Ghor Province

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Ghor Province
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{{redirect|Ghor|the video game character|Metroid Prime 3: Corruption}}{{redirect|Ghur|the villages in Iran|Ghur, Iran|and|Ghur, Ardabil}}

| coor_pinpoint = Capital| coordinates_footnotes =| subdivision_type = CountryAfghanistan}}| established_title =| established_date = | founder =| seat_type = CapitalChaghcharan>Firuzkoh| government_footnotes =| leader_party =| leader_title = Governor| leader_name = Ghulam Nasir Khaze| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes =| area_total_km2 = 36478.8| area_land_km2 =| area_water_km2 =| area_water_percent =| area_note = | elevation_footnotes =| elevation_m =WEBSITE=GEOHIVE.COM, 1 December 2017, | population_total = 700,296| population_as_of = 2015| population_density_km2 = auto| population_demonym = | population_note = Languages of Afghanistan>Main languages Hazaragi language>Hazaragi Dari language Pashto language>Pashto| timezone1 = UTC+4:30| utc_offset1 =| timezone1_DST =| utc_offset1_DST =| postal_code_type =| postal_code =| area_code_type =| area_code = | iso_code = AF-GHO| website = | footnotes =}}Ghōr (Dari/Pashto: ), also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is located in Hazarajat region in central Afghanistan, towards the north-west. The province contains ten districts, encompassing hundreds of villages, and approximately 657,200 settled people.WEB,weblink Settled Population of Ghor province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Central Statistics Organization, 2013-01-05, Firuzkoh, (called Chaghcharan until 2014) serves as the capital of the province.


The name "Ghor" is a cognate to Avestan gairi-, Sanskrit giri- and Middle Persian gar, in modern Persian koh-, Sogdian gor-/gur-, in later developed Bactrian language as g´wrao- (also paravata), meaning "mountain", in modern Pashto as ghar-, in Pamir languages as gar- and ghalcca- ("mountain"). The ancient Indo-European, Sogdian gor-/gur- ("mountain"-) is well preserved in all Slavic gor-/gór- (goor-/gur-), e.g.: Gorals, Goran, Goranci, Góra, Gora…, in Iranian languages, e.g: Gorani language, Guran (Kurdish tribe)… and even in India and Nepal, e.g.: Gurkha. The Polish notation using gór- ("ó" stands for a sound between English ""oo" and "u") instead of the popular gur- or ghur- preserves the ancient orthography.


{{History of Afghanistan}}{{Further information|History of Afghanistan}}The inhabitants of Ghor were completely Islamized during the Ghurids era. Before the 12th century, the area was home to Buddhists, Zoroastrians, and a small number of Jews. Remains of the oldest settlements discovered by Lithuanian archaeologists in 2007 and 2008 in Ghor date back to 5000 BC.Province hides monuments some of which date back to 5000 BC,, 22 May 2008 Ruins of a few castles and other defense fortifications were also discovered in the environs of Chaghcharan. A Buddhist monastery hand-carved in the bluff of the river Harirud existed in the first centuries during the prevalence of Buddhism. The artificial caves revealed testimony of daily life of the Buddhist monks.Lithuanian archeologists make discovery in Afghanistan, The Baltic Times, May 22, 2008; Archaeologists make new discoveries about ancient Afghan cultures, Top News, May 23, 2008.Various scholars and historians such as John McLeod attribute the conversion of the Ghauris to Islam at the hands of Mahmud Ghazni who converted them to Islam after his conquest of Ghor: a people from central Afghanistan who had been converted to Islam by Mahmud.The history of India By John McLeod Published by Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002 Page 34Traditional Muslim historians such as Istakhri and Ibn Haukal attest to the existence of the non-Islamic enclave of Ghor prior to the time of Ghazni, who is attributed with converting its population to Islam.Minhaju-S-Siraj records the strife between the non-Muslim and Muslim populations.According to Minhahu-S Siraj, Amir Suri was captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, made prisoner along with his son and taken to Ghazni, where Amir Suri died.The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians by Eliot and Dowson, Volume 2, page 286, {{ISBN|978-81-206-1586-1}}}}File:Minaret of jam 2009 ghor.jpg|thumb|The Minaret of Jam built by the Ghurid DynastyGhurid DynastyIn 1011, 1015 and 1020, both Mahmud and Mas'ud I led expeditions into Ghur and established Islam in place of the indigenous paganism. After this, Ghur was considered a vassal state of the Ghaznavid empire.C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, (Columbia University Press, 1977), 68. During the reign of 'Abd ar Rashi and the usurper Toghrul, Ghur and Gharchistan gained autonomy.C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, 69.Ghor was also the centre of the Ghurid dynasty in the 12th and 13th century. The remains of their capital Firozkoh, which was sacked and destroyed by the Mongols in 1222, includes the Minaret of Jam, a UNESCO World Heritage site.

Karzai and Ghani administrations

{{Unreferenced section|date=August 2018}}{{Further information|Presidency of Hamid Karzai}}In June 2004, hundreds of troops of Abdul Salaam Khan, who had rejected the Afghan government's plan to disarm regional militias, attacked Chaghcharan and took over the city in an afternoon-long siege. Eighteen people were killed or wounded in the fighting, at which point Governor Mohammed Ibrahim fled. Three days later the Afghan government announced that it would not retake Chaghcharan. Khan and Ibrahim began negotiations soon after, but reached no agreements. Khan's troops left Chaghcharan on June 23, a day ahead of when an Afghan National Army battalion, led by Lieutenant-General Aminullah Paktiyanai, arrived with the support of about twenty U.S. soldiers.

Politics and governance

{{Further information|List of governors of Ghor|Politics of Afghanistan}}Since the fall of the Taliban regime in the country, the first governor was Ibrahim Malikzada and after Malikzada Abdul Qadir Alam was appointed as governor and then Shah Abdul Ahad AfzaliThe former governor of the province is Sima Joinda. Her predecessor was Sayed Anwar Rahmati. She is the first woman appointed as governor of Ghor and the third woman in the country holding a position of governor. She was replaced by the current governor Ghulam Nasir Khaze on December 21, 2015. The town of Firozkoh is the capital of Ghor province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are controlled by the Afghan National Police (ANP). The police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces, including the NATO-led forces.


{{Further information|Transport in Afghanistan}}As of September 2014, Chaghcharan Airport, located at the provincial capital of Chaghcharan, had regularly scheduled flights to Kabul and Herat.Ghor province has a significant number of female drivers compared to the other provinces.As of 2013, roads in the province remained largely undeveloped, unpaved and often lacked bridges over rivers.NATO Channel, Discover Afghanistan - The Minaret of Jam, August 2013,weblink


{{Further information|Economy of Afghanistan}}Agriculture and animal husbandry are the primary economic activities in Ghor Province. According to the United Nations, many young men were forced to leave the province to find work in Herat or Iran and a small percentage of the population were teachers, government officials, carpet weavers, carpenters and tailors. Over half of the population could not cover their basic needs with their level of income.District Profile, UNHCR,weblink{{dead link|date=January 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Opium production had returned to the region following the Taliban's departure as locals attempted to increase their incomes by farming a more economically lucrative crop.


{{Further information|Health in Afghanistan}}The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 14% in 2005 to 9% in 2011.Archive, Civil Military Fusion Centre, weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=2014-05-31 }}The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant fell from 9% in 2005 to 3% in 2011.


{{Further information|Education in Afghanistan}}The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 19% in 2005 to 25% in 2011. The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 28% in 2005 to 47% in 2011.Ghor University that first established as Ghor Higher Education Institute then promoted to Ghor University has around 500 students with a significant number of girls. There are also a number of Teacher Training Institutes in Firuzkoh, Taywara and Lal districts. The number of high schools increased in last the 10 years and attendance in university entrance exams (Kankor) jumped from hundreds to thousands of students. Several agriculture and mechanical schools were also established. There is only one nursing school that train young female high school graduates for midwifery and nursing that is part of Ministry of Public Health and run by a NGO in association with Ghor provincial hospital.


{{Further information|Demographics of Afghanistan}}The population of Ghor today is about 690,296 people.WEB,weblink Welcome - Naval Postgraduate School,, 1 December 2017, WEB,weblink Welcome - Naval Postgraduate School,, 1 December 2017,


{{Further information|Geography of Afghanistan}}Ghor occupies the end of the Hindu Kush mountains. Ghor is 2,500 metres above sea level and heavy snowfalls often block many of its rugged passes from November to April. It is also a drought-prone area in the summer.


(File:Ghor districts.png|thumb|right|Districts of Ghor prior to the 2005 subdivision of Chaghcharan District.){| class="wikitable sortable"weblink" title="">weblink yes, 4 October 2001, Wayback Machine, 4 October 2001, 1 December 2017, !District!Capital!Population!Area!NotesChaghcharan District>Firozkooh (Chaghcharan) 131,800 Tajiks, HazarasCharsada, Afghanistan>Charsada 26,600 Dawlat Yar District>Dawlat Yar 31,800 Du Layna District>Du Layna 35,100 Lal wa Sarjangal District>Lal wa Sarjangal 250,000 HazarasPasaband District>Pasaband 92,200 Tajiks, Hazaras, PashtunsSaghar District>Saghar 33,700 Shahrak District>Shahrak 58,200 Taywara District>Taywara 88,900 Tulak District>Tulak 50,000 Hazaras


{{Further information|Sport in Afghanistan}}Football, volleyball, basketball, tennis, taekwondo and karate are all official sports of the province. In July 2010, the Ghor Province cricket team was founded and will represent the province in future domestic tournaments.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 16 July 2012, Ghor cricket team founded,, 1 December 2017,

See also



Further reading

  • The Places in Between by Rory Steward, 2005, Picador Publishers, {{ISBN|0330486349}}

External links

  • weblink" title="">World Food Programme, Ghor Provincial Profile (accessed 11 February 2013)
{{Geographic location|Centre = Ghor Province|North = Faryab Province|Northeast = Sar-e Pol Province|East = Bamyan Province|Southeast = Daykundi Province|South = Helmand Province|Southwest = Farah Province|West = Herat Province|Northwest = Badghis Province}}{{Provinces of Afghanistan}}{{Districts of Ghor}}

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