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Georgism
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{{Redirect|Georgist|the Romanian political group|National Liberal Party-Brătianu}}{{short description|Economic philosophy}}File:Everybody works but the vacant lot (cropped).jpg|thumb|300px|Performance art by Fay Lewis where Henry George is cited, Rockford, IllinoisRockford, Illinois{{Economic systems sidebar |expanded=by ideology}}(File:FREE TRADE FREE LAND FREE MEN (Georgist campaign button).svg|thumb|250px|Georgist campaign button from the 1890s. The cat on the badge refers to a slogan "Do you see the cat?" to draw analogy to the land question.)Georgism, also called geoismWEB, Foldvary, Fred, Geoism Explained,weblink The Progress Report, 12 January 2014, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317210356weblink">weblink March 17, 2015, and single tax (archaic), is an economic ideology holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (often including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.WEB, An Introduction to Georgist Philosophy & Activity,weblink Council of Georgist Organizations, 28 June 2014, JOURNAL, Heavey, Jerome F., Comments on Warren Samuels' "Why the Georgist movement has not succeeded", American Journal of Economics and Sociology, July 2003, 62, 3, 593–99, 3487813, human beings have an inalienable right to the product of their own labor, 10.1111/1536-7150.00230, WEB, McNab, Jane, How the reputation of Georgists turned minds against the idea of a land rent tax,weblink Business School, The University of Western Australia, 18 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812144900weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, Developed from the writings of the economist and social reformer Henry George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice.Gaffney, Mason, and Harrison, Fred (1994). The Corruption of Economics. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. {{ISBN|978-0-85683-244-4}}Hudson, Michael; Feder, Kris; and Miller, George James (1994). A Philosophy for a Fair Society. Shepheard-Walwyn, London. {{ISBN|978-0-85683-159-1}}.Georgism is concerned with the distribution of economic rent caused by natural monopolies, pollution, and the control of commons, including title of ownership for natural resources and other contrived privileges (e.g., intellectual property). Any natural resource which is inherently limited in supply can generate economic rent, but the classical and most significant example of 'land monopoly' involves the extraction of common ground rent from valuable urban locations. Georgists argue that taxing economic rent is efficient, fair, and equitable. The main Georgist policy recommendation is a tax assessed on land value. Georgists argue that revenues from a land value tax (LVT) can be used to reduce or eliminate existing taxes (for example, on income, trade, or purchases) that are unfair and inefficient. Some Georgists also advocate for the return of surplus public revenue to the people by means of a basic income or citizen's dividend.Economists since Adam Smith and David Ricardo have observed that, unlike other taxes, a public levy on land value does not cause economic inefficiency.BOOK, Smith, Adam, The Wealth of Nations, Book V, 1776, Chapter 2, Article 1: Taxes upon the Rent of Houses, BOOK, Nicolaus, Tideman, Mason, Gaffney, Land and Taxation, {{google books, y, s0wgAQAAIAAJ, |date=1994-01-01|publisher=Shepheard-Walwyn in association with Centre for Incentive Taxation|isbn=978-0-85683-162-1}} A land value tax also has progressive tax effects, in that it is paid primarily by the wealthy (the landowners), and it cannot be passed on to tenants, workers, or users of land.BOOK, Binswanger-Mkhize, Hans P, Bourguignon, Camille, Brink, Rogier van den, Agricultural Land Redistribution : Toward Greater Consensus, 2009, World Bank,weblink A land tax is considered a progressive tax in that wealthy landowners normally should be paying relatively more than poorer landowners and tenants. Conversely, a tax on buildings can be said to be regressive, falling heavily on tenants who generally are poorer than the landlords, JOURNAL, Plummer, Elizabeth, Evidence on the Distributional Effects of a Land Value Tax on Residential Households, National Tax Journal, March 2010,weblink 7 January 2015, Advocates of land value taxes argue that they would reduce economic inequality, increase economic efficiency, remove incentives to under-utilize urban land, and reduce property speculation.BOOK,weblink Land Value Taxation: An Applied Analysis, William J., McCluskey, Riël C. D., Franzsen, 9 October 2017, Ashgate, 9 October 2017, Google Books, 9780754614906, The philosophical basis of Georgism dates back to several early thinkers such as John Locke,WEB, Locke, John, Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160208204411weblink">weblink yes, 2016-02-08, 1691, Baruch Spinoza,WEB, Gaffney, Mason, Logos Abused: The Decadence and Tyranny of Abstract Reasoning in Economics,weblink 22 December 2013, and Thomas Paine,Agrarian Justice, Wikisource edition, paragraph 12 but the concept of gaining public revenues mainly from land and natural resource privileges was widely popularized by Henry George and his first book, Progress and Poverty (1879).Georgist ideas were popular and influential during the late 19th and early 20th century.The Forgotten Idea That Shaped Great U.S. Cities by Mason Gaffney & Rich Nymoen, Commons magazine, October 17, 2013. Political parties, institutions and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time. Early devotees of Henry George's economic philosophy were often termed Single Taxers for their political goal of raising public revenue mainly from a land value tax, although Georgists endorsed multiple forms of rent capture (e.g., seigniorage) as legitimate.WEB, "Economics" and Political Economy,weblink Understanding Economics, 27 March 2015, The term Georgism was invented later, and some prefer the term geoism to distinguish their beliefs from those of Henry George.WEB, Tideman, Nic, Basic Principles of Geonomics,weblink 15 January 2015, JOURNAL, Casal, Paula, Global Taxes on Natural Resources, Journal of Moral Philosophy, 2011, 8, 3, 307–27,weblink 14 March 2014, It can also invoke geoism, a philosophical tradition encompassing the views of John Locke and Henry George ..., 10.1163/174552411x591339,

Main tenets

File:Perfectly inelastic supply.svg|thumb|upright=1.2|A supply and demand diagram showing the effects of land value taxation. Note that the burden of the tax is entirely on the land owner, the rental price of land does not change, and there is no deadweight lossdeadweight loss{{See also|Land value tax}}Henry George is best known for popularizing the argument that government should be funded by a tax on land rent rather than taxes on labor. George believed that although scientific experiments could not be performed in political economy, theories could be tested by comparing different societies with different conditions and by thought experiments about the effects of various factors.WEB,weblink Progress and Poverty, Introduction, www.henrygeorge.org, 9 October 2017, Applying this method, he concluded that many of the problems that beset society, such as poverty, inequality, and economic booms and busts, could be attributed to the private ownership of the necessary resource, land. In his most celebrated book, Progress and Poverty, George argues that the appropriation of land for private use contributes to persistent poverty in spite of technological progress, and causes economies to exhibit a tendency toward boom and bust cycles. According to George, people justly own what they create, but that natural opportunities and land belong equally to all.George believed there was an important distinction between common and collective property.WEB,weblink Common Rights Vs. Collective Rights, geolib.com, 9 October 2017, Although equal rights to land might be achieved by nationalizing land and then leasing it to private users, George preferred taxing unimproved land value and leaving the control of land mostly in private hands. George's reasoning for leaving land in private control and slowly shifting to land value tax was that it would not penalize existing owners who had improved land and would also be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have already been granted.Georgists have observed that privately created wealth is socialized via the tax system (e.g., through income and sales tax), while socially created wealth in land values are privatized in the price of land titles and bank mortgages. The opposite would be the case if land rents replaced taxes on labor as the main source of public revenue; socially created wealth would become available for use by the community, while the fruits of labor would remain private.WEB,weblink Poverty - Earthsharing Canada, earthsharing.ca, 9 October 2017, According to Georgists, a land value tax can be considered a user fee instead of a tax, since it is related to the market value of socially created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations. Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be considered as wealth since they have exchange value, similar to taxi medallions.NEWSPAPER, Inman, Phillip, Could we build a better future on a land value tax?, The Guardian,weblink 14 January 2014, 2012-09-16, {{failed verification|date=January 2015}} A land value tax, charging fees for exclusive use of land, as a means of raising public revenue is also a progressive tax tending to reduce economic inequality, since it applies entirely to ownership of valuable land, which is correlated with income,JOURNAL, Aaron, Henry, A New View of Property Tax Incidence, The American Economic Review, May 1974, 64, 2,weblink 7 January 2015, {{dead link|date=November 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} and there is generally no means by which landlords can shift the tax burden onto tenants or laborers.

Economic properties

{{See also|Optimal tax|Tax incidence}}{{Economics sidebar}}Standard economic theory suggests that a land value tax would be extremely efficient – unlike other taxes, it does not reduce economic productivity. Milton Friedman described Henry George's tax on unimproved value of land as the "least bad tax", since unlike other taxes, it would not impose an excess burden on economic activity (leading to zero or even negative "deadweight loss"); hence, a replacement of other more distortionary taxes with a land value tax would improve economic welfare.Foldvary, Fred E. "Geo-Rent: A Plea to Public Economists". Econ Journal Watch (April 2005)weblink As land value tax can improve the use of land and redirect investment toward productive, non-rent-seeking activities, it could even have a negative deadweight loss that boosts productivity.WEB, Stiglitz, Joseph, Thomas Piketty and Joseph Stiglitz,weblink INETeconomics, 14 April 2015, Because land value tax would apply to foreign land speculators, the Australian Treasury estimated that land value tax was unique in having a negative marginal excess burden, meaning that it would increase long-run living standards.WEB, Re:Think. Tax discussion paper for March 2015, The Australian Government the Treasury,weblink 14 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150417064033weblink">weblink 2015-04-17, yes, It was Adam Smith who first noted the efficiency and distributional properties of a land value tax. He wrote in his book, The Wealth of Nations:Benjamin Franklin and Winston Churchill made similar distributional and efficient arguments for taxing land rents. They noted that the costs of taxes and the benefits of public spending always eventually apply to and enrich, respectively, the owners of land. Therefore, they believed it would be best to defray public costs and recapture value of public spending by applying public charges directly to owners of land titles, rather than harming public welfare with taxes assessed against beneficial activities such as trade and labor.BOOK, Franklin, Benjamin, Memoirs of Benjamin Franklin, Volume 2, 1840, McCarty & Davis, 32,weblink 13 December 2014, BOOK, Shine, Mary L., Ideas of the founders of the American nation on landed property, 1922, University of Wisconsin, 196,weblink Henry George wrote that his plan for a high land value tax would cause people "to contribute to the public, not in proportion to what they produce ... but in proportion to the value of natural [common] opportunities that they hold [monopolize]". He went on to explain that "by taking for public use that value which attaches to land by reason of the growth and improvement of the community", it would, "make the holding of land unprofitable to the mere owner, and profitable only to the user".A high land value tax would discourage speculators from holding valuable natural opportunities (like urban real estate) unused or only partially used. Henry George claimed this would have many benefits, including the reduction or elimination of tax burdens from poorer neighborhoods and agricultural districts; the elimination of a multiplicity of taxes and expensive obsolete government institutions; the elimination of corruption, fraud, and evasion with respect to the collection of taxes; the enablement of true free trade; the destruction of monopolies; the elevation of wages to the full value of labor; the transformation of labor saving inventions into blessings for all; and the equitable distribution of comfort, leisure, and other advantages that are made possible by an advancing civilization.BOOK, George, Henry, An anthology of Henry George's thought, University of Rochester Press, Rochester, N.Y., 1997, 978-1878822819, In this way, the vulnerability that market economies have to credit bubbles and property manias would be reduced.

Sources of economic rent and related policy interventions

{{See also|Pigovian tax|Severance tax}}Income flow resulting from payments for restricted access to natural opportunities or for contrived privileges over geographic regions is termed economic rent. Georgists argue that economic rent of land, legal privileges, and natural monopolies should accrue to the community, rather than private owners. In economics, "land" is everything that exists in nature independent of human activity. George explicitly included climate, soil, waterways, mineral deposits, laws/forces of nature, public ways, forests, oceans, air, and solar energy in the category of land.George, Henry (1905). Protection or Free Trade While the philosophy of Georgism does not say anything definitive about specific policy interventions needed to address problems posed by various sources of economic rent, the common goal among modern Georgists is to capture and share (or reduce) rent from all sources of natural monopoly and legal privilege.WEB, Davies, Lindy, The Science of Political Economy: What George "Left Out",weblink Economic Science Course by the Henry George Institute, 16 June 2014, WEB, Batt, H. William, The Compatibility of Georgist Economics and Ecological Economics,weblink 9 June 2014, Henry George shared the goal of modern Georgists to socialize or dismantle rent from all forms of land monopoly and legal privilege. However, George emphasized mainly his preferred policy known as land value tax, which targeted a particular form of unearned income known as ground rent. George emphasized ground-rent because basic locations were more valuable than other monopolies and everybody needed locations to survive, which he contrasted with the less significant streetcar and telegraph monopolies, which George also criticized. George likened the problem to a laborer traveling home who is waylaid by a series of highway robbers along the way, each who demand a small portion of the traveler's wages, and finally at the very end of the road waits a robber who demands all that the traveler has left. George reasoned that it made little difference to challenge the series of small robbers when the final robber remained to demand all that the common laborer had left.BOOK, George, Henry, Protection or Free Trade, 1886, Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, George predicted that over time technological advancements would increase the frequency and importance of lesser monopolies, yet he expected that ground rent would remain dominant.BOOK, George, Henry, An Anthology of Henry George's Thought, Volume 1, 1997, University Rochester Press, 148,weblink 16 June 2014, 9781878822819, George even predicted that ground-rents would rise faster than wages and income to capital, a prediction that modern analysis has shown to be plausible, since the supply of land is fixed.Mattauch, Linus; Siegmeier, Jan; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix (2013) : Financing Public Capital through Land Rent Taxation: A Macroeconomic Henry George Theorem, CESifo Working Paper, No. 4280weblink ground rent is still the primary emphasis of Georgists because of its large value and the known diseconomies of misused land. However, there are other sources of rent that are theoretically analogous to ground-rent and are debated topics of Georgists. The following are some sources of economic rent.WEB, Tideman, Nicolaus, Using Tax Policy to Promote Urban Growth,weblink 9 June 2014, JOURNAL, Gaffney, Mason, The Hidden Taxable Capacity of Land: Enough and to Spare, International Journal of Social Economics, July 3, 2008, Summer 2008,weblink 13 June 2014, WEB, Fitzgerald, Karl, Total Resource Rents of Australia,weblink Prosper Australia, 16 June 2014,
  • Extractable resources (minerals and hydrocarbons)Harriss, C. Lowell. "Nonrenewable Exhaustible Resources and Property Taxation." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65.3 (2006): 693–99.BOOK, George, Henry, An Anthology of Henry George's Thought, Volume 1, 1997, University Rochester Press, 156,weblink 16 June 2014, 9781878822819,
  • Severables (forests and stocks of fish)WEB, George, Henry, Scotland and Scotsmen,weblink 16 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140810011003weblink">weblink 10 August 2014, Address delivered on 18 February 1884 at the City Hall, GlasgowJOURNAL, Miller, Joseph Dana, To Hold the Sea In Fee Simple, The Single Tax Review, 1921, 21–22, 37,weblink 16 June 2014,
  • Extraterrestrial domains (geosynchronous orbits and airway corridor use)
  • Legal privileges that apply to specific location (taxi medallions, billboard and development permits, or the monopoly of electromagnetic frequencies)
  • Restrictions/taxes of pollution or severance (tradable emission permits and fishing quotas)
  • Right-of-way (transportation) used by railroads, utilities, and internet service providersWEB, Darrow, Clarence, How to Abolish Unfair Taxation,weblink 15 June 2014, 2014-01-14, WEB, Sullivan, Dan, Are you a Real Libertarian, or a ROYAL Libertarian?,weblink 15 June 2014, WEB, Post, Louis F., Outlines of Louis F. Post's Lectures,weblink 15 June 2014,
  • Issuance of legal tender (see seigniorage)WEB, Zarlenga, Stephen, Henry George's Concept of Money (Full Text) And Its Implications For 21st Century Reform,weblink American Monetary Institute, 13 June 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130604031856weblink">weblink 2013-06-04, yes,
  • Privileges that are less location dependent but that still exclude others from natural opportunities (patents)WEB, George, Henry, On Patents and Copyrights,weblink 16 June 2014, WEB, Niman, Neil B., Henry George and the Intellectual Foundations of the Open Source Movement,weblink Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, 16 June 2014, "A modern counterpart to the
nineteenth century focus on land can be found in the twentieth century concern withthe establishment of intellectual property rights that fence off a portion of the creativecommons in order to construct temporary monopolies."Where free competition is impossible, such as telegraphs, water, gas, and transportation, George wrote, "[S]uch business becomes a proper social function, which should be controlled and managed by and for the whole people concerned." Georgists were divided by this question of natural monopolies and often favored public ownership only of the rents from common rights-of-way, rather than public ownership of utility companies themselves.

Georgism and environmental economics

The early conservationism of the Progressive Era was inspired partly by Henry George and his influence extended for decades afterward.Fox, Stephen R. The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. Madison, WI: U of Wisconsin, 1985. Some ecological economists still support the Georgist policy of land value tax as a means of freeing or rewilding unused land and conserving nature by reducing urban sprawl.Daly, Herman E., and Joshua C. Farley. Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Washington: Island, 2004.WEB, Cato, Molly Scott, The Gypsy Rover, the Norman Yoke and the Land Value Tax,weblink 15 August 2014, 2013-09-02, WEB, Smith, Peter, Beaver, Rewilding & Land Value Tax have the answer to the UK's Flooding Problem.,weblink 15 August 2014, 2014-01-29, Pollution degrades the value of what Georgists consider to be commons. Because pollution is a negative contribution, a taking from the commons or a cost imposed on others, its value is economic rent, even when the polluter is not receiving an explicit income. Therefore, to the extent that society determines pollution to be harmful, most Georgists propose to limit pollution with taxation or quotas that capture the resulting rents for public use, restoration, or a citizen's dividend.WEB, Ikerd, John, The Green Tax Shift: Winners and Losers,weblink missouri.edu, 13 June 2014, JOURNAL, Casal, Paula, Global Taxes on Natural Resources, Journal of Moral Philosophy, 2011, 8, 307–27,weblink 14 June 2014, Georgism is related to the school of ecological economics, since both propose market based restrictions for pollution.Backhaus, Jurgen, and J. J. Krabbe. "Henry George's Contribution to Modern Environmental Policy: Part I, Theoretical Postulates." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 50.4 (1991): 485-501. Weborn 14 Aug. 2014. The schools are compatible in that they advocate using similar tools as part of a conservation strategy, but they emphasize different aspects. Conservation is the central issue of ecology, whereas economic rent is the central issue of geoism. Ecological economists might price pollution fines more conservatively to prevent inherently unquantifiable damage to the environment, whereas Georgists might emphasize mediation between conflicting interests and human rights.WEB, Cobb, Clifford, Herman Daly Festschrift: Ecological and Georgist Economic Principles: A Comparison,weblink 13 June 2014, Geolibertarianism, a market oriented branch of geoism, tends to take a direct stance against what it perceives as burdensome regulation and would like to see auctioned pollution quotas or taxes replace most command and control regulation.BOOK, Roark, Eric, Removing the Commons: A Lockean Left-Libertarian Approach to the Just Use and Appropriation of Natural Resources, 2013, Lexington Books,weblink 12 June 2014, 9780739174692, Since ecologists are primarily concerned with conservation, they tend to emphasize less the issue of equitably distributing scarcity/pollution rents, whereas Georgists insist that unearned income not accrue to those who hold title to natural assets and pollution privilege. To the extent that geoists recognize the effect of pollution or share conservationist values, they will agree with ecological economists about the need to limit pollution, but geoists will also insist that pollution rents generated from those conservation efforts do not accrue to polluters and are instead used for public purposes or to compensate those who suffer the negative effects of pollution. Ecological economists advocate similar pollution restrictions but, emphasizing conservation first, might be willing to grant private polluters the privilege to capture pollution rents. To the extent that ecological economists share the geoist view of social justice, they would advocate auctioning pollution quotas instead of giving them away for free. This distinction can be seen in the difference between basic cap and trade and the geoist variation, cap and share, a proposal to auction temporary pollution permits, with rents going to the public, instead of giving pollution privilege away for free to existing polluters or selling perpetual permits.BOOK, Brebbia, C. A., Ecodynamics: The Prigogine Legacy, 2012, WIT Press, 104,weblink 4 June 2014, 9781845646547, NEWS, Gluckman, Amy, A Primer on Henry George's "Single Tax",weblink 12 July 2015,

Revenue uses

The revenue can allow the reduction or elimination of taxes, greater public investment/spending, or the direct distribution of funds to citizens as a pension or basic income/citizen's dividend.WEB, Hartzok, Alanna, Citizen Dividends and Oil Resource Rents A Focus on Alaska, Norway and Nigeria,weblink 9 June 2014, WEB, Gaffney, Mason, A Cannan Hits the Mark,weblink 9 June 2014, In practice, the elimination of all other taxes implies a very great land value tax, greater than any currently existing land tax. Introducing a land value tax greater than the value of existing taxes would, at an uncertain point, inevitably cause the price of all land titles to decrease. George did not believe landowners should be compensated, and described the issue as being analogous to compensation for former slave owners. Other geoists disagree on the question of compensation; some advocate complete compensation while others endorse only enough compensation required to achieve Georgist reforms. Geoists have also long differed from George as to the degree of rent capture needed. Historically, those who advocated for public rent tax only great enough to replace other taxes were known as endorsers of single tax limited.

Synonyms and variants

(File:Georgist Single Tax Poster.jpg|thumb|Georgist Single Tax poster published in The Public, a Chicago newspaper (circa 1910–1914))Most early advocacy groups described themselves as Single Taxers, and George reluctantly accepted "single tax" as an accurate name for his main political goal—the repeal of all unjust or inefficient taxes, to be replaced with a land value tax (LVT).Some modern proponents are dissatisfied with the name Georgist. While Henry George was well known throughout his life, he has been largely forgotten by the public and the idea of a single tax of land predates him. Some now prefer the term geoism,Socialism, Capitalism, and Geoism – by Lindy Davies with the meaning of geo (from Greek gē "earth, land", as incidentally is in Greek the first compound of the name George (whence Georgism) < (Gr.) Geōrgios < geōrgos "farmer" or geōrgia "agriculture, farming" < gē + ergon "work"){{LSJ|gh{{=}}|γῆ|ref}}.{{OEtymD|George}} deliberately ambiguous. The terms Earth Sharing,Introduction to Earth Sharing, geonomics,WEB,weblink Jeffery J. Smith - Progress.org, www.progress.org, 9 October 2017, and geolibertarianismWEB,weblink Geoism and Libertarianism,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104040047weblink">weblink November 4, 2012, yes, Fred Foldvary, 9 October 2017, Fred Foldvary, (see Libertarianism) are also used by some Georgists. These terms represent a difference of emphasis, and sometimes real differences about how land rent should be spent (citizen's dividend or just replacing other taxes); but all agree that land rent should be recovered from its private recipients.Compulsory fines and fees related to land rents are the most common Georgist policies, but some geoists prefer voluntary value capture systems that rely on methods such as non-compulsory or self-assessed location value fees, community land trusts,WEB, Curtis, Mike, The Arden Land Trust,weblink 30 May 2014, and purchasing land value covenants.WEB, Adams, Martin, Sharing the Value of Land: The Promise of Location Value Covenants,weblink 30 May 2014,weblink 2014-05-30, yes, WEB, Kent, Deirdre, Land and Money Reform Synergy in New Zealand,weblink Smart Taxes, 30 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140605080303weblink">weblink 5 June 2014, WEB,weblink Cooperative Individualism - Liberty Schools, www.cooperativeindividualism.org, 9 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160604042754weblink">weblink 4 June 2016, WEB,weblink Location Value Covenants - Systemic Fiscal Reform, www.sfrgroup.org, 9 October 2017, WEB, Foldvery, Fred, Geoanarchism A short summary of geoism and its relation to libertarianism.,weblink 29 May 2014, Some geoists believe that partially compensating landowners is a politically expedient compromise necessary for achieving reform.WEB, Bille, Frank F., The Danish-American Georgist,weblink 30 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140531110700weblink">weblink 31 May 2014, BOOK, Miller, Joseph Dana, Land and Freedom: An International Record of Single Tax Progress, Volume 4, 1904, Single Tax Publishing Company, 9–15,weblink For similar reasons, others propose capturing only future land value increases, instead of all land rent.WEB, Wolf, Martin, Why we must halt the land cycle,weblink Financial Times, 29 May 2014, Though Georgism has historically been considered as a radically progressive or socialist ideology, some libertarians and minarchists take the position that limited social spending should be financed using Georgist concepts of rent value capture, but that not all land rent should be captured. Today, this relatively conservative adaptation is usually considered incompatible with true geolibertarianism, which requires that excess rents be gathered and then distributed back to residents. During Henry George's time, this restrained Georgist philosophy was known as "single tax limited", as opposed to "single tax unlimited". Henry George disagreed with the limited interpretation but accepted its adherents (e.g., Thomas Shearman) as legitimate "single-taxers" [Georgists].WEB, Barker, Charles A., The Followers of Henry George,weblink Henry George News, 13 January 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150113053410weblink">weblink 13 January 2015, (See Milton Friedman in "Critical reception")

Influence

File:Henry George.png|thumb|Henry George|right|upright|Henry GeorgeHenry GeorgeGeorgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th century. Political parties that were formed based on Georgist ideas include the United States Commonwealth Land Party, the Henry George Justice Party, the Single Tax League, and Denmark's Justice Party.In the UK during 1909, the Liberal Government included a land tax as part of several taxes in the People's Budget intended to redistribute wealth (including a progressively graded income tax and an increase of inheritance tax). This caused a crisis which resulted indirectly in reform of the House of Lords. The budget was passed eventually—but without the land tax. In 1931, the minority Labour Government passed a land value tax as part III of the 1931 Finance act. However, this was repealed in 1934 by the National Government before it could be implemented.In Denmark, the Georgist Justice Party has previously been represented in Folketinget. It formed part of a centre-left government 1957–60 and was also represented in the European Parliament 1978–79. The influence of Henry George has waned over time, but Georgist ideas still occasionally emerge in politics. In the United States 2004 Presidential campaign, Ralph Nader mentioned Henry George in his policy statements.WEB,weblink Internet Archive Wayback Machine, 2004-08-28, 2012-07-26, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927005612weblink">weblink September 27, 2007, Economists still generally favor a land value tax.JOURNAL, Why Henry George had a point,weblink The Economist, 29 June 2017, 2015-04-01, Milton Friedman publicly endorsed the Georgist land value tax as the "least bad tax". Joseph Stiglitz stated that: "Not only was Henry George correct that a tax on land is non-distortionary, but in an equilibrium society … tax on land raises just enough revenue to finance the (optimally chosen) level of government expenditure."BOOK, Stiglitz, Joseph, Feldstein, Martin, Inman, Robert, The Economics of Public Services, 1977, Macmillan Publishers, London, 274–333, The theory of local public goods, He dubbed this proposition the Henry George theorem.JOURNAL, Arnott, Richard J., Joseph E. Stiglitz, Aggregate Land Rents, Expenditure on Public Goods, and Optimal City Size, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Nov 1979, 93, 4, 471–500, 1884466, 10.2307/1884466,

Communities

Several communities were also initiated with Georgist principles during the height of the philosophy's popularity. Two such communities that still exist are Arden, Delaware, which was founded in 1900 by Frank Stephens and Will Price, and Fairhope, Alabama, which was founded in 1894 by the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation.WEB,weblink Fairhope Single Tax Corporation, Fairhope Single Tax Corporation, 9 October 2017, Some established communities in the United States also adopted Georgist tax policies. A Georgist in Houston, Texas, Joseph Jay "J.J." Pastoriza, promoted a Georgist club in that city established in 1890. Years later, in his capacity as a city alderman, he was selected to serve as Houston Tax Commissioner, and promulgated a "Houston Plan of Taxation" in 1912. Improvements to land and merchants' inventories were taxed at 25 percent of appraised value, unimproved land was taxed at 70 percent of appraisal, and personal property was exempt. This Georgist tax continued until 1915, when two courts struck it down as violating the Texas Constitution in 1915. This quashed efforts in several other Texas cities which took steps towards implementing the Houston Plan in 1915: Beaumont, Corpus Christi, Galveston, San Antonio, and Waco.NEWS,weblink Joseph Jay Pastoriza and the Single Tax in Houston, 19111917, Houston Review: history and culture of the Gulf Coast, 1986, Davis, Stephen, 8, 2, {{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The German protectorate of the Kiautschou Bay concession in Jiaozhou Bay, China fully implemented Georgist policy. Its sole source of government revenue was the land value tax of six percent which it levied in its territory. The German government had previously had economic problems with its African colonies caused by land speculation. One of the main reasons for using the land value tax in Jiaozhou Bay was to eliminate such speculation, which the policy achieved.JOURNAL, Silagi, Michael, Faulkner, Susan N, 1984, Land Reform in Kiaochow, China: From 1898 to 1914 the Menace of Disastrous Land Speculation was Averted by Taxation, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 43, 2, 167–77, 10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02240.x, The colony existed as a German protectorate from 1898 until 1914, when seized by Japanese and British troops. In 1922 the territory was returned to China.(File:Henry George School of Social Science 121 E30 jeh.jpg|thumb|Henry George School of Social Science in New York)Georgist ideas were also adopted to some degree in Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan. In these countries, governments still levy some type of land value tax, albeit with exemptions.WEB,weblink Henry George 100 Years Later, Gaffney, M. Mason, Association for Georgist Studies Board, 2008-05-12, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080724030349weblink">weblink 2008-07-24, Many municipal governments of the US depend on real property tax as their main source of revenue, although such taxes are not Georgist as they generally include the value of buildings and other improvements. One exception is the town of Altoona, Pennsylvania, which for a time in the 21st century only taxed land value, phasing in the tax in 2002, relying on it entirely for tax revenue from 2011, and ending it 2017; the Financial Times noted that "Altoona is using LVT in a city where neither land nor buildings have much value".NEWS,weblink Property: Land of opportunity, Financial Times, September 2014, Harding, Robin, NEWS,weblink City council decides to cut land value tax, June 6, 2016, Altoona Mirror,

Institutes and organizations

Various organizations still exist that continue to promote the ideas of Henry George. According to The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, the periodical Land&Liberty, established in 1894, is "the longest-lived Georgist project in history".The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 62, 2003, p. 615 Founded during the Great Depression in 1932, the Henry George School of Social Science in New York offers courses, sponsors seminars, and publishes research in the Georgist paradigm.WEB, About Us – Henry George School of Social Science,weblink hgsss.org, Henry George School of Social Science, 29 June 2017, Also in the US, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy was established in 1974 based on the writings of Henry George. It "seeks to improve the dialogue about urban development, the built environment, and tax policy in the United States and abroad".WEB,weblink About the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Lincolninst.edu, 2012-07-26, The Henry George Foundation continues to promote the ideas of Henry George in the UK.WEB,weblink The Henry George Foundation, 2009-07-31, The IU is an international umbrella organisation that brings together organizations worldwide that seek land value tax reform.WEB,weblink The IU, The IU, 2019-06-13,

Reception

The economist Alfred Marshall believed that George's views in Progress and Poverty were dangerous, even predicting wars, terror, and economic destruction. Specifically, Marshall was upset about the idea of rapid change and the unfairness of not compensating existing landowners. In his lectures on Progress and Poverty, Marshall opposed George's position on compensation while fully endorsing his ultimate remedy. So far as land value tax moderately replaced other taxes and did not cause the price of land to fall, Marshall supported land value taxation on economic and moral grounds, suggesting that a three or four percent tax on land values would fit this condition. After implementing land taxes, governments would purchase future land values at discounted prices and take ownership after 100 years. Marshall asserted that this plan, which he strongly supported, would end the need for a tax collection department of government. For newly formed countries where land was not already private, Marshall advocated implementing George's economic proposal immediately.Marshall, Alfred. “Three Lectures on Progress and Poverty by Alfred Marshall.” The Journal of Law & Economics, vol. 12, no. 1, 1969, pp. 184–226. www.jstor.org/stable/724986Marshall, Alfred, Principles of Economics. 1920. Library of Economics and Liberty.Karl Marx considered the Single Tax platform as a regression from the transition to communism and referred to Georgism as "Capitalism’s last ditch".WEB, Andelson, Robert V., Henry George and The Reconstruction Of Capitalism,weblink 14 January 2014, Marx argued that, "The whole thing is ... simply an attempt, decked out with socialism, to save capitalist domination and indeed to establish it afresh on an even wider basis than its present one."WEB,weblink Letters: Marx-Engels Correspondence 1881, Karl, Marx, www.marxists.org, 9 October 2017, Marx also criticized the way land value tax theory emphasizes the value of land, arguing that, "His fundamental dogma is that everything would be all right if ground rent were paid to the state." Georgists such as Fred Harrison (2003) replied to these Marxist objections.WEB,weblink "Gronlund and other Marxists – Part III: nineteenth-century Americas critics", American Journal of Economics and Sociology, findarticles.com, 9 October 2017, Fred Harrison, Fred Harrison (Author), Richard T. Ely, known as the "Father of Land Economics",{{citation needed|date=January 2018}} agreed with the economic arguments for Georgism but believed that correcting the problem the way Henry George wanted (without compensation) was unjust to existing landowners. In explaining his position, Ely wrote that "If we have all made a mistake, should one party to the transaction alone bear the cost of the common blunder?"WEB, George, Henry, A Response to Richard Ely On the Question of Compensation to Owners of Land,weblink 29 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140529145606weblink">weblink 29 May 2014, John R. Commons supported Georgist economics, but opposed what he perceived as an environmentally and politically reckless tendency for advocates to rely on a one-size-fits-all approach to tax reform, specifically, the "single tax" framing. Commons concluded The Distribution of Wealth, with an estimate that "perhaps 95% of the total values represented by these millionnaire [sic] fortunes is due to those investments classed as land values and natural monopolies and to competitive industries aided by such monopolies", and that "tax reform should seek to remove all burdens from capital and labour and impose them on monopolies". However, he criticized Georgists for failing to see that Henry George's anti-monopoly ideas must be implemented with a variety of policy tools. He wrote, "Trees do not grow into the sky—they would perish in a high wind; and a single truth, like a single tax, ends in its own destruction." Commons uses the natural soil fertility and value of forests as an example of this destruction, arguing that a tax on the in situ value of those depletable natural resources can result in overuse or over-extraction. Instead, Commons recommends an income tax based approach to forests similar to a modern Georgist severance tax.Commons, John R. "The Distribution of Wealth", 1893weblink John R. “A Progressive Tax on Bare Land Values.” Political Science Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 1, 1922, pp. 41–68. www.jstor.org/stable/2142317.Other contemporaries such as Austrian economist Frank Fetter and neoclassical economist John Bates Clark argued that it was impractical to maintain the traditional distinction between land and capital, and used this as a basis to attack Georgism. Mark Blaug, a specialist in the history of economic thought, credits Fetter and Clark with influencing mainstream economists to abandon the idea "that land is a unique factor of production and hence that there is any special need for a special theory of ground rent" claiming that "this is in fact the basis of all the attacks on Henry George by contemporary economists and certainly the fundamental reason why professional economists increasingly ignored him".Blaug, Mark. Interview in Andelson, Robert V. Critics of Henry George: An Appraisal of Their Strictures on Progress and Poverty. Blackwell Publishing. 1979. p. 686.Robert Solow endorsed the theory of Georgism, but is wary of the perceived injustice of expropriation. Solow stated that taxing away expected land rents "would have no semblance of fairness"; however, Georgism would be good to introduce where location values were not already privatized or if the transition could be phased in slowly.JOURNAL, Foldvery, Fred E., Geo-Rent: A Plea to Public Economists, Econ Watch, 2005, 2, 1, 106–32,weblink 2 October 2013, Milton Friedman agreed that "the Henry George argument" is "the least bad" means of raising needed public revenue.BOOK,weblink Microeconomics, N. Gregory, Mankiw, Mark P., Taylor, 9 October 2017, Cengage Learning EMEA, 9 October 2017, Google Books, 978-1844806676, However, Friedman viewed Georgism as partially immoral, due to a difference of opinion about the validity of vested property rights in land.{{Citation needed|date=January 2016}} Georgists agree with Friedman that land titles should remain private, however they believe that the private capture of unimproved land-rents is inherently unjust, drawing comparisons to slavery.BOOK, George, Henry, The Irish Land Question, 1881,weblink George has also been accused of exaggerating the importance of his "all-devouring rent thesis" in claiming that it is the primary cause of poverty and injustice in society.BOOK, Critics of Henry George: An Appraisal of Their Strictures on Progress and Poverty, Vol. 1, Robert V., Andelson, 21 November 2003, Wiley-Blackwell, 978-1405118255, George argued that the rent of land increased faster than wages for labor because the supply of land is fixed. Modern economists, including Ottmar Edenhofer have demonstrated that George's assertion is plausible but was more likely to be true during George's time than now.An early criticism of Georgism was that it would generate too much public revenue and result in unwanted growth of government, but later critics argued that it would not generate enough income to cover government spending. Joseph Schumpeter concluded his analysis of Georgism by stating that, "It is not economically unsound, except that it involves an unwarranted optimism concerning the yield of such a tax." Economists who study land conclude that Schumpeter's criticism is unwarranted because the rental yield from land is likely much greater than what modern critics such as Paul Krugman suppose.BOOK, Hudson, Michael, A Philosophy for a Fair Society, 1994,weblink 18 January 2015, 9780856831591, Krugman agrees that land value taxation is the best means of raising public revenue but asserts that increased spending has rendered land rent insufficient to fully fund governmentweblink "urban economics models actually do suggest that Georgist taxation would be the right approach at least to finance city growth."/ Georgists have responded by citing studies and analyses implying that land values of nations like the US, UK, and Australia are more than sufficient to fund all levels of government.JOURNAL, The hidden taxable capacity of land: enough and to spare, Mason Gaffney, 13 March 2009, International Journal of Social Economics, 36, 4, 328–411, 10.1108/03068290910947930, WEB, Foldvery, Fred, The Ultimate Tax Reform: Public Revenue from Land Rent,weblink 27 January 2014, Steven, Cord, "How Much Revenue would a Full Land Value Tax Yield? Analysis of Census and Federal Reserve Data". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44 (3) (July 1985), pp. 279–293Steven Cord, "Land Rent is 20% of U.S. National Income for 1986", Incentive Taxation, July/August 1991, pp. 1–2.Miles, Mike. 1990. "What Is the Value of all U.S. Real Estate?" Real Estate Review 20 (2)(Summer): 69–75.Nicolaus Tideman and Florenz Plassman, "Taxed Out of Work and Wealth: The Costs of Taxing Labor and Capital", in The Losses of Nations: Deadweight Politics versus Public Rent Dividends (London: OthilaPress, 1988), pp. 146–174.WEB, Fitzgerald, Karl, Total Resource Rents of Australia,weblink 27 January 2014, Anarcho-capitalist political philosopher and economist Murray Rothbard criticized Georgism in Man, Economy, and State as being philosophically incongruent with subjective value theory, and further stating that land is irrelevant in the factors of production, trade, and price systems,BOOK, Rothbard, Murray, Murray Rothbard, Man, Economy, and State: A Treatise on Economic Principles, Van Nostrand, 1962, but this critique is seen by some, including other opponents of Georgism, as relying on false assumptions and flawed reasoning.WEB, Heinrich, David J, Murray Rothbard and Henry George,weblink www.mises.org, 28 August 2014, 2004-02-24, Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek credited early enthusiasm for Henry George with developing his interest in economics. Later, Hayek said that the theory of Georgism would be very strong if assessment challenges did not result in unfair outcomes, but he believed that they would.JOURNAL, Andelson, Robert V., On Separating the Landowner's Earned and Unearned Increment: A Georgist Rejoinder to F. A. Hayek, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, January 2000, 59, 1, 109–17, 10.1111/1536-7150.00016, Hayek wrote, "It was a lay enthusiasm for Henry George which led me to economics."After studying Progress and Poverty, Tyler Cowen concluded, "George had some good economic arguments, but [. . .] was politically naive. At the margin we should move in George’s direction, but ultimately landowners have to be part of the building coalitions rather than pure victims."Taxing Land to Pay for Trains Will Work. In Some Places. By Tyler Cowenweblink

Notable Georgists

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Economists

  • Harry Gunnison BrownBrown, H. G. "A Defense of the Single Tax Principle." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 183.1 (1936): 63–69. Quote: "The truth is that I recognize the fundamental justice and common sense of the single-tax idea. But that any other tax than a tax on land values is always and everywhere wrong, regardless of public needs or the nature of this other tax, I do not maintain."
  • John R. CommonsHarter, Lafayette G. John R. Commons, His Assault on Laissez-faire. Corvallis: Oregon State UP, 1962. pp. 21, 32, 36, 38."Two Centuries of Economic Thought on Taxation of Land Rents." In Richard Lindholm and Arthur Lynn, Jr., (eds.), Land Value Taxation in Thought and Practice. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1982, pp. 151–96.BOOK, Brue, Stanley, Randy, Grant, The Evolution of Economic Thought, 2012, Cengage Learning, Supplemental Biography of John Rogers Commons for chapter 19 of the online edition of The Evolution of Economic Thought, "After reading Henry George's Progress and Poverty," Commons "became a single-taxer."
  • Raymond CrottyBOOK, Crotty, Raymond D., A Radical's Response, 1988, Poolbeg,weblink 29 August 2014, 9780905169989, WEB, Sheppard, Barry, 'Progress and Poverty' – Henry George and Land Reform in modern Ireland,weblink The Irish Story, 29 August 2014, 2014-08-24,
  • Herman DalyWEB, Daly, Herman, Smart Talk: Herman Daly on what's beyond GNP Growth, . . . I am really sort of a Georgist.,weblink Henry George School of Social Science, 24 October 2015,
  • Paul DouglasWEB, Gaffney, Mason, Stimulus: The False and the True Mason Gaffney,weblink 13 August 2015, BOOK, Douglas, Paul, In the fullness of time; the memoirs of Paul H. Douglas, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1972, 978-0151443765,weblink
  • Ottmar EdenhoferJOURNAL, Edenhofer, Ottmar, Hypergeorgism: When is Rent Taxation as a Remedy for Insufficient Capital Accumulation Socially Optimal?, 2232659, 2013, "Extending and modifying the tenet of georgism, we propose that this insight be called hypergeorgism." "From a historical perspective, our result may be closer to Henry George’s original thinking than georgism or the neoclassical Henry George Theorems.", JOURNAL, Edenhofer, Ottmar, Financing Public Capital Through Land Rent Taxation: A Macroeconomic Henry George Theorem, 2284745, 2013-06-25, WEB, Edenhofer, Ottmar, The Triple Dividend Climate Change Mitigation, Justice and Investing in Capabilities,weblink 11 November 2013,
  • Fred FoldvaryWEB,weblink Foldvary policy reforms, www.foldvary.net, 9 October 2017,
  • Mason GaffneyWEB,weblink Mason Gaffney's Website, masongaffney.org, 9 October 2017, WEB, Gaffney, Mason, Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler,weblink 27 January 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120303234646weblink">weblink 3 March 2012,
  • Max HirschAirlie Worrall, The New Crusade: the Origins, Activities and Influence of the Australian Single Tax Leagues, 1889–1895 (M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne, 1978).
  • Harold HotellingTurgeon, Lynn. Bastard Keynesianism : the evolution of economic thinking and policymaking since World War II. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1997Gaffney, Mason. "Warm Memories of Bill Vickrey". Land & Liberty.weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161116103120weblink |date=2016-11-16 }}Gaffney, Mason, and Fred Harrison. The corruption of economics. London: Shepheard-Walwyn in association with Centre for Incentive Taxation, 2006Hotelling, Harold. “The General Welfare in Relation to Problems of Taxation and of Railway and Utility Rates.” Econometrica, vol. 6, no. 3, 1938, pp. 242–69. www.jstor.org/stable/1907054.
  • Wolf LadejinskyAndelson Robert V. (2000). Land-Value Taxation Around the World: Studies in Economic Reform and Social Justice Malden. MA:Blackwell Publishers, Inc. p. 359.
  • Donald ShoupNEWS, Knack, Ruth Eckdish, Pay As You Park: UCLA professor Donald Shoup inspires a passion for parking.,weblink 17 September 2014, Planning Magazine, May 2005, Shoup, Donald C. "The Ideal Source of Local Public Revenue." Regional Science and Urban Economics 34.6 (2004): 753-84.WEB, Washington, Emily, The High Cost of Free Parking Chapters 19–22,weblink marketurbanism.com, Market Urbanism, 17 September 2014, 2012-08-07,
  • Herbert A. SimonQuotes from Nobel Prize Winners Herbert Simon stated in 1978: "Assuming that a tax increase is necessary, it is clearly preferable to impose the additional cost on land by increasing the land tax, rather than to increase the wage tax – the two alternatives open to the City (of Pittsburgh). It is the use and occupancy of property that creates the need for the municipal services that appear as the largest item in the budget – fire and police protection, waste removal, and public works. The average increase in tax bills of city residents will be about twice as great with wage tax increase than with a land tax increase."
  • Robert Solow
  • Joseph StiglitzWEB, Stiglitz, Joseph, Working Paper No. 6: Principles and Guidelines for Deficit Reduction,weblink Next New Deal The Blog of the Roosevelt Institute, The Roosevelt Institute, 22 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101206120932weblink">weblink 6 December 2010, 5, 2 December 2010, One of the general principles of taxation is that one should tax factors that are inelastic in supply, since there are no adverse supply side effects. Land does not disappear when it is taxed. Henry George, a great progressive of the late nineteenth century, argued, partly on this basis, for a land tax.,
  • Nicolaus TidemanWEB, Tideman, Nicolaus, Global Economic Justice,weblink Schalkenbach Foundation, 8 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130629031608weblink">weblink June 29, 2013,
  • William VickreyWEB,weblink Bill Vickrey: "This paper would benefit from an application of Henry George's idea of taxing land values!", www.wealthandwant.com, 9 October 2017, JOURNAL, Netzer, Dick, Remembering William Vickrey, Land Lines, November 1996, 8, 6,weblink 2 September 2016, Vickrey, William. "The Corporate Income Tax in the U.S. Tax System, 73 TAX NOTES 597, 603 (1996). Quote: "Removing almost all business taxes, including property taxes on improvements, excepting only taxes reflecting the marginal social cost of public services rendered to specific activities, and replacing them with taxes on site values, would substantially improve the economic efficiency of the jurisdiction."
  • Léon WalrasJOURNAL, Cirillo, Renato, Léon Walras and Social Justice, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Jan 1984, 43, 1, 53–60, 10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02222.x, 3486394,
  • Philip WicksteedBarker, Charles A., 1955. Henry George. New York: Oxford University Press
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Heads of government

  • John BallanceBOOK, Boast, Richard, Buying the land, selling the land : governments and Maori land in the North Island 1865–1921, Victoria University Press, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington N.Z, 2008, 9780864735614, Daunton, M. J. State and market in Victorian Britain : war, welfare and capitalism. Woodbridge, UK Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2008. Quote: "In the election of 1890 he campaigned for radical land reform, arguing for a tax on the 'unearned increment', and advocated the programme of Henry George as a means of 'bursting up the great estates'."
  • Winston Churchill]weblink{{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}JOURNAL, MacLaren, Andrew, The People's Rights: Opportunity Lost?, Finest Hour, Autumn 2001, 112,weblink 15 August 2015, NEWS, Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne, It's a Lonely Quest for Land-Tax Fans, But, by George, They Press On,weblink 25 August 2014, Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2013, Stevens, Elizabeth Lesly. "A Tax Policy With San Francisco Roots". July 30, 2011weblink Quote: "But Mr. Brown was certainly in good company as a Georgist. Devotees over the years have included Leo Tolstoy, Winston Churchill, Sun Yat-Sen, and the inventor of the board game that would become Monopoly."
  • Alfred DeakinMurdoch, Walter. Alfred Deakin: a sketch. Melbourne, Vic: Bookman, 1999. [1923]
  • Andrew FisherBOOK, Bastian, Peter, Andrew Fisher: An Underestimated Man, UNSW Press, Sydney, N.S.W, 2009, 978-1742230047, 28–30,
  • George Grey[George, Henry, Jr. The Life of Henry George. New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1900.]
  • Rutherford B. HayesWEB, Hayes, Rutherford B., Henry George,weblink 26 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203004921weblink">weblink 3 December 2013,
  • William Morris Hughes"Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862–1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography: Online Edition.
  • Robert StoutNEWS, Stout, Robert, ADDRESS BY THE HON. R. STOUT.,weblink 6 December 2014, New Zealand Herald, Volume XXII, Issue 7302, PAPERPAST, 14 April 1885,
  • Sun Yat-senBOOK, Trescott, Paul B., Jingji Xue: The History of the Introduction of Western Economic Ideas Into China, 1850–1950, 2007, Chinese University Press, 46–48,weblink The foregoing help to demonstrate why Sun Yat-sen would have regarded Henry George as a very credible guide, and why in 1912 Sun could tell an interviewer, 'The teachings of your single-taxer, Henry George, will be the basis of our program of reform.', 9789629962425, JOURNAL, Post, Louis Freeland, Sun Yat Sen's Economic Program for China, The Public, April 12, 1912, 15, 349,weblink 8 November 2016, land tax as the only means of supporting the government is an infinitely just, reasonable, and equitably distributed tax, and on it we will found our new system,
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Other political figures

  • John Peter AltgeldBOOK, Altgeld, John, Live Questions, 1899, Geo. S Bowen & Son,weblink 776–81, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140924001239weblink">weblink 2014-09-24, Chicago Single Tax Club collection, Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois at Chicagoweblink
  • Newton D. BakerWEB, Gaffney, Mason, Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler,weblink Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, 3 September 2014, BOOK, Finegold, Kenneth, Experts and politicians: reform challenges to machine politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J, 1995, 978-0691037349,weblink
  • Willie BrownJOURNAL, Stevens, Elizabeth Lesly, The Power Broker, Washington Monthly, July/August 2012, July–August 2012,weblink 8 December 2013,
  • Clyde CameronWEB, Cameron, Clyde, REVENUE THAT IS NOT A TAX,weblink 18 February 2015,
  • George F. CotterillNEWS, Single Tax Loses, But Mayor Favoring This Reform Is Chosen By a Small Vote Margin,weblink 23 August 2014, The Milwaukee Journal, Mar 6, 1912, Arnesen, Eric. Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-class History. New York: Routledge, 2007Johnston, Robert D. The Radical Middle Class: Populist Democracy and the Question of Capitalism in Progressive Era Portland, Oregon. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2003
  • William Jay GaynorGaynor, William Jay. Some of Mayor Gaynor's Letters and Speeches. New York: Greaves Pub., 1913. 214–21.weblink
  • Keir HardieNEWS, Socialism in England: James Keir Hardie Declares That It Is Capturing That Country.,weblink 4 November 2014, San Francisco Call, California Digital Newspaper Collection, 25 September 1895, Hardie states, "I was a very enthusiastic single-taxer for a number of years."
  • Frederic C. HoweHowe, Frederic C. The Confessions of a Reformer. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1988.
  • Blas InfanteArcas Cubero, Fernando: El movimiento georgista y los orígenes del Andalucismo : análisis del periódico "El impuesto único" (1911–1923). Málaga : Editorial Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros, 1980. {{ISBN|84-500-3784-0}}
  • Tom L. Johnson"Single Taxers Dine Johnson". New York Times May 31, 1910.
  • Samuel M. Jones"Henry George". Ohio History Central: An Online History of Ohio History.
  • Frank de JongWEB, Frank de Jong: Economic Rent Best Way to Finance Government,weblink 9 November 2013,
  • Franklin Knight Lane
  • Hazen S. PingreeWEB, Gaffney, Mason, What's the matter with Michigan? Rise and collapse of an economic wonder,weblink 28 April 2014, WEB, Cleveland, Polly, The Way Forward for Detroit? Land Taxes,weblink Washington Spectator, 28 April 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140428034615weblink">weblink 28 April 2014, WEB, Gaffney, Mason, New Life in Old Cities,weblink UC Riverside, 28 April 2014,
  • Philip SnowdenBOOK, Bryson, Phillip, The economics of Henry George : history's rehabilitation of America's greatest early economist, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2011, 145, BOOK, Moore, Robert, Pit-men, preachers & politics the effects of Methodism in a Durham mining community, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1974, 61,
  • Josiah C. Wedgwood
  • William Bauchop Wilson
  • Jackson Stitt WilsonJOURNAL, Barton, Stephen E., Berkeley Mayor J. Stitt Wilson: Christian Socialist, Georgist, Feminist, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 75, 1, 2016, 193–216, 0002-9246, 10.1111/ajes.12132, "Some Suggestions for Reform of Taxation", Proceedings, 14th Annual Convention, League of California Municipalities, Santa Barbara, California, October 25, 1911, pp. 152–71. J. Stitt Wilson, "Report from California", The Single Tax Review, V.17, No.1, January–February 1917, pp. 50–52
  • Andrew MacLaren MP BOOK, Standing for justice : a biography of Andrew MacLaren, MP, Stewart, John, 1931-, 2001, Shepheard-Walwyn, 0856831948, London, 49362105,
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Activists

  • Jane AddamsJOURNAL, Jones, Carolyn C., Taxing Women: Thoughts on a Gendered Economy: Symposium: A Historical Outlook: Taxes and Peace" A Case Study of Taxing Women, Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies, Spring 1997,weblink 5 December 2014, BOOK, Rothbard, Murray, Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought (Complete, 1965–1968), 2007, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 263,weblink 5 December 2014, 9781610160407,
  • Peter BarnesChris Oestereich. "With Liberty and Dividends for All: An Interview with Peter Barnes";weblink
  • Sara Bard FieldBeth Shalom Hessel. "Field, Sara Bard";weblink American National Biography Online April 2014. Access Date: Mar 22 2015
  • Michael DavittLane, Fintan. The Origins of Modern Irish Socialism, 1881–1896.Cork University Press, 1997 (pp. 79, 81).
  • Samuel GompersJOURNAL, Miller, Joseph Dana, Mr. Samuel Gompers Replies to Our Criticism, The Single Tax Review, 1921, 21–22, 42,weblink 31 August 2014, BOOK, Gompers, Samuel, The Samuel Gompers Papers: The making of a union leader, 1850–86, Volume 1, 1986, University of Illinois Press, 431–32,weblink 31 August 2014, 9780252011375,
  • Bolton HallLeubuscher, F. C. (1939). Bolton Hall {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101214070335weblink |date=December 14, 2010 }}. The Freeman. January issue.
  • Hubert HarrisonBOOK, Miller, Joseph Dana, The Single Tax Review, Volumes 21–22, 1921, 178,weblink 16 December 2014, BOOK, Land and Freedom, Volumes 22–23, 1922, 179,weblink 16 December 2014,
  • John Haynes HolmesWEB, The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources,weblink 5 December 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141101042450weblink">weblink 1 November 2014, Holmes said, "The passing years have only added to my conviction that Henry George is one of the greatest of all modern statesmen and prophets."WEB, Eckert, Charles R., Henry George, Sound Economics and the "New Deal",weblink 5 December 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160604102744weblink">weblink 4 June 2016,
  • Stewart HeadlamThompson, Noel. Political economy and the Labour Party: The economics of démocratic socialism (1884–2005). Routlegde Ed., 2006, pp. 54–55.BOOK, Haggard, Robert, The persistence of Victorian liberalism : the politics of social reform in Britain, 1870–1900, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn, 2001, 978-0313313059,weblink
  • Mary Elizabeth LeaseOrr, B. S. (2006–2007). Mary Elizabeth Lease: Gendered discourse and Populist Party politics in Gilded Age America. Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains, 29, 246–265.
  • Benjamin C. MarshCaves, Roger W. Encyclopedia of the City. Abingdon, Oxon, OX: Routledge, 2005.Marsh, Benjamin Clarke. Lobbyist for the People; a Record of Fifty Years. Washington: Public Affairs, 1953.
  • James Ferdinand MortonNEWS, Single-Taxers again laud Henry George, Daily Standard Union, Brooklyn, NY, 12, Sep 8, 1912,weblink Nov 7, 2014, NEWS, British MP guest at George dinner, Daily Standard Union, Brooklyn, NY, 9, Sep 6, 1912,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Community Club, Silver Creek News, Silver Creek, NY, 1, Jan 4, 1916,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, James F. Morton at Eagle Temple, Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, NY, 10, Jan 23, 1917,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Meetings this evening; Labor Forum, Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, NY, 12, Mar 30, 1918,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, F. P. Morgan(sic) gives instructive talk on the single tax, The Saratogian, Saratoga Springs, NY, 9, Apr 10, 1929,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • JOURNAL, Morton, James F., Jr., Report of James F. Morton, Jr.'s Lecture Work, The Single Tax Review, 18, 4, 116, July–August 1918,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Single taxer to speak, Buffalo Courier, Buffalo, NY, 9, Apr 7, 1916,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Plans single tax talk, Buffalo Courier, Buffalo, NY, 10, Apr 14, 1916,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Single tax advocate lectures in church, Buffalo Courier, Buffalo, NY, 6, Apr 17, 1916,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Meetings this evening; Meeting of the Men's club, Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, NY, 14, Apr 25, 1916,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Philosophy of the Single Tax, Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, NY, 7, Apr 26, 1916,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Season's close at Chautauqua; The Single Tax, Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, NY, 9, Aug 28, 1916,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Exclusive tax on land values, Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, NY, 3, Jan 15, 1917,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Saturday Night Club, Jamestown Evening Journal, Jamestown, NY, 9, Jan 12, 1917,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Lewiston, Buffalo Evening News, Buffalo, NY, 10, Apr 30, 1917,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Greenfield Center, The Saratogian, Saratoga Springs, NY, 7, Nov 13, 1917,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • NEWS, Church Services Tomorrow; First Congregational Church, Daily Argus, Mount Vernon, NY, 12, Dec 3, 1917,weblink Nov 7, 2014,
  • Thomas Mott OsborneJorgensen, Emil Oliver. The next Step toward Real Democracy: One Hundred Reasons Why America Should Abolish, as Speedily as Possible, All Taxation upon the Fruits of Industry, and Raise the Public Revenue by a Single Tax on Land Values Only. Chicago, IL: Chicago Singletax Club, 1920.Gorgas, William Crawford, and Lewis Jerome Johnson. Two Papers on Public Sanitation and the Single Tax. New York: Single Tax Information Bureau, 1914.weblink Louise. George Foster Peabody, Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist. Athens: U of Georgia, 1951.weblink
  • Amos PinchotBOOK, Young, Arthur Nichols, Single tax Movement in the United States, Hardpress Ltd, S.l, 1916, BOOK, Thompson, John, Reformers and war : American progressive publicists and the First World War, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York, 1987,
  • Terence V. PowderlyBOOK, Powderly, Terence Vincent, Thirty Years of Labor. 1859–1889, 1889, Excelsior publishing house,weblink 8 December 2014, "It would be far easier to levy a "single tax," basing it upon land values." "It is because […] a single land tax would prove to be the very essence of equity, that l advocate it.
  • Samuel SeaburyBOOK, Mitgang, Herbert, The Man Who Rode the Tiger: The Life and Times of Judge Samuel Seabury, 1996, Fordham Univ Press,weblink 9780823217229,
  • Catherine Helen SpenceBOOK, Magarey, Susan, Unbridling the tongues of women : a biography of Catherine Helen Spence, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, NSW, 1985, 978-0868061498,
  • Helen TaylorBOOK, Wenzer, Kenneth, An Anthology of Henry George's Thought (Volume 1), 1997, University Rochester Press, 87, 243,weblink 9781878822819,
  • William Simon U'RenWEB, Oregon Biographies: William S. U'Ren, Oregon History Project, Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society, 2002,weblink 2006-12-29,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061110113347weblink">weblink 2006-11-10,
  • Ida B. WellsJOURNAL, Candeloro, Dominic, The Single Tax Movement and Progressivism, 1880–1920, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, April 1979, 38, 2, 113–27,weblink 16 July 2015, 10.1111/j.1536-7150.1979.tb02869.x, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150717015930weblink">weblink 17 July 2015,
  • Frances WillardJOURNAL, The Inquisitive Voter, The Great Adventure, September 11, 1920, 4, 35, The proposition of Henry George will do more to lift humanity from the slough of poverty, crime, and misery than all else.,
{{Column}}

Authors

  • Ernest Howard Crosby
  • Charles EisensteinWEB, Eisenstein, Charles, Post-Capitalism,weblink 5 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006085910weblink">weblink 6 October 2014,
  • Hamlin GarlandNEWS, The Funeral Procession,weblink 17 November 2013, New York Times, November 1, 1897, BOOK, Newlin, Keith, Hamlin Garland a life, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 2008, 978-0803233478, 102–27,
  • Fred Harrison (author)|Fred Harrison]weblink Fred Harrison speaks at ALTER Spring Conference 2014
  • James A. HerneWEB, Aller, Pat, The Georgist Philosophy in Culture and History,weblink 2 October 2014,
  • Ebenezer HowardJOURNAL, Steuer, Max, REVIEW ARTICLE A hundred years of town planning and the influence of Ebenezer Howard, The British Journal of Sociology, June 2000, 51, 2, 377–86, 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00377.x, 10905006, BOOK, Meacham, Standish, Regaining Paradise: Englishness and the Early Garden City Movement, 1999, Yale University Press, 50–53,weblink 5 August 2014, 978-0300075724, BOOK, Purdom, Charles Benjamin, The Letchworth Achievement, 1963, 1,weblink 5 August 2014,
  • Elbert HubbardBOOK, Hubard, Elbert, Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Reformers, 1907, The Roycrofters, East Aurora, New York,weblink 6 July 2016,
  • Aldous HuxleyHarrison, F. (May–June 1989). "Aldous Huxley on 'the Land Question' {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141213223137weblink |date=2014-12-13 }}". Land & Liberty. "Huxley redeems himself when he concedes that, if he were to rewrite the book, he would offer a third option, one which he characterised as 'the possibility of sanity.' In a few bold strokes he outlines the elements of this model: 'In this community economics would be decentralist and Henry Georgian, politics Kropotkinesque and co-operative.'"
  • James Howard KunstlerBOOK, Kunstler, James Howard, Home from Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World For the 21st Century, 1998, Simon and Schuster, Chapter 7,weblink 9780684837376,
  • Jose MartíWEB, Mace, Elisabeth, The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America,weblink 5 August 2015, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20150908183320weblink">weblink 8 September 2015, WEB, Hudson, Michael, Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba,weblink 5 August 2015,
  • William D. McCrackan
  • Albert Jay NockLora, Ronald; Longton, William Henry, eds. (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-century America. Greenwood Publishing, Inc. p. 310. "Thus, the Freeman was to speak for the great tradition of classical liberalism, which [Albert Jay Nock and Francis Nielson] were afraid was being lost, and for the economics of Henry George, which both men shared."
  • Kathleen NorrisWEB, Norris, Kathleen, The Errors of Marxism,weblink 21 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141213224036weblink">weblink 13 December 2014,
  • Upton SinclairWEB, Sinclair, Upton, The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities,weblink 3 November 2014, Sinclair was an active georgist but eventually gave up on explicitly advocating the reform because, "Our opponents, the great rich bankers and land speculators of California, persuaded the poor man that we were going to put all taxes on this poor man's lot."WEB, Gaffney, Mason, Excerpts from The Corruption of Economics,weblink 3 November 2014,
  • Leo TolstoyA Great Iniquity.. Leo Tolstoy once said of George, "People do not argue with the teaching of George, they simply do not know it".WEB, Lebrun, Victor, Leo Tolstoy and Henry George,weblink 9 September 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140911001701weblink">weblink 11 September 2014,
  • Charles Erskine Scott WoodBOOK, Starr, Kevin, The dream endures : California enters the 1940s, Oxford University Press, New York, 1997, 978-0195157970, Wood had "strong leanings toward the single-tax theory of Henry George".WEB, Barnes, Tim, C.E.S. Wood (1852–1944),weblink The Oregon Encyclipedia, 14 December 2014,
{{Column}}

Journalists

  • William F. Buckley, Jr.WEB, Buckley, William F. Jr, FIRING LINE: Has New York Let Us Down?,weblink PBS, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, 6 November 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924094932weblink">weblink 2015-09-24, yes, Buckley says, "The location problem is, of course, easily solved by any Georgist, and I am one."
  • Timothy Thomas FortuneBOOK, Perry, Jeffrey, Hubert Harrison the voice of Harlem radicalism, 1883–1918, Columbia University Press, New York, 2009, 978-0231139113,
  • Theodor HerzlWEB, Sklar, Dusty, Henry George and Zionism,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141028225026weblink">weblink yes, 28 October 2014, 28 October 2014,
  • Michael KinsleyNEWS, Kinsley, Michael, Inequality: It's Even Worse Than We Thought,weblink 31 October 2014, BloombergView, Bloomberg, Jun 13, 2012, NEWS, Kinsley, Michael, The Capital-Gains Tax: A Tragedy in Two Acts,weblink 31 October 2014, Dec 19, 2012, Kinsley reiterates that George is his favorite economist and that land taxes are the best source of revenue.WEB, The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources,weblink 31 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141101010830weblink">weblink 1 November 2014, In The New Republic (February 12, 1992) Kinsley advocates removing all taxes and collecting land rent instead.
  • Suzanne La FolletteBOOK, Chamberlain, John, Farewell To Reform, 1965, Quadrangle Books, 47–48, JOURNAL, Bernstein, David, Lochner's Feminist Legacy, Michigan Law Review, May 2003, 101, 6,weblink 23 December 2014,
  • Dylan MatthewsNEWS, Matthews, Dylan, Five conservative reforms millennials should be fighting for,weblink 26 August 2014, Wonkblog, The Washington Post, January 7, 2014, TWEET, dylanmatt, Dylan Matthews, 414149160775204864, 20 December 2013, @Bencjacobs @mattyglesias I think we've both been Georgists for a while now, though @AshokRao95 led me to revisit this stuff, Dylan Matthews's verified account states, "I think we've both been Georgists for a while now."
  • Raymond MoleyBOOK, Lawson, R, A commonwealth of hope : the New Deal response to crisis, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006, 978-0801884061,
  • Charles Edward RussellBOOK, Mowry, George, The era of Theodore Roosevelt and the birth of modern America, 1900–1912, Harper & Row, New York, 1958, I conceded the voice of ultimate wisdom and saw in Henry George the apostle of a new gospel., 978-0061330223,
  • Jacob RiisRiis, Jacob A. "The Unemployed: a Problem". (In Peters, John P., Labor and Capital, a chapter on "Socialism and the Single Tax", pp. 425-431. New York, 1902. 12°. Questions of the day, no. 98.)BOOK, Burrows, Edwin, Gotham : a history of New York City to 1898, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999, 978-0195140491, 1183,
  • Reihan SalamNEWS, Salam, Reihan, On Property Taxes,weblink 19 March 2015, July 15, 2010,
  • Horace TraubelJOURNAL, Traubel, Horace, Progress and Poverty, The Conservator, 1896, 7-9, 252–53,weblink 13 December 2015,
  • Martin WolfWEB,weblink Why we must halt the land cycle, The Financial Times, Martin Wolf, 2010-07-08, 2013-10-02,
  • Merryn Somerset WebbWEB,weblink How a levy based on location values could be the perfect tax, The Financial Times, Merryn Somerset Webb, 2013-09-27, 2013-10-02, TWEET, iddqkfa, ©ommons $ense 🔰, 468204465057566720, 19 May 2014, Closet georgist, @MerrynSW, on an entertaining BBC program "Simon Evans Goes to Market", about investing in land LVT,
  • Brand WhitlockJOURNAL, Smith, Charles Joseph, Forty Years of the Struggle for Freedom, Land and Freedom, January–February 1941, XLI, 1,weblink 30 October 2014, BOOK, Filler, Louis, The muckrakers, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1993, Miller, Joseph Dana (ed.), 1917. Single Tax Year Book. NY: Single Tax Review Publishing Company
  • Tim WorstallNEWS, Worstall, Tim, What Michael Kinsley Gets Wrong About Taxation,weblink 23 August 2014, Forbes, 2012-12-22,
  • Matthew YglesiasJOURNAL, Matthew, Yglesias, My Five-Point Plan for Fixing Everything, Slate,weblink 7 November 2013, 2013-10-23, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2014-08-23, yes,weblink 2014-05-05, "WSJ story on Georgism fails to note that it’s clearly correct"
{{Columns-end}}{{Columns-start|num=3}}

Artists

  • David BachrachWineapple, Brenda. Sister Brother: Gertrude and Leo Stein. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 2008.
  • John Wilson BengoughMills, Allen. "Single Tax, Socialism and the Independent Labour Party of Manitoba: The Political Ideas of F.J. Dixon and S.J. Farmer." Labour / Le Travail 5 (1980): 33–56. JSTOR. Weborn 04 Dec. 2014.
  • Daniel Carter BeardBOOK, Smith, Carl, Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman, Second Edition, 2008, University of Chicago Press, 359,weblink 9780226764252,
  • Matthew BellamyMuse return with new album The Resistance "Sure, he has already launched into a passionate soliloquy about Geoism (the land-tax movement inspired by the 19th-century political economist Henry George)".
  • George de Forest BrushBOOK, Caldwell, John, American paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Museum in association with Princeton University Press, New York, 1994, 978-0691037950,
  • Walter Burley GriffinCo-founder of the weblink" title="archive.is/20120525163651weblink">Henry George Club, Australia.WEB, Williams, Karl, Walter Burley Griffin,weblink 1 October 2013,
  • John HutchinsonWEB, Henry George, our hero in the battle for the right (Songs of the Hutchinsons),weblink 17 November 2013,
  • George InnessWEB, George Inness (1825–1894),weblink The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 27 August 2014,
  • Emma LazarusBOOK, Schor, Esther, Emma Lazarus, Random House, 2006,weblink 9780805242751, Author of "The New Colossus", on the Statue of Liberty, and the poem "Progress and Poverty", named after George's book, of which she said, “The life and thought of no one capable of understanding it can be quite the same after reading it.”JOURNAL, Peseroff, Joyce, Emma Lazarus, Tikkun, March–April 2007, 22, 2,weblink 20 December 2014, Lazarus "supported Henry George's single tax".
  • Agnes de MilleWEB, Schwartzman, Jack, A Remembrance of Anna George de Mille and Agnes de Mille,weblink 17 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131224085337weblink">weblink 24 December 2013,
  • Henry Churchill de MilleBOOK, Eyman, Scott, Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille, 2010, Simon and Schuster, 29, 47,weblink 9781439180419, BOOK, Easton, Carol, No Intermissions The Life of Agnes de Mille, 1996, Da Capo Press,weblink
  • William C. deMilleBOOK, Louvish, Simon, Cecil B. DeMille: A Life in Art, 2008, Macmillan, 40, 249,weblink 9780312377335, BOOK, Eyman, Scott, Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille, 2010, Simon and Schuster, 314,weblink 9781439180419,
  • Francis Neilson"Henry George, The Scholar" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131004215751weblink |date=2013-10-04 }} – A Commencement Address Delivered by Francis Neilson at the Henry George School of Social Science, June 3, 1940.JOURNAL, Neilson, Francis, Albert Jay Nock on Henry George – Truth Sets Men Free, The Freeman, September 1939,weblink 1 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131004213045weblink">weblink 4 October 2013,
  • Eddie PalmieriWEB, Happy Birthday, Eddie Palmieri! Alt.Latino Helps El Maestro Blow Out 81 Candles,weblink WMOT, 12 January 2018,
  • Banjo PatersonMcQueen, Humphrey. A New Britannia. St. Lucia, Qld.: U of Queensland, 2004.
  • Louis PrangJOURNAL, Mills, Benjamin Fay, Louis Prang, Popularizer of Art, Vocations, Vocational Guidance, Hall & Locke Company, 1911, 10, 254,weblink 13 December 2015,
  • Will PriceBOOK, Taylor, Mark, Arden, 2010, Arcadia Publishing, 8,weblink 9780738585598,
  • Frank StephensWEB, Forgotten Writings of Arden's Frank Stephens, Shields, Jerry, Collecting Delaware Books,weblink
  • Frank Lloyd WrightWEB,weblink Frank Lloyd Wright on Henry George's Remedy, Wealthandwant.com, 2012-07-26,
{{Column}}

Philosophers

  • Ralph BorsodiCarlson, Allan. The New Agrarian Mind: The Movement Toward Decentralist Thought in Twentieth-Century America Transaction Publishers, 2004 (p. 51).
  • Ludwig BüchnerSilagi, M., & Faulkner, S. (1993). Henry George and Europe: Early Efforts to Organize Germany's Land Reformers Failed, but the Pioneers Won a National Demonstration. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 52(1), 119–27. Retrieved fromweblink
Quote: "The meeting was chaired by the materialist philosopher Ludwig Biichner. He was an admirer of Henry George and had been won over to the [land reform] movement by Fliirscheim."
  • Nicholas Murray ButlerJOURNAL, Buttenheim, Harold S., The Relation of Housing to Taxation, Law and Contemporary Problems, March 1934, 1, No. 2, Low-Cost Housing and Slum Clearance: A Symposium, 198–205, 10.2307/1189565, 1189565,weblink WEB, Butler, Nicholas, Progress and Poverty,weblink Commencement Speech, Columbia University (1931), 23 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141213224031weblink">weblink 13 December 2014,
  • Frank ChodorovWEB, Frank Chodorov,weblink 30 November 2013, WEB, Frank Chodorov,weblink 30 November 2013,
  • John B. CobbBOOK, Daly, Herman, For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future, 1994, Beacon Press, 258–59, 328–29,weblink 9780807047057,
  • John DeweyWEB,weblink John Dewey: An Appreciation of Henry George, www.wealthandwant.com, 9 October 2017,
  • Silvio GesellOnken, Werner. "The Political Economy of Silvio Gesell: A Century of Activism." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.4 (2000): 609–22. Weborn 16 Aug. 2014.
  • Leon MacLarenWEB, The Life of Leon MacLaren,weblink 25 January 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131223055828weblink">weblink 23 December 2013, WEB, The School of Economic Science,weblink 25 January 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101006175720weblink">weblink 6 October 2010, BOOK, Standing for justice : a biography of Andrew MacLaren, MP, Stewart, John, 1931-, 2001, Shepheard-Walwyn, 0856831948, London, 49362105,
  • Franz Oppenheimer
  • Philippe Van ParijsBOOK, Van Parijs, Philippe, Introduction to Arguing for Basic Income, 1992, Verso, London, 3–43,weblink BOOK, Sterba, James P., From Rationality to Equality, 2013, Oxford University Press, 193,weblink 9780199580767,
  • Bertrand RussellBOOK, The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell, 1903–1959, Bertrand Russell,weblink Psychology Press, 1992, 492, 9780415083010, BOOK, Freedom versus Organization, Bertrand Russell,weblink W. W. Norton & Company, 1962, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-04-19, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131004212820weblink">weblink 2013-10-04, Letter addressed to a Mr. Krumreig
  • Hillel SteinerVallentyne, Peter. Left-libertarianism: A Primer. In Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel (2000). "Left-libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate". Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Publishers Ltd. "Georgist libertarians—such as eponymous George (1879, 1892), Steiner (1977, 1980, 1981, 1992, 1994), and Tideman (1991, 1997, 1998)—hold that agents may appropriate unappropriated natural resources as long as they pay for the competitive value of the rights they claim."
{{Column}}

Other

  • Roger BabsonNEWS, Babson, Roger, Roger Babson Sees Many Changes To Come After the War Has Ended,weblink 22 August 2014, The Evening Independent, Aug 20, 1943,
  • Louis BrandeisBOOK, Brandeis, Louis, Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Vol. 1, 1971, 82,weblink 9781438422565, WEB, 101+ Famous Thinkers on Owning Earth,weblink 22 October 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120105024602weblink">weblink 5 January 2012, yes, dmy-all, Brandeis said, "I find it very difficult to disagree with the principles of Henry George... I believe in the taxation of land values only."
  • Clarence DarrowHow to Abolish Unfair Taxation: An Address Before a Los Angeles Audience, Delivered March 1913weblink Darrow, Clarence, The Land Belongs To The People,weblink www.umn.edu, Everyman, 3 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140808060133weblink">weblink 8 August 2014, JOURNAL, The Centre for Incentive Taxation, 20, 4, August 1994, Darrow replied about Georgism, "Well, you either come to it or go broke.",
  • Albert EinsteinTwo letters written in 1934 to Henry George's daughter, Anna George De Mille {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110412105846weblink |date=2011-04-12 }}. In one letter Einstein writes, "The spreading of these works is a really deserving cause, for our generation especially has many and important things to learn from Henry George."NEWS, Elazar, Daniel, Earth Is the Lord's,weblink 23 November 2014, The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle, Newspapers.com, February 4, 1955,
  • Henry FordNEWS, Wilhelm, Donald, Henry Ford Talks About War and Your Future,weblink 23 November 2014, Liberty Magazine, September 5, 1942, Henry Ford says, "[...] every American family can have a piece of land. We ought to tax all idle land the way Henry George said — tax it heavily, so that its owners would have to make it productive"
  • Spencer HeathJOURNAL, MacCallum, Spencer H., The Alternative Georgist Tradition, Fragments, Summer–Fall 1997, 35,weblink 30 October 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141030071512weblink">weblink 30 October 2014, JOURNAL, Foldvary, Fred E., Heath: Estranged Georgist, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, April 2004, 63, 2, 411–31, 10.1111/j.0002-9246.2004.00295.x,
  • Mumia Abu-JamalWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070806130249weblink">weblink y, Justice for Mumia Abu-Jamal, August 6, 2007,
  • Margrit KennedyWEB, Kennedy, Margrit, Money & The Land Grab,weblink YouTube, Share the Rents, 12 December 2013,
  • John C. LincolnWEB, Lincoln, John, Fighting For Fundamentals,weblink 5 December 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131224111525weblink">weblink 24 December 2013,
  • Elizabeth MagieMagie invented The Landlord's Game, predecessor to MonopolyWEB, Dodson, Edward J., How Henry George's Principles Were Corrupted Into the Game Called Monopoly,weblink 1 October 2013,
  • Edward McGlynnWEB, Gaffney, Mason, Henry George Dr. Edward McGlynn & Pope Leo XIII,weblink 25 January 2014,
  • Buckey O'NeillNEWS, Offers $250,000 For a Single Tax Campaign: Joseph Fels Pledges That Sum for Five Years Here and in England. IF THERE IS AN EQUAL FUND Commission of Single Taxers Formed to Raise the Fund – Roosevelt, Taft, and Hughes Said to be Friendly.,weblink 30 October 2014, New York Times, May 8, 1909,
  • George Foster Peabody
  • Louis Freeland PostBOOK, Post, Louis F., The Prophet of San Francisco: Personal Memories & Interpretations of Henry George, The Minerva Group,weblink 9780898758337, April 2002,
  • Walter Rauschenbusch
  • Raymond A. SpruanceBOOK, The Quiet Warrior, Thomas B. Buell,weblink Little, Brown, Boston, 1974, 9780870215629,
  • Silvanus P. Thompson
  • Fiske WarrenNEWS, American Single Taxers Invade Tiny Andorra; Fiske Warren Carries Their Gospel to the Republic Hidden for Twelve Centuries in the Pyrenees Between France and Spain,weblink 9 December 2013, New York Times, April 16, 1916, WEB, Sinclair, Upton, The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities,weblink 29 July 2014,
  • Alfred Russel WallaceBOOK, Stanley, Buder, Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community, 1990, Oxford University Press,weblink 9780195362886, Wallace described Progress and Poverty as “Undoubtedly the most remarkable and important book of the present century.”
  • Joseph FelsBOOK, Dudden, Arthur, Joseph Fels and the single tax movement, 1971, Temple University Press,
  • George Bernard ShawBOOK, Archibald Henderson (professor), Archibald Henderson, George Bernard Shaw, his life and works, 1911, Stewart & Kidd Company,weblink
{{Columns-end}}

See also

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References

{{Reflist}}{{Schools of economic thought}}{{Property navbox}}

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Eastern Philosophy
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