB,weblink American Ecstasy: The Photography of Barbara Nitke and The Golden Age of Pornography, February 4, 2014,, June 13, 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 27, 2014, mdy, An indication of the returns still possible was that a 1976 release, (Alice in Wonderland (1976 film)|Alice in Wonderland: An X-Rated Musical Comedy), favorably reviewed by film critic Roger Ebert in 1976,WEB, Ebert, Roger, Roger Ebert, Alice in Wonderland:An X-Rated Musical Fantasy,weblink November 24, 1976,, February 26, 2016, reportedly grossed over $90 million globally.BOOK, Hollingsworth, Cristopher, Alice Beyond Wonderland: Essays for the Twenty-first Century, 2009, University Of Iowa Press, Iowa City, IA, 978-1587298196, 182, Some historians assess The Opening of Misty Beethoven, based on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw (and its derivative, My Fair Lady), and directed by Radley Metzger, as attaining a mainstream level in storyline and sets.BOOK, Mathijs, Ernest, Mendik, Xavier, The Cult Film Reader,weblink Open University Press, 2007, 978-0335219230, Author Toni Bentley called the film the "crown jewel" of the Golden Age.WEB, Bentley, Toni, Toni Bentley, The Legend of Henry Paris,weblink June 2014, Playboy (magazine), Playboy, January 26, 2016, WEB, Bentley, Toni, Toni Bentley, The Legend of Henry Paris,weblink PDF, June 2014, Playboy (magazine), Playboy, January 26, 2016, In general, after 1973, adult erotic films emulated mainstream filmmaking storylines and conventions, merely to frame the depictions of sexual activity to prepare an 'artistic merit' defense against possible obscenity charges. The adult film industry remained stuck at the level of 'one day wonders', finished by participants hired for only a single day. The ponderous technology of the time meant filming a simple scene would often take hours due to the need for the camera to be laboriously set up for each shot.WEB,weblink From Sexploitation Star to Porn Star: An Interview with Colleen Brennan, Susannah Breslin, Susannah, Breslin, Susannah Breslin official site, November 25, 2013, June 13, 2014, Repeated sustained performances might be required on cue at any time over the course of a day, which was an issue for men without the recourse to modern Viagra-type drugs. Production was concentrated in New York City where organized crime was widely believed to have control over all aspects of the business, and to prevent entry of competitors. Although their budgets were usually very low, a subcultural level of appreciation exists for films of this era, which were produced by a core group of around thirty performers, some of whom had other jobs. Several were actors who could handle dialogue when required. However, some participants scoffed at the idea that what they did, qualified as "acting". By the early 1980s, the rise of home video had led to the end of the era when people went to movie theaters to see sex shot on 35mm film with production values, ultimately culminating with the rise of the internet in the 1990s and beyond.

Feminist criticism

{{further information|Feminist views of pornography}}The 'Golden Age' was a period of interactions between pornography and the contemporaneous second wave of feminism. Radical and cultural feminists, along with religious and conservative groups, attacked pornography,JOURNAL, Chenier, Elise, Lesbian Sex Wars,weblink PDF, 2004, GLBTQ Journal, 1–3, December 30, 2015, BOOK, Brownmiller, Susan, In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution,weblink 1999, Dial Press, 360, 0-385-31486-8, December 30, 2015, while other feminists were pro-pornography, such as Camille Paglia, who defined what came to be known as sex-positive feminism in her work, Sexual Personae. Paglia and other sex-positive or pro-pornography feminists accepted porn as part of the sexual revolution with its libertarian sexual themes, such as exploring bisexuality and swinging, free from government interference. The endorsement of female critics was essential for the credibility of the brief era of "porno chic".JOURNAL, Bad Sex: Second Wave Feminism and Porn’s Golden Age.,weblink Radical Society, October 2002, Loren, Glass, 29, 3, 55–66, NEWS, Bailey, Cameron, Blow-by-blow accounts, NOW Toronto, February 2005, 24, 24,weblink 2008-03-18, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2013, mdy, Weitzer p. 52BOOK, Porn studies, Duke University Press, Williams, Linda, 2004,weblink 0-8223-3312-0, 320,

Golden Age stars

Major pornographic film actors of the first part of the 'Golden Age', the "porno chic" era, included:{{columns-list|colwidth=22em| }}

Second-wave stars

{{columns-list|colwidth=22em| }}At the time of the maturation of the second wave, movies increasingly were being shot on video for home release.As their popularity rose, so did their control of their careers. John Holmes became the first recurring porn character in the "Johnny Wadd" film series directed by Bob Chinn. Lisa De Leeuw was one of the first to sign an exclusive contract with a major adult production company, Vivid Video, and Marilyn Chambers worked in mainstream movies, being one of the first of a rare number of crossover porn actors.


Major producers during the first wave of the 'Golden Age', the "Porno Chic" era, include:{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}With the rise of video, the dominant pornographic film studios of the Second Wave period were VCA PicturesNEWS, Connelly, Tim, It's Now Official: Hustler Acquires VCA; Deal Comes a Year After Vivid Pact, Cementing Hustler As..., AVN, May 2003,weblink December 1, 2011, and Caballero Home Video.BOOK, Skinflicks: The Inside Story of the X-Rated Video Industry, AuthorHouse, Jennings, David, 2000isbn=1-58721-184-X, 125,

Films of the period

Some of the best-known adult erotic films of the period include:{{div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}

See also

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}




  • BOOK, Hollywood V. Hard Core: How the Struggle Over Censorship Created the Modern Film Industry, NYU Press, Lewis, Jon, 2002,weblink 0-8147-5143-1,
  • McNeil, Legs, Jennifer Osborne, and Peter Pavia (2005). The Other Hollywood: Uncensored Oral History of the Porn Film Industry. Regan Books. {{ISBN|0-06-009659-4}}.
  • Rutledge, Leigh (1989). The Gay Fireside Companion. New York: Alyson. {{ISBN|1-55583-164-8}}.
  • BOOK, The Devil Made Me Do It,, Spelvin, Georgina, Georgina Spelvin, 2008,weblink 0-615-19907-0,
  • Stevenson, Jack (2000). Fleshpot: Cinema's Sexual Myth Makers & Taboo Breakers. Critical Vision. {{ISBN|1-900486-12-1}}.
  • Weitzer, Ronald John (2000). Sex for Sale: Prostitution, Pornography, and the Sex Industry. New York: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-92294-1}}.

External links

{{Andy Warhol}}{{Sexual slang}}{{Sexual revolution}}{{Porn}}

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