Georg Henrik von Wright

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Georg Henrik von Wright
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| death_place = Helsinki, Finland| era = 20th-century philosophy| region = Western philosophy| school_tradition = Analytic philosophy| main_interests = Modal logic, philosophy of action, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science| notable_ideas = Deontic logic| education = University of Helsinki(1934–1937, 1939–1941;PhD, 1941)University of Cambridge(1939; no degree)| institutions = University of CambridgeUniversity of HelsinkiCornell University| influences = Eino Kaila, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Charles Sanders Peirce, Oswald Spengler, R. B. Braithwaite, G. E. Moore, Jürgen Habermas| influenced = Karl-Otto Apel, Peter Hacker| academic_advisors = C. D. Broad| doctoral_students = Jaakko Hintikka}}
missing image!
- Georg Henrik von Wright home 1.jpg -
Von Wright's home on Laivurinkatu Street, Helsinki: a commemorative plaque marking his long-term residence was installed in 2006
Georg Henrik von Wright ({{IPA-sv|ˈjeːɔrj ˈhÉ›nːrɪk fÉ”n ˈvrɪkːt|lang}}; 14 June 1916 – 16 June 2003) was a Finnish philosopher.


On the retirement of Ludwig Wittgenstein as professor at the University of Cambridge in 1948, von Wright was elected to his chair at the age of 32.WEB,weblink Obituary: Georg Henrik von Wright, P. M. S., Hacker, 4 July 2003, 26 February 2019,, He published in English, Finnish, German, and Swedish, having belonged to the Swedish-speaking minority of Finland. Von Wright was of both Finnish and 17th-century Scottish ancestry.WEB,weblink Georg Wrightin jälkeläisiä,, April 24, 2009, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2011,


Von Wright's writings come under two broad categories. The first is analytic philosophy and philosophical logic in the Anglo-American vein. His 1951 books, An Essay in Modal Logic and Deontic Logic, were landmarks in the postwar rise of formal modal logic and its deontic version. He was an authority on Wittgenstein, editing his later works. He was the leading figure in the Finnish philosophy of his time, specializing in philosophical logic, philosophical analysis, philosophy of action, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, and the close study of Charles Sanders Peirce.The other vein in von Wright's writings is moralist and pessimist. During the last twenty years of his life, under the influence of Oswald Spengler, Jürgen Habermas and the Frankfurt School's reflections about modern Rationality, he wrote prolifically. His best known article from this period is entitled The Myth of Progress, and it questions whether our apparent material and technological progress can really be considered "progress".In the last year of his life, among his other honorary degrees, he held an honorary degree at the University of Bergen.NEWS, Nytt om navn, 17 January 2002, Aftenposten, 14, Norwegian, He also was awarded Swedish Academy Finland Prize in 1968.


  • The Logical Problem of Induction, PhD thesis, 31 May 1941Wright, Georg Henrik von. The logical problem of induction. Acta philosophica fennica, vol. 3. Societas Philosophica, Helsinki (Helsingfors) 1941.
  • Den logiska empirismen (Logical Empirism), in Swedish, 1945
  • Ãœber Wahrscheinlichkeit (On Chance), in German, 1945
  • An Essay in Modal Logic, 1951
  • A Treatise on Induction and Probability, 1951
  • Deontic Logic, 1951
  • Tanke och förkunnelse (Thought and Preaching), in Swedish, 1955
  • Logical Studies, 1957
  • Logik, filosofi och sprÃ¥k (Logic, philosophy and language), in Swedish, 1957
  • The Varieties of Goodness, 1963. (1958-60 Gifford Lectures in the University of St. AndrewsWEB,weblink" title="">weblink Gifford Lecture Series - Books, 21 June 2008,, 26 February 2019, He considered this his best and most personal work.
  • Norm and Action, 1963 (1958-60 Gifford Lectures, St. AndrewsWEB,weblink Norm and Action, 18 August 2014, The Gifford Lectures, 26 February 2019,
  • The Logic of Preference, 1963
  • Essay om naturen, människan och den vetenskaplig-tekniska revolutionen (Essay on Nature, Man and the Scientific-Technological Revolution), in Swedish, 1963
  • An Essay in Deontic Logic, 1968
  • Time, Change and Contradiction, 1969
  • Tieteen filosofian kaksi perinnettä (The Two Traditions of the Philosophy of Science), in Finnish, 1970
  • Explanation and Understanding, 1971
  • Causality and Determinism, 1974
  • Handlung, Norm und Intention (Action, Norm and Intention), in German, 1977
  • Humanismen som livshÃ¥llning (Humanism as an approach to Life), in Swedish, 1978
  • Freedom and Determination, 1980
  • Wittgenstein, 1982
  • Philosophical Papers I-III, 1983–1984
  • Of Human Freedom, 1984. (1984 Tanner Lectures at the University of Helsinki, online)
  • Filosofisia tutkielmia (Philosophical Dissertations), in Finnish, 1985
  • Vetenskapen och förnuftet (Science and Reason), in Swedish, 1986
  • Minervan Pöllö (The Owl of Minerva), in Finnish, 1991
  • Myten om framsteget (The Myth of Progress), in Swedish, 1993
  • The Tree of Knowledge, 1993
  • Att förstÃ¥ sin samtid (To Understand one's own Time), in Swedish, 1994
  • Six Essays in Philosophical Logic, 1996
  • {{anchor|On the End Times}}Viimeisistä ajoista. Ajatusleikki (On the End Times: A Thought Experiment.), in Finnish, 1997
  • Logiikka ja humanismi (Logic and Humanism), in Finnish, 1998
  • In the Shadow of Descartes, 1998
  • Mitt liv som jag minns det (My Life as I Remember it), in Swedish, 2001
Von Wright edited posthumous publications by Wittgenstein, which were published by Blackwell (unless otherwise stated):
  • 1961. Notebooks 1914-1916.
  • 1967. Zettel (Translated into English as Culture and Value).
  • 1969. On Certainty.
  • 1971. ProtoTractatus—An Early Version of Tractatus Logico- Philosophicus. Cornell University Press.
  • 1973. Letters to C.K. Ogden with Comments on the English Translation of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
  • 1974. Letters to Russell, Keynes and Moore.
  • 1978 (1956). Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics.
  • 1980. Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, Vols 1–2.
  • 1980. Culture and Value (English translation of Zettel).
  • 1982. Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, Vols. 1–2, 1992.
Von Wright also edited extracts from the diary of David Pinsent, also published by Blackwell:
  • 1990. A Portrait of Wittgenstein as a Young Man: From the Diary of David Hume Pinsent 1912–1914. {{ISBN|0-631-17511-3}}.




Further reading

  • BOOK, Schilpp, Paul Arthur, Hahn, Lewis Edwin, The Philosophy of Georg Henrik von Wright, Library of Living Philosophers, La Salle (Ill.), Open Court Publishing Company, 1989, 0-87548-372-0,
  • BOOK, Meggle, Georg, Vilkko, Risto, Georg Henrik von Wright’s Book of Friends, Acta philosophica Fennica, 92, Helsinki, Societas philosophica Fennica, 2016, 0355-1792, 978-951-9264-83-7,

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