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Germans of Romania
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|related = Mainly Germans and Austrians; see also below{{Collapsible list| title = Also relatedGermanic peoples>Other Germanic-speaking peoples| Luxembourgers| WalloonsCarpathian Germans>Germans of Slovakia| Germans of Hungary| Germans of Poland| Germans of Croatia| Germans of Serbia}}}}The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania. During the interwar period in Romania, the total number of ethnic Germans amounted to as much as 786,000 (according to some sources and estimates dating to 1939),Dr. Gerhard Reichning, Die deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Teil 1, Bonn 1995, Page 17Die deutschen Vertreibungsverluste. Bevölkerungsbilanzen für die deutschen Vertreibungsgebiete 1939/50. Herausgeber: Statistisches Bundesamt – Wiesbaden. - Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1958 Page 46 a figure which has subsequently fallen to circa 36,000 as of 2011 in contemporary Romania.

Overview and classification

(File:ROMANIA Fizic.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Topographic map of Romania, highlighting the three most important areas of settlement of the Romanian-German community: Transylvania (), Banat (), and Bukovina ().)The Germans of Romania are not a single, unitary, homogeneous group, but rather a series of different sub-groups, each with their own culture, traditions, dialect(s), and history. This stems from the fact that various German-speaking populations arrived on the territory of present-day Romania in different waves or stages of settlement, initially as early as the High Middle Ages, firstly to southern and northeastern Transylvania (some of them even crossing the outer Carpathians to neighbouring Moldavia and Wallachia), then subsequently during the Modern Age in other Habsburg-ruled lands (such as Bukovina, at the time part of Cisleithania, or Banat), as well as in other areas of contemporary Romania (such as Dobruja).Image:Deutschsieben bürgen.svg|250px|right|thumb|Map depicting the traditional settlement areas of the Romanian-Germans in Transylvania and BanatBanatTherefore, given their rather complex geographic background, in order to understand their language, culture, customs, and history, one must regard them as the following independent groups:

Contributions to Romanian culture

File:Brasov Biserica Neagra.jpg|thumb|The Black Church (, ) in Kronstadt/Brașov, a representative landmark of the German community in Romania.]]Throughout the passing of time, the German community in Romania has been actively and consistently contributing to the culture of the country. The most noteworthy examples of such contributions are visible in the following aspects:

Royal House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in Romania

In the time of Romania's transition from a middle-sized principality to a larger kingdom, members of the German House of Hohenzollern (hailing from the Swabian Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, part contemporary Baden-Württemberg) reigned initially over the Danubian United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia and then, eventually, also over the unified Kingdom of Romania both during the 19th and 20th centuries. The ruling Romanian monarchs who were part of this dynastic branch were the following ones:{{legend|#E6E6AA|Denotes Regent}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:70%"! width=35% colspan=3|King! width=40% colspan=3|Reign! width=25% rowspan=2|Claim! width=3%|Nº! Portrait! width=30%|Name(Born–Died)! Reign start! Reign end! Duration! 160px)Carol I of Romania>Carol I(1839–1914)| 15 March 1881| 10 October 191418811510|10}}| Ruled beforehand as Domnitor (i.e. 'Prince') (1866–1881)! 260px)Ferdinand I of Romania>Ferdinand I(1865–1927)| 10 October 1914| 20 July 19271914107|20}}| Nephew of Carol I! 360px)Michael I of Romania>Michael I(1921–2017)| 20 July 1927| 8 June 1930(Deposed)1927206|8}}| Grandson of Ferdinand Istyle="background:#e6e6aa;"! —60px)Prince Nicholas of Romania>Prince Nicholas(1903–1978)| 20 July 1927| 8 June 1930(Deposed)1927206|8}}| Son of Ferdinand I! 460px)Carol II of Romania>Carol II(1893–1953)| 8 June 1930| 6 September 1940(Abdicated)193089|6}}| Son of Ferdinand I! (3)60px)Michael I of Romania>Michael I(1921–2017)| 6 September 1940| 30 December 1947(Abdicated)1940612|30}}| Son of Carol IIPretenders to the throne of Romania (after 1947, when King Michael I was forced to abdicate):{| style="text-align:center; width:70%" class="wikitable"! width=20px | Nº !! | Portrait !! | Pretender !! | Pretending from !! | Pretending until60px) '''Michael I of Romania'''>| 1 March 201660px) '''Princess Margareta of Romania'>| present''

Twentienth century population transfers

Large numbers of Germans were deported to the Soviet Union as forced labour after World War II, and later in the 1950s the Bărăgan deportations forcibly relocated many from near the Yugoslav border to the Bărăgan Plain. Survivors of both groups generally returned, but had often lost their properties in the process.{{cn|date=June 2019}}During the 1970s and 1980s, tens of thousands of Romanian Germans were "bought back" by the West German government under a program to reunite families - and following the collapse of Nicolae Ceausescu's regime in December 1989, around 200,000 Germans left their homes in Romania.BOOK, Abraham, Florin, Romania since the Second World War: A Political, Social and Economic History, 25 September 2017,weblink

Demographics

{{Historical populations|type =|footnote = Starting with the 1930 figures, the reference is to all German-speaking groups in Romania. 50000 745421 786,000 343913 384708 382595 359109 119462 59764 36,042}}

Current by settlement

The data displayed in the table below highlights notable settlements (of at least 1%) of the German minority in Romania according to the 2011 Romanian census. Note that some particular figures might be estimative.(File:Brebu Nou 01 winter 2010.jpg|thumb|right|Brebu Nou (), Banat)(File:Kirlibaba.jpg|thumb|right|Cârlibaba (), Bukovina)(File:Biserica fortificată din Biertan in zorii zilei 01.jpg|thumb|right|Biertan (), Transylvania)(File:Biserica fortificată din Hărman - vedere de ansamblu.jpg|thumb|right|Hărman (), Transylvania)(File:Cisnadie fortified church.jpg|thumb|right|Cisnădie (), Transylvania)(File:MediasFotoThalerTamas.JPG|thumb|right|Mediaș (), Transylvania)(File:Sighisoara-Turnul cu ceas.jpg|thumb|right|Sighișoara (), Transylvania)(File:Agnita fortified church II.jpg|thumb|right|Agnita (), Transylvania){| class="wikitable sortable" style="float:; margin:0 0 0.5em 1em; text-align:left; font-size:90%; width=50"|+German minory population by settlement (Source: 2011 Romanian census)! Romanian name! German name! PercentDenotes percent (%) of total population! County Brebu Nou >Caraș-Severin County>Caraș-SeverinPetrești, Satu Mare>Petrești Petrifeld 27.8 Satu MareUrziceni, Satu Mare>Urziceni Schinal 23.9 Satu MareCămin >Satu Mare County>Satu MareBeltiug >Satu Mare County>Satu MareTiream >Satu Mare County>Satu MareLaslea >Sibiu County>SibiuAnina >Caraș-Severin County>Caraș-SeverinAțel >Sibiu County>SibiuCârlibaba >Suceava County>SuceavaSaschiz >Mureș County>MureșBiertan >Sibiu County>SibiuArdud >Satu Mare County>Satu MareVișeu de Sus >Maramureș County>MaramureșDeta, Romania>Deta Detta 4.0 Timiș County>TimișTomnatic >Timiș County>TimișSemlac >Arad County>AradPeregu Mare >Arad County>AradSântana >Arad County>AradJimbolia >Timiș County>TimișJibert >Brașov County>BrașovMăieruş >Brașov County>BrașovCăpleni >Satu Mare County>Satu MareLovrin >Timiș County>TimișCarei >Satu Mare County>Satu MareParța >Timiș County>TimișBuziaș >Timiș County>TimișPeriam >Timiș County>TimișSânnicolau Mare >Timiș County>TimișPâncota >Arad County>AradCristian, Brașov>Cristian Neustadt 1.9 BrașovLenauheim >Timiș County>TimișLugoj >Timiș County>TimișMiercurea Sibiului >Sibiu County>SibiuRupea >Brașov County>BrașovSânpetru >Brașov County>BrașovUngra >Brașov County>BrașovReșița >Caraș-Severin County>Caraș-SeverinCiacova >Timiș County>TimișCisnădie >Sibiu County>SibiuMediaș >Sibiu County>SibiuMoșna, Sibiu>Moșna Meschen 1.5 SibiuSighișoara >Mureș County>MureșOțelu Roșu >Caraș-Severin County>Caraș-SeverinTimișoara >Timiș County>Timiș Nițchidorf >Timiș County>Timiș Hălchiu >Sibiu County>SibiuMerghindeal >Sibiu County>SibiuBeba Veche >Timiș County>Timiș Iacobeni, Sibiu>Iacobeni Jakobsdorf 1.3 SibiuLipova, Arad>Lipova Lippa 1.3 Arad CountyHomorod, Brașov>Homorod Hamruden 1.2 BrașovHărman >Brașov County>BrașovMatei, Bistrița-Năsăud>Matei Mathesdorf 1.2 Bistrița-NăsăudSebeș >Alba County>AlbaBecicherecu Mic >Timiș County>TimișCaransebeș >Caraș-Severin County>Caraș-SeverinBod, Brașov>Bod Brenndorf 1.1 BrașovBrateiu >Brașov County>BrașovBocșa >Caraș-Severin County>Caraș-SeverinSatu Mare >Satu Mare County>Satu MareSibiu >Sibiu County>SibiuMănăstirea Humorului >Suceava County>SuceavaAgnita >Sibiu County>SibiuHoghilag >Sibiu County>SibiuDumbrăveni >Sibiu County>SibiuȘeica Mare >Sibiu County>SibiuCodlea >Brașov County>BrașovGătaia >Timiș County>TimișMăureni >Caraș-Severin County>Caraș-Severin

Current by county

Below is represented the notable German minority population (of at least 1%) for some counties, according to the 2011 census.{| class="wikitable sortable" text-align:left; width=22%;"! County! width=5% | Percent 20px) Satu Mare| 1.5%20px) TimiÈ™| 1.3%20px) CaraÈ™-Severin| 1.1%20px) Sibiu| 1.1%

Administration, official representation, and politics

(File:RO SB Lutsch house.jpg|thumb|right|The Lutsch house (, ), the seat of the DFDR/FDGR in Sibiu ().)Historically, the German minority in unified Romania has been represented by a number of political parties which gradually gained parliamentary presence during the early to mid-early 20th century, more specifically the Group of Transylvanian Saxons, the German Party, and the German People's Party (the latter two having a Fascist political orientation after 1930). All those parties are not politically active anymore.Instead, the entire German-speaking community in post-1989 Romania is represented at official level by the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (, ). The forum is a political platform that has a centrist ideology which aims to support the minority rights of the Germans from Romania.Since 1989, the DFDR/FDGR has competed both in local and legislative elections, cooperating in the process with two historical parties of the Romanian politics, namely the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party (PNȚCD), most notably at local administrative level, in cities such as Sibiu (), Timișoara (), or Baia Mare (). The DFDR/FDGR also adheres to a pro-monarchic stance regarding the matter of monarchy restoration in Romania.Until 1 January 2007 (i.e. the date of accession of Romania to the European Union), the DFDR/FDGR was also an observing member of the European Parliament, briefly affiliated with the European People's Party Group (between January and November of the same year).

Education

(File:Liceul Samuel von Brukenthal.jpg|thumb|Samuel von Brukenthal National College in Sibiu ())In Bucharest there are two German schools, namely Deutsche Schule Bukarest and Deutsches Goethe-Kolleg Bukarest. The Deutsche Schule Bukarest serves Kinderkrippe, Kindergarten, Grundschule, and Gymnasium (high school)."Entstehung." Deutsche Schule Bukarest. Retrieved on 20 February 2015.In Timișoara, the Nikolaus Lenau High School was founded during the late 19th century. It was named this way in reference to Nikolaus Lenau, a Banat Swabian Romantic poet. Nowadays, the Nikolaus Lenau High School is considered the most important of its kind from Banat.{{de icon}} Geschichte Temeswars SchulwesenIn Sibiu, the Samuel von Brukenthal National College is the oldest German-language school from Romania (recorded as early as the 14th century), being also classified as a historical monument. It was subsequently renamed this way in reference to baron Samuel von Brukenthal, a Transylvanian Saxon aristocrat.Additionally, there are two Goethe Institut cultural associations in Romania: one based in Bucharest and another one in Iași.

Media

The Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung für Rumänien (ADZ) is the daily German-language newspaper in Romania. It is currently the only German-language newspaper from Eastern Europe.Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung für Rumänien{{dead link|date=October 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (in German) Regional German-language publications also include the (:de:Banater Zeitung|Banater Zeitung) in Banat and the (:de:Hermannstädter Zeitung|Hermannstädter Zeitung) for the city of Sibiu.

Recent history

(File:Sb-kl-ring.jpg|thumb|right|The Small Square (, ) in Sibiu ())Although the German minority in Romania has dwindled in numbers to a considerable extent since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the few but well organised Romanian-Germans who decided to remain in the country after the 1989 revolution are respected and regarded by many of their fellow ethnic Romanian countrymen as a hard-working, thorough, and practical community who has contributed tremendously to the local culture and history of, most notably, Transylvania, Banat, and Bukovina, where the largest German-speaking groups once lived alongside the Romanian ethnic majority.Ziarul Românesc.de | Klaus Iohannis: «Germanii din România sunt apreciați și respectați de toți românii» {{ro}}Furthermore, the bilateral political and cultural relationships between post–1989 Romania and the unified Federal Republic of Germany have seen a continuous positive evolution since the signing of a friendship treaty between the two countries in 1992.Ministerul Afacerilor Externe - 25 de ani de la semnarea tratatului de prietenie România-Germania {{ro}}Additionally, on the occasion of the election of Frank Walter Steinmeier as President of Germany in 2017, current Romanian president Klaus Johannis stated, among others, that: "[...] Last but not least, there is a profound friendship bounding the Romanians and the Germans, thanks mainly to the centuries-long cohabitation between the Romanians, Saxons, and Swabians in Transylvania, Banat, and Bukovina."Digi24.ro | Mesajul lui Iohannis pentru președintele ales al Germaniei {{ro}}

Notable German-Romanians

Below are represented several lists comprising selected notable German-Romanians by historical region.{{Collapsible list | title=Banat|{{Div col}} {{div col end}}}}{hide}Collapsible list | title=Bessarabia| {edih}{hide}Collapsible list | title=Bukovina|
  • Joseph Weber (Bukovina German), Roman Catholic prelate
  • Francisc Rainer (Bukovina German), physiologist and anthropologist
  • Alfred Eisenbeisser (Bukovina German), professional footballer, part of Romania's squad at the 1930 FIFA World Cup
  • Lothar Würzel (Bukovina German), journalist, linguist, and politician
  • Elisabeth Axmann (Bukovina German), writer, literature critic, and art critic
  • (:de:George Ostafi|George Ostafi) (Bukovina German), abstract painter
  • (:de:Ludwig Adolf Staufe-Simiginowicz|Ludwig Adolf Staufe-Simiginowicz) (partly Bukovina German), poet
  • Stefan Hantel (partly Bukovina German), DJ and producer whose maternal grandparents stemmed from northern Bukovina
  • Gregor von Rezzori (partly Bukovina German), actor, journalist, visual artist, and screenwriter
  • (:ro:Anton Keschmann|Anton Keschmann) (Bukovina German), politician in the Imperial Austrian Parliament
  • (:ro:Franz Des Loges|Franz Ritter von Des Loges) (French-Swiss), former mayor of Suceava
{edih}{hide}Collapsible list | title=Dobruja|
  • Adolph Bachmeier (Dobrujan German), professional American soccer player
  • (:ro:Alexander Rodewald|Alexander Rodewald) (Bukovina German), biologist and genetician
{edih}{hide}Collapsible list | title=Moldavia| {edih}{{Collapsible list | title=Transylvania|{{Div col}} {{div col end}}}}{{Collapsible list | title=Wallachia|{{Div col}} {{div col end}}}}

Gallery

File:Universitatea Saseasca Sapte Scaune CoA.png|Historical coat of arms of Transylvanian SaxonsFile:Coat of arms of Bucovina.svg|Historical coat of arms of Bukovina GermansFile:Dunauschwaben.jpg|Historical coat of arms of Banat SwabiansFile:Sathmarer Schwaben.jpg|Historical coat of arms of Sathmar SwabiansFile:Deutsche Siedlungsgebiete in Osteuropa 1925.jpg|Distribution of ethnic Germans in Central/Eastern Europe in 1925, also highlighting German settlements in the Kingdom of RomaniaFile:Deutschsiebenbürgen.svg|Traditional areas of settlement for the Saxons and Swabians in Transylvanian and Banat, Kingdom of Romania (early 20th century)File:Pudelmützen.jpg|A group of Bessarabian Germans (circa 1935)File:79 Kirchweihfest 1940.jpg|A group of Banat Swabians in 1940, celebrating 'Kirchweih' (or 'Kerwei' in their local dialect)Banaters.com - KerweiFile:Dobrudschadeutscher in Culelia.JPG|A Dobrujan German in CuleliaFile:Biserica fortificată din Saschiz vazuta de la Cetatea Taraneasca 2.jpg|Keisd/Saschiz, Mureș County, example of typical rural Transylvanian Saxon settlementFile:Die Gartenlaube (1874) b 005.jpg|Transylvanian Saxon couple from Bistrița (Bistritz) areaFile:Hammersdorf mann.jpg|Transylvanian Saxon lad from Gușterița (Hammersdorf)File:Trachten-Kabinett von Siebenbürgen - Ein Sächsin aus Cronstadt.jpg|Traditional Saxon woman costume from Kronstadt/Brașov

See also

{{Div col}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist}}{{Ethnic groups in Romania}}{{German people}}{{Authority control}}

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