God the Son

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God the Son
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{{See also|Son of God (Christianity)}}File:Monreale god resting after creation.jpg|thumb|200px|God resting after creation – Christ depicted as the creator of the world, Byzantine mosaic in Monreale, SicilySicily{{Christianity|state=collapsed}}God the Son (, ) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theologyBOOK, Gilles Emery, The Trinity: An Introduction to Catholic Doctrine on the Triune God,weblink 2011, Catholic University of America Press, 978-0-8132-1864-9, . The doctrine of the Trinity identifies Jesus as the incarnation of God, united in essence (consubstantial) but distinct in person with regard to God the Father and God the Holy Spirit (the first and third persons of the Trinity).


The phrase "God the Son" is not found in the Bible,BOOK, Burnap, George Washington, George Washington Burnap, 1845, Expository lectures on the principal passages of the Scriptures which relate,weblink Boston, Massachusetts, James Munroe and Company, 19, 2015-01-18, "There is no such phrase in the Bible, as 'God the Son,' or 'God the Holy Ghost.'", BOOK, Rhodes, Ron, 2001, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions: The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response,weblink Zondervan, Michigan, Zondervan, 258, 0310232171, 2015-01-18, "Oneness Pentecostals argue that Scripture never indicates that Jesus' sonship is an eternal sonship. The term 'eternal Son' is never found in the Bible. Nor is the term 'God the Son' in the Bible.", but is found in later Christian sources.BOOK, Hick, John, 1993, The Metaphor of God Incarnate: Christology in a Pluralistic Age,weblink 2nd, Louisville, Kentucky, Westminster John Knox Press, 31, 0664230377, 2015-01-18, "One notes that it does not aspire beyond the pre-trinitarian notion of 'Son of God' to the properly trinitarian idea of 'God the Son.'", By scribal error the term is in one medieval manuscript, MS No.1985, where Galatians 2:20 has "Son of God" changed to "God the Son".BOOK, Ehrman, Bart D., 1993, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: The Effect of Early Christological Controversies On The Text of The New Testament,weblink New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 86, 9780195102796, 2015-01-18, "... by adding precisely the words that had earlier been omitted, tov viov, but in the wrong place, making the text now read 'faith in God the Son ...' neither of the other expressions ('God even Christ,' 'God the Son') occurs in this way in Paul.", The term in English follows Latin usage as found in the Athanasian Creed and other texts of the early church:In Greek "God the Son" is Theos o Iios ((wikt:Θεός|Θεός) ὁ (wikt:υἱός|υἱός)) as distinct from o Iios nominative tu Theu genitive, ὁ υἱός του Θεού, "Son of God".In Latin "God the Son" is (wikt:deus#Inflection|Deus) (nominative) (wikt:filius#Inflection|Filius) (nominative). The term deus filius is found in the Athanasian Creed: "Et tamen non tres omnipotentes, sed unus omnipotens. Ita Deus Pater, Deus Filius, Deus [et] Spiritus Sanctus." (distinct from filius Dei genitive "son of God"), but this phrase is also translated "So the Father is God: the Son is God: and the Holy Ghost is God".Philip Schaff (1877b), The Creeds of Christendom.


{{See also|God in Christianity}}The term deus filius is used in the Athanasian Creed and formulas such as Deus Pater, Deus Filius, Deus Spiritus Sanctus: Et non tres Dii, sed unus est Deus.F. Donald Logan A history of the church in the Middle Ages Page 10 2002 "It was later to be summed up in the Athanasian Creed: Ita deus pater, deus filius, deus spiritus sanctus, Et tamen non tres dii, sed unus est deus. (Thus, God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Spirit, Yet not three gods but one God."The term is used by Saint Augustine in his On the Trinity, for example in discussion of the Son's obedience to God the Father: deo patri deus filius obediens.Luigi Gioia The theological epistemology of Augustine's De Trinitate 2008 "... the obedience of Christ on the cross is the obedience of God the Son to God the Father: 'what greater example of obedience' ... exemplum qui per inobedientiam perieramus quam deo patri deus filius obediens usque ad mortem crucis?" and in Sermon 90 on the New Testament "2. For hold this fast as a firm and settled truth, if you would continue Catholics, that God the Father begot God the Son without time, and made Him of a Virgin in time."MacMullen translation 1888weblink Augsburg Confession (1530) adopted the phrase as Gott der Sohn.The Augsburg Confession: a commentary Leif Grane, John H. Rasmussen – 1987 "GT: "Dass Gott der Sohn sei Mensch worden, geborn aus der reinen Jungfrauen Maria" (that God the Son became man, born of the virgin Mary)."Jacques Forget (1910) in the Catholic Encyclopedia article "Holy Ghost" notes that "Among the apologists, Athenagoras mentions the Holy Ghost along with, and on the same plane as, the Father and the Son. 'Who would not be astonished', says he (A Plea for the Christians 10), 'to hear us called atheists, us who confess God the Father, God the Son and the Holy Ghost, and hold them one in power and distinct in order.' "Jacques Forget (1910) in the Catholic Encyclopedia article "Holy Ghost"

New Testament

File:Витраж в Петропавловском соборе.jpg|thumb|upright|Stained glass window of Jesus Christ, Peter and Paul Cathedral, St. PetersburgSt. Petersburg"Son of God" is used to refer to Jesus in the Gospel of Mark at the beginning in verse 1:1 and at its end in chapter 15 verse 39. Max Botner wrote, "Indeed, if Mark 1:1 presents the "normative understanding" of Jesus' identity, then it makes a significant difference what the text includes".JOURNAL, Botner, Max, The Role of Transcriptional Probability in the Text-Critical Debateon Mark 1:1, Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Jul 2015, 77, 3, 468, 467–480, The Logos or Word in the Gospel of John text, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God"{{Bibleref2c|John|1:1}}, is the God's utterance, expressing His will & thoughts in His revelation & creation. The text is often interpreted especially by the Trinitarians to identify the 'pre-existent' Jesus with this Word. The disputed Comma Johanneum (1 John 5:7) includes the Son in the formula "For there are three that bear witness in heaven: the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one."WEB, 1 John 5:7,weblink, Faithlife, 20 July 2017, Christian belief affirms that Jesus is the only begotten Son of God. [John 3:16]WEB,weblink John 3:16 {{!, The New King James Version|website=Biblia|access-date=2017-06-21}} Jesus identified himself in New Testament canonical writings. "Jesus said to them, 'Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.' " [John 8:58]WEB,weblink John 8:58 {{!, The New King James Version|last=|first=|date=|website=Biblia|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2017-06-21}}, which some Trinitarians believe is a reference to Moses in his interaction with preincarnate God in the Old Testament.  "And God said to Moses, 'I AM WHO I AM.' And He said, 'Thus you shall say to the children of Israel, "I AM has sent me to you." ' [Exodus 3:14]WEB,weblink Exodus 3:14 {{!, The New King James Version|last=|first=|date=|website=Biblia|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2017-06-21}}(MonogenÄ“s#Textual issues in John 1:18|A manuscript variant in John 1:18) (Θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς Θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ Πατρὸς, ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο) has led to translations including "God the One and Only" (NIV, 1984) referring to the Son.WEB,weblink John 1:18 No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known.,, Later theological use of this expression (compare Latin: Deus Filius) reflects what came to be the standard interpretation of New Testament references, understood to imply Jesus' divinity, but with the distinction of his person from another person of the Trinity called the Father. As such, the title is associated more with the development of the doctrine of the Trinity. Trinitarians believe that a clear reference to the Trinity occurs in {{Bibleref2|Matthew|28:19}}, "Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

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