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{{About|Google's email service}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Google's email service}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2018}} {{Use American English|date=March 2017}}

| commercial = Yes| type = Webmail| registration = Required| language = 105 languages
TITLE=18 AMAZING GMAIL FACTS AND STATISTICS WEBSITE=EXPANDEDRAMBLINGS.COM ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 27, 2018 TITLE=GMAIL GETS A MAJOR FACE-LIFT AND PRODUCTIVITY BOOST, STARTING TODAY ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 27, 2018, Proprietary software>ProprietaryJava (programming language)>Java (back-end), JavaScript/Ajax (programming) (UI)MG TITLE=THE KEY TO GMAIL: SH*T UMBRELLAS WEBSITE=TECHCRUNCH AOL >DATE=MARCH 14, 2010, October 27, 2018, Google>Google LLC (subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.)| author = Paul BuchheitGmail is a free email service developed by Google. Users can access Gmail on the web and using third-party programs that synchronize email content through POP or IMAP protocols. Gmail started as a limited beta release on April 1, 2004 and ended its testing phase on July 7, 2009.At launch, Gmail had an initial storage capacity offer of one gigabyte per user, a significantly higher amount than competitors offered at the time. Today, the service comes with 15 gigabytes of storage. Users can receive emails up to 50 megabytes in size, including attachments, while they can send emails up to 25 megabytes. In order to send larger files, users can insert files from Google Drive into the message. Gmail has a search-oriented interface and a "conversation view" similar to an Internet forum. The service is notable among website developers for its early adoption of Ajax.Google's mail servers automatically scan emails for multiple purposes, including to filter spam and malware, and to add context-sensitive advertisements next to emails. This advertising practice has been significantly criticized by privacy advocates due to concerns over unlimited data retention, ease of monitoring by third parties, users of other email providers not having agreed to the policy upon sending emails to Gmail addresses, and the potential for Google to change its policies to further decrease privacy by combining information with other Google data usage. The company has been the subject of lawsuits concerning the issues. Google has stated that email users must "necessarily expect" their emails to be subject to automated processing and claims that the service refrains from displaying ads next to potentially sensitive messages, such as those mentioning race, religion, sexual orientation, health, or financial statements. In June 2017, Google announced the upcoming end to the use of contextual Gmail content for advertising purposes, relying instead on data gathered from the use of its other services.By February 2016, Gmail had one billion active users worldwide.WEB,weblink Frederic, Lardinois, February 1, 2016, Gmail Now Has More Than 1B Monthly Active Users, TechCrunch, AOL, October 27, 2018,



(File:Gmail 2004.png|thumb|The Gmail webmail interface as it originally appeared)On April 1, 2004, Gmail was launched with one gigabyte (GB) of storage space, a significantly higher amount than competitors offered at the time.WEB, Michael, Singer, Google Testing Free Webmail,weblink Internet News, March 31, 2004, October 27, 2018, On April 1, 2005, the first anniversary of Gmail, the limit was doubled to two gigabytes of storage. Georges Harik, the product management director for Gmail, stated that Google would "keep giving people more space forever."WEB, Susan, Kuchinskas, Endless Gmail Storage,weblink Internet News, April 1, 2005, October 27, 2018, On April 24, 2012, Google announced the increase of storage included in Gmail from 7.5 to 10 gigabytes ("and counting") as part of the launch of Google Drive.WEB, Nicholas, Behrens, Gmail, now with 10 GB of storage (and counting),weblink Official Gmail Blog, April 24, 2012, October 27, 2018, On May 13, 2013, Google announced the overall merge of storage across Gmail, Google Drive, and Google+ Photos, allowing users 15 gigabytes of included storage among the three services.WEB, Clay, Bavor, Bringing it all together: 15 GB now shared between Drive, Gmail, and Google+ Photos,weblink Google Drive Blog, May 13, 2013, October 27, 2018, WEB, Jason, Petkov, 15GB of Free Storage, Thanks Google!,weblink W3Reports, May 13, 2013, October 27, 2018, mdy-all, Users can buy additional storage, shared among Gmail, Google Drive and Google Photos, through a monthly subscription plan from Google One. {{as of|2018}}, storage of up to 15 gigabytes is included, and paid plans are available for up to 30 terabytes for personal use.WEB, Pricing guide,weblink October 27, 2018, There are also storage limits to individual Gmail messages. One message, including all attachments, cannot be larger than 25 megabytes.WEB, Send attachments with your Gmail message,weblink Gmail Help, October 27, 2018l, This was changed in March 2017, to allow receiving of email up to 50 megabytes, with the limit for sending email staying at 25 megabytes.WEB, Receive emails of up to 50 MB in Gmail,weblink G Suite Updates, March 1, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Devin, Coldewey, Huzzah! Gmail now accepts attachments up to 50 MB,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 1, 2017, October 27, 2018, In order to send larger files, users can insert files from Google Drive into the message.WEB,weblink Send Google Drive attachments in Gmail, Gmail Help, October 27, 2018,


The Gmail user interface initially differed from other webmail systems with its focus on search and conversation threading of emails, grouping several messages between two or more people onto a single page, an approach that was later copied by its competitors. Gmail's user interface designer, Kevin Fox, intended users to feel as if they were always on one page and just changing things on that page, rather than having to navigate to other places.WEB, Philipp, Lenssen, Kevin Fox of Gmail & FriendFeed on User Experience Design,weblink Google Blogoscoped, June 2, 2008, October 27, 2018, Gmail's interface also makes use of 'labels' (tags) – that replace the conventional folders and provide a more flexible method of organizing email; filters for automatically organizing, deleting or forwarding incoming emails to other addresses; and importance markers for automatically marking messages as 'important'.

2011 redesign

In November 2011, Google began rolling out a redesign of its interface that "simplified" the look of Gmail into a more minimalist design to provide a more consistent look throughout its products and services as part of an overall Google design change. Major redesigned elements included a streamlined conversation view, configurable density of information, new higher-quality themes, a resizable navigation bar with always-visible labels and contacts, and better search.WEB, Jason, Cornwell, Gmail's new look,weblink Official Gmail Blog, November 1, 2011, October 27, 2018, WEB, Thomas, Houston, Gmail redesign adds enhanced search box, profile pictures, conversations, and more,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, November 1, 2011, October 27, 2018, Users were able to preview the new interface design for months prior to the official release, as well as revert to the old interface, until March 2012, when Google discontinued the ability to revert and completed the transition to the new design for all users.WEB, Gmail New Look will be released to all users starting March 27th,weblink G Suite Updates, March 20, 2012, October 27, 2018,

Tabbed inbox

In May 2013, Google updated the Gmail inbox with tabs which allow the application to categorize the user's emails. The five tabs are: Primary, Social, Promotions, Updates, and Forums. In addition to customization options, the entire update can be disabled, allowing users to return to the traditional inbox structure.WEB, Itamar, Gilad, A new inbox that puts you back in control,weblink Official Gmail Blog, May 29, 2013, October 27, 2018, JOURNAL, Christina, Bonnington, Gmail's New Inbox Sorts Emails Into Tabbed Categories,weblink Wired, May 29, 2013, October 27, 2018,

2018 redesign

In April 2018, Google introduced a new web UI for Gmail. The new redesign follows Google's Material Design, and changes in user interface include the use of Google's Product Sans font. Other updates include a Confidential mode, which allows the sender to set an expiration date for a sensitive message or to revoke it entirely, integrated rights management and two-factor authentication.NEWS,weblink Gmail's biggest redesign is now live, Vlad, Savov, The Verge, Vox Media, April 25, 2018, October 27, 2018,

Spam filter

Gmail's spam filtering features a community-driven system: when any user marks an email as spam, this provides information to help the system identify similar future messages for all Gmail users.WEB, Mark or unmark Spam in Gmail,weblink Gmail Help, October 27, 2018, In the April 2018 update, the spam filtering banners got a redesign, with bigger and bolder lettering.

Gmail Labs

The Gmail Labs feature, introduced on June 5, 2008, allows users to test new or experimental features of Gmail. Users can enable or disable Labs features selectively and provide feedback about each of them. This allows Gmail engineers to obtain user input about new features to improve them and also to assess their popularity.WEB, Keith, Coleman, Introducing Gmail Labs,weblink Official Gmail Blog, June 5, 2008, October 27, 2018, Popular features, like the "Undo Send" option, often "graduate" from Gmail Labs to become a formal setting in Gmail.WEB, Owen, Williams, Gmail's 'Undo Send' feature finally graduates out of labs after six years,weblink The Next Web, June 23, 2015, October 27, 2018, All Labs features are experimental and are subject to termination at any time.WEB, About Google Labs,weblink October 27, 2018,


Gmail incorporates a search bar for searching emails. The search bar can also search contacts, files stored in Google Drive, events from Google Calendar, and Google Sites.WEB, Bram, Moolenaar, Find your stuff faster in Gmail and Search,weblink Official Gmail Blog, October 15, 2012, October 27, 2018, WEB, Balazs, Racz, Search emails, Google Drive, Calendar and more as you type,weblink Official Gmail Blog, May 23, 2013, October 27, 2018, WEB, Emil, Protalinski, Google adds Google Drive files and Calendar events to Gmail's search for US users,weblink The Next Web, May 23, 2013, October 27, 2018, In May 2012, Gmail improved the search functionality to include auto-complete predictions from the user's emails.WEB, Gmail workarounds for sub-string (partial word) search,weblink Confluence, October 27, 2018, yes,weblink January 17, 2017, Gmail's search functionality does not support searching for word fragments (also known as 'substring search' or partial word search). Workarounds exist.

Language support

(File:Gmail inbox in Japanese.png|thumb|right|Gmail supports multiple languages, including the Japanese interface shown here){{as of|2015|March|}}, the Gmail interface supports 72 languages, including: Arabic, Basque, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (traditional), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (UK), English (US), Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malay, Malayalam, Marathi, Norwegian (Bokmål), Odia, Polish, Punjabi, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Tagalog (Filipino), Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Vietnamese, Welsh and Zulu.WEB, Change your Gmail language settings,weblink Gmail Help, October 27, 2018,

Language input styles

In October 2012, Google added over 100 virtual keyboards, transliterations, and input method editors to Gmail, enabling users different types of input styles for different languages in an effort to help users write in languages that aren't "limited by the language of your keyboard.”WEB, C. Andrew, Warren, Communicate more easily across languages in Gmail,weblink The Keyword, October 9, 2012, October 27, 2018, WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Google Brings More Than 100 Virtual Keyboards, Transliterations And IMEs To Gmail,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 9, 2012, October 27, 2018, In October 2013, Google added handwriting input support to Gmail.WEB, Xiangye, Xiao, Handwriting input comes to Gmail and Google Docs,weblink Official Gmail Blog, October 22, 2013, October 27, 2018, In August 2014, Gmail became the first major email provider to let users send and receive email from addresses with accent marks and letters from outside the Latin alphabet.WEB, Pedro Chaparro, Monferrer, A first step toward more global email,weblink Official Gmail Blog, August 5, 2014, October 27, 2018, NEWS, Dino, Grandoni, Google To Recognize Emails That Use Special Characters,weblink Huffington Post, AOL, August 5, 2014, October 27, 2018,


Web browsers

Gmail's "basic HTML" version will work on almost all browsers. The modern AJAX version is officially supported in the current and previous major releases of Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge and Safari web browsers on a rolling basis.WEB, Venkat, Panchapakesan, Our plans to support modern browsers across Google Apps,weblink Official Gmail Blog, June 1, 2011, October 27, 2018, WEB, Supported browsers,weblink Chat Help, October 27, 2018, yes,weblink March 19, 2017, In August 2011, Google introduced Gmail Offline, an HTML5-powered app for providing access to the service while offline. Gmail Offline runs on the Google Chrome browser and can be downloaded from the Chrome Web Store.WEB, Benoît, Boursetty, Using Gmail, Calendar and Docs without an Internet connection,weblink Official Gmail Blog, August 31, 2011, October 27, 2018, WEB, Erez, Zukerman, Review: Give Gmail an extreme makeover with Gmail Offline,weblink PC World, International Data Group, May 10, 2013, October 27, 2018, WEB, MG, Siegler, Coming This Summer: Fully Offline Gmail, Google Calendar, And Google Docs,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 11, 2011, October 27, 2018, In addition to the native apps on iOS and Android, users can access Gmail through the web browser on a mobile device.WEB, Rob, Kroeger, A new mobile Gmail experience for iPhone and Android,weblink Official Gmail Blog, April 7, 2009, October 27, 2018,


File:Gmail mobile screenshot.png|thumb|right|Gmail running on Android ]]Gmail has native applications for iOS devicesWEB, Gmail - Email by Google on the iOS App Store,weblink iTunes, Apple Inc., Apple, October 27, 2018, (including iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch) and for Android devices.WEB, Gmail on the Google Play Store,weblink Google Play, October 27, 2018, In November 2014, Google introduced functionality in the Gmail Android app that enabled sending and receiving email from non-Gmail addresses (such as Yahoo! Mail and through POP or IMAP.WEB, Matthew, Izatt, A more modern Gmail app for Android,weblink Official Gmail Blog, November 3, 2014, October 27, 2018, In November 2016, Google redesigned the Gmail app for the iOS platform, bringing the first complete visual overhaul in "nearly four years". The update added much more use of colors, sleeker transitions, and the addition of several "highly-requested" features, including Undo Send, faster search with instant results and spelling suggestions, and Swipe to Archive/Delete.WEB, Matthew, Izatt, Gmail and Google Calendar get a whole lot better on iOS,weblink The Keyword Google Blog, November 7, 2016, October 27, 2018, WEB, Chris, Welch, Google just redesigned Gmail for iPhone and made it way faster,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, November 7, 2016, October 27, 2018, In May 2017, Google updated Gmail on Android to feature protection from phishing attacks.WEB, Richard, Lawler, Now the Android Gmail app keeps an eye out for phishing links,weblink Engadget, AOL, May 4, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Liam, Tung, Google gives Android Gmail users new shady link warnings amid fake Docs attack,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, May 4, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Sarah, Perez, Google adds phishing protection to Gmail on Android,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 4, 2017, October 27, 2018, Media outlets noticed that the new protection was announced amid a widespread phishing attack on a combination of Gmail and Google's Docs document service that occurred on the same day.Later in May, Google announced the addition of "Smart Reply" to Gmail on Android and iOS. "Smart Reply", a feature originally launched for Google's Inbox by Gmail service, scans a message for information and uses machine intelligence to offer three responses the user can optionally edit and send. The feature is limited to the English language at launch, with upcoming support for Spanish, followed by other languages later.WEB, James, Vincent, Smart Reply is coming to Gmail for Android and iOS,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 17, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Nathan, Ingraham, Google's impersonal-but-handy Smart Replies come to the Gmail app,weblink Engadget, AOL, May 17, 2017, October 27, 2018, Inbox by Gmail, another app from the Gmail team, is also available for iOSWEB, Inbox by Gmail on the iOS App Store,weblink iTunes, Apple Inc., Apple, October 27, 2018, and AndroidWEB, Inbox by Gmail on the Google Play Store,weblink Google Play, October 27, 2018, devices.Third-party programs can be used to access Gmail, using the POP or IMAP protocols.WEB, Read Gmail messages on other email clients using POP,weblink Gmail Support, October 27, 2018,

Inbox by Gmail

In October 2014, Google introduced Inbox by Gmail on an invitation-only basis. Developed by the Gmail team, but serving as a "completely different type of inbox", the service is made to help users deal with the challenges of an active email. Citing issues such as distractions, difficulty in finding important information buried in messages, and receiving more emails than ever, Inbox by Gmail has several important differences from Gmail, including bundles that automatically sort emails of the same topic together, highlights that surface key information from messages, and reminders, assists, and snooze, that help the user in handling incoming emails at appropriate times.WEB, Sundar, Pichai, An inbox that works for you,weblink Official Gmail Blog, October 22, 2014, October 27, 2018, WEB, Dieter, Bohn, Inbox is a total reinvention of email from Google,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 22, 2014, October 27, 2018, WEB, Darrell, Etherington, Google's Inbox is A New Email App From The Gmail Team Designed Not To Be Gmail,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 22, 2014, October 27, 2018, Inbox by Gmail became publicly available in May 2015.WEB, Alex, Gawley, Thanks to you, Inbox by Gmail is now open to everyone,weblink Official Gmail Blog, May 28, 2015, October 27, 2018, In September 2018, Google announced it would end the service in March 2019, most of its key features having been incorporated into the standard Gmail service.WEB,weblink Inbox is signing off. Find your favorite features in the new Gmail, Izatt, Matthew, The Keyword, Google, September 12, 2018, September 12, 2018,

Integration with Google products

In August 2010, Google released a plugin that provides integrated telephone service within Gmail's Google Chat interface. The feature initially lacked an official name, with Google referring to it as both "Google Voice in Gmail chat" and "Call Phones in Gmail".JOURNAL, Michael, Calore, Gmail Gets Dialed Up a Notch With New Calling Feature,weblink Wired, August 25, 2010, October 27, 2018, WEB, Peter, Nowak, Google launches free voice calls from Gmail,weblink CBC News, August 25, 2010, October 27, 2018, WEB, Anjali, Mullany, Google announces via Twitter: 1,000,000 Gmail calls in 24 Hours,weblink New York Daily News, Mortimer Zuckerman, August 27, 2010, October 27, 2018, The service logged over one million calls in 24 hours.WEB, Stephen, Shankland, Google: 1 million Gmail calls on first day,weblink CNN, August 26, 2010, October 27, 2018, In March 2014, Google Voice was discontinued, and replaced with functionality from Google Hangouts, another communication platform from Google.WEB, Seth, Weintraub, Google plans to kill Google Voice in coming months, integrate features into Hangouts,weblink 9to5Google, March 18, 2014, October 27, 2018, WEB, Brandon, Russell, Google Planning To Discontinue Google Voice In Favor of Hangouts,weblink TechnoBuffalo, March 18, 2014, October 27, 2018, On February 9, 2010, Google commenced its new social networking tool, Google Buzz, which integrated with Gmail, allowing users to share links and media, as well as status updates.WEB, Jessica, Guynn, Google aims to take on Facebook with new social feature called 'Buzz',weblink Los Angeles Times, tronc, February 9, 2010, October 27, 2018, Google Buzz was discontinued in October 2011, replaced with new functionality in Google+, Google's then-new social networking platform.WEB, Tom, Cheredar, Google says Google+ integration for Gmail is coming; users sound off,weblink VentureBeat, July 11, 2011, October 27, 2018, WEB, Bradley, Horowitz, A fall sweep,weblink Official Google Blog, October 14, 2011, October 27, 2018, Gmail was integrated with Google+ in December 2011, as part of an effort to have all Google information across one Google account, with a centralized Google+ user profile.WEB, Mark, Striebeck, Gmail and Contacts get better with Google+,weblink Official Gmail Blog, December 8, 2011, October 27, 2018, Backlash from the move caused Google to step back and remove the requirement of a Google+ user account, keeping only a private Google account without a public-facing profile, starting in July 2015.WEB, Bradley, Horowitz, Everything in its right place,weblink The Keyword, July 27, 2015, October 27, 2018, In May 2013, Google announced the integration between Google Wallet and Gmail, which would allow Gmail users to send money as email attachments. Although the sender must use a Gmail account, the recipient does not need to be using a Gmail address.WEB, Travis, Green, Send money to friends with Gmail and Google Wallet,weblink Official Gmail Blog, May 15, 2013, October 27, 2018, WEB, Zach, Honig, Google Wallet will soon let you send payments as a Gmail attachment,weblink Engadget, AOL, May 15, 2013, October 27, 2018, The feature has no transaction fees, but there are limits to amount of money that can be sent.WEB, Send money or pay a request,weblink Google Wallet Help, October 27, 2018, Initially only available on the web, the feature was expanded to the Android app in March 2017, for people living in the United States.WEB, Chris, Welch, Gmail for Android now lets you send people money right in the app,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 14, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Napier, Lopez, Google now lets you send money via Gmail on Android,weblink The Next Web, March 14, 2017, October 27, 2018, In September 2016, Google released Google Trips, an app that, based on information from a user's Gmail messages, automatically generates travel cards. A travel card contains itinerary details, such as plane tickets and car rentals, and recommends activities, food and drinks, and attractions based on location, time, and interests. The app also has offline functionality.WEB, Stefan, Frank, See more, plan less – try Google Trips,weblink The Keyword Google Blog, September 19, 2016, October 27, 2018, WEB, Casey, Newton, Google Trips is a killer travel app for the modern tourist,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 19, 2016, October 27, 2018, In April 2017, Google Trips received an update adding several significant features. The app now also scans Gmail for bus and train tickets, and allows users to manually input trip reservations. Users can send trip details to other users' email, and if the recipient also has Google Trips, the information will be automatically available in their apps as well.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Personalized travel planner Google Trips gets better at handling your reservations,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 26, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Jacob, Kastrenakes, Google's Trips app is becoming an even better travel companion,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 26, 2017, October 27, 2018,



Google has supported secure HTTPS since the day it launched. In the beginning, it was only default on the login page, a reason that Google engineer Ariel Rideout stated was because HTTPS made "your mail slower". However, users could manually switch to secure HTTPS mode inside the inbox after logging in. In July 2008, Google simplified the ability to manually enable secure mode, with a toggle in the settings menu.WEB, Ariel, Rideout, Making security easier,weblink Official Gmail Blog, July 24, 2008, October 27, 2018, In 2007, Google fixed a cross-site scripting security issue that could let attackers collect information from Gmail contact lists.WEB, Jeremy, Kirk, Google closes Gmail cross-site scripting vulnerability,weblink InfoWorld, International Data Group, January 2, 2007, October 27, 2018, In January 2010, Google began rolling out HTTPS as the default for all users.WEB, Sam, Schillace, Default https access for Gmail,weblink Official Gmail Blog, January 12, 2010, October 27, 2018, In June 2012, a new security feature was introduced to protect users from state-sponsored attacks. A banner will appear at the top of the page that warns users of an unauthorized account compromise.WEB, Eric, Grosse, Security warnings for suspected state-sponsored attacks,weblink Google Security Blog, June 5, 2012, October 27, 2018, WEB, Google to warn users of 'state-sponsored attacks',weblink CBC News, June 6, 2012, October 27, 2018, In March 2014, Google announced that an encrypted HTTPS connection will be used for the sending and receiving of all Gmail emails, and "every single email message you send or receive —100% of them —is encrypted while moving internally" through the company's systems.WEB, Nicolas, Lidzborski, Staying at the forefront of email security and reliability: HTTPS-only and 99.978% availability,weblink Official Gmail Blog, March 20, 2014, October 27, 2018, Whenever possible, Gmail uses transport layer security (TLS) to automatically encrypt emails sent and received. On the web and on Android devices, users can check if a message is encrypted by checking if the message has a closed or open red padlock.WEB, Check the security of your emails,weblink Gmail Help, October 27, 2018, Gmail automatically scans all incoming and outgoing e-mails for viruses in email attachments. For security reasons, some file types, including executables, are not allowed to be sent in emails.WEB, File types blocked in Gmail,weblink Gmail Help, October 27, 2018, At the end of May 2017, Google announced that it had applied machine learning technology to identify emails with phishing and spam, having a 99.9% detection accuracy. The company also announced that Gmail would selectively delay some messages, approximately 0.05% of all, to perform more detailed analysis and aggregate details to improve its algorithms.WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Google says its machine learning tech now blocks 99.9% of Gmail spam and phishing messages,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 31, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Mallory, Locklear, Google beefs up Gmail security to fight phishing attempts,weblink Engadget, AOL, May 31, 2017, October 27, 2018,

Third-party encryption in transit

(File:Gmail-transport-encryption.png|png|thumb|alt=Gmail Transport Encryption by Country|Gmail transport encryption by country)In Google's Transparency Report under the Safer email section, it provides information on the percentage of emails encrypted in transit between Gmail and third-party email providers.WEB, Email encryption in transit,weblink Google Transparency Report, October 27, 2018,

Two-step verification

Gmail supports two-step verification, an optional additional measure for users to protect their accounts when logging in.WEB, Google 2-Step Verification,weblink October 27, 2018, Once enabled, users are required to verify their identity using a second method after entering their username and password when logging in on a new device. Common methods include entering a code sent to a user's mobile phone through a text message, entering a code using the Google Authenticator smartphone app, or by inserting a physical security key into the computer's USB port.WEB, Google 2-Step Verification,weblink October 27, 2018, Using a security key for two-step verification was made available as an option in October 2014.WEB, Nishit, Shah, Strengthening 2-Step Verification with Security Key,weblink Google Security Blog, October 21, 2014, October 27, 2018, WEB, Adam, Turner, Google security keys may offer extra layer of online protection,weblink The Sydney Morning Herald, Fairfax Media, November 5, 2014, October 27, 2018,

24-hour lockdowns

If an algorithm detects what Google calls "abnormal usage that may indicate that your account has been compromised", the account can be automatically locked down for between one minute and 24 hours, depending on the type of activity detected. Listed reasons for a lock-down include:WEB,weblink Can't sign in to your Google Account, October 27, 2018, Google Account Help,
  • "Receiving, deleting, or downloading large amounts of mail via POP or IMAP in a short period of time. If you're getting the error message, 'Lockdown in Sector 4,' you should be able to access Gmail again after waiting 24 hours."
  • "Sending a large number of undeliverable messages (messages that bounce back)."
  • "Using file-sharing or file-storage software, browser extensions, or third-party software that automatically logs into your account."
  • "Leaving multiple instances of Gmail open."
  • "Browser-related issues. Please note that if you find your browser continually reloading while attempting to access your Inbox, it's probably a browser issue, and it may be necessary to clear your browser's cache and cookies."

Anti child pornography policy

Google combats child pornography through Gmail's servers in conjunction with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) to find children suffering abuse around the world. In collaboration with the NCMEC, Google creates a database of child pornography pictures. Each one of the images is given a unique numerical number known as a hash. Google then scans Gmail looking for the unique hashes. When suspicious images are located Google reports the incident to the appropriate national authorities.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Why The Gmail Scan That Led To A Man's Arrest For Child Porn Was Not A Privacy Violation,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, August 6, 2014, October 27, 2018,


The idea for Gmail was developed by Paul Buchheit several years before it was announced to the public. The project was known by the code name Caribou. During early development, the project was kept secret from most of Google's own engineers. This changed once the project became better and better, and by early 2004, almost everybody was using it to access the company's internal email system.WEB, Harry, McCracken, How Gmail Happened: The Inside Story of Its Launch 10 Years Ago,weblink Time (magazine), Time, Time Inc., April 1, 2014, October 27, 2018, Gmail was announced to the public by Google on April 1, 2004 as a limited beta release.WEB, Google Gets the Message, Launches Gmail,weblink Google News from Google, April 1, 2004, October 27, 2018, In November 2006, Google began offering a Java-based application of Gmail for mobile phones.WEB, Ed, Oswald, Google Offers Java-based Mobile Gmail,weblink BetaNews, November 2, 2006, October 27, 2018, In October 2007, Google began a process of rewriting parts of the code that Gmail used, which would make the service faster and add new features, such as custom keyboard shortcuts and the ability to bookmark specific messages and email searches.WEB, Dan, Pupius, Code changes to prepare Gmail for the future,weblink Official Gmail Blog, October 29, 2007, October 27, 2018, Gmail also added IMAP support in October 2007.WEB, K.C., Jones, Gmail Now Has IMAP Support,weblink InformationWeek, UBM Tech, October 24, 2007, October 27, 2018, An update around January 2008 changed elements of Gmail's use of JavaScript, and resulted in the failure of a third-party script some users had been using. Google acknowledge the issue and helped users with workarounds.WEB, Dan, Pupius, Gmail/Greasemonkey API issue,weblink Official Gmail Blog, January 29, 2008, October 27, 2018, Gmail exited the beta status on July 7, 2009.WEB, Matthew, Glotzbach, Google Apps is out of beta (yes, really),weblink Official Google Blog, July 7, 2009, October 27, 2018, Prior to December 2013, users had to approve to see images in emails, which acted as a security measure. This changed in December 2013, when Google, citing improved image handling, enabled images to be visible without user approval. Images will be routed through Google's secure proxy servers rather than the original external host servers.WEB, John, Rae-Grant, Images Now Showing,weblink Official Gmail Blog, December 12, 2013, October 27, 2018, MarketingLand noted that the change to image handling means email marketers will no longer be able to track the recipient's IP address or information about what kind of device the recipient is using.WEB, Google: Gmail Image Change May Improve Open Rate Data, But Will Strip Other User Data, Matt, McGee,weblink MarketingLand, December 12, 2013, October 27, 2018, However, Wired stated that the new change means senders can track the time when an email is first opened, as the initial loading of the images requires the system to make a "callback" to the original server.JOURNAL, Ryan, Tate, With the New Gmail, People Will Know When You Open That Message,weblink Wired, December 12, 2013, October 27, 2018,


In June 2012, Google announced that Gmail had 425 million active users globally.WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Chrome & Apps @ Google I/O: Your web, everywhere,weblink Official Google Blog, June 28, 2012, October 27, 2018, In May 2015, Google announced that Gmail had 900 million active users, 75% of whom were using the service on mobile devices.WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Gmail Now Has 900M Active Users, 75% On Mobile,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 28, 2015, October 27, 2018, In February 2016, Google announced that Gmail had passed 1 billion active users.WEB, Ross, Miller, Gmail now has 1 billion monthly active users,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, February 1, 2016, October 27, 2018, In July 2017, Google announced that Gmail had passed 1.2 billion active users.NEWS, Mathews, Lee, 90% Of Gmail Users Don't Use This Simple Trick To Protect Their Accounts,weblink October 27, 2018, Forbes, In the business sector, Quartz reported in August 2014 that, among 150 companies checked in three major categories in the United States (Fortune 50 largest companies, mid-size tech and media companies, and startup companies from the last Y Combinator incubator class), only one Fortune 50 company used Gmail – Google itself – while 60% of mid-sized companies and 92% of startup companies were using Gmail.WEB, Dan, Frommer, Google is stealing away Microsoft's future corporate customers,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, August 1, 2014, October 27, 2018, In May 2014, Gmail became the first app on the Google Play Store to hit one billion installations on Android devices.NEWS, Samuel, Gibbs, Gmail Android app is first to hit one billion installations,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, May 16, 2014, October 27, 2018,

G Suite

As part of G Suite, Google's business-focused offering, Gmail comes with additional features, including:WEB, G Suite by Google Cloud,weblink October 27, 2018,
  • Email addresses with the customer's domain name (
  • 99.9% guaranteed uptime with zero scheduled downtime for maintenanceWEB, Venkat, Panchapakesan, Pure and Proven Cloud: Gmail Availability in 2012,weblink Google Cloud Official Blog, April 3, 2013, October 27, 2018,
  • Either 30 GB or unlimited storage shared with Google Drive, depending on the plan
  • 24/7 phone and email support
  • Synchronization compatibility with Microsoft Outlook and other email providers
  • Support for add-ons that integrate third-party apps purchased from the G Suite Marketplace with GmailWEB, Thijs van, As, Bring the power of your apps into Gmail with Add-ons,weblink March 9, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Dieter, Bohn, Native Gmail add-ons are coming — but they'll be business focused to start,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 9, 2017, October 27, 2018, WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Google adds add-on support to Gmail,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 9, 2017, October 27, 2018,


{{Expand section|date=June 2014}}Gmail is noted by web developers for its early adoption of Ajax.WEB, Coach K., Wei, AJAX: Asynchronous Java + XML?,weblink, August 11, 2005, October 27, 2018,


Gmail was ranked second in PC World's "100 Best Products of 2005", behind Mozilla Firefox. Gmail also won 'Honorable Mention' in the Bottom Line Design Awards 2005.WEB,weblink, The 100 Best Products of 2005, June 1, 2005, October 27, 2018, WEB,weblink Bottom Line Design Awards, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 30, 2007, October 27, 2018, In September 2006, Forbes declared Gmail to be the best webmail application for small businesses.WEB,weblink The Best Web-Based Computer Applications For Small Business, September 7, 2006, Forbes, October 27, 2018, In November 2006, Gmail received PC World's 4 star rating.WEB, Industry Awards and Accolades for Google,weblinkweblink May 14, 2011, October 27, 2018, yes,



Google has one privacy policy that covers all of its services.WEB, Google Privacy Policy,weblink Google Privacy & Terms, October 27, 2018, Google claims that Gmail refrains from displaying ads next to potentially sensitive messages, such as those that mention race, religion, sexual orientation, health, or financial statements.WEB, How Gmail ads work,weblink Gmail Help, October 27, 2018,

Automated scanning of email content

Google's mail servers automatically scan emails for multiple purposes, including to add context-sensitive advertisements next to emails, and to filter spam and malware.Privacy advocates raised concerns about this practice; concerns included that allowing email content to be read by a machine (as opposed to a person) can allow Google to keep unlimited amounts of information forever; the automated background scanning of data raises the risk that the expectation of privacy in email usage will be reduced or eroded; information collected from emails could be retained by Google for years after its current relevancy to build complete profiles on users; emails sent by users from other email providers get scanned despite never having agreed to Google's privacy policy or terms of service; Google can change its privacy policy unilaterally, and for minor changes to the policy it can do so without informing users; in court cases, governments and organizations can potentially find it easier to legally monitor email communications; at any time, Google can change its current company policies to allow combining information from emails with data gathered from use of its other services; and any internal security problem on Google's systems can potentially expose many – or all – of its users.WEB, Gmail Privacy FAQ,weblink Electronic Privacy Information Center, October 27, 2018, WEB, Mark, Rasch, Google's Gmail: spook heaven?,weblink The Register, Situation Publishing, June 15, 2004, October 27, 2018, WEB, Robert, McMillan, Google attack part of widespread spying effort,weblink Computerworld, International Data Group, January 13, 2010, October 27, 2018, In 2004, thirty-one privacy and civil liberties organizations wrote a letter calling upon Google to suspend its Gmail service until the privacy issues were adequately addressed. The letter also called upon Google to clarify its written information policies regarding data retention and data sharing among its business units. The organizations also voiced their concerns about Google's plan to scan the text of all incoming messages for the purposes of ad placement, noting that the scanning of confidential email for inserting third-party ad content violates the implicit trust of an email service provider.WEB, Beth, Givens, Pam, Dixon, Thirty-One Privacy And Civil Liberties Organizations Urge Google To Suspend Gmail,weblink Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, April 6, 2004, October 27, 2018, On June 23, 2017, Google announced that, later in 2017, it will phase out the scanning of email content to generate contextual advertising, relying on personal data collected through other Google services instead. The company stated that this change was meant to clarify its practices and quell concerns among enterprise G Suite customers who felt an ambiguous distinction between the free consumer and paid professional variants, the latter being advertising-free.WEB, Mark, Bergen, Google Will Stop Reading Your Emails for Gmail Ads,weblink Bloomberg Technology, Bloomberg L.P., June 23, 2017, October 27, 2018, {{subscription needed}}WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Google now has all the data it needs, will stop scanning Gmail inboxes for ad personalization,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 23, 2017, October 27, 2018,


In March 2011, a former Gmail user in Texas sued Google, claiming that its Gmail service violates users' privacy by scanning e-mail messages to serve relevant ads.WEB, Thomas, Claburn, Google Again Sued Over Gmail Content Scanning,weblink InformationWeek, UBM Tech, March 9, 2011, October 27, 2018, In July 2012, some California residents filed two class action lawsuits against Google and Yahoo!, claiming that they illegally intercept emails sent by individual non-Gmail or non-Yahoo! email users to Gmail and Yahoo! recipients without the senders' knowledge, consent or permission.WEB, Abellin, Lawsuit: Gmail, Yahoo Email Invade Privacy, Even Non-Users',weblink ABC News, July 2, 2012, October 27, 2018, A motion filed by Google's attorneys in the case concedes that Gmail users have "no expectation of privacy".WEB, Michael, Morisy, GMail a little too open? Google says users should have no 'expectation of privacy',weblink, August 13, 2013, October 27, 2018, A court filing uncovered by advocacy group Consumer Watchdog in August 2013 revealed that Google stated in a court filing that no "reasonable expectation" exists among Gmail users in regard to the assured confidentiality of their emails. In response to a lawsuit filed in May 2013, Google explained:"... all users of email must necessarily expect that their emails will be subject to automated processing ...  Just as a sender of a letter to a business colleague cannot be surprised that the recipient's assistant opens the letter, people who use web-based email today cannot be surprised if their communications are processed by the recipient's ECS [electronic communications service] provider in the course of delivery.A Google spokesperson stated to the media on August 15, 2013 that the corporation takes the privacy and security concerns of Gmail users "very seriously."NEWS, Dominic, Rushe, Google: don't expect privacy when sending to Gmail,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, August 15, 2013, October 27, 2018,

April 2014 Terms of service update

Google updated its terms of service for Gmail in April 2014 to create full transparency for its users in regard to the scanning of email content. The relevant revision states: "Our automated systems analyse your content (including emails) to provide you personally relevant product features, such as customised search results, tailored advertising, and spam and malware detection. This analysis occurs as the content is sent, received, and when it is stored." A Google spokesperson explained that the corporation wishes for its policies "to be simple and easy for users to understand."In response to the update, Jim Killock, executive director of the Open Rights Group, stated: "The really dangerous things that Google is doing are things like the information held in Analytics, cookies in advertising and the profiling that it is able to do on individual accounts".NEWS, Samuel, Gibbs, Gmail does scan all emails, new Google terms clarify,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, April 15, 2014, October 27, 2018,

Microsoft ad campaign against Google

In 2013, Microsoft launched an advertising campaign to attack Google for scanning email messages, arguing that most consumers are not aware that Google monitors their personal messages to deliver targeted ads. Microsoft claims that its email service Outlook does not scan the contents of messages and a Microsoft spokesperson called the issue of privacy "Google's kryptonite." In response, Google stated; "We work hard to make sure that ads are safe, unobtrusive and relevant ... No humans read your e-mail or Google Account information in order to show you advertisements or related information. An automated algorithm — similar to that used for features like Priority Inbox or spam filtering — determines which ads are shown.” The New York Times cites "Google supporters", who say that "Microsoft's ads are distasteful, the last resort of a company that has been unsuccessful at competing against Google on the more noble battleground of products".WEB, Nick, Wingfield, Microsoft Attacks Google on Gmail Privacy,weblink The New York Times, February 6, 2013, October 27, 2018,

Other privacy issues

2010 attack from China

In January 2010, Google detected a "highly sophisticated" cyber-attack on its infrastructure that originated from China. The targets of the attack were Chinese human rights activists, but Google discovered that accounts belonging to European, American and Chinese activists for human rights in China had been "routinely accessed by third parties". Additionally, Google stated that their investigation revealed that "at least" 20 other large companies from a "wide range of businesses" - including the Internet, finance, technology, media and chemical sectors – had been similarly targeted. Google was in the process of notifying those companies and it was also working with relevant US authorities. In light of the attacks, Google enhanced the security and architecture of its infrastructure, and advised individual users to install anti-virus and anti-spyware on their computers, update their operating systems and web browsers, and be cautious when clicking on Internet links or when sharing personal information in instant messages and emails.WEB, David, Drummond, A new approach to China,weblink Official Google Blog, January 12, 2010, October 27, 2018, JOURNAL, Kim, Zetter, Google Hack Attack Was Ultra Sophisticated, New Details Show,weblink Wired, January 14, 2010, October 27, 2018,

Social network integration

The February 2010 launch of Google Buzz, a former social network that was linked to Gmail, immediately drew criticism for publicly sharing details of users' contacts unless the default settings were changed.WEB, Google Buzz Has Serious Privacy Flaws,weblink Fox News, February 12, 2010, October 27, 2018, WEB, Todd, Jackson, Millions of Buzz users, and improvements based on your feedback,weblink Official Gmail Blog, February 11, 2010, October 27, 2018, A new Gmail feature was launched in January 2014, whereby users can email people with Google+ accounts even though they do not know the email address of the recipient. Marc Rotenberg, President of the Electronic Privacy Information Center, called the feature "troubling", and compared it to the Google Buzz initial launch privacy flaw.NEWS, New Gmail messaging feature causes privacy concerns,weblink BBC News, January 10, 2014, October 27, 2018,

Update to DoubleClick privacy policy

In June 2016, Julia Angwin of ProPublica wrote about Google's updated privacy policy, which deleted a clause that had stated Google would not combine DoubleClick web browsing cookie information with personally identifiable information from its other services. This change has allowed Google to merge users' personally identifiable information from different Google services to create one unified ad profile for each user. After publication of the article, Google reached out to ProPublica to say that the merge would not include Gmail keywords in ad targeting.NEWS, Julia, Angwin, Google Has Quietly Dropped Ban on Personally Identifiable Web Tracking,weblink ProPublica, October 21, 2016, October 27, 2018,


Gmail suffered at least seven outages in 2009 alone, causing doubts about the reliability of its service.WEB, Tony, Bradley, Google Outages Damage Cloud Credibility,weblink PC World, International Data Group, September 24, 2009, October 27, 2018, WEB, MG, Siegler, Where were you during the great Gmail outage of February 2009?,weblink VentureBeat, February 24, 2009, October 27, 2018, It suffered a new outage on February 28, 2011, in which a bug caused Gmail accounts to be empty. Google stated in a blog post that "email was never lost" and restoration was in progress.WEB, Ben, Treynor, Gmail back soon for everyone,weblink Official Gmail Blog, February 28, 2011, October 27, 2018, Another outage occurred on April 17, 2012,WEB, Rafe, Needleman, Gmail users experience outage,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, April 17, 2012, October 27, 2018, September 24, 2013,WEB, Dante, D'Orazio, Yesterday's Gmail outage delayed millions of messages by over two hours,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 24, 2013, October 27, 2018, January 24, 2014.WEB, Darrell, Etherington, Gmail And Google+ Go Down Across The World, Service Returns After Roughly 50 Minutes,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 24, 2014, October 27, 2018, and January 29, 2019.WEB,weblink Gmail 'not working' as thousands complain about mysterious 'Error 404', 2019-01-29, The Irish Sun, en-GB, 2019-01-29, Google has stated that "Gmail remains more than 99.9% available to all users, and we're committed to keeping events like today's notable for their rarity."WEB, Ben, Treynor, More on today's Gmail issue,weblink Official Gmail Blog, September 1, 2009, October 27, 2018,

"On behalf of" tag

In May 2009, Farhad Manjoo wrote on The New York Times blog about Gmail's "on behalf of" tag. Manjoo explained: "The problems is, when you try to send outbound mail from your Gmail universal inbox, Gmail adds a tag telling your recipients that you're actually using Gmail and not your office e-mail. If your recipient is using Microsoft Outlook, he'll see a message like, 'From on behalf of{{' "}} Manjoo further wrote that "Google explains that it adds the tag in order to prevent your e-mail from being considered spam by your recipient; the theory is that if the e-mail is honest about its origins, it shouldn't arouse suspicion by spam checking software".WEB, Farhad, Manjoo, Maintaining A True Universal Inbox on Gmail Remains Elusive,weblink The New York Times, May 4, 2009, October 27, 2018, The following July, Google announced a new option that would remove the "On behalf of" tag, by sending the email from the server of the other email address instead of using Gmail's servers.WEB, Emmanuel, Pellereau, Send mail from another address without "on behalf of",weblink Official Gmail Blog, July 30, 2009, October 27, 2018,

See also



External links

{{Sister project links |wikt=no |commons=Gmail |b=Gmail |n=no |q=Gmail |s=no |v=no |voy=no |d=no |species=no |display=Gmail}} {{Google Inc.}}{{android}}{{Authority control}}

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