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Gilgit-Baltistan
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རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།| native_name_lang = urAutonomous administrative division>Administrative territory of Pakistan| image_skyline ={{Photomontage| photo1a =Aqua Ambulance.jpg| photo2a = K2_2006b.jpg| photo2b =| photo3a = Passu, Gilgit-Baltistan (cropped).jpg| photo3b = Skardu Cold Desert (cropped).jpg| photo4a = Deosai_Nauman.jpg| size = 250| position = center| spacing = Number indicating width of spacing between the images (default: 1)| color = Color of spacing between the images (default: black)| border = Number indicating width of border surrounding the montage (default: 1)| color_border = Color of border surrounding the montage (default: black)| text =| text_background = Color of background behind text (default: #F8F8FF)Attabad Lake, K2, Passu, Cold Desert, Skardu>Cold Desert and Deosai National Park}}| image_alt =| image_caption =| image_flag = Flag of Gilgit Baltistan.svg| flag_alt =| image_seal = Gilgit Baltistan Government Logo.svg| nickname = GB| image_map = Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan (de-facto + wo Glacier) (claims hatched).svg| map_alt =| map_caption = Location of Gilgit-Baltistan35.35display=inline,title}}| coordinates_footnotes =| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = Pakistan| subdivision_type1 =| subdivision_name1 =| established_title = Established| established_date = 1 Nov 1948| seat_type = Capital| seat = Gilgit| seat1_type = Largest citySkarduSKARDUWEBSITE=SKARDU, 16 July 2015, | government_type = Self-governing territory of Pakistan| government_footnotes =Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly>Legislative assembly| leader_party =List of Governors of Pakistan>Governor| leader_name = Raja Jalal Hussain MaqpoonList of Chief Ministers in Pakistan>Chief MinisterHafiz Hafeezur Rehman>Hafeezur RahmanIN THE SADDLE: NEW CM HAS A VISION FOR GILGIT-BALTISTAN>URL=HTTP://TRIBUNE.COM.PK/STORY/912070/IN-THE-SADDLE-NEW-CM-HAS-A-VISION-FOR-GILGIT-BALTISTAN/NEWSPAPER=THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, 30 June 2015, | unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes =| area_total_km2 = 72971WORK=UNPO.ORG, 20 June 2016, | elevation_footnotes =| elevation_m =| population_footnotes =Shahid Javed Burki|2015}}| population_as_of = 2015| population_density_km2 = auto| population_note =| population_demonym =Time in Pakistan>PKT| utc_offset1 = +5| postal_code_type =| postal_code =| area_code_type =| area_code =| iso_code = PK-GB| blank_name_sec1 = Main languagesBalti dialect>Balti, Shina language, Burushaski> blank_name_sec2 = Assembly seats| blank_info_sec2 = 33Legislative Assembly will have directly elected 24 members, besides six women and three technocrats. "Gilgit Baltistan: New Pakistani Package or Governor Rule" 3 September 2009, The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)Districts of Gilgit-Baltistan>Districts| blank1_info_sec2 = 10| blank2_name_sec2 = Towns| blank2_info_sec2 = 9Union Councils of Pakistan>Union Councils| blank3_info_sec2 =Human Development Index>HDI (2017)WEBSITE=HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-13, {{colormedium}} weblink}}| footnotes =}}Gilgit-Baltistan (}}, Balti: རྒྱལ་སྐྱིད་ སྦལྟི་ཡུལ།), formerly known as the Northern Areas,{{citation |last=Hinman |first=Bonnie |title=We Visit Pakistan |publisher=Mitchell Lane Publishers, Inc. |date=15 September 2011 |isbn=978-1-61228-103-2 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kbyXBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA41 |p=41}} is the northernmost territory administered by Pakistan.BOOK, Weightman, Barbara A., Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia, 2 December 2005, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-471-63084-5, 193, 2nd, It is part of the larger Kashmir region, which is the subject of a territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and China. It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast.Gilgit-Baltistan is part of the greater Kashmir region, which is the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan and India. The territory shares a border with Azad Kashmir, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations and other international organisations as "Pakistan administered Kashmir".{{refn|group=note|The Indian government and Indian sources refer to Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan as "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" ("PoK"){{sfn|Snedden|2013|pp=2–3}} or "Pakistan-held Kashmir" (PHK).BOOK, Bipan, Chandra, Aditya, Mukherjee, Mridula, Mukherje, India since Independence, Penguin Books India, 2008, 978-0143104094, 416,
Sometimes Azad Kashmir alone is meant by these terms.{{sfn|Snedden|2013|pp=2–3}}
"Pakistan-administered Kashmir" and "Pakistan-controlled Kashmir"BOOK, Sumantra, Bose, Contested lands: Israel-Palestine, Kashmir, Bosnia, Cyprus and Sri Lanka, Harvard University Press, 2009, 978-0674028562, 193, BOOK, Navnita Chadha, Behera, Demystifying Kashmir, Pearson Education India, 2007, 978-8131708460, 66, are used by neutral sources. Conversely, Pakistani sources call the territory under Indian control "Indian-Occupied Kashmir" ("IOK") or "Indian-Held Kashmir" ("IHK").{{sfn|Snedden|2013|pp=2–3}}}}Gilgit-Baltistan is six times the size of Azad Kashmir.NEWS, Prabhash K. Dutta, Gilgit-Baltistan: Story of how region 6 times the size of PoK passed on to Pakistan, India Today, 25 March 2017,weblink The territory also borders Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state to the south and is separated from it by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India and Pakistan.The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan district and several small former princely states, the larger of which being Hunza and Nagar.{{sfn|Shahid Javed Burki|2015}} In 2009, it was granted limited autonomy and renamed to Gilgit-Baltistan via the Self-Governance Order signed by Pakistan president Asif Ali Zardari, which also aimed to empower the people of Gilgit-Baltistan. However, scholars state that the real power rests with the governor and not with chief minister or elected assembly.In Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, residents see experiment with autonomy as 'illusion', Christian Science Monitor, 28 November 2011{{citation |first=Senge H. |last=Sering |title=Constitutional Impasse in Gilgit-Baltistan (Jammu and Kashmir): The Fallout |journal=Strategic Analysis |volume=34 |pages=354–358 |number=3 |doi=10.1080/09700161003658998 |quote=Instead of the chief minister, the order rests all administrative, political and judicial authority with the governor, which makes him the supreme authority and portrays the assembly as a toothless tiger. At best, the order legitimises Pakistan's occupation and claims political rights for the locals without changing the power equation.|year=2010 }} The population of Gilgit-Baltistan wants to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province and opposes integration with Kashmir. The Pakistani government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions.Gilgit-Baltistan covers an area of over 72,971 km² (28,174 sq mi) and is highly mountainous. It had an estimated population of 1,800,000 in 2015.{{sfn|Shahid Javed Burki|2015}} Its capital city is Gilgit (population 216,760 est). Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan. The main tourism activities are trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance.

Early history

{{Multiple image| align = left| direction = horizontal| header_align = center| header = Rock carvings| width = 300px| image1 = Manthal Rock Photo By me..JPG| width1 =| alt1 =| caption1 = Manthal Buddha Rock in outskirts of Skardu city| image2 = Buddha at Kargah Gilgit.jpg| width2 =| alt2 =| caption2 = Photograph of Kargah Buddha| image3 = Henzal Stupa Gilgit.jpg| width3 =| alt3 =| caption3 = The Hanzal stupa dates from the Buddhist era| footer_align = centreHTTP://WINDOWTOGB.BLOGSPOT.IT/1997/07/A-WINDOW-TO-GILGIT-BALTISTAN-I.HTMLPUBLISHER=, }}The rock carvings found in various places in Gilgit-Baltistan, especially those found in the Passu village of Hunza, suggest a human presence since 2000 BC.BOOK,weblink Alpamayo to Everest: It's Not About the Summit, By Ian Hibbert, 9781483440736, 2015-11-17, Within the next few centuries after human settlement in the Tibetan plateau, this region became inhabited by Tibetans, who preceded the Balti people of Baltistan. Today Baltistan bears similarity to Ladakh physically and culturally (although not religiously). Dards are found mainly in the western areas. These people are the Shina-speaking peoples of Gilgit, Chilas, Astore and Diamir while in Hunza and in the upper regions Burushaski and Khowar speakers dominate. The Dards find mention in the works of Herodotus,{{refn|group=note|He mentions twice a people called Dadikai, first along with the Gandarioi, and again in the catalogue of king Xerxes's army invading Greece. Herodotus also mentions the gold-digging ants of Central Asia.}} Nearchus, Megasthenes, Pliny,{{refn|group=note|In the 1st century, Pliny repeats that the Dards were great producers of gold.}} Ptolemy,{{refn|group=note|Ptolemy situates the Daradrai on the upper reaches of the Indus}} and the geographical lists of the Puranas.BOOK, The Kingdom of Ladakh c. 950–1842 A.D., Petech, Luciano, Istituto Italiano per il media ed Estremo Oriente, 1977, In the 1st century the people of these regions were followers of the Bon religion while in the 2nd century they followed Buddhism.File:Tibetan empire greatest extent 780s-790s CE.png|thumbnail|left|Map of Tibetan EmpireTibetan Empire{| class="infobox borderless"|+ Provincial symbols of the Gilgit-Baltistan (un-official)! AnimalDomestic yak>YakHTTP://KNOWPAKISTAN.GOV.IN/KNOWPAKISTAN/NATIONAL_SYMBOLS.PHP?ID=16#LD > TITLE=SYMBOLS OF GILGIT-BALTISTAN ACCESSDATE=14 AUGUST 2013, {{Dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot ACCESSDATE=14 AUGUST 2013, {{Dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}90px)! Bird| Golden eagle90px)! Tree| Apricot90px)! FlowerAquilegia>Granny's bonnet90px)! Sport| Polo90px)Between 399 and 414, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited Gilgit-Baltistan,BOOK, By Rafi U. Samad, The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Buddhist Civilization of the Swat ...,weblink 9780875868592, 2011, while in the 6th century Somana Palola (greater Gilgit-Chilas) was ruled by an unknown king. Between 627 and 645, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang travelled through this region on his pilgrimage to India.According to Chinese records from the Tang dynasty, between the 600s and the 700s, the region was governed by a Buddhist dynasty referred to as Bolü ({{zh|c=勃律|p=bólǜ}}), also transliterated as Palola, Patola, Balur.BOOK, Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of India–China Relations, 600–1400, Sen, Tansen, Rowman & Littlefield, 2015, 2017-02-19,weblink 9781442254732, They are believed to be the Palola Sāhi dynasty mentioned in a Brahmi inscription,BOOK, A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan, Ruth Laila, Schmidt, Razwal, Kohistani, 2008, 2018-01-23,weblink 978-3447056762, and are devout adherents of Vajrayana Buddhism.BOOK, Patronage, Devotion and Politics: A Buddhological Study of the Patola Sahi Dynasty's Visual Record, Twist, Rebecca L., Ohio State University, 2007, 9783639151718, 2017-02-19,weblink At the time, Little Palola ({{zh|小勃律}}) was used to refer to Gilgit, while Great Palola ({{zh|大勃律}}) was used to refer to Baltistan. However, the records do not consistently disambiguate the two.In mid-600s, Gilgit came under Chinese suzerainty after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate due to Tang military campaigns in the region. In late 600s CE, the rising Tibetan Empire wrestled control of the region from the Chinese. However, faced with growing influence of the Umayyad Caliphate and then the Abbasid Caliphate to the west, the Tibetans were forced to ally themselves with the Islamic caliphates. The region was then contested by Chinese and Tibetan forces, and their respective vassal states, until the mid-700s.BOOK, Stein, Mark Aurel, Aurel Stein, Ancient Khotan: Detailed Report of Archaeological Explorations in Chinese Turkestan, Clarendon Press, 1907, Oxford, UK, vol. 1, 4–18,weblink Rulers of Gilgit formed an alliance with the Tang Chinese and held back the Arabs with their help.BOOK, Robert W. Bradnock, South Asian Handbook, 1994, Trade & Travel Publications, 1168, Between 644 and 655, Navasurendrāditya-nandin became king of Palola Sāhi dynasty in Gilgit.BOOK, Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks, Neelis, Jason, brill.com, 2011, 2018-02-21,weblink 177, 9789004181595, Numerous Sanskrit inscriptions, including the Danyor Rock Inscriptions, were discovered to be from his reign.JOURNAL, Stein, Aurel, Archæological Notes form the Hindukush Region, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 76, 1–2, 2011, 5–24, 0035-869X, 10.1017/S0035869X00098713,weblink Sri-Nava-Surendraditya-Nandideva, In late 600s and early 700s, Jayamaṅgalavikramāditya-nandin was king of Gilgit.According to Chinese court records, in 717 and 719 respectively, delegations of a ruler of Great Palola (Baltistan) named Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni ({{zh|c=蘇弗舍利支離泥|p=sūfúshèlìzhīlíní}}) reached the Chinese imperial court.WEB, Baltistan,weblink tibetan incyclopedia, WIKISOURCE, 全唐文, Complete collection of Tang prose, 0039, 卷0039#冊勃律國王文, 全唐文, 董誥, zh, By at least 719/720, Ladakh (Mard) became part of the Tibetan Empire. By that time, Buddhism was practiced in Baltistan, and Sanskrit was the written language.In 720, the delegation of Surendrāditya ({{zh|c=蘇麟陀逸之|p=sūlíntuóyìzhī}}) reached the Chinese imperial court. He was referred to by the Chinese records as the king of Great Palola; however, it is unknown if Baltistan was under Gilgit rule at the time.WIKISOURCE, 新唐書, New Book of Tang, 221 bottom, 卷221下, 新唐書, zh, The Chinese emperor also granted the ruler of Cashmere, Chandrāpīḍa ("Tchen-fo-lo-pi-li"), the title of "King of Cashmere". By 721/722, Baltistan had came under the influence of the Tibetan Empire.BOOK, August Hermann Francke, Antiquities of Indian Tibet, Part 1,weblink 9788120607699, 1992, In 721–722, Tibetan army attempted but failed to capture Gilgit or Bruzha (Yasin valley). By this time, according to Chinese records, the king of Little Palola was Mo-ching-mang ({{zh|c=沒謹忙|p=méijǐnmáng}}). He had visited Tang court requesting military assistance against the Tibetans.WIKISOURCE, 新唐書, New Book of Tang, 新唐書/卷221下, zh, 221, Between 723–728, the Korean Buddhist pilgrim Hyecho passed through this area. In 737/738, Tibetan troops under the leadership of Minister Bel Kyesang Dongtsab of Emperor Me Agtsom took control of Little Palola. By 747, the Chinese army under the leadership of the ethnic-Korean commander Gao Xianzhi had recaptured Little Palola.BOOK, René Grousset, The Rise and Splendour of the Chinese Empire, 160,weblink Great Palola was subsequently captured by the Chinese army in 753 under the military Governor Feng Changqing. However, by 755, due to the An Lushan rebellion, the Tang Chinese forces withdrew and was no longer able to exert influence in Central Asia and in the regions around Gilgit-Baltistan.BOOK, By Angela Falco Howard, Chinese Sculpture, 313,weblink 978-0300100655, 2006, The control of the region was left to the Tibetan Empire. They referred to the region as Bruzha, a toponym that is consistent with the ethnonym "Burusho" used today. Tibetan control of the region lasted until late-800s CE.JOURNAL, A Tibetan Toponym from Afghanistan, Mock, John, Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines, 27, 5–9, October 2013, 2018-01-22,weblink 1768-2959, Turkic tribes practicing Zoroastrianism arrived in Gilgit during the 7th century, and founded the Trakhan dynasty in Gilgit.

Medieval history

In the 14th century Sufi Muslim preachers from Persia and Central Asia introduced Islam in Baltistan. Famous amongst them was Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani who came via KashmirBOOK,weblink Recent Research on Ladakh 4 & 5: Proceedings of the Fourth and Fifth ..., By Henry Osmaston, Philip Denwood, 9788120814042, 1995, while in the Gilgit region Islam entered in the same century through Turkic Tarkhan rulers. Gilgit-Baltistan was ruled by many local rulers, amongst whom the Maqpon dynasty of Skardu and the Rajas of Hunza were famous. The Maqpons of Skardu unfied Gilgit-Baltistan with Chitral and Ladakh, especially in the era of Ali Sher Khan AnchanBOOK,weblink The last colony: Muzaffarabad-Gilgit-Baltistan, P. Stobdan, April 2008, who had friendly relations with the Mughal court.BOOK,weblink Guide to the Sources of Asian History: National archives, Provincial archives, District archives, International Council on Archives, National Archives of Pakistan, 1990, Anchan reign brought prosperity and entertained art, sport, and variety in architecture. He introduced polo to the Gilgit region and from Chitral he sent a group of musicians to Delhi to learn Indian music; the Mughal architecture influenced the architecture of the region as well.BOOK,weblink Wandering with the Indus, Philippe Fabry, Yousuf Shahid, 1995, Later Anchan in his successors Abdal Khan had great influence though in the popular literature of Baltistan he is still alive as dark figure by the nickname "Mizos" "man-eater". The last Maqpons Raja, Ahmed Shah, ruled all of Baltistan between 1811–1840. The areas of Gilgit, Chitral and Hunza had already become independent of the Maqpons.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}}Before the demise of Shribadat, a group of Shin people migrated from Gilgit Dardistan and settled in the Dras and Kharmang areas. The descendants of those Dardic people can be still found today, and are believed to have maintained their Dardic culture and Shina language up to the present time.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}}

Modern history

Dogra rule

File:Balti king ahmed shah.jpg|thumb|upright=.7|The last Maqpon Raja Ahmed Shah (died in prison in (Lhasa]]{{citation|last=Francke|first=August Hermann|title=A History of Western Tibet: One of the Unknown Empires |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=w4zFRTmiXtkC&pg=PA164 |year=1907 |publisher=Asian Educational Services |isbn=978-81-206-1043-9 |pages=164–}} c. 1845))In November 1839, Dogra commander Zorawar Singh, whose allegiance was to Gulab Singh, started his campaign against Baltistan.BOOK, By S.R. Bakshi, Kashmir: History and People,weblink 9788185431963, 1997, By 1840 he conquered Skardu and captured its ruler, Ahmad Shah. Ahmad Shah was then forced to accompany Zorawar Singh on his raid into Western Tibet. Meanwhile, Baghwan Singh was appointed as administrator (Thanadar) in Skardu. But in the following year, Ali Khan of Rondu, Haidar Khan of Shigar and Daulat Ali Khan from Khaplu led a successful uprising against the Dogras in Baltistan and captured the Dogra commander Baghwan Singh in Skardu.BOOK, By Sanjeev Kumar Bhasin, Amazing Land Ladakh: Places, People, and Culture,weblink 9788173871863, 2006, In 1842, Dogra Commander Wasir Lakhpat, with the active support of Ali Sher Khan (III) from lKartaksho, conquered Baltistan for the second time. There was a violent capture of the fortress of Kharphocho. Haidar Khan from Shigar, one of the leaders of the uprising against the Dogras,BOOK,weblink Ladakh Through the Ages, Towards a New Identity, By Shridhar Kaul, H. N. Kaul, 9788185182759, 1992, was imprisoned and died in captivity. Gosaun was appointed as administrator (Thanadar) of Baltistan and till 1860, the entire region of Gilgit-Baltistan was under the Sikhs and then the Dogras.WEB,weblink Varieties of Secularism in Asia: Anthropological Explorations of Religion, Politics and the Spiritual, Nils Ole, Bubandt, Martijn Van, Beek, March 12, 2012, Routledge, Google Books, BOOK,weblink The Modern Anthropology of India: Ethnography, Themes and Theory, By Peter Berger, Frank Heidemann, After the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the region became a part of the princely state called Jammu and Kashmir which since 1846 remained under the rule of the Dogras. The population in Gilgit perceived itself to be ethnically different from Kashmiris and disliked being ruled by the Kashmir state.Yaqoob Khan Bangash (2010) Three Forgotten Accessions: Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 38:1, 125–126, {{DOI| 10.1080/03086530903538269}} The region remained with the princely state, with temporary leases of some areas assigned to the British, until 1 November 1947.

First Kashmir War

After Pakistan's independence, Jammu and Kashmir initially remained an independent state. Later on 22 October 1947, tribal militias backed by Pakistan crossed the border into Jammu and Kashmir.NEWS,weblink Quick guide: Kashmir dispute, BBC News, 29 June 2006, 14 June 2009, NEWS,weblink Who changed the face of '47 war?, Times of India, 14 August 2005, 14 August 2005, Local tribal militias and the Pakistani armed forces moved to take Srinagar but on reaching Uri they encountered defensive forces. Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance and signed the Instrument of Accession.Gilgit's population did not favour the State's accession to India.{{sfn|Bangash|2010|p=128|ps=: [Ghansara Singh] wrote to the prime minister of Kashmir: 'in case the State accedes to the Indian Union, the Gilgit province will go to Pakistan', but no action was taken on it, and in fact Srinagar never replied to any of his messages.}} The Muslims of the Frontier Districts Province (modern day Gilgit-Baltistan) had wanted to join Pakistan.BOOK,weblink Kashmir-The Untold Story, Snedden, Christopher, HarperCollins Publishers India, 2013, 9789350298985, Similarly, Muslims in Western Jammu Province, particularly in Poonch, many of whom had martial capabilities, and Muslims in the Frontier Districts Province strongly wanted J&K to join Pakistan., Sensing their discontent, Major William Brown, the Maharaja's commander of the Gilgit Scouts, mutinied on 1 November 1947, overthrowing the Governor Ghansara Singh. The bloodless coup d'etat was planned by Brown to the last detail under the code name "Datta Khel", which was also joined by a rebellious section of the Jammu and Kashmir 6th Infantry under Mirza Hassan Khan. Brown ensured that the treasury was secured and minorities were protected. A provisional government (Aburi Hakoomat) was established by the Gilgit locals with Raja Shah Rais Khan as the president and Mirza Hassan Khan as the commander-in-chief. However, Major Brown had already telegraphed Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan asking Pakistan to take over. The Pakistani political agent, Khan Mohammad Alam Khan, arrived on 16 November and took over the administration of Gilgit.{{sfn|Schofield|2003|pp=63–64}}{{harvnb|Bangash|2010}} Brown outmaneuvered the pro-Independence group and secured the approval of the mirs and rajas for accession to Pakistan. Browns's actions surprised the British Government.BOOK, Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War,weblink 2000, I.B.Tauris, 978-1-86064-898-4, 63–64, According to Brown,}}The provisional government lasted 16 days. The provisional government lacked sway over the population. The Gilgit rebellion did not have civilian involvement and was solely the work of military leaders, not all of whom had been in favor of joining Pakistan, at least in the short term. Historian Ahmed Hasan Dani mentions that although there was lack of public participation in the rebellion, pro-Pakistan sentiments were intense in the civilian population and their anti-Kashmiri sentiments were also clear.Yaqoob Khan Bangash (2010) Three Forgotten Accessions: Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 38:1, 132, {{DOI| 10.1080/03086530903538269}} According to various scholars, the people of Gilgit as well as those of Chilas, Koh Ghizr, Ishkoman, Yasin, Punial, Hunza and Nagar joined Pakistan by choice.Yaqoob Khan Bangash (2010) Three Forgotten Accessions: Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 38:1, 137, {{DOI| 10.1080/03086530903538269}}NEWS,weblink Gilgit-Baltistan—part of Pakistan by choice, Bangash, Yaqoob Khan, 9 January 2016, The Express Tribune, Nearly 70 years ago, the people of the Gilgit Wazarat revolted and joined Pakistan of their own free will, as did those belonging to the territories of Chilas, Koh Ghizr, Ishkoman, Yasin and Punial; the princely states of Hunza and Nagar also acceded to Pakistan. Hence, the time has come to acknowledge and respect their choice of being full-fledged citizens of Pakistan., 5 January 2017, BOOK, Chitralekha Zutshi, Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir,weblink 2004, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 978-1-85065-700-2, 309–, {{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=24}}{{citation |last=Sokefeld |first=Martin |title=From Colonialism to Postcolonial Colonialism: Changing Modes of Domination in the Northern Areas of Pakistan |journal=The Journal of Asian Studies |volume=64 |pages=939–973 |number=4 |date=November 2005 |doi=10.1017/S0021911805002287}}After taking control of Gilgit, the Gilgit Scouts along with Azad irregulars moved towards Baltistan and Ladakh and captured Skardu by May 1948. They successfully blocked the Indian reinforcements and subsequently captured Dras and Kargill as well, cutting off the Indian communications to Leh in Ladakh. The Indian forces mounted an offensive in Autumn 1948 and recaptured all of Kargil district. Baltistan region, however, came under Gilgit control.{{sfn|Schofield|2003|p=66}}{{citation |last=Bajwa |first=Farooq |title=From Kutch to Tashkent: The Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5a0NAQAAQBAJ |date=2013 |publisher=Hurst Publishers |isbn=978-1-84904-230-7 |pp=22–24}}On 1 January 1948, India took the issue of Jammu and Kashmir to the United Nations Security Council. In April 1948, the Council passed a resolution calling for Pakistan to withdraw from all of Jammu and Kashmir and India to reduce its forces to the minimum level, following which a plebiscite would be held to ascertain the people's wishes.BOOK, Bose, Tapan K., Peace Studies: An Introduction To the Concept, Scope, and Themes, 2004, Sage, 978-0-7619-9660-6, Raṇabīra Samāddāra, 324,weblink However, no withdrawal was ever carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first and Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterwards.{{citation |last=Varshney |first=Ashutosh |authorlink=Ashutosh Varshney |chapter=Three Compromised Nationalisms: Why Kashmir has been a Problem |editor=Raju G. C. Thomas |title=Perspectives on Kashmir: the roots of conflict in South Asia |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xrPtAAAAMAAJ |year=1992 |publisher=Westview Press |isbn=978-0-8133-8343-9 |chapter-url=https://apps.cndls.georgetown.edu/courses/rudolph/g238/files/Varshney-_1992-Why-Kashmir.pdf |p=212}} Gilgit-Baltistan and a western portion of the state called Azad Jammu and Kashmir have remained under the control of Pakistan since then.BOOK, Warikoo, Kulbhushan, Himalayan Frontiers of India: Historical, Geo-Political and Strategic Perspectives, 2008, Routledge, 978-0-415-46839-8, 1st, 78,

Inside Pakistan

While the residents of Gilgit-Baltistan expressed a desire to join Pakistan after gaining independence from Maharaja Hari Singh, Pakistan declined to merge the region into itself because of the territory's link to Jammu and Kashmir.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=24}} For a short period after joining Pakistan, Gilgit-Baltistan was governed by Azad Kashmir if only "theoretically, but not practically" through its claim of being an alternative government for Jammu and Kashmir.{{sfn|Snedden|2013|p=91}} In 1949, the Government of Azad Kashmir handed administration of the area to the federal government via the Karachi Agreement, on an interim basis which gradually assumed permanence. According to Indian journalist Sahni, this is seen as an effort by Pakistan to legitimize its rule over Gilgit-Baltistan.{{sfn|Sahni|2009|p=73}}There were two reasons why administration was transferred from Azad Kashmir to Pakistan: (1) the region was inaccessible to Azad Kashmir and (2) because both the governments of Azad Kashmir and Pakistan knew that the people of the region were in favour of joining Pakistan in a potential referendum over Kashmir's final status.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=24}}According to the International Crisis Group, the Karachi Agreement is highly unpopular in Gilgit-Baltistan because Gilgit-Baltistan was not a party to it even while its fate was being decided upon.{{sfn|International Crisis Group|2007|p=5}}From then until 1990s, Gilgit-Baltistan was governed through the colonial-era Frontier Crimes Regulations, which treated tribal people as "barbaric and uncivilised," levying collective fines and punishments.{{sfn|Bansal|2007|p=60}}From the fringes: Gilgit-Baltistanis silently observe elections, Dawn, 1 May 2013. People had no right to legal representation or a right to appeal.{{sfn|Priyanka Singh|2013|p=16}} Members of tribes had to obtain prior permission from the police to travel to any location and had to keep the police informed about their movements.{{sfn|Raman|2009|p=87}}{{sfn|Behera|2007|p=180}} There was no democratic set-up for Gilgit-Baltistan during this period. All political and judicial powers remained in the hands of the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas (KANA). The people of Gilgit-Baltistan were deprived of rights enjoyed by citizens of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=25}}A primary reason for this state of affairs was the remoteness of Gilgit-Baltistan. Another factor was that the whole of Pakistan itself was deficient in democratic norms and principles, therefore the federal government did not prioritise democratic development in the region. There was also a lack of public pressure as an active civil society was absent in the region, with young educated residents usually opting to live in Pakistan's urban centers instead of staying in the region.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=25}}In 1970 the two parts of the territory, viz., the Gilgit Agency and Baltistan, were merged into a single administrative unit, and given the name "Northern Areas". The Shaksgam tract was ceded by Pakistan to China following the signing of the Sino-Pakistani Frontier Agreement in 1963.BOOK, Chellaney, Brahma, Water: Asia's New Battleground, 2011, Georgetown University Press, 978-1-58901-771-9, 249, WEB,weblink China's Interests in Shaksgam Valley, Sharnoff's Global Views, In 1969, a Northern Areas Advisory Council (NAAC) was created, later renamed to Northern Areas Council (NAC) in 1974 and Northern Areas Legislative Council (NALC) in 1994. But it was devoid of legislative powers. All law-making was concentrated in the KANA Ministry of Pakistan. In 1994, a Legal Framework Order (LFO) was created by the KANA Ministry to serve as the de facto constitution for the region.{{sfn|International Crisis Group|2007|pp=8–9}}{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|pp=28–29}}In 1984 the territory's importance shot up on the domestic level with the opening of the Karakoram Highway and the region's population came to be more connected with mainland Pakistan. With the improvement in connectivity, the local population availed education opportunities in the rest of Pakistan.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=25-26}} Improved connectivity also allowed the political parties of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir to setup local branches, raise political awareness in the region, and these Pakistani political parties have played a 'laudable role' in organising a movement for democratic rights among the residents of Gilgit-Baltistan.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=25}}In the late 1990s, the President of Al-Jihad Trust filed a petition in the Supreme Court of Pakistan to determine the legal status of Gilgit-Baltistan. In its judgement of 28 May 1999, the Court directed the Government of Pakistan to ensure the provision of equal rights to the people of Gilgit-Baltistan, and gave it six months to do so. Following the Supreme Court decision the government took several steps to devolve power to the local level. However, in several policy circles the point was raised that the Pakistani government was helpless to comply with the court verdict because of the strong political and sectarian divisions in Gilgit-Baltistan and also because of the territory's historical connection with the still disputed Kashmir region and this prevented the determination of Gilgit-Baltistan's real status.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=27}}A position of 'Deputy Chief Executive' was created to act as the local administrator, but the real powers still rested with the 'Chief Executive', who was the Federal Minister of KANA. "The secretaries were more powerful than the concerned advisors," in the words of one commentator. In spite of various reforms packages over the years, the situation is essentially unchanged.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|pp=26–27}} Meanwhile, public rage in Gilgit-Baltistan is "growing alarmingly." Prominent "antagonist groups" have mushroomed protesting the absence of civic rights and democracy.{{sfn|Ershad Mahmud|2008|p=32}} Pakistan government has been debating the grant of a provincial status to Gilgit-Baltistan.Ershad Mahmud, Gilgit-Baltistan: A province or not, The News on Sunday, 24 January 2016.According to Antia Mato Bouzas, the PPP-led Pakistani government has attempted a compromise through its 2009 reforms between its traditional stand on the Kashmir dispute and the demands of locals, most of whom may have pro-Pakistan sentiments. While the 2009 reforms have added to the self-identification of the region, they have not resolved the constitutional status of the region within Pakistan.JOURNAL, 10.1080/14650045.2012.660577, Mixed Legacies in Contested Borderlands: Skardu and the Kashmir Dispute, Geopolitics, 17, 4, 867–886, 2012, Bouzas, Antia Mato, The people of Gilgit-Baltistan want to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province,NEWS,weblink Gilgit-Baltistan: A question of autonomy, Singh, Pallavi, 29 April 2010, The Indian Express, But it falls short of the main demand of the people of Gilgit- Baltistan for a constitutional status to the region as a fifth province and for Pakistani citizenship to its people., 27 December 2016, NEWS,weblink Pakistan's disputed Northern Areas go to polls, Shigri, Manzar, 12 November 2009, Reuters, Many of the 1.5 million people of Gilgit-Baltistan oppose integration into Kashmir and want their area to be merged into Pakistan and declared a separate province., 27 December 2016, however, leaders of Azad Kashmir are opposed to any step to integrate Gilgit-Baltistan into Pakistan.NEWS,weblink AJK opposes giving provincial status to GB, Naqash, Tariq, 9 July 2015, Dawn, MUZAFFARABAD: Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) Prime Minister Chaudhry Abdul Majeed warned the federal government on Wednesday against any attempt to convert Gilgit-Baltistan into a province of Pakistan., 27 December 2016, The people of Gilgit-Baltistan oppose any integration with Kashmir and instead want Pakistani citizenship and constitutional status for their region.Gilgit-Baltistan has been a member state of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization since 2008.WEB,weblink UNPO: Gilgit Baltistan, 11 September 2017, unpo.org, 24 January 2019,

Government

The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan District of the Ladakh Wazarat and the hill states of Hunza and Nagar. It presently consists of ten districts,Dividing governance: Three new districts notified in G-B, The Express Tribune, 5 February 2017. has a population approaching one million and an area of approximately {{convert|28000|sqmi|km2}}, and shares borders with Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, and India. In 1993, an attempt was made by the High Court of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to annex Gilgit-Baltistan but was quashed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan after protests by the locals of Gilgit-Baltistan, who feared domination by the Kashmiris.BOOK, Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan, and the Unending War, Victoria, Schofield, I.B. Tauris, 2000, 180–181,weblink 9781860648984, Government of Pakistan abolished State Subject Rule in Gilgit-Baltistan in 1974, which resulted in demographic changes in the territory.WEB,weblink Those Troubled Peaks, May 11, 2015, WEB,weblink GB’s aspirations, Tahir, Mehdi, June 16, 2015, DAWN.COM, While administratively controlled by Pakistan since the First Kashmir War, Gilgit-Baltistan has never been formally integrated into the Pakistani state and does not participate in Pakistan's constitutional political affairs.NEWS, September 21, 2009,weblink Gilgit-Baltistan: A question of autonomy, Indian Express, 2013-02-23, WEB, Shigri, Manzar,weblink Pakistan's disputed Northern Areas go to polls, Reuters.com, 2013-02-23, On 29 August 2009, the Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order 2009, was passed by the Pakistani cabinet and later signed by the then President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari.WEB,weblink Pakistani president signs Gilgit-Baltistan autonomy order _English_Xinhua, News.xinhuanet.com, 2009-09-07, 2010-06-05, The order granted self-rule to the people of Gilgit-Baltistan, by creating, among other things, an elected Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly and Gilgit-Baltistan Council. Gilgit-Baltistan thus gained a de facto province-like status without constitutionally becoming part of Pakistan.WEB,weblink Gilgit-Baltistan autonomy, Dawn, 2009-09-09, 2013-02-23, Currently Gilgit-Baltistan is neither a province nor a state. It has a semi-provincial status.WEB,weblink Gilgit Baltistan Geography, History, Politics and Languages, November 19, 2016, Officially, the Pakistan government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions. Some Kashmiri nationalist groups, such as the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, claim Gilgit-Baltistan as part of a future independent state to match what existed in 1947. India, on the other hand, maintains that Gilgit-Baltistan is a part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that is "an integral part of the country [India]."NEWS,weblink Gilgit-Baltistan part of Jammu and Kashmir: Indiadate=March 10, 2006, Times of India, The Gilgit-Baltistan Police (GBP) is responsible for law enforcement in Gilgit-Baltistan. The mission of the force is the prevention and detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and enforcement of the Constitution of Pakistan.

Regions

(File:Gilgit Baltistan Administrative divisions and districts.png|thumb|300px|Gilgit-Baltistan is administered as three divisions and ten districts)Gilgit-Baltistan is administratively divided into three divisionsWEB,weblink Gilgit-Baltistan divided into three divisions – The Express Tribune, 1 February 2012, tribune.com.pk, 20 June 2016, which, in turn, are divided into ten districts, consisting of the four Baltistan districts of Skardu, Shigar, Kharmang, and Ghanche, and the four Gilgit districts of Gilgit, Ghizer, Hunza and Nagar and two districts of Diamer and Astore are part of Diamer Division.WEB,weblink Mehdi Shah announces formation of 2 Divisions, 2 sub-divisions and 4 Tehsils in Gilgit – Baltistan – PAMIR TIMES – Voices of the Mountain Communities, pamirtimes.net, 20 June 2016, WEB,weblink Wrangling over new Astore district headquarters, 2006-11-17, Dawn Newspaper Internet Edition, The principal administrative centers are the towns of Gilgit and Skardu.{| class="sortable wikitable"! Division! District! Area (km²)! Capital! Population (2013)WEB,weblink Gilgit-Baltistan: Districts & Places – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts, citypopulation.de, 20 June 2016, ! Divisional CapitalBaltistan>Ghanche District>Ghanchealign="right"Khaplu>|SkarduShigar District>Shigaralign="right"Shigar>|Kharmang District>Kharmangalign="right"Kharmang>|Skardu District>Skardualign="right"Skardu>|Gilgit>Gilgit District>Gilgitalign="right"Gilgit>|GilgitGhizer District>Ghizeralign="right"Gahkuch >|Hunza District>Hunzaalign="right"Aliabad (Hunza)>Aliabad70,000 (2015){{sfn2015}}Nagar District>Nagaralign="right"Nagar (princely state)>Nagar51,387 (1998)Diamer>Diamer District>Diameralign="right"Chilas>|ChilasAstore District>Astorealign="right"Eidghah>|
  • Combined population of Skardu, Shigar and Kharmang Districts. Shigar and Kharmang Districts were carved out of Skardu District after 1998. The estimated population of Gilgit-Baltistan was about 1.8 million in 2015{{sfn|Shahid Javed Burki|2015}} and the overall population growth rate between 1998 and 2011 was 63.1% making it 4.85% annually.WEB,weblink Pak population increased by 46.9% between 1998 and 2011, The Times of India, 27 January 2016, WEB,weblink Statistical Booklet on Gilgit-Baltistan, 2014-12-11, Government of Gilgit-Baltistan, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141213012224weblink">weblink 2014-12-13, dead,

Geography and climate

(File:Kashmir region 2004.jpg|thumb|Map of Gilgit-Baltistan showing its position relative to Azad Kashmir){{Multiple image
| align = right| direction = vertical
| header_align = center| header = Naltar Lakes| width = 220| image1 = Natlar Lake or Bashkiri Lake-1.jpg| width1 =| alt1 =| link1 =| caption1 = Naltar Lake or Bashkiri Lake-I| image2 = Naltar Blue lake Gilgit.JPG| width2 =| alt2 =| link2 =| caption2 = Naltar Lake or Bashkiri Lake-II| image3 = Blue Lake 2, Naltar, Gilgit Baltistan.jpg| alt3 =| link3 =| caption3 = Azure colored water of Naltar Lake III
| footer_align = centreSurface elevation = 3050–3150 mHTTP://TROPICAL-BRYOLOGY.ORG/ARTICLES/OPEN/VOL21/GRUBER.PDF, Tropical Bryology,
}}Gilgit-Baltistan borders Pakistan's Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province to the west, a small portion of the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region to the northeast, the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast, and the Pakistani-administered state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to the south.Gilgit-Baltistan is home to all five of Pakistan's "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above {{convert|7000|m|ft}}. Gilgit and Skardu are the two main hubs for expeditions to those mountains. The region is home to some of the world's highest mountain ranges. The main ranges are the Karakoram and the western Himalayas. The Pamir Mountains are to the north, and the Hindu Kush lies to the west. Amongst the highest mountains are K2 (Mount Godwin-Austen) and Nanga Parbat, the latter being one of the most feared mountains in the world.Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan: the Biafo Glacier, the Baltoro Glacier, and the Batura Glacier. There are, in addition, several high-altitude lakes in Gilgit-Baltistan: The Deosai Plains, are located above the tree line and constitute the second-highest plateau in the world at 4,115 metres (14,500 feet) after Tibet. The plateau lies east of Astore, south of Skardu and west of Ladakh. The area was declared as a national park in 1993. The Deosai Plains cover an area of almost {{convert|5000|km2|mi2}}. For over half the year (between September and May), Deosai is snow-bound and cut off from rest of Astore and Baltistan in winters. The village of Deosai lies close to Chilum chokki and is connected with the Kargil district of Ladakh through an all-weather road.File:Lake Sudpara.JPG|Satpara Lake, Skardu, in 2002File:Beauty4.jpg|Upper Kachura LakeFile:Aqua Ambulance.jpg|A boat in AttaAbad lakeFile:Shangri-La, Skardu.jpg|Shangrila Lake, SkarduFile:Mantoka Waterfall Skardu.jpg|Manthokha Waterfall

Rock art and petroglyphs

There are more than 50,000 pieces of rock art (petroglyphs) and inscriptions all along the Karakoram Highway in Gilgit-Baltistan, concentrated at ten major sites between Hunza and Shatial. The carvings were left by invaders, traders, and pilgrims who passed along the trade route, as well as by locals. The earliest date back to between 5000 and 1000 BCE, showing single animals, triangular men and hunting scenes in which the animals are larger than the hunters. These carvings were pecked into the rock with stone tools and are covered with a thick patina that proves their age.The ethnologist Karl Jettmar has pieced together the history of the area from inscriptions and recorded his findings in Rock Carvings and Inscriptions in the Northern Areas of PakistanWEB,weblink Rock Carvings and Inscriptions along the Karakorum Highway (Pakistan) –- a brief introduction, and the later-released Between Gandhara and the Silk Roads — Rock Carvings Along the Karakoram Highway.WEB,weblink Between gandhara and the silk roads, Many of these carvings and inscriptions will be inundated and/or destroyed when the planned Basha-Diamir dam is built and the Karakoram Highway is widened.

Climate

The climate of Gilgit-Baltistan varies from region to region, surrounding mountain ranges creates sharp variations in weather. The eastern part has the moist zone of the western Himalayas, but going toward Karakoram and Hindu Kush, the climate dries considerably.WEB
, WWF Pakistan
, Climate of Gilgit-Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas)
,weblink
, WWF Pakistan
, 2009-06-11
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090904044602weblink">weblink
, 2009-09-04
, dead
, There are towns like Gilgit and Chilas that are very hot during the day in summer yet cold at night and valleys like Astore, Khaplu, Yasin, Hunza, and Nagar, where the temperatures are cold even in summer.WEB,weblink Weather of Gilgit, Skardu, Chitral, Chilas, Islamabad | Gilgit Baltistan - promoting culture and tourism, Gilgit Baltistan, 2018-08-14,

Economy and resources

(File:Montage Gilgit-Baltistan.PNG|thumb|Montage of Gilgit-Baltistan){{See also|Education in Gilgit-Baltistan}}The economy of the region is primarily based on a traditional route of trade, the historic Silk Road. The China Trade Organization forum led the people of the area to actively invest and learn modern trade know-how from its Chinese neighbor Xinjiang. Later, the establishment of a chamber of commerce and the Sust dry port (in Gojal Hunza) are milestones. The rest of the economy is shouldered by mainly agriculture and tourism. Agricultural products are wheat, corn (maize), barley, and fruits. Tourism is mostly in trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance.WEB, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink Baltistan (region, Northern Areas, Kashmir, Pakistan) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Britannica.com, 2010-06-05, WEB, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink Gilgit (Kashmir region, Indian subcontinent) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Britannica.com, 2010-06-05, In early September 2009, Pakistan signed an agreement with the People's Republic of China for a major energy project in Gilgit-Baltistan which includes the construction of a 7,000-megawatt dam at Bunji in the Astore District.WEB,weblink Pakistan | Gilgit-Baltistan autonomy, Dawn.Com, 2009-09-09, 2010-06-05, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090912040340weblink">weblink September 12, 2009,

Mountaineering

File:Laila Peak.jpg|thumbnail|upright|View of Laila Peak, which is located near Hushe Valley (a town in KhapluKhapluFile:Nameless Tower.jpg|thumbnail|upright|The Trango Towers offer some of the largest cliffs and most challenging rock climbingrock climbingGilgit-Baltistan is home to more than 20 peaks of over {{convert|20000|ft|m}}, including K-2 the second highest mountain on Earth.Baltistan in History, Banat Gul Afridi Other well known peaks include Masherbrum (also known as K1), Broad Peak, Hidden Peak, Gasherbrum II, Gasherbrum IV, and Chogolisa, situated in Khaplu Valley. The following peaks have so far been scaled by various expeditions:{| class="wikitable sortable"! Name of Peak !!Photos!!Height !!First known ascent!!LocationK2>K-2 (File:K2 2006b.jpg| KarakoramNanga Parbat >100px)(26,660 Ft)3 Jul 1953 HimalayaGasherbrum I >100px) (26,360Ft) 7 Jul 1956KarakoramBroad Peak >100px) (26,550Ft) 9 Jun 1957 KarakoramMuztagh Tower >100px) (23,800Ft) 6 Aug 1956KarakoramGasherbrum II >100px)(26,120Ft) 4 Jul 1958KarakoramHidden Peak >100px) (26,470Ft) 4 Jul 1957KarakoramKhunyang Chhish >100px) (25,761 Ft) 4 July 1971 KarakoramMasherbrum >100px) (25,659 Ft) 4 Aug 1960 KarakoramSaltoro Kangri >100px) (25,400Ft) 4 June 1962 KarakoramChogolisa >100px)(25,148 Ft) 4 Aug 1963Karakoram

Transport

(File:Gilgit Airport Winter Picture.JPG|thumbnail|right|A picture of Gilgit Airport taken in the month of December 2015. Runway can be seen.)Before 1978, Gilgit-Baltistan was cut off from the rest of the Pakistan and the world due to the harsh terrain and the lack of accessible roads. All of the roads to the south opened toward the Pakistan-administered state of Azad Kashmir and to the southeast toward the present-day Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. During the summer, people could walk across the mountain passes to travel to Rawalpindi. The fastest way to travel was by air, but air travel was accessible only to a few privileged local people and to Pakistani military and civilian officials. Then, with the assistance of the Chinese government, Pakistan began construction of the Karakoram Highway (KKH), which was completed in 1978. The journey from Rawalpindi / Islamabad to Gilgit takes approximately 20 to 24 hours.File:KKH.png|thumb|left|upright|The Karakoram HighwayKarakoram Highway(File:View from the Tunnel.jpg|thumbnail|right|A view of Jaglote, Gore, from a tunnel on Karakoram Highway.)The Karakoram Highway connects Islamabad to Gilgit and Skardu, which are the two major hubs for mountaineering expeditions in Gilgit-Baltistan. Northern Areas Transport Corporation (NATCO) offers bus and jeep transport service to the two hubs and several other popular destinations, lakes, and glaciers in the area. Landslides on the Karakoram Highway are very common. The Karakoram Highway connects Gilgit to Tashkurgan Town, Kashgar, China via Sust, the customs and health-inspection post on the Gilgit-Baltistan side, and the Khunjerab Pass, the highest paved international border crossing in the world at {{convert|4693|m}}.In March 2006, the respective governments announced that, commencing on 1 June 2006, a thrice-weekly bus service would begin across the boundary from Gilgit to Kashgar and road-widening work would begin on {{convert|600|km}} of the Karakoram Highway. There would also be one daily bus in each direction between the Sust and Taxkorgan border areas of the two political entities.WEB,weblink Kashgar-Gilgit bus service planned, 2006-11-17, Dawn Newspaper Internet Edition, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090215045454weblink">weblink 2009-02-15, (File:PIA ATR-42.jpg|thumbnail|right|ATR 42-500 on Gilgit Airport. Picture taken on July 10, 2016)Pakistan International Airlines used to fly a Fokker F27 Friendship daily between Gilgit Airport and Benazir Bhutto International Airport. The flying time was approximately 50 minutes, and the flight was one of the most scenic in the world, as its route passed over Nanga Parbat, a mountain whose peak is higher than the aircraft's cruising altitude. However, the Fokker F27 was retired after a crash at Multan in 2006. Currently, flights are being operated by PIA to Gilgit on the brand-new ATR 42–500, which was purchased in 2006. With the new plane, the cancellation of flights is much less frequent. Pakistan International Airlines also offers regular flights of a Boeing 737 between Skardu and Islamabad. All flights are subject to weather clearance; in winter, flights are often delayed by several days.A railway through the region has been proposed; see Khunjerab Railway for details.

Population

Demographics

At the last census (1998), the population of Gilgit-Baltistan was 870,347.WEB,weblink Administrative Divisions and Population of the Northern Areas (1998), 2006-11-17, Northern Areas Management Information System,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060524200843weblink">weblink 2006-05-24, dead, Approximately 14% of the population was urban.WEB,weblink Population, poverty and environment, 2006-11-17, Northern Areas Strategy for Sustainable Development,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041122012829weblink">weblink 2004-11-22, dead, The estimated population of Gilgit-Baltistan in 2013 was over 2 million. The population of Gilgit-Baltistan consists of many diverse linguistic, ethnic, and religious sects, due in part to the many isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains. The ethnic groups include Shins, Yashkuns, Kashmiris, Kashgaris, Pamiris, Pathans, and Kohistanis.WEB,weblink Pakistan's Fragile Foundations, Council on Foreign Relations, 2009-03-12, 2010-01-16,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100201210017weblink">weblink 2010-02-01, dead, A significant number of people from Gilgit-Baltistan are residing in other parts of Pakistan, mainly in Punjab and Karachi. The literacy rate of Gilgit-Baltistan is approximately 72%.

Languages

Gilgit-Baltistan is a multilingual region where Urdu being a national and official language serves as the lingua franca for inter ethnic communications. English is co-official and also used in education, while Arabic is used for religious purposes. The table below shows a breakup of Gilgit-Baltistan first-language speakers.{| class="sortable wikitable"!|Rank!|Language!|DetailWEB,weblink International Programs, 2017-12-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170107124045weblink">weblink 2017-01-07, dead, WEB,weblink Khowar – South Asia Blog, BOOK, Katy, Gardner, Muslim diversity: local Islam in global contexts, 1999, Routledge, 978-0-7007-1104-8, 64, Leif O. Manger, WEB,weblink Election : Gilgit-Baltistan – 8 Languages, 10 Ethnic Groups, 6 Districts, 4 Religious sects – 24 National Assembly Seats ! – GILGIT BALTISTAN (GB), {{Citation | title=The Indo-Aryan Languages | author=Colin P. Masica | year=1993 | isbn=978-0-521-29944-2 | publisher=Cambridge University Press | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Itp2twGR6tsC | quote=... he agreed with Grierson in seeing Rajasthani influence on Pahari and 'Dardic' influence on (or under) the whole Northwestern group + Pahari [...] Sindhi and including 'Lahnda', Dardic, Romany and West Pahari, there has been a tendency to transfer of 'r' from medial clusters to a position after the initial consonant ...}}{{Citation | title=Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world| author=S. Munshi |editor1=Keith Brown |editor2=Sarah Ogilvie | year=2008 | accessdate=2010-05-11 | isbn=978-0-08-087774-7 | publisher=Elsevier | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=F2SRqDzB50wC | quote= Based on historical sub-grouping approximations and geographical distribution, Bashir (2003) provides six sub-groups of the Dardic languages ...}}{{Citation | title=The phonology and morphology of Panjabi| author=Amar Nath Malik | year=1995 | accessdate=2010-05-26 | isbn=978-81-215-0644-1 | publisher=Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IbBjAAAAMAAJ| quote=... drakhat 'tree' ...}}WEB,weblink DARDESTĀN, electricpulp.com, | 1! Shina| It is a Dardic language spoken by the majority in six tehsils (Gilgit, Diamir/Chilas, Darel/Tangir, Astore, Puniyal/Gahkuch and Rondu).| 2! Balti| It is spoken by the majority in five tehsils (Skardu/Shigar, Kharmang, Gultari, Khaplu and Mashabrum). It is from the Tibetan language family and has Urdu borrowings.| 3! Burushaski| It is spoken by the majority in four tehsils (Nagar 1, Hunza/Aliabad, Nagar II, and Yasin). It is a language isolate that has borrowed considerable Urdu vocabulary.| 4! Khowar| It is spoken by the majority in two tehsils (Gupis and Ishkomen) but also spoken in Yasin and Puniyal/Gahkuch Tehsils. Like Shina, it is a Dardic language.| 5! Wakhi| It is spoken by the majority of people in Gojal Tehsil of Hunza. But it is also spoken in Ishkomen and Yasin Tehsils of District Ghizer. It is classified as eastern Iranian/ Pamiri language.|! OthersPashto language>Pashto, Kashmiri language, Domaaki language>Domaaki (spoken by musician clans in the region) and Gojri languages are also spoken by a significant population of the region.

Religion

{{bar box|title=Sectarian divide of Gilgit-Baltistan|titlebar=#ddd|left1=Sects|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Shia|green|39.85}}{{bar percent|Sunni|green|30.05}}{{bar percent|Ismaili|green|24}}{{bar percent|Noorbakhshis|green|6.1}}}}The population of Gilgit-Baltistan is entirely Muslim and is denominationally the most diverse in the country. The region is also the only Shia-majority area in an otherwise Sunni-dominant Pakistan.{{sfn|Naumann|Fischer-Tahir|2013|p=87}} People in the Skardu district are mostly Shia, while Diamir and Astore districts have Sunni majorities. Ghanche has a Noorbakhshi population, and Ghizar has an Ismaili majority.{{sfn|Spencer C. Tucker|Priscilla Roberts|2008|p=917}} The populations in Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar districts are composed of a mix of all of these sects.NEWS, May 2011, pildat, Sectarian conflict in Gilgit-Baltistan,weblink 24 June 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927213540weblink">weblink 27 September 2013, dead, dmy-all, In 1948, the Shias and Ismailis constituted about 85% of the population. The proportion was brought down by General Zia ul-Haq through a conscious policy of demographic change by encouraging the migration of Sunnis from other provinces and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The policy is said to have been motivated by a desire to counter the growing sectarian consciousness of the Shias after the Iranian Revolution in 1979.{{sfn|Raman|2009|p=79}}

Culture

{{Multiple image| align = left| direction = horizontal| header_align = center| header = Architecture| width = | image1 = Baltit fort distance.JPG| width1 = 200| alt1 =| caption1 = Baltit fort, Hunza| image2 = Khaplu Fort Serena , Baltistan.jpg| width2 = 200| alt2 =| caption2 = Khaplu Palace| image3 = Side view of Chaqchan Mosque.jpg| width3 = 222| alt3 =| caption3 = Chaqchan Mosque, Khaplu| footer_align = centreArchitecture in Tibet>Tibetan Architecture as the above images are testimonials of it."}}(File:Dance of Swati Guests with traditional music at baltit fort 2014.jpg|thumb|Dance of Swati Guests with traditional music at baltit fort 2014)File:Gulmit_-_GB_-_04_-_Nasr_Rahman.jpg|thumb|Wakhi musicians in GulmitGulmitGilgit-Baltistan is home to diversified cultures, ethnic groups, languages and backgrounds.WEB,weblink Culture and Heritage of Gilgit, visitgilgitbaltistan.gov.pk, Gov.Pk, 23 April 2015, Major cultural events include the Shandoor Polo Festival, Babusar Polo Festival and Jashn-e-Baharan or the Harvest Time Festival (Navroz). Traditional dances include: Old Man Dance in which more than one person wears old-style dresses; Cow Boy Dance (Payaloo) in which a person wears old style dress, long leather shoes and holds a stick in hand and the Sword Dance in which the participants show taking one sword in right and shield in left. One to six participants can dance in pairs.

Sports

File:Shindoor ground.jpg|thumb|left|Polo in progress with the shandur lake in background, Shandur GhizerGhizerMany types of sports are in currency, throughout the region, but most popular of them is Polo.BOOK, Amanullah Khan, Gilgit Baltistan, a disputed territory or a fossil of intrigues?,weblink 1999, BOOK, F. M. Khan, The story of Gilgit, Baltistan and Chitral: a short history of two millenniums AD 7-1999,weblink 2002, Almost every bigger valley has a polo ground, polo matches in such grounds attract locals as well as foreigners visitors during summer season. One of such polo tournament is held in Shandur each year and polo teams of Glgit with Chitral participates.BOOK, James H. Mills, Subaltern Sports: Politics and Sport in South Asia,weblink 77, 9781843311683, 2005, Though very internationally unlikely, but even for some local historians like Hassan Hasrat from skardu and for some national writers like Ahmed Hasan Dani it was originated in same region.BOOK, De Filippi, Filippo, Filippo De Filippi (explorer), Luigi Amedeo di Savoia, Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, Karakoram and Western Himalaya 1909,weblink 1912, For testimonies they present the Epic of King Gesar of balti version where king gesar started polo by killing his step son and hit head of cadaver with a stick thus started the gameBOOK, Edward Delmar Morgan, Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists ..., Volume 2,weblink 1893, they also held that the very simple rules of local polo game also testifies its primitiveness. The English word Polo has balti origin, that is spoken in same region, dates back to the 19th century which means ball.BOOK, Israr-ud-Din, Proceedings of the Third International Hindu Kush Cultural Conference, Oxford University Press,weblink 9780195798890, 2008, BOOK, Banat Gul Afridi, Baltistan in History,weblink 1988, Other popular sports are football, cricket, volleyball (mostly play in winters) and other minor local sports. with growing facilities and particular local geography Climbing, trekking and other similar sports are also getting popularity. Samina Baig from Hunza valley is the only Pakistani woman and the third Pakistani to climb Mount Everest and also the youngest Muslim woman to climb Everest, having done so at the age of 21 while Hassan Sadpara from Skardu valley is the first Pakistani to have climbed six eight-thousanders including the world's highest peak Everest (8848m) besides K2 (8611m), Gasherbrum I (8080m), Gasherbrum II (8034m), Nanga Parbat (8126 m), Broad Peak (8051m).{{clear}}

See also

Notes

{{reflist|group=note}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

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External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Gilgit-Baltistan}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150212123240weblink">Official Website of the Gilgit-Baltistan Council
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100831072645weblink">Official Website of the Government of Gilgit-Baltistan
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180125163406weblink">Official Tourism Website of the Government of Gilgit-Baltistan
  • Official Website of Ministry of Kashmir & Gilgit-Baltistan
  • NEWS, Gilgit-Baltistan: Disputed or Victim of Kashmir Dispute?, Amjad Hussain Azar, 2018-02-21,weblinkweblink 2018-02-22, dead,
  • {{dmoz|Regional/Asia/Pakistan/Provinces/Northern_Areas}}
{{Geographic location| Centre = Gilgit-BaltistanAFG}} Badakhshan Province (Afghanistan)| Northeast =PRC}} Xinjiang (PR China)IND}} Jammu and Kashmir (India)PAK}} Azad Kashmir| Southwest =PAK}} Khyber Pakhtunkhwa| Northwest =}}{{Gilgit-Baltistan topics}}{{Administrative units of Pakistan}}{{Princely states of Pakistan}}

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