Gertrude Stein

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Gertrude Stein
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Allegheny, Pennsylvania, U.S.}}1946272mf=y}}| death_place = Neuilly-sur-Seine, France| occupation = Writer, poet, novelist, playwright, and art collector.| nationality = American| movement = Modernist literature| notableworks =| partner = Alice Babette Toklas| signature = Gertrude Stein- Autograph.svg}}Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 â€“ July 27, 1946) was an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector. Born in the Allegheny West neighborhood of Pittsburgh and raised in Oakland, California, Stein moved to Paris in 1903, and made France her home for the remainder of her life. She hosted a Paris salon, where the leading figures of modernism in literature and art, such as Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson and Henri Matisse, would meet.WEB, Extravagant Crowd: Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas, October 16, 2012,weblink In 1933, Stein published a quasi-memoir of her Paris years, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written in the voice of Alice B. Toklas, her life partner. The book became a literary bestseller and vaulted Stein from the relative obscurity of the cult-literature scene into the limelight of mainstream attention.WEB, The Stein Salon Was The First Museum of Modern Art, October 13, 2012,weblink Mellow, James R., New York Times, May 3, 1998, Two quotes from her works have become widely known: "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose,"Cf. Natias Neutert about Gertrude Stein's Rose and "there is no there there", with the latter often taken to be a reference to her childhood home of Oakland.Her books include Q.E.D. (1903), about a lesbian romantic affair involving several of Stein's friends, Fernhurst, a fictional story about a love triangle, Three Lives (1905–06), and The Making of Americans (1902–1911). In Tender Buttons (1914), Stein commented on lesbian sexuality.Her activities during World War II have been the subject of analysis and commentary. As a Jew living in Nazi-occupied France, Stein may have only been able to sustain her lifestyle as an art collector, and indeed to ensure her physical safety, through the protection of the powerful Vichy government official and Nazi collaborator Bernard Faÿ. After the war ended, Stein expressed admiration for another Nazi collaborator, Vichy leader Marshal Pétain.

Early life

File:GertrudeSteinBirthplace.jpg|thumb|upright|Gertrude Stein's birthplace and childhood home in Allegheny West ]]Stein, the youngest of a family of five children, was born on February 3, 1874, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania (which merged with Pittsburgh in 1907), to upper-middle-class Jewish parents, Daniel and Amelia Stein.WEB,weblink Stein's Life and Career,, 2016-02-27, Wagner-Martin, Linda, BOOK, Notable American Women 1607–1950: A Biographical Dictionary, James, Edward T., The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1974, 978-0-674-62731-4, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 356, Her father was a wealthy businessman with real estate holdings. German and English were spoken in their home.Giroud, Vincent. Miller, Eric. Picasso and Gertrude Stein(there here). New York: MET, 2005.(File:Gertrude Stein age 3.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Gertrude Stein, age 3)When Stein was three years old, she and her family moved to Vienna, and then Paris. Accompanied by governesses and tutors, the Steins endeavored to imbue their children with the cultured sensibilities of European history and life. After a year-long sojourn abroad, they returned to America in 1878, settling in Oakland, California, where her father became director of San Francisco's street car lines, the Market Street Railway, in an era when public transportation was a privately owned enterprise.WEB,weblink Smithsonian Magazine, Lubow, Arthur, An Eye for Genius: The Collections of Gertrude and Leo Stein, October 17, 2012, Stein attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school.Rosenbaum (1987), p. 21. During their residence in Oakland, they lived for four years on a ten-acre lot, and Stein built many memories of California there. She would often go on excursions with her brother, Leo, with whom she developed a close relationship. Stein found formal schooling in Oakland unstimulating, but she read often: Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Scott, Burns, Smollett, Fielding, and more.When Stein was 14 years old, her mother died. Three years later, her father died as well. Stein's eldest brother, Michael Stein, then took over the family business holdings and in 1892 arranged for Gertrude and another sister, Bertha, to live with their mother's family in Baltimore.Mellow (1974), pp. 25–28. Here she lived with her uncle David Bachrach,WEB, {{MHT url, 895, |date=2008-11-21| title = David Bachrach House, Baltimore City|publisher=Maryland Historical Trust}} who in 1877 had married Gertrude's maternal aunt, Fanny Keyser.In Baltimore, Stein met Claribel and Etta Cone, who held Saturday evening salons that she would later emulate in Paris. The Cones shared an appreciation for art and conversation about it and modeled a domestic division of labor that Stein would replicate in her relationship with Alice B. Toklas.Mellow (1974), pp. 41–42.



Stein attended Radcliffe College,NEWS,weblink Gertrude Stein at Radcliffe: Most Brilliant Women Student, The Harvard Crimson, en, 2018-03-01,weblink" title="">weblink 2018-04-16, dead, then an annex of Harvard University, from 1893 to 1897 and was a student of psychologist William James. With James's supervision, Stein and another student, Leon Mendez Solomons, performed experiments on normal motor automatism, a phenomenon hypothesized to occur in people when their attention is divided between two simultaneous intelligent activities such as writing and speaking.These experiments yielded examples of writing that appeared to represent "stream of consciousness", a psychological theory often attributed to James and the style of modernist authors Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. In 1934, behavioral psychologist B.F. Skinner interpreted Stein's difficult poem Tender Buttons as an example of normal motor automatism."Has Gertrude Stein a Secret?" Cumulative Record, 3rd ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972, 359–69. In a letter Stein wrote during the 1930s, she explained that she never accepted the theory of automatic writing: "[T]here can be automatic movements, but not automatic writing. Writing for the normal person is too complicated an activity to be indulged in automatically."Meyer (2001) She did publish an article in a psychological journal on "spontaneous automatic writing" while at Radcliffe, but "the unconscious and the intuition (even when James himself wrote about them) never concerned her."At Radcliffe, she began a lifelong friendship with Mabel Foote Weeks, whose correspondence traces much of the progression of Stein's life. In 1897, Stein spent the summer in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, studying embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Hopkins Medical News | contribution = The Unknown Gertrude | access-date = 2018-12-08 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2007-10-17 | url-status=dead | df = }} She received her A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) magna cum laude from Radcliffe in 1898.

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

William James, who had become a committed mentor to Stein at Radcliffe, recognizing her intellectual potential, and declaring her his "most brilliant woman student", encouraged Stein to enroll in medical school. Although Stein professed no interest in either the theory or practice of medicine, she enrolled at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1897. In her fourth year, Stein failed an important course, lost interest, and left. Ultimately, medical school had bored her, and she had spent many of her evenings not applying herself to her studies, but taking long walks and attending the opera.WEB,weblink Gertrude Stein 1874–1846, October 16, 2012, Stein's tenure at Johns Hopkins was marked by challenge and stress. Men dominated the medical field, and the inclusion of women in the profession was not unreservedly or unanimously welcomed. Writing of this period in her life (in Things As They Are, 1903) Stein often revealed herself as a depressed young woman dealing with a paternalistic culture, struggling to find her own identity, which she realized could not conform to the conventional female role. Her uncorseted physical appearance and eccentric mode of dress aroused comment and she was described as "Big and floppy and sandaled and not caring a damn".ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Jewish Women Encyclopedia, Simon, Linda, Gertrude Stein, October 17, 2012, MAGAZINE,weblink Style Magazine, Rudacille, Deborah, Baltimore Blues, October 17, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink May 28, 2012, dead, mdy-all, According to Linda Wagner-Martin, Stein's "controversial stance on women's medicine caused problems with the male faculty" and contributed to her decision to leave without finishing her degree.Asked to give a lecture to a group of Baltimore women in 1899, Stein gave a controversial speech titled "The Value of College Education for Women", undoubtedly designed to provoke the largely middle-class audience. In the lecture Stein maintained:While a student at Johns Hopkins and purportedly still naïve about sexual matters, Stein experienced an awakening of her latent sexuality. Sometime in 1899 or 1900, she became infatuated with Mary Bookstaver who was involved in a relationship with a medical student, Mabel Haynes. Witnessing the relationship between the two women served for Stein as her "erotic awakening". The unhappy love triangle demoralized Stein, arguably contributing to her decision to abandon her medical studies. In 1902 Stein's brother Leo Stein left for London, and Stein followed. The following year the two relocated to Paris, where Leo hoped to pursue an art career.

Art collection

File:Matisse-Woman-with-a-Hat.jpg|thumb|left|Gertrude and Leo Stein bought Henri Matisse's, Woman with a Hat, 1905, a portrait of the artist's wife, Amelia, now in the San Francisco Museum of Modern ArtSan Francisco Museum of Modern Art(File:Leo, Gertrude, Michael Stein.jpg|thumb|Leo, Gertrude, and Michael Stein)From 1903 until 1914, when they dissolved their common household, Gertrude and her brother Leo shared living quarters near the Luxembourg Gardens on the Left Bank of Paris in a two-story apartment (with adjacent studio) located on the interior courtyard at 27 rue de Fleurus, 6th arrondissement. Here they accumulated the works of art that formed a collection that became renowned for its prescience and historical importance.The gallery space was furnished with imposing Renaissance-era furniture from Florence, Italy. The paintings lined the walls in tiers trailing many feet to the ceiling. Initially illuminated by gaslight, the artwork was later lit by electric light shortly prior to World War I.Leo Stein cultivated important art world connections, enabling the Stein holdings to grow over time. The art historian and collector Bernard Berenson hosted Gertrude and Leo in his English country house in 1902, facilitating their introduction to Paul Cézanne and the dealer Ambroise Vollard.Mellow (1974), pp. 43–52. Vollard was heavily involved in the Cézanne art market, and he was the first important contact in the Paris art world for both Leo and Gertrude.The joint collection of Gertrude and Leo Stein began in late 1904 when Michael Stein announced that their trust account had accumulated a balance of 8,000 francs. They spent this at Vollard's Gallery, buying Gauguin's Sunflowers{{Citation | last = Gauguin | title = Sunflowers | url =weblink | publisher = The Hermitage Museum | format = painting}} and Three Tahitians,{{Citation | title = Three Tahitians | url =weblink | publisher = National Galleries | place = Scotland, UK | last = Gauguin | format = painting}} Cézanne's Bathers,{{Citation | last = Cézanne | title = Bathers | url =weblink | publisher = Cone Collection | format = painting | series = Baltimore holdings}} and two Renoirs.Mellow (1974), p. 62.(File:Gertrude Stein sitting on a sofa in her Paris studio - Library of Congress.tif|thumb|Gertrude Stein sitting on a sofa in her Paris studio, with a portrait of her by Pablo Picasso, and other modern art paintings hanging on the wall (before 1910))The art collection increased and the walls at Rue de Fleurus were rearranged continually to make way for new acquisitions.Gertrude seated near sculpture and Cézanne's Bathers (1903–04) {{webarchive|url= |date=2008-08-05 }}: The MoMA catalog dates photo at 1905 (MoMA (1970), p. 53) and places Bathers (1895) in the Cone Collection {{webarchive|url= |date=2007-12-22 }}, Baltimore In "the first half of 1905" the Steins acquired Cézanne's Portrait of Mme Cézanne and Delacroix's Perseus and Andromeda.MoMA (1970), p. 26. The Delacroix painting is now in the Cone Collection, Baltimore. (Dorothy Kosinski et al., Matisse: Painter as Sculptor, p. 38 (Yale Univ. Press 2007)) Shortly after the opening of the Salon d'Automne of 1905 (on October 18, 1905), the Steins acquired Matisse's Woman with a HatThis painting is now at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and Picasso's Young Girl with Basket of Flowers.Color plates of Young Girl with Basket of Flowers, or Jeune fille aux fleurs, appear in Hobhouse, 1975, at 68 and Burns, 1970, at 8. The painting is in a private collection, but was displayed in a 2003 Matisse/Picasso exhibit.Henry McBride (art critic for the New York Sun) did much for Stein's reputation in the United States, publicizing her art acquisitions and her importance as a cultural figure. Of the art collection at 27 Rue de Fleurus, McBride commented: "[I]n proportion to its size and quality... [it is] just about the most potent of any that I have ever heard of in history."Mellow (1974), p. 193. McBride also made the observation that Gertrude "collected geniuses rather than masterpieces. She recognized them a long way off."By early 1906, Leo and Gertrude Stein's studio had many paintings by Henri Manguin, Pierre Bonnard, Pablo Picasso, Paul Cézanne, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Honoré Daumier, Henri Matisse, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.Museum of Modern Art, 1970, pp. 88–89 provides detailed black-and-white images of the paintings on the wall. Their collection was representative of two famous art exhibitions that took place during their residence together in Paris, and to which they contributed, either by lending their art, or by patronizing the featured artists.The first, the Paris Autumn Salon of 1905, introduced Fauvism to the Paris art public, to some shock and political cartooning. The second, the Armory Show of 1913, in New York City, introduced Modern Art to the United States art public, accompanied by similar public disparagement. The Steins' elder brother, Michael, and sister-in-law Sarah (Sally) acquired a large number of Henri Matisse paintings; Gertrude's friends from Baltimore, Claribel and Etta Cone, collected similarly, eventually donating their art collection, virtually intact, to the Baltimore Museum of Art.WEB,weblink Cone Collection, Baltimore Museum of Art, 1903-06-26, 2011-12-29, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-10-19, While numerous artists visited the Stein salon, many of these artists were not represented among the paintings on the walls at 27 Rue de Fleurus. Where Renoir, Cézanne, Matisse, and Picasso's works dominated Leo and Gertrude's collection, the collection of Michael and Sarah Stein emphasized Matisse.MoMA (1970), p. 28. In April 1914 Leo relocated to Settignano, Italy, near Florence, and the art collection was divided. The division of the Steins' art collection was described in a letter by Leo:Leo departed with sixteen Renoirs, and relinquishing the Picassos and most of Matisse to his sister, took only a portrait sketch Picasso had done of him. He remained dedicated to Cézanne, nonetheless, leaving all the artist's works with his sister, taking with him only a Cézanne painting of "5 apples". The split between brother and sister was acrimonious. Stein did not see Leo Stein again until after World War I, and then through only a brief greeting on the street in Paris. After this accidental encounter, they never saw or spoke to each other again. The Steins' holdings were dispersed eventually by various methods and for various reasons.The Family Knew What It Liked. The New York Times, 3 May 1998.After Stein's and Leo's households separated in 1914, she continued to collect examples of Picasso's art, which had turned to Cubism, a style Leo did not appreciate. At her death, Gertrude's remaining collection emphasized the artwork of Picasso and Juan Gris, most of her other pictures having been sold.MoMA (1970)Gertrude Stein's personality has dominated the provenance of the Stein art legacy. It was, however, her brother Leo who was the astute art appraiser. Alfred Barr Jr., the founding director of New York's Museum of Modern Art, said that between the years of 1905 and 1907, "[Leo] was possibly the most discerning connoisseur and collector of 20th century painting in the world."BOOK, Favored Strangers: Gertrude Stein and Her Family, Linda Wagner-Martin, 67, New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 1995,weblink 9780813524740, After the artworks were divided between the two Stein siblings, it was Gertrude who moved on to champion the works of what proved to be lesser talents in the 1930s. She concentrated on the work of Juan Gris, André Masson, and Sir Francis Rose. In 1932, Stein asserted: "painting now after its great period has come back to be a minor art."In 1945, in a preface for the first exhibition of Spanish painter Francisco Riba Rovira (who painted a portrait of her), Stein wrote:I explained that for me, all modern painting is based on what Cézanne nearly made, instead of basing itself on what he almost managed to make. When he could not make a thing, he hijacked it and left it. He insisted on showing his incapacity: he spread his lack of success: showing what he could not do, became an obsession for him. People influenced by him were also obsessed by the things which they could not reach and they began the system of camouflage. It was natural to do so, even inevitable: that soon became an art, in peace and in war, and Matisse concealed and insisted at the same time on that Cézanne could not realize, and Picasso concealed, played and tormented all these things.The only one who wanted to insist on this problem, was Juan Gris. He persisted by deepening the things which Cézanne wanted to do, but it was too hard a task for him: it killed him. And now here we are, I find a young painter who does not follow the tendency to play with what Cézanne could not do, but who attacks any right the things which he tried to make, to create the objects which have to exist, for, and in themselves, and not in relation.Gertrude Stein. "A la recherche d'un jeune peintre", revue Fontaine no. 42, pp. 287–288, 1945Gertrude Stein. "Looking for a young painter" (Riba-Rovira) Yale University U.S.A.

27 rue de Fleurus: The Stein salon

(File:Plaque Gertrude Stein, 27 rue de Fleurus, Paris 6.jpg|thumb|Plaque at 27 rue de Fleurus)The gatherings in the Stein home "brought together confluences of talent and thinking that would help define modernism in literature and art". Dedicated attendees included Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, Gavin Williamson, Thornton Wilder, Sherwood Anderson, Francis Cyril Rose, Bob Brown, René Crevel, Élisabeth de Gramont, Francis Picabia, Claribel Cone, Mildred Aldrich, Jane Peterson, Carl Van Vechten and Henri Matisse. Saturday evenings had been set as the fixed day and time for formal congregation so Stein could work at her writing uninterrupted by impromptu visitors. It was Stein's partner Alice who became the de facto hostess for the wives and girlfriends of the artists in attendance, who met in a separate room.Gertrude attributed the beginnings of the Saturday evening salons to Matisse, as people began visiting to see his paintings and those of Cézanne: "Matisse brought people, everybody brought somebody, and they came at any time and it began to be a nuisance, and it was in this way that Saturday evenings began."Mellow (1974), p. 84.Among Picasso's acquaintances who frequented the Saturday evenings were: Fernande Olivier (Picasso's mistress), Georges Braque (artist), André Derain (artist), Max Jacob (poet), Guillaume Apollinaire (poet), Marie Laurencin (artist, and Apollinaire's mistress), Henri Rousseau (painter), and Joseph Stella.Mellow (1974), pp. 94–95.Hemingway frequented Stein's salon, but the two had an uneven relationship. They began as close friends, with Hemingway admiring Stein as a mentor, but they later grew apart, especially after Stein called Hemingway "yellow" in The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Upon the birth of his son, Hemingway asked Stein to be the godmother of his child.Meyers, Jeffrey - Hemingway: A Biography, Macmillan, New York, 1985. {{ISBN|978-0-333-42126-0}} While Stein has been credited with inventing the term "Lost Generation" for those whose defining moment in time and coming of age had been World War I and its aftermath, there are at least three versions of the story that led to the phrase, two by Hemingway and one by Stein.Mellow (1974), pp. 273–4.During the summer of 1931, Stein advised the young composer and writer Paul Bowles to go to Tangier, where she and Alice had vacationed.

Literary style

File:Gertrude stein.jpg|thumb|right|Carl Van VechtenCarl Van VechtenStein's writing can be placed in three categories: "hermetic" works best illustrated by The Making of Americans: The Hersland Family; popularized writing such as The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas; and speech writing and more accessible autobiographical writing of later years, of which Brewsie and Willie is a good example. Her works include novels, plays, stories, libretti and poems written in a highly idiosyncratic, playful, repetitive, and humorous style. Typical quotes are: "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose"; "Out of kindness comes redness and out of rudeness comes rapid same question, out of an eye comes research, out of selection comes painful cattle"; about her childhood home in Oakland, "There is no there there"; and "The change of color is likely and a difference a very little difference is prepared. Sugar is not a vegetable."These stream-of-consciousness experiments, rhythmical essays or "portraits", were designed to evoke "the excitingness of pure being" and can be seen as literature's answer to visual art styles and forms such as Cubism, plasticity, and collage. Many of the experimental works such as Tender Buttons have since been interpreted by critics as a feminist reworking of patriarchal language. These works were well received by avant-garde critics but did not initially achieve mainstream success. Despite Stein's work on "automatic writing" with William James, she did not see her work as automatic, but as an 'excess of consciousness'.{{citation needed|date=March 2012}}Though Stein collected cubist paintings, especially those of Picasso, the largest visual arts influence on her literary work is that of Cézanne. Particularly, he influenced her idea of equality, distinguished from universality: "the whole field of the canvas is important" (p. 8{{full citation needed|date=November 2012}}). Rather than a figure/ground relationship, "Stein in her work with words used the entire text as a field in which every element mattered as much as any other." It is a subjective relationship that includes multiple viewpoints. Stein explained: "The important thing is that you must have deep down as the deepest thing in you a sense of equality."Her use of repetition is ascribed to her search for descriptions of the "bottom nature" of her characters, such as in The Making of Americans where the narrator is described through the repetition of narrative phrases such as "As I was saying" and "There will be now a history of her." Stein used many Anglo-Saxon words and avoided words with "too much association". Social judgment is absent in her writing, so the reader is given the power to decide how to think and feel about the writing. Anxiety, fear and anger are also absent, and her work is harmonic and integrative.{{citation needed|date=March 2012}}Stein predominantly used the present progressive tense, creating a continuous present in her work, which Grahn argues is a consequence of the previous principles, especially commonality and centeredness. Grahn describes "play" as the granting of autonomy and agency to the readers or audience: "rather than the emotional manipulation that is a characteristic of linear writing, Stein uses play."Grahn (1989), p. 18. In addition Stein's work is funny, and multilayered, allowing a variety of interpretations and engagements. Lastly Grahn argues that one must "insterstand... engage with the work, to mix with it in an active engagement, rather than 'figuring it out.' Figure it in."Grahn (1989), p. 21. In 1932, using an accessible style to appeal to a wider audience, she wrote The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas; the book would become her first best-seller. Despite the title, it was actually Stein's autobiography. The style was quite similar to that of The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook, which was written by Toklas.Several of Stein's writings have been set to music by composers, including Virgil Thomson's operas Four Saints in Three Acts and The Mother of Us All, and James Tenney's setting of Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose as a canon dedicated to Philip Corner, beginning with "a" on an upbeat and continuing so that each repetition shuffles the words, e.g. "a/rose is a rose/is a rose is/a rose is a/rose."

Literary career

File:GertrudeStein.JPG|thumb|Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. When someone commented that Stein didn't look like her portrait, Picasso replied, "She will".{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Portrait of Gertrude Stein | publisher = Metropolitan Museum | accessdate = November 26, 2008}} Stein wrote "(If I Told Him: A Completed Portrait of Picasso)" in response to the painting. ]]File:Félix Valloton, Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1907.jpg|thumb|Félix VallottonFélix VallottonWhile living in Paris, Stein began submitting her writing for publication. Her earliest writings were mainly retellings of her college experiences. Her first critically acclaimed publication was Three Lives. In 1911, Mildred Aldrich introduced Stein to Mabel Dodge Luhan and they began a short-lived but fruitful friendship during which the wealthy Mabel Dodge promoted Gertrude's legend in the United States.Mabel was enthusiastic about Stein's sprawling publication The Makings of Americans and, at a time when Stein had much difficulty selling her writing to publishers, privately published 300 copies of Portrait of Mabel Dodge at Villa Curonia. Dodge was also involved in the publicity and planning of the 69th Regiment Armory Show in 1913, "the first avant-garde art exhibition in America".In addition, she wrote the first critical analysis of Stein's writing to appear in America, in "Speculations, or Post-Impressionists in Prose", published in a special March 1913 publication of Arts and Decoration.Mellow (1974), p. 170. Foreshadowing Stein's later critical reception, Dodge wrote in "Speculations":Stein and Carl Van Vechten, the noted critic and photographer, became acquainted in Paris in 1913. The two became lifelong friends, devising pet names for each other: Van Vechten was "Papa Woojums", and Stein, "Baby Woojums". Van Vechten served as an enthusiastic champion of Stein's literary work in the United States, in effect becoming her American agent.

America (1934–1935)

In October 1934, Stein arrived in America after a 30-year absence. Disembarking from the ocean liner in New York, she encountered a throng of reporters. Front-page articles on Stein appeared in almost every New York City newspaper. As she rode through Manhattan to her hotel, she was able to get a sense of the publicity that would hallmark her US tour. An electric sign in Times Square announced to all that "Gertrude Stein Has Arrived".WEB,weblink When Gertrude Stein Toured America, October 14, 2011, October 21, 2012, Her six-month tour of the country encompassed 191 days of travel, criss-crossing 23 states and visiting 37 cities. Stein prepared her lectures for each stop-over in a formally structured way, and the audience was limited to five hundred attendees for each venue. She spoke, reading from notes, and provided for an audience question and answer period at the end of her presentation.Stein's effectiveness as a lecture speaker received varying evaluations. At the time, some maintained that "Stein's audiences by and large did not understand her lectures." Some of those in the psychiatric community weighed in, judging that Stein suffered from a speech disorder, palilalia, which caused her "to stutter over words and phrases". The predominant feeling, however, was that Stein was a compelling presence, a fascinating personality who had the ability to hold listeners with the "musicality of her language".In Washington, D.C. Stein was invited to have tea with the President's wife, Eleanor Roosevelt. In Beverly Hills, California, she visited actor and filmmaker Charlie Chaplin, who reportedly discussed the future of cinema with her. Stein left America in May 1935, a newly minted American celebrity with a commitment from Random House, who had agreed to become the American publisher for all of her future works.Jaillant (2015) The Chicago Daily Tribune wrote after Stein's return to Paris: "No writer in years has been so widely discussed, so much caricatured, so passionately championed."



Stein completed Q.E.D., her first novel, on October 24, 1903.Mellow (1974), pp. 53–58. One of the earliest coming out stories,WEB, Baughman, Judith, Gertrude Stein,weblink Biography in Context, Gale, 5 February 2017, it is about a romantic affair involving Stein and her friends Mabel Haynes, Grace Lounsbury and Mary Bookstaver, and occurred between 1897 and 1901 while she was studying at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore.Blackmer (1995), pp. 681–6.

Fernhurst (1904)

In 1904 Stein began Fernhurst, a fictional account of a scandalous three-person romantic affair involving a dean (M. Carey Thomas), a faculty member from Bryn Mawr College (Mary Gwinn) and a Harvard graduate (Alfred Hodder).Mellow (1974), pp. 65–8. Mellow asserts that Fernhurst "is a decidedly minor and awkward piece of writing".Mellow (1974), 67. It includes some commentary that Gertrude mentioned in her autobiography when she discussed the "fateful twenty-ninth year" during which:Mellow observes that, in 1904, 30-year-old Gertrude "had evidently determined that the 'small hard reality' of her life would be writing".Mellow (1974), p. 68.

Three Lives (1905–1906)

Stein attributed the inception of Three Lives to the inspiration she received from a portrait Cézanne had painted of his wife and which was in the Stein collection. She credited this as a revelatory moment in the evolution of her writing style. Stein described:{{cquote| that the stylistic method of (Three Lives) had been influenced by the Cézanne portrait under which she sat writing. The portrait of Madame Cézanne is one of the monumental examples of the artist's method, each exacting, carefully negotiated plane—from the suave reds of the armchair and the gray blues of the sitter's jacket to the vaguely figured wallpaper of the background—having been structured into existence, seeming to fix the subject for all eternity. So it was with Gertrude's repetitive sentences, each one building up, phrase by phrase, the substance of her characters.Mellow (1974), p. 71.}}She began Three Lives during the spring of 1905 and finished it the following year.Mellow (1974), p. 77.

The Making of Americans (1902–1911)

Gertrude Stein stated the date for her writing of The Making of Americans was 1906–8. Her biographer has uncovered evidence that it actually began in 1902 and did not end until 1911.Mellow (1974), pp. 114–22. Stein compared her work to James Joyce's Ulysses and to Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. Her critics were less enthusiastic about it.Mellow (1974), p. 122. Stein wrote the bulk of the novel between 1903 and 1911, and evidence from her manuscripts suggests three major periods of revision during that time.Moore, George B. Gertrude Stein's The Making of Americans: Repetition and the Emergence of Modernism. Washington, D.C.: Peter Lang, 1998. The manuscript remained mostly hidden from public view until 1924 when, at the urging of Ernest Hemingway, Ford Madox Ford agreed to publish excerpts in the transatlantic review.Rainey, Lawrence. Book Review of The Making of Americans. Modernism/Modernity 4.2 (1997): 222–24. In 1925, the Paris-based Contact Press published a limited run of the novel consisting of 500 copies. A much-abridged edition was published by Harcourt Brace in 1934, but the full version remained out of print until Something Else Press republished it in 1966. In 1995, a new, definitive edition was published by Dalkey Archive Press with a foreword by William Gass.Stein, Gertrude. The Making of Americans. Normal, Illinois: Dalkey Archive Press, 1995.Gertrude's Matisse and Picasso descriptive essays appeared in Alfred Stieglitz's August, 1912 edition of Camera Work, a special edition devoted to Picasso and Matisse, and represented her very first publication.Kellner (1988), p. 266. Of this publication, Gertrude said, "[h]e was the first one that ever printed anything that I had done. And you can imagine what that meant to me or to any one."

Word Portraits (1908–1913)

Stein's descriptive essays apparently began with her essay of Alice B. Toklas, "a little prose vignette, a kind of happy inspiration that had detached itself from the torrential prose of The Making of Americans".Mellow (1974), p. 129. Stein's early efforts at word portraits are catalogued in {{harvtxt | Mellow | 1974 | pp = 129–37}} and under individual's names in Kellner, 1988. Matisse and Picasso were subjects of early essays,Mellow (1974), pp. 154–5, 157–8. later collected and published in Geography and Plays{{Sfn | Stein | 1922}} and Portraits and Prayers.{{Sfn | Stein | 1934}}Kellner (1988), pp. 34–5, 56–7.The Matisse and Picasso portraits were reprinted in MoMA (1970), pp. 99–102.Her subjects included several ultimately famous personages, and her subjects provided a description of what she observed in her Saturday salons at 27 Rue de Fleurus: "Ada" (Alice B. Toklas), "Two Women" (The Cone sisters, Claribel Cone and Etta Cone), Miss Furr and Miss Skeene (Ethel Mars and Maud Hunt Squire), "Men" (Hutchins Hapgood, Peter David Edstrom, Maurice Sterne), "Matisse" (1909, Henri Matisse), "Picasso" (1909, Pablo Picasso), "Portrait of Mabel Dodge at the Villa Curonia" (1911, Mabel Dodge Luhan), and "Guillaume Apollinaire" (1913).

Tender Buttons (1912)

Tender Buttons is the best known of Stein's "hermetic" works. It is a small book separated into three sections—"Food, Objects and Rooms", each containing prose under subtitles.Kellner (1988), pp. 61–62. Its publication in 1914 caused a great dispute between Mabel Dodge Luhan and Stein, because Mabel had been working to have it published by another publisher.Mellow (1974), p. 178. Mabel wrote at length about what she viewed as the bad choice of publishing it with the press Gertrude selected. Evans wrote Gertrude:Stein ignored Mabel's exhortations, and eventually Mabel, and published 1,000 copies of the book, in 1914. An antiquarian copy was valued at over $1,200 in 2007. It is currently in print, and was re-released as Tender Buttons: The Corrected Centennial Edition by City Lights Publishers in March 2014.In an interview with (:de:Robert Bartlett Haas|Robert Bartlett Haas) in "A Transatlantic Interview - 1946", Stein insisted that this work was completely "realistic" in the tradition of Gustave Flaubert, stating the following: "I used to take objects on a table, like a tumbler or any kind of object and try to get the picture of it clear and separate in my mind and create a word relationship between the word and the things seen." Commentators have indicated that what she meant was that the reference of objects remained central to her work, although the representation of them had not.WEB,weblink The Difference is Spreading: on Gertrude Stein, Perloff, Marjorie, 2000, 30 September 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 11 October 2012, dead, dmy-all, Scholar Marjorie Perloff had said of Stein that "[u]nlike her contemporaries (Eliot, Pound, Moore), she does not give us an image, however fractured, of a carafe on a table; rather, she forces us to reconsider how language actually constructs the world we know."

The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933)

The publication of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas lifted Gertrude Stein from literary obscurity to almost immediate celebrity in the United States.JOURNAL, Conrad, Bryce, Gertrude Stein in the American Marketplace, Journal of Modern Literature, 1995, 19, 2, 215, Although popular with the American public, Stein received considerable backlash from individuals portrayed in her book. Eugene Jolas, editor of the avant-garde journal Transition, published a pamphlet entitled Testimony against Gertrude Stein in which artists such as Henri Matisse and Georges Braque expressed their objections to Stein's portrayal of the Parisian community of artists and intellectuals.JOURNAL, Brandel, Darcy L., The Case of Gertrude Stein and the Genius of Collaboration, Women's Studies, 2008, 37, 4, 371, 10.1080/00497870802049987, Braque, in his response, criticized, "she had entirely misunderstood cubism which she sees simply in terms of personalities."JOURNAL, Braque, Georges, February 1935, Testimony against Gertrude Stein, Transition, supplemental pamphlet, 13–14,

Alice B. Toklas

Stein met her life partner Alice B. ToklasBOOK, Linzie, Anna, The True Story of Alice B. Toklas: A Study of Three Autobiographies, University of Iowa Press, 2006, 1, 67, 146, 978-0-87745-985-9, on September 8, 1907, on Toklas's first day in Paris, at Sarah and Michael Stein's apartment.Mellow (1974), p. 107 On meeting Stein, Toklas wrote:}}Soon thereafter, Stein introduced Toklas to Pablo Picasso at his studio, where he was at work on Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.In 1908, they summered in Fiesole, Italy, Toklas staying with Harriet Lane Levy, the companion of her trip from the United States, and her housemate until Alice moved in with Stein and Leo in 1910. That summer, Stein stayed with Michael and Sarah Stein, their son Allan, and Leo in a nearby villa. Gertrude and Alice's summer of 1908 is memorialized in images of the two of them in Venice, at the piazza in front of Saint Mark's.Toklas arrived in 1907 with Harriet Levy, with Toklas maintaining living arrangements with Levy until she moved to 27 Rue de Fleurus in 1910. In an essay written at the time, Stein humorously discussed the complex efforts, involving much letter writing and Victorian niceties, to extricate Levy from Toklas's living arrangements.Mellow (1974), pp. 149–51. In "Harriet", Stein considers Levy's nonexistent plans for the summer, following her nonexistent plans for the winter:}}(File:Gertrude Stein by Alvin Langdon Coburn.jpg|thumb|upright|Stein in 1913)During the early summer of 1914, Gertrude bought three paintings by Juan Gris: Roses, Glass and Bottle, and Book and Glasses. Soon after she purchased them from Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler's gallery,Mellow (1974), p. 209. the Great War began, Kahnweiler's stock was confiscated and he was not allowed to return to Paris. Gris, who before the war had entered a binding contract with Kahnweiler for his output, was left without income. Gertrude attempted to enter an ancillary arrangement in which she would forward Gris living expenses in exchange for future pictures. Stein and Toklas had plans to visit England to sign a contract for the publication of Three Lives, to spend a few weeks there, and then journey to Spain. They left Paris on July 6, 1914 and returned on October 17.Mellow (1974), pp. 210–5. When Britain declared war on Germany, Stein and Toklas were visiting Alfred North Whitehead in England. After a supposed three-week trip to England that stretched to three months due to the War, they returned to France, where they spent the first winter of the war.With money acquired from the sale of Stein's last Matisse Woman with a Hat{{Citation | url =weblink | format = JPEG | title = Woman with a Hat | publisher = Yale Collection | url-status=dead | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate = 2007-09-26 | df = }} to her brother Michael, she and Toklas vacationed in Spain from May 1915 through the spring of 1916.Mellow (1974), pp. 218–6. During their interlude in Majorca, Spain, Gertrude continued her correspondence with Mildred Aldrich who kept her apprised of the War's progression, and eventually inspired Gertrude and Alice to return to France to join the war effort.Mellow (1974), pp. 225–6.Toklas and Stein returned to Paris in June 1916, and acquired a Ford automobile with the help of associates in the United States; Gertrude learned to drive it with the help of her friend William Edwards Cook.Mellow (1974), pp. 226–7 Gertrude and Alice then volunteered to drive supplies to French hospitals, in the Ford they named Auntie, "after Gertrude's aunt Pauline, 'who always behaved admirably in emergencies and behaved fairly well most times if she was flattered.'"File:GertrudeStein JackHemingway Paris.jpg|thumb|Gertrude Stein with Ernest Hemingway's son, Jack HemingwayJack HemingwayDuring the 1930s, Stein and Toklas became famous with the 1933 mass market publication of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. She and Alice had an extended lecture tour in the United States during this decade. They also spent several summers in the town of Bilignin, in the Ain district of eastern France situated in the picturesque region of the Rhône-Alpes. The two women doted on their beloved poodle named "Basket" whose successor, "Basket II", comforted Alice in the years after Gertrude's death.With the outbreak of World War II, Stein and Toklas relocated to a country home that they had rented for many years previously in Bilignin, Ain, in the Rhône-Alpes region. Gertrude and Alice, who were both Jewish, escaped persecution probably because of their friendship to Bernard Faÿ who was a collaborator with the Vichy regime and had connections to the Gestapo, or possibly because Gertrude was an American and a famous author. Gertrude's book "Wars I Have Seen" written before the German surrender and before the liberation of German concentration camps, likened the German army to Keystone cops. When Faÿ was sentenced to hard labor for life after the war, Gertrude and Alice campaigned for his release. Several years later, Toklas would contribute money to Faÿ's escape from prison. After the war, Stein was visited by many young American soldiers. The August 6, 1945 issue of Life magazine featured a photo of Stein and American soldiers posing in front of Hitler's bunker in Berchtesgaden. They are all giving the Nazi salute and Stein is wearing the traditional Alpine cap, accompanied by the text: "Off We All Went To See Germany."NEWS,weblink The New Republic, Benfey, Christopher, The Alibi of Ambiguity, June 28, 2012, October 18, 2012, In the 1980s, a cabinet in the Yale University Beinecke Library, which had been locked for an indeterminate number of years, was opened and found to contain some 300 love letters written by Stein and Toklas. They were made public for the first time, revealing intimate details of their relationship. Stein's endearment for Toklas was "Baby Precious", in turn Stein was for Toklas, "Mr. Cuddle-Wuddle".

Lesbian relationships

Stein is the author of one of the earliest coming out stories, "Q.E.D." (published in 1950 as Things as They Are), written in 1903 and suppressed by the author. The story, written during travels after leaving college, is based on a three-person romantic affair in which she became involved while studying at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore. The affair was complicated, as Stein was less experienced with the social dynamics of romantic friendship as well as her own sexuality and any moral dilemmas regarding it. Stein maintained at the time that she detested "passion in its many disguised forms". The relationships of Stein's acquaintances Mabel Haynes and Grace Lounsbury ended as Haynes started one with Mary Bookstaver (also known as May Bookstaver). Stein became enamored of Bookstaver but was unsuccessful in advancing their relationship. Bookstaver, Haynes, and Lounsbury all later married men.Stein began to accept and define her pseudo-masculinity through the ideas of Otto Weininger's Sex and Character (1906). Weininger, though Jewish by birth, considered Jewish men effeminate and women as incapable of selfhood and genius, except for female homosexuals who may approximate masculinity. As Stein equated genius with masculinity, her position as a female and an intellectual becomes difficult to synthesize and modern feminist interpretations of her work have been called into question.Ramsay, Tamara Ann (1998). Discursive departures: A reading paradigm affiliated with feminist, lesbian, aesthetic and queer practices (with reference to Woolf, Stein, and H.D.) (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier UniversityMore positive affirmations of Stein's sexuality began with her relationship with Alice B. Toklas. Ernest Hemingway describes how Alice was Gertrude's "wife" in that Stein rarely addressed his (Hemingway's) wife, and he treated Alice the same, leaving the two "wives" to chat.Grahn (1989)The more affirming essay "Miss Furr and Miss Skeene" is one of the first homosexual revelation stories to be published. The work, like Q.E.D., is informed by Stein's growing involvement with a homosexual community, though it is based on lesbian partners Maud Hunt Squire and Ethel Mars.Blackmer (1995) The work contains the word "gay" over 100 times, perhaps the first published use of the word "gay" in reference to same-sex relationships and those who have them, and, thus, uninformed readers missed the lesbian content. A similar essay of homosexual men begins more obviously with the line "Sometimes men are kissing" but is less well known.In (Tender buttons: objects, food, rooms|Tender Buttons) Stein comments on lesbian sexuality and the work abounds with "highly condensed layers of public and private meanings" created by wordplay including puns on the words "box", "cow", and in titles such as "tender buttons".{{anchor|nothere}}

"There is no there there"

Along with Stein's widely known "A rose is a rose is a rose is a rose"Cf. Natias Neutert about Gertrude Stein's Rosweblink quotation, "there is no there there" is also one of her most famous. It appears in Gertrude Stein, Everybody's Autobiography (Random House 1937, p 289) and is often applied to the city of her childhood, Oakland, California. Defenders and critics of Oakland have debated what she really meant when she said this in 1933, after coming to San Francisco on a book tour. She took a ferry to Oakland to visit the farm she grew up on, and the house she lived in near what is now 13th Avenue and E. 25th Street in Oakland. The house had been razed, and the farmland had been developed with new housing in the three decades since her father had sold the property and moved closer to the commercial hub of the neighborhood on Washington Street (now 12th Avenue). She wrote:...but not there, there is no there there. ... Ah Thirteenth Avenue was the same it was shabby and overgrown. ... Not of course the house, the house the big house and the big garden and the eucalyptus trees and the rose hedge naturally were not there any longer existing, what was the use ...It is a funny thing about addresses where you live. When you live there you know it so well that it is like an identity a thing that is so much a thing that it could not ever be any other thing and then you live somewhere else and years later, the address that was so much an address that it was like your name and you said it as if it was not an address but something that was living and then years after you do not know what the address was and when you say it is not a name anymore but something you cannot remember. That is what makes your identity not a thing that exists but something you do or do not remember.}}Tommy Orange's 2018 novel There There, about Native Americans living in Oakland, takes its name from this quotation.

Political views

According to Janet Malcolm's contested account in Two Lives: Gertrude and Alice, Stein was a vocal critic of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the New Deal.NEWS,weblink The Times, London, Gertrude and Alice, Justin, Beplate, January 2, 2008, May 3, 2010, WEB, Stein, Herbert,weblink The Cubist Republican,, 1997-02-07, 2012-10-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-06-05, dead, WEB,weblink February 14, 2010, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}While some have stressed her queer, feminist, pro-immigration, and democratic politics,Joan Rettalack, Introduction to Stein Selections, University of California Press, 2008WEB,weblink Douglas Messerli | 'Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Stone' (on Janet Malcolm's Two Lives),, June 23, 2008, 2012-10-29, Douglas, Messerli,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2014, live, her statements on immigration include sentiments that would be considered racist today. In a 1934 interview published in The New York Times she stated: That is the reason why I do not approve of the stringent immigration laws in America today. We need the stimulation of new blood. It is best to favor healthy competition. There is no reason why we should not select our immigrants with greater care, nor why we should not bar certain peoples and preserve the color line for instance. But if we shut down on immigration completely we shall become stagnant.NEWS, WARREN, LANSING, Gertrude Stein Views Life and Politics,weblink 1 August 2014, New York Times, May 6, 1934, She publicly endorsed General Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War and admired Vichy leader Marshal Philippe Pétain. Some have argued for a more nuanced view of Stein's collaborationist activity, arguing that it was rooted in her wartime predicament and status as a Jew in Nazi-occupied France.WEB,weblink JHU, Project MUSE, Modernism/modernity—Lost in Translation: Stein's Vichy Collaboration, 2011-12-29, NEWS,weblink London, The Guardian, The ignoble Nobel, Tariq, Ali, December 7, 2002, {{Citation | journal = LA Review of Books | last = Stendhal | first = Renate | date = December 17, 2011 | title = Was Gertrude Stein a collaborator? | url =weblink | url-status=dead | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate = July 11, 2012 | df = }}{{Citation | url =weblink | title = The obscene critic | journal = Scene4 Magazine | first = Renate | last = Stendhal | format = web log | date = 2012-01-18 | access-date = 2012-03-27 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2012-03-24 | url-status = dead }} Similarly, Stein commented in 1938 on Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky: "There is too much fathering going on just now and there is no doubt about it fathers are depressing."

World War II activities

While identified with the modernist movements in art and literature, Stein's political affiliations were a mix of reactionary and progressive ideas. She was outspoken in her hostility to some liberal reforms of progressive politics. To Stein, the industrial revolution had acted as a negative societal force, disrupting stability, degrading values, and subsequently affecting cultural decline. Stein idealized the 18th century as the golden age of civilization, epitomized in America as the era of its founding fathers and what was in France, the glory of its pre-revolutionary Ancien Régime.JOURNAL, Will, Barbara, Humanities, The Strange Politics of Gertrude Stein, March–April 2012, 33, 2, October 14, 2012,weblink WEB,weblink Herschthal, Eric, Gertrude Stein: Why Her Fascist Politics Matter, The Jewish Week, April 24, 2012, October 14, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink May 22, 2018, dead, At the same time, she was pro-immigrant, pro-democratic, and anti-patriarchal.Christopher Sawyer-Laucanno, "Courage to Be Courageous": The Last Works and Days of Gertrude Stein, from The Continual Pilgrimage: American Writers in Paris, 1944–1960Grove Presm 1992 Her last major work was the libretto of the feminist opera The Mother of Us All (1947) about the socially progressive suffragette movement and another work from this time, Brewsie and Willie (1946), expressed strong support for American G.I.s.A compendium of source material confirms that Stein may have been able to save her life and sustain her lifestyle through the protection of powerful Vichy government official Bernard Faÿ. Stein had met Faÿ in 1926, and he became her "dearest friend during her life", according to Alice B. Toklas. Faÿ had been the primary translator of Stein's work into French and subsequently masterminded her 1933–34 American book tour, which gave Stein celebrity status and proved to be a highly successful promotion of her memoir, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Faÿ's influence was instrumental in avoiding Nazi confiscation of Stein's historically significant and monetarily valuable collection of artwork, which throughout the war years was housed in Stein's Paris rue Christine apartment, under locked safeguard.NEWS,weblink Greenhouse, Emily, Why Won't The Met Tell The Whole Truth About Gertrude Stein, The New Yorker, June 8, 2012, October 14, 2012, In 1941, at Faÿ's suggestion, Stein consented to translate into English some 180 pages of speeches made by Marshal Philippe Pétain. In her introduction, Stein crafts an analogy between George Washington and Pétain. She writes of the high esteem in which Pétain is held by his countrymen; France respected and admired the man who had struck an armistice with Hitler. Conceived and targeted for an American readership, Stein's translations were ultimately never published in the United States. Random House publisher Bennett Cerf had read the introduction Stein had written for the translations and been horrified by what she had produced.JOURNAL,weblink Kimmelman, Michael, Missionaries, The New York Review of Books, April 26, 2012, Although Jewish, Stein collaborated with Vichy France, a regime that deported more than 75,000 Jews to Nazi concentration camps, of whom only 3 percent survived the Holocaust.NEWS,weblink Dershowitz, Alan, Suppressing Ugly Truths from Beautiful Art, The Huffington Post, May 21, 2012, October 14, 2012, In 1944, Stein wrote that Petain's policies were "really wonderful so simple so natural so extraordinary". This was Stein's contention in the year when the town of Culoz, where she and Toklas resided, saw the removal of its Jewish children to Auschwitz. It is difficult to say, however, how aware Stein was of these events. As she wrote in Wars I Have Seen, "However near a war is it is always not very near. Even when it is here."Gertrude Stein, Wars I Have Seen. London: B.T. Batsford, 1945, 4–5. Stein had stopped translating Petain's speeches three years previously, in 1941.Stein was able to condemn the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor while simultaneously maintaining the dissonant acceptance of Hitler as conqueror of Europe. Journalist Lanning Warren interviewed Stein in her Paris apartment in a piece published in The New York Times Magazine on May 6, 1934. Stein, seemingly ironically, proclaimed that Hitler merited the Nobel Peace Prize.
"The Saxon element is always destined to be dominated. The Germans have no gift at organizing. They can only obey. And obedience is not organization. Organization comes from community of will as well as community of action. And in America our democracy has been based on community of will and effort.... I say Hitler ought to have the peace prize...because he is removing all elements of contest and struggle from Germany. By driving out the Jews and the democratic Left elements, he is driving out everything that conduces to activity. That means peace."NEWS, Lansing Warren,weblink The New York Times, Gertrude Stein Views Life and Politics, May 6, 1934, 2013-12-04,
Given that after the war Stein commented that the only way to ensure world peace was to teach the Germans disobedience,WEB,weblink Gertrude Stein taunts Hitler in 1934 and 1945, Jacket2, 2013-12-04,weblink 2013-10-23, dead, this 1934 Stein interview has come to be interpreted as an ironic jest made by a practiced iconoclast hoping to gain attention and provoke controversy. In an effort to correct popular mainstream misrepresentations of Stein's wartime activity, a dossier of articles by critics and historians has been gathered for the online journal Jacket2.WEB,weblink Gertrude Stein's war years: Setting the record straight, Jacket2, 2013-12-04,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-23, dead, How much of Stein's wartime activities were motivated by the real exigencies of self-preservation in a dangerous environment can only be speculated upon. However, her loyalty to Pétain may have gone beyond expedience. She had been urged to leave France by American embassy officials, friends and family when that possibility still existed, but declined to do so. Accustomed to a life of entitlement since birth, Stein may have been convinced her wealth and notoriety would exempt her from what had befallen other European Jews. In an essay written for the Atlantic Monthly in November, 1940, Stein had written about her decision not to leave France: "it would be awfully uncomfortable and I am fussy about my food." Stein continued to praise Pétain after the war ended, this at a time when Pétain had been sentenced to death by a French court for treason.Author Djuna Barnes provided a caustic assessment of Stein's book, "Wars I Have Seen":
"You do not feel that she [Stein] is ever really worried about the sorrows of the people. Her concerns at its highest pitch is a well-fed apprehension."
Others have argued that some of the accounts of Stein's war time activities have amounted to a "witch hunt".WEB,weblink Why the Witch-Hunt Against Gertrude Stein?,, June 4, 2012, April 24, 2014, Renate, Stendhal,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2014, live,


Stein died on July 27, 1946 at the age of 72 after surgery for stomach cancer at the American HospitalHazel Rowley, "Richard Wright: The Life and Times," p. 343 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. She was interred in Paris in Père Lachaise Cemetery.Plan du cimetiere du Pere Lachaise {{Webarchive|url= |date=2017-02-12 }} (Accessed: 11 February 2017) Later Alice B. Toklas was buried alongside her.Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 44876-44877). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition According to the famous version of her last moments, before having been taken into surgery, Stein asked her partner Toklas: "What is the answer?" After Toklas replied to Stein that there was no answer, Stein countered by sinking back into her bed, murmuring: "Then, there is no question!"Jonathan Z. Smith: see idem, "When the Bough Breaks," History of Religions 12/4 (May 1973): 342Her companion Toklas, however, has given two other versions of the encounter—neither of which agrees with the "canonical" version above. Writing in the June 2005 edition of The New Yorker, Janet Malcolm describes:Stein's biographers have naturally selected the superior "in that case what is the question?" version. Strong narratives win out over weak ones when no obstacle of factuality stands in their way. What Stein actually said remains unknown. That Toklas cited the lesser version in a letter of 1953 is suggestive but not conclusive.Malcolm, Janet, "Someone Says Yes to It," The New Yorker 81/17 (June 13, 2005): 148}} Stein named writer and photographer Carl Van Vechten as her literary executor, and he helped to publish works of hers that remained unpublished at the time of her death. weblink" title="">There is a monument to Stein on the Upper Terrace of Bryant Park, New York.

Critical reception

Sherwood Anderson in his public introduction to Stein's 1922 publication of Geography and Plays wrote:In a private letter to his brother Karl, Anderson said, "As for Stein, I do not think her too important. I do think she had an important thing to do, not for the public, but for the artist who happens to work with words as his material.{{Sfn | Mellow | 1974 | p = 260}}"Other critics took a more negative view of Stein's work. F. W. Dupee (1990, p. IX) defines "Steinese" as "gnomic, repetitive, illogical, sparsely punctuated... a scandal and a delight, lending itself equally to derisory parody and fierce denunciation".Composer Constant Lambert (1936) compares Stravinsky's choice of "the drabbest and least significant phrases" in L'Histoire du Soldat to Gertrude Stein's in "Helen Furr and Georgine Skeene" (1922), specifically: "[E]veryday they were gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday." He writes that the "effect would be equally appreciated by someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever", apparently missing the pun frequently employed by Stein.James Thurber wrote:}}Author Katherine Ann Porter provided her own estimation of Stein's literary legacy: "Wise or silly or nothing at all, down everything goes on the page with an air of everything being equal, unimportant in itself important because it happened to her and she was writing about it."Benstock, Shari, Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900–1940, University of Texas Press, 1987, {{ISBN|978-0292790407}}History Professor Blanche Wiesen Cook, has written of Stein: "She was not a radical feminist. She was Jewish and anti-Semitic, lesbian and contemptuous of women, ignorant about economics and hostile to socialism."Writing for Vanity Fair magazine in 1923, eminent literary critic Edmund Wilson presciently came to an evaluation similar to the one made by Katharine Ann Porter some twenty years later, after Stein's death. Wilson deemed that Stein's technique was one of flawed methodology, using words analogous to the way Cubists manipulated abstract forms in their artworks. As Wilson wrote, unlike the plastic arts, literature deals with
"human speech [which] is a tissue of ideas. ... Miss Stein no longer understands the conditions under which literary effects have to be produced ... There is sometimes genuine music in the most baffling of her works, but there are rarely any communicated emotions."Wilson, Edmund, "A Guide to Gertrude Stein", Vanity Fair, September 1923, Literary Essays and Reviews of the 1920s & 1930s, Library of America, 2007, p. 878–879
An elevated observer, perched high above everything below, he likened Stein to a self-conceived "Buddha...registering impressions like some august seismograph".Stein's literary output was a subject of amusement for her brother Leo Stein, who characterized her writing as an "abomination". Later detractors of Stein's work deemed her experimentation as the serendipitous result of her alleged inability to communicate through linguistic convention, deficient in the skills required "to deal effectively with language, so that she made her greatest weakness into her most remarkable strength".

Legacy and commemoration

Stein has been the subject of many artistic works.In the 1998 Latin American literary classic Yo-Yo Boing!, novelist Giannina Braschi pays homage to Stein as an imaginary mentor.In 2005, playwright/actor Jade Esteban Estrada portrayed Stein in the solo musical ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 1 at Princeton University. In 2006, theatre director/actor Luiz Päetow created his solo, Plays, portraying Stein's 1934 homonymous lecture, and toured Brazil for several years.WEB,weblink Peças are Plays in Portuguese, uol, Loving Repeating is a musical by Stephen Flaherty based on the writings of Gertrude Stein. Stein and Alice B. Toklas are both characters in the eight person show. Stein is a central character in Nick Bertozzi's 2007 graphic novel The Salon.The posthumously published Journals of Ayn Rand contain several highly hostile references to Gertrude Stein. From Rand's working notes for her novel The Fountainhead, it is clear that the character Lois Cook in that book was intended as a caricature of Stein.BOOK, Mayhew, Robert, Essays on Ayn Rand's "The Fountainhead", 2007, Lexington Books, Lanham, Md. [u.a.], 978-0739115787, 217,weblink Humor in The Fountainhead, Stein (played by Bernard Cribbins) and Toklas (played by Wilfrid Brambell) were depicted in the playful Swedish 1978 absurdist fiction film Picassos äventyr (The Adventures of Picasso) by director Tage Danielsson, with Gösta Ekman as Picasso.WEB,weblink The Adventures of Picasso, IMDB Internet Movie Database, 2015-02-10, Stein was portrayed in the 2011 Woody Allen film Midnight in Paris by Kathy Bates, and by Tracee Chimo in the 2018 season of the television series Genius which focuses on the life and career of Pablo Picasso.Waiting for the Moon, a movie starring Linda Bassett that was released in 1987.WEB, ""American Playhouse" Waiting for the Moon (TV Episode 1987) - IMDb,weblink The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, a TV series starring Alice Dvoráková that was released in 1993.WEB, "The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles" Paris, September 1908 (TV Episode 1993) - IMDb,weblink Stein is added to a list of great artists and notables in the popular Broadway musical Rent in the song "La Vie Boheme".She is also mentioned in the Fred Astaire - Ginger Rogers 1935 film Top Hat and in the song "Roseability" by the Scottish rock group Idlewild.Composer Ricky Ian Gordon and librettist Royce Vavrek's opera 27 about Stein and Toklas premiered at Opera Theatre of St. Louis in June, 2014 with Stephanie Blythe as Stein.MAGAZINE,weblink OperaWatch, Opera News, 2013-12-04, In 2014 Stein was one of the inaugural honorees in the Rainbow Honor Walk, a walk of fame in San Francisco's Castro neighborhood noting LGBTQ people who have "made significant contributions in their fields."WEB,weblink The Rainbow Honor Walk: San Francisco's LGBT Walk of Fame, Shelter, Scott, March 14, 2016, Quirky Travel Guy, en-US, 2019-07-28, WEB,weblink Castro's Rainbow Honor Walk Dedicated Today: SFist, September 2, 2014, SFist - San Francisco News, Restaurants, Events, & Sports, August 13, 2019,weblink August 10, 2019, dead, WEB,weblink Second LGBT Honorees Selected for San Francisco's Rainbow Honor Walk, Carnivele, Gary, July 2, 2016, We The People, 2019-08-12, Edward Einhorn wrote the play The Marriage of Alice B. Toklas by Gertrude Stein, a farce about their fantasy marriage that also told the story of their life. It premiered in May 2017 at HERE Arts Center in New York.NEWS,weblink Love, Genius and The Marriage of Alice B. Toklas by Gertrude Stein, The New York Times, 2017-05-14, The 2018 artwork WORDS DOING AS THEY WANT TO DO by Eve Fowler involved recording trans and lesbian Californians reading Stein's 1922 work called "Miss Furr and Miss Skeene."WEB,weblink Spotlighting Lesbian Artists as Central Players in California's Queer History, 2019-05-29, 2019-05-30,weblink 2019-05-29, dead,

Published works

{{wikisource author}}
  • Three Lives (1909)
  • White Wines (1913)
  • (Tender buttons: objects, food, rooms|Tender Buttons: Objects, Food, Rooms) (1914) online at Bartleby
  • An Exercise in Analysis (1917)
  • A Circular Play (1920)
  • Geography and Plays (1922)
  • The Making of Americans: Being a History of a Family's Progress (written 1906–8, published 1925)
  • Four Saints in Three Acts (libretto, 1929: music by Virgil Thomson, 1934)
  • Useful Knowledge (1929)
  • An Acquaintance with Description (1929)
  • Lucy Church Amiably (1930). First Edition published by Imprimerie Union in Paris. The First American edition was published in 1969 by Something Press.
  • How to Write (1931)
  • They must. Be Wedded. To Their Wife (1931)
  • Operas and Plays (1932)
  • Matisse Picasso and Gertrude Stein with Two Shorter Stories (1933)
  • The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933a)
  • Blood on the Dining Room Floor (1933b)
  • Portraits and Prayers (1934)
  • Lectures in America (1935)
  • The Geographical History of America or the Relation of Human Nature to the Human Mind (1936)
  • Everybody's Autobiography (1937)
  • Picasso, photo. Cecil Beaton (1938)
  • Doctor Faustus Lights the Lights (1938)
  • The World is Round, UK edition illus. Sir Francis Rose; US edition illus. Clement Hurd (1939)
  • Paris France (1940)
  • (1941)
  • Three Sisters Who Are Not Sisters (1943)
  • Wars I Have Seen (1945a)
  • À la recherche d'un jeune peintre (Max-Pol Fouchet, ed., 1945b)
  • Reflections on the Atom Bomb (1946a)
  • Brewsie and Willie (1946b)
  • The Mother of Us All (libretto, 1946c: music by Virgil Thompson 1947)
  • Gertrude Stein on Picasso (1946d)
  • Four in America (1947)
  • Mrs. Reynolds (1947)
  • Last Operas and Plays (Carl van Vechten, ed., 1949)
  • The Things as They Are (written as Q.E.D. in 1903, published 1950)
  • Patriarchal Poetry (1953)
  • Alphabets and Birthdays (1957)
  • Fernhurst, Q.E.D. and Other Early Writings (1971)
  • {{Citation | last1 = Stein | first1 = Gertrude | first2 = Carl | last2 = van Vechten | editor-last = Burns | editor-first = Edward | title = The Letters of Gertrude Stein and Carl Van Vechten, 1913–1946 | place = New York | publisher = Columbia University Press | year = 1986 | isbn = 978-0-231-06308-1}}..
  • Stein, Gertrude; Wilder, Thornton (1996), Burns, Edward; Dydo, Ulla, eds., The Letters of Gertrude Stein and Thornton Wilder, Yale University Press, {{ISBN|978-0-300-06774-3}}.
  • {{Citation | last = Stein | first = Gertrude | editor1-last = Chessman | editor1-first = Harriet | editor2-last = Catharine R | title = Writings 1903–1932 | publisher = Library of America | year = 1998a | isbn = 978-1-883011-40-6}}.
  • {{Citation | last = Stein | first = Gertrude | author-mask = 8 | editor1-last = Chessman | editor1-first = Harriet | editor2-last = Catharine R | title = Writings 1932–1946 | publisher = Library of America | year = 1998b | isbn = 978-1-883011-41-3}}.
  • {{Citation | last = Toklas | first = Alice | editor-last = Burns | editor-first = Edward | title = Staying on Alone: Letters | place = New York | publisher = Liveright | year = 1973 | isbn = 978-0-87140-569-2 | url =weblink }}.
  • {{Citation |editor-last=Grahn |editor-first=Judy |year=1989 |title=Really Reading Gertrude Stein: A Selected Anthology with Essays by Judy Grahn |publisher=Crossing Press |isbn=978-0-89594-380-4 |ref=Grahn}}
  • Vechten, Carl Van, ed. (1990). Selected Writings of Gertrude Stein. {{ISBN|0-679-72464-8}}

In the Media

Related exhibits

  • {{Citation | title = The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde | publisher = The Metropolitan Museum of Art | date = February 28 – June 3, 2012 | url =weblink}}.
  • {{Citation | title = The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde | publisher = San Francisco Museum of Modern Art | date = May 21 – September 6, 2011 | url =weblink | access-date = 2011-06-25 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2011-06-24 | url-status=dead | df = }}.
  • {{Citation | title = Seeing Gertrude Stein: five stories | date = October 14, 2011 – January 22, 2012 | publisher = The National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution | place = Washington, D.C.}}.
  • {{Citation | title = Seeing Gertrude Stein: five stories | publisher = Contemporary Jewish Museum | place = San Francisco | date = May 12 – September 6, 2011 | url =weblink | url-status=dead | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate = July 28, 2011 | df = }}.
  • {{Citation | title = Four Saints in Three Acts: Four live presentations of a new production | date = August 18–21, 2011 | publisher = Yerba Buena Center for the Arts | place = San Francisco | url =weblink}}.
  • {{Citation | title = Picasso: Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris | date = June 11 – October 9, 2011 | publisher = M. H. de Young Memorial Museum | place = San Francisco | url =weblink | access-date = July 4, 2011 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = June 28, 2011 | url-status = dead }}
  • {{Citation | title = Homenage for Gertrude Stein, 2012 | last = Riba-Rovira Galeria Muro | place = Valencia, ES}}.



Works cited

  • Behrens, Roy R. Cook Book: Gertrude Stein, William Cook and Le Corbusier. Dysart, Iowa: Bobolink Books, 2005; {{ISBN|0-9713244-1-7}}.
  • {{Citation |last=Blackmer |first=Corrine E |year=1995 |chapter=Gertrude Stein |editor=Claude J. Summers |title=The Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage |isbn=978-0-8050-5009-7 |ref=Blackmer |chapter-url= |publisher=New York : H. Holt |url-access=registration |url= }}
  • Bowers, Jane Palatini. 1991. "They Watch Me as They Watch This": Gertrude Stein's Metadrama. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. {{ISBN|0-8122-3057-4}}.
  • {{Citation | last = Dean | first = Gabrielle | title = Grid Games: Gertrude Stein's Diagrams and Detectives | journal = Modernism/modernity | volume = 15 | issue = 2 | url =weblink |date=April 2008 | pages = 317–41 | publisher = JHU | doi = 10.1353/mod.2008.0031}}.
  • Grahn, Judy (1989). Really Reading Gertrude Stein: A Selected Anthology with essays by Judy Grahn. Freedom, California: The Crossing Press. {{ISBN|0-89594-380-8}}.
  • Hobhouse, Janet. Everybody Who Was Anybody: A Biography of Gertrude Stein New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1975. {{ISBN|978-1-199-83299-3}}.
  • {{Citation |editor-last=Kellner |editor-first=Bruce |year=1988 |title=A Gertrude Stein Companion: Content with the Example |location=New York; Westport, Connecticut; London |publisher=Greenwood Press |isbn=978-0-313-25078-1 |ref=Kellner}}
  • {{Citation |last=Jaillant |first=Lise |url= |title=Shucks, we've got glamour girls too! Gertrude Stein, Bennett Cerf and the Culture of Celebrity |journal=Journal of Modern Literature |volume=39 |issue=1 |year=2015 |pages=149–169 |ref=Jaillant|doi=10.2979/jmodelite.39.1.149 }}
  • Malcolm, Janet. Two Lives: Gertrude and Alice, London: Yale University Press, 2007. {{ISBN|978-0-300-12551-1}}
  • Malcolm, Janet. Gertrude Stein's War, The New Yorker, June 2, 2003, pp. 58–81.
  • {{Citation | title = Someone Says Yes to It: Gertrude Stein, Alice B. Toklas, and "The Making of the Americans" | first = Janet | last = Malcolm | magazine= The New Yorker | date = June 13, 2005 | pages = 148–165}}.
  • Malcolm, Janet. Strangers in Paradise, The New Yorker, November 13, 2006, pp. 54–61.
  • {{Citation |last=Mellow |first=James R. |year=1974 |title=Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein & Company |location=New York, Washington |publisher=Praeger Publishers |isbn=978-0-395-47982-7 |ref=Mellow}}
  • {{Citation |last=Meyer |first=Steven |year=2001 |title=Irresistible Dictation: Gertrude Stein and the Correlations of Writing and Science |location=Stanford |publisher=Stanford University Press |ref=Meyer}}
  • Perelman, Bob. The Trouble with Genius: Reading Pound, Joyce, Stein, and Zukofsky. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1994.
  • {{Citation |last=Rosenbaum |first=Fred |authorlink=Fred Rosenbaum|year=1987 |chapter=San Francisco-Oakland: The Native Son |editor1-first =William M | editor1-last = Brinner | editor2-first = Moses | editor2-last = Rischin |title= Like All the Nations?: The Life and Legacy of Judah L. Magnes |publisher= State University of New York Press |isbn=978-0-88706-507-1 |ref=Rosenbaum}}
  • {{Citation |author=The Museum of Modern Art, New York |year=1970 |title=Four Americans in Paris: The Collections of Gertrude Stein and Her Family |location=New York |publisher=The Museum of Modern Art |isbn=978-0078100673 |ref=MOMA}}
  • Ryan, Betsy Alayne. 1984. Gertrude Stein's Theatre of the Absolute. Theater and Dramatic Studies Ser., 21. Ann Arbor and London: UMI Research Press. {{ISBN|0-8357-2021-7}}.
  • {{Citation | editor-first = Renate | editor-last = Stendhal | title = Gertrude Stein In Words and Pictures: A Photobiography | place = Chapel Hill | publisher = Algonquin Books | year = 1989 | isbn = 978-0-945575993 | url =weblink }}.
  • Sontag, Susan. 2012. A Consciousness is Harnessed to Flesh: Journals and Notebooks, 1964-1980. Farrar, Straus, Giroux Publishers. New York. {{ISBN|978-0-374-10076-6}}
  • Truong, Monique. The book of salt, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003. A novel about a young Vietnamese cook who worked in Stein's Montparnasse-household.

External links

{{wiktionary|there is no there there}}{{Sister project links |wikt=no |commons= |b= |n= |q= |s=Author:Gertrude Stein |v= |species=no }}
  • {{Gutenberg author |id=Stein,+Gertrude | name=Gertrude Stein}}
  • {{Internet Archive author |sname=Gertrude Stein}}
  • {{Librivox author |id=2294}}
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | contribution = Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas Papers | title = Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library | publisher = Yale University | access-date = 2009-07-08 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2011-08-12 | url-status=dead }}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = Three Lives | publisher = American Studies at the University of Virginia | access-date = 2009-10-06 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2009-11-13 | url-status = dead }}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = Complete, authorized audio recordings at PennSound | access-date = 2013-07-07 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2013-07-04 | url-status = dead }}
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = Allegheny City (Deutschtown), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania | format = birth placard | publisher = PBase | access-date = 2007-08-04 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2009-01-26 | url-status = dead }}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | first = Gertrude | last = Stein | title = What is a masterpiece? | format = manuscript | publisher = Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Wake Forest University}}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | format = photographic portraits | title = Gertrude Stein | first = Carl | last = van Vechten | access-date = 2019-09-27 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2018-12-15 | url-status = dead }}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = The Work of Gertrude Stein | author-link = William Carlos Williams | first = William Carlos | last = Williams | publisher = Center for book culture | url-status=dead | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate = 2004-08-03 | df = }}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = Four Saints in Three Acts | publisher = Music of the United States of America (MUSA)}}
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = The World of Gertrude Stein | publisher = Ellen's Place | url-status=dead | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate = 2003-06-04 | df = }}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | publisher = Infography | title = Gertrude Stein | access-date = 2009-11-10 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2010-11-18 | url-status = dead }}.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | publisher = Ubu | title = Gertrude Stein | access-date = 2004-03-08 | archive-url =weblink" title="">weblink | archive-date = 2004-02-22 | url-status = dead }}, featuring a reading of (If I Told Him: A Completed Portrait of Picasso) and A Valentine to Sherwood Anderson.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = Gertrude Stein, Gradually}}; readings from Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, Bee Time Vine, and more. Includes excerpts from Patriarchal Poetry and layered-voice readings.
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | publisher = NYC-Arts | format = profile | title = "The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant Garde" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art| date = 2009-04-02 }}.
  • weblink" title="">Gertrude Stein Reads from The Making of Americans a rare recording made in 1934 and 1935
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