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{{Use American English|date=August 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2015}} {{Genocide}}{{Discrimination sidebar|Manifestations}}File:Rwandan Genocide Murambi skulls.jpg|thumb|Skulls of victims of the Rwandan GenocideRwandan GenocideGenocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. The term was coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin. It is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) of 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the groups conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."WEB,weblink Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 12 January 1951, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051211121830weblink">weblink 11 December 2005, Note: "ethnical", although unusual, is found in several dictionaries.The preamble to the CPPCG states that "genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world" and that "at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity."Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the details and interpretation of the event, often to the point of depicting wildly different versions of the facts.

Alternate definitions

{{See also|Genocide definitions}}The debate continues over what legally constitutes genocide. One definition is any conflict that the International Criminal Court has so designated. Many conflicts that have been labeled genocide in the popular press have not been so designated.WEB, Debate continues over what constitutes genocide,weblink Blogwatch, Worldfocus, 17 November 2012, 5 February 2009, M. Hassan KakarM. Hassan Kakar Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982 University of California press 1995 The Regents of the University of California. argued that the definition should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator. He prefers the definition from Chalk and Jonassohn: "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group so defined by the perpetrator."{{sfn|Chalk|Jonassohn|1990}}Some critics{{who|date=February 2017}} of the international definition argued that the definition was influenced by Joseph Stalin to exclude political groups.BOOK, Robert Gellately, Ben Kiernan, The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, K, 2003, 978-0-521-52750-7, 267, BOOK, Staub, Ervin, The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 978-0-521-42214-7, 8, 1989, According to R. J. Rummel, genocide has multiple meanings. The ordinary meaning is murder by a government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership. The legal meaning is defined by CCPG. This includes actions such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children to another group. Rummel created the term democide to include assaults on political groups.{{sfn|Rummel|1998|p=Democide versus genocide; which is what?}}In this article, atrocities that have been characterized as genocide by some reliable source are included, whether or not this is supported by mainstream scholarship. The acts may involve mass killings, mass deportations, politicides, democides, withholding of food and/or other necessities of life, death by deliberate exposure to invasive infectious disease agents or combinations of these. Thus examples listed may constitute genocide by the United Nations definition, or by one of the alternate interpretations.

Pre–World War I

{{See also|Genocide of indigenous peoples#Pre–1948 examples}}According to Canadian scholar Adam Jones, if a dominant group of people has little in common with a marginalized group of people, it is easy for the dominant group to define the other as subhuman. As a result, the marginalized group might be labeled as a threat that must be eliminated.{{harvnb|Jones|2006|p=3}} footnote 5 cites Helen Fein, Genocide: A Sociological Perspective, (London: Sage, 1993), p. 26 Jones continues: "The difficulty, as Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn pointed out in their early study, is that such historical records as exist are ambiguous and undependable. While history today is generally written with some fealty to 'objective' facts, most previous accounts aimed rather to praise the writer's patron (normally the leader) and to emphasize the superiority of one's own gods and religious beliefs."{{sfn|Jones|2006|p=3}}Chalk and Jonassohn: "Historically and anthropologically peoples have always had a name for themselves. In a great many cases, that name meant 'the people' to set the owners of that name off against all other people who were considered of lesser quality in some way. If the differences between the people and some other society were particularly large in terms of religion, language, manners, customs, and so on, then such others were seen as less than fully human: pagans, savages, or even animals."{{sfn|Chalk|Jonassohn|1990|p=28}}

Before 1490

Neanderthals

Hypotheses which suggest that genocidal violence may have caused the extinction of the Neanderthals have been offered by several authors, including Jared Diamond{{sfn|Diamond|1992}} and Ronald Wright.{{sfn|Wright|2004|pp=24, 37}} However, several scholars have formed alternative theories as to why the Neanderthals died off, which means there is no clear consensus as to what caused their extinction within the scientific community.WEB, Gail Glover,weblink Neanderthals may have faced extinction long before modern humans emerged, Phys.org, 24 February 2014, 13 February 2016,

Ancient gendercides

Scholars of antiquity differentiate genocide from gendercide, in which groups of people were conquered and the males who belonged to the conquered groups were killed but the children (particularly girls) and women were incorporated into the conquering groups. Jones notes, "Chalk and Jonassohn provide a wide-ranging selection of historical events such as the Assyrian Empire's root-and branch depredations in the first half of the first millennium BCE, and the destruction of Melos by Athens during the Peloponnesian War (fifth century BCE), a gendercidal rampage described by Thucydides in his 'Melian Dialogue'{{-"}}.{{sfn|Jones|2006|p=5}} The Old Testament documents the destruction of the Midianites, taking place during the life of Moses in the 2nd millennium BCE. The Book of Numbers chapter 31 recounts that an army of Israelites killed every Midianite man but captured the women and children as plunder. These were later killed at the command of Moses, with the exception of girls who were virgins. The total number killed is not recorded but the number of surviving girls is recorded by the Book of Numbers as 32,000.

Destruction of Carthage

Ben Kiernan has labelled the destruction of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War (149–146 BCE) "The First Genocide".{{sfn|Jones|2006|p=5}}

Asiatic Vespers

In 88 BC, King Mithridates VI of Pontus ordered the murder of all Italians in Asia Minor resulting in the deaths of about 100,000, mainly civilians. This action provoked the Romans leading to the First Mithridatic War.

Anasazi

A 2010 study suggests that a group of Anasazi in the American Southwest were killed in a genocide that took place circa 800 CE.JOURNAL, Potter, James M., Jason P. Chuipka, Perimortem mutilation of human remains in an early village in the American Southwest: A case for ethnic violence, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 2010, 29, 4, 507–523,weblink 18 May 2012, 10.1016/j.jaa.2010.08.001, harv, WEB,weblink How genocide wiped out a Native American population, NBC News, 20 September 2010,

Mongol Empire

Quoting Eric Margolis, Jones observes that in the 13th century the Mongol armies under Genghis Khan were genocidal killers {{sfn|Jones|2006|p=3, footnote 4}} who were known to eradicate whole nations.{{sfn|Jones|2006|p=4 note 12}} He ordered the extermination of the Tata Mongols, and all Kankalis males in Bukhara "taller than a wheel"BOOK, Paul Kahn, The Secret History of the Mongols: The Origin of Chinghis Khan,weblink 1998, Cheng & Tsui, 978-0-88727-299-8, using a technique called measuring against the linchpin. In the end, half of the Mongol tribes were exterminated by Genghis Khan.BOOK,weblink Chinggis Qan and the Conquest of Eurasia: A Biography, Doeke Eisma, 100, Rosanne Klass referred to the Mongols' rule of Afghanistan as "genocide".The Encyclopedia of Genocide, ABC-CLIO, 1999, p. 48, article "Afghanistan, Genocide of"

Tamerlane

Similarly, the Turko-Mongol conqueror Tamerlane was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres.{{sfn|Totten|Bartrop|Jacobs|2008|p={{google books|id=rgGA91skoP4C|p=422}}}} William Rubinstein wrote: "In Assyria (1393–4)—Tamerlane got around—he killed all the Christians he could find, including everyone in the, then, Christian city of Tikrit, thus virtually destroying Assyrian Church of the East. Impartially, however, Tamerlane also slaughtered Shi'ite Muslims, Jews and heathens."{{sfn|Rubinstein|2004|p={{google books|id=nMMAk4VwLLwC|p=28}}}} Christianity in Mesopotamia was hitherto largely confined to those Assyrian communities in the north who had survived the massacres."History of the Nestorians". Tamerlane also conducted large-scale massacres of Georgian and Armenian Christians, as well as of Arabs, Persians and Turks."The Turco-Mongol Invasions". Rbedrosian.com. Retrieved 22 May 2012.

Wu Hu and Jie

Ancient Chinese texts record that General Ran Min ordered the extermination of the Wu Hu, especially the Jie people, during the Wei–Jie war in the fourth century AD. The Jie were an ethnic group with racial characteristics of high-bridged noses and bushy beards were easily identified and killed; in total, 200,000 were reportedly massacred.《晉書·卷一百七》 Jin Shu Original text 閔躬率趙人誅諸胡羯,無貴賤男女少長皆斬之,死者二十余萬,屍諸城外,悉為野犬豺狼所食。屯據四方者,所在承閔書誅之,于時高鼻多須至有濫死者半。

1490 to 1914

File:Armenia22hamidian.jpg|thumb|The Hamidian massacres were massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman EmpireOttoman Empire

Africa

Congo

From 1885 to 1908, the Congo Free State in central Africa was privately controlled by Leopold II of Belgium, who extracted a fortune from the land by the use of forced labor of natives. Under his regime, there were 2 to 15 million deaths among the Congolese people.BOOK, Forbath, Peter, The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic Rivers, Harper & Row, 1977, 978-0-06-122490-4, 278, BOOK, Fredric, Wertham, Fredric Wertham, A Sign For Cain: An Exploration of Human Violence, 1968, 978-0-7091-0232-8, {{page needed|date=November 2014}}BOOK, Adam, Hochschild, Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa, 2006, 978-1-74329-160-3, {{page needed|date=November 2014}}{{sfn|Weisbord|2003|pp=35–45}} Deliberate killings, abusive punishments, and general exploitation were major causes of the deaths. As in the colonization of the Americas, European diseases, hitherto unknown in the region, also led to a considerable number of deaths. Because the main motive for the killings was financial gain, it has been debated whether the term genocide describes these atrocities well; however, Robert Weisbord wrote in the Journal of Genocide Research in 2003 that attempting to eliminate a portion of the population is enough to qualify as genocide under the UN convention.{{sfn|Weisbord|2003|pp=35–45}} Reports of the atrocities led to a major international scandal in the early 20th century, and Leopold was ultimately forced in 1908 by the Belgian government to relinquish control of the colony to the civil administration.{{sfn|Crowe|2013|p=17}}{{sfn|Vanthemsche|2012|p=41}}

Ethiopia under Menelik II (1889–1913)

During its military conquest, centralization and incorporation of territories into Ethiopia as decreed by Menelik II, his army carried out genocidalNEWS, Bearak, Max, ‘A place of ghosts:’ Ethiopia opens controversial palace to a divided public,weblink The Washington Post, Mekuria Bulcha, Genocidal violence in the making of nation and state in Ethiopia, African Sociological Review atrocities against civilians and combatants including torture, mass killings and the imposition of large scale slavery.Mohammed Hassen, Conquest, Tyranny, and Ethnocide against the Oromo: A Historical Assessment of Human Rights Conditions in Ethiopia, c. 1880s–2002, Northeast African Studies Volume 9, Number 3, 2002 (New Series) Large scale atrocities were also committed against the Dizi people and the people of the Kaficho kingdom.Alemayehu Kumsa, Power and Powerlessness in Contemporary Ethiopia, Charles University in PragueHaberland, "Amharic Manuscript", pp. 241ff Some estimates of the number of people who were killed in the atrocities that were committed during the war and the famine which coincided with it go into the millions.Alemayehu Kumsa, Power and Powerlessness in Contemporary Ethiopia, Charles University in Prague p. 1122Eshete Gemeda, African Egalitarian Values and Indigenous Genres: A Comparative Approach to the Functional and Contextual Studies of Oromo National Literature in a Contemporary Perspective, p. 186A. K. Bulatovich Ethiopia Through Russian Eyes: Country in Transition, 1896–1898, translated by Richard Seltzer, 2000 p. 68 According to Alexander Bulatovich, Menelik's Russian military aide, Menelik's armies "dreadfully annihilated more than half" of the Oromo (Galla) population down to 5 million people, which "took away from the Galla all possibility of thinking about any sort of uprising."WEB,weblink samizdat.com, www.samizdat.com, 28 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171216204959weblink">weblink 16 December 2017, dead, Eshete Gemeda put the death toll even higher at 6 million.These deaths may have also been caused by the great famine of 1888 to 1892, which was the worst famine in the region's history; a third of Ethiopia's total population of 12 million was killed according to some estimates.Peter Gill Famine and Foreigners: Ethiopia Since Live Aid OUP Oxford, 2010 Google Books The famine was caused by rinderpest, an infectious viral cattle disease which wiped out most of the national livestock, killing over 90% of the cattle. The population of native cattle had no prior exposure to the disease and as a result, it was unable to fight it off.Paul Dorosh, Shahidur Rashid Food and Agriculture in Ethiopia: Progress and Policy Challenges University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012 p. 257 Google Books Despite the violence of the conquest some historians stress the fact that before the centralization process was completed, Ethiopia was devastated by numerous wars, the most recent of which was fought in the 16th century. In the intervening period, military tactics had not changed much. In the 16th century the Portuguese Bermudes documented depopulation and widespread atrocities against civilians and combatants (including torture, mass killings and the imposition of large scale slavery) during several successive Aba Gedas' Gadaa conquests of territories which were located north of the Genale river (Bali, Amhara, Gafat, Damot, Adal).Richard Pankhurst The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century – Google Books", 1997. p. 284.J. Bermudez The Portuguese expedition to Abyssinia in 1541–1543 as narrated by Castanhoso – Google Books", 1543. p. 229. Warfare in the region essentially involved acquiring cattle and slaves, winning additional territories, gaining control of trade routes and carrying out ritual requirements or securing trophies to prove masculinity.Donald N. Levine Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press (2000) p. 43 Google BooksW. G. Clarence-Smith The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. Psychology Press (1989) p. 107 Google BooksDonald N. Levine Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press (2000) p. 56 Google BooksHarold G. Marcus A History of Ethiopia. University of California Press (1994) p. 55 Google BooksProf. Feqadu Lamessa History 101: Fiction and Facts on Oromos of Ethiopia. Salem-News.com (2013) Wars were fought between people who might be members of the same linguistic group, religion and culture, or between unrelated tribes. Centralization greatly reduced these continuous wars; minimizing the loss of lives, raids, destruction and slavery that had previously been the norm.Donald N. Levine Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press (2000) p. 156 Google BooksDonald N. Levine Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press (2000) p. 136 Google BooksDonald N. Levine Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press (2000) p. 85 Google BooksDonald N. Levine Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press (2000) p. 26 Google Books

French conquest of Algeria

File:Prise de la Zaatcha (1849).png|thumb|Pacification of AlgeriaPacification of AlgeriaBen Kiernan wrote in his book (Blood and Soil (book)|Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur) on the French conquest of Algeria, that within 3 decades of the French conquest of Algeria in 1830, war, famine and disease{{citation needed|date=September 2016}} had reduced the original population from 3 million by a figure ranging from 500,000 to 1,000,000.Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur, Yasle University Press 2007 pp. 364–65.'By 1875, the French conquest was complete. The war had killed approximately 825,000 indigenous Algerians since 1830. A long shadow of genocidal hatred persisted, provoking the French author to protest in 1882 that in Algeria, "we hear it repeated every day that we must expel the native and if necessary destroy him." As a French statistical journal urged five years later, "the system of extermination must give way to a policy of penetration."Kiernan 2007 p. 374.In response to France's recognition of Armenian Genocide, Turkey accused France of committing genocide against 15% of Algeria's population.NEWS, Chrisafis, Angelique, Turkey accuses France of genocide in Algeria,weblink The Guardian, NEWS, Turkey accuses France of genocide in colonial Algeria,weblink BBC News,

German South West Africa

The Herero and Namaqua peoples of present-day Namibia endured a genocidal persecution between 1904 and 1907 while their homeland was under colonial rule as German South West Africa.{{sfn|Cooper|2006|pp=113–26}} Large percentages of their populations perished in a brutal scorched earth campaign led by German General Lothar von Trotha. An estimated 10,000 Namaqua were killed,{{sfn|Friedrichsmeyer|Lennox|Zantop|1998|p=110}} with estimates for the Herero ranging from 60,000 and 100,000.{{sfn|Sarkin-Hughes|2008|p=5}}A copy of Trotha's Extermination Order survives in the Botswana National Archives. The order states "every Herero, with or without a gun, with or without cattle, will be shot. I will no longer accept women or children, I will drive them back to their people [to die in the desert] or let them be shot at."{{sfn|Olusoga|Erichsen|2010|pp=150–51}} Olusoga and Erichsen write: "It is an almost unique document: an explicit, written declaration of intent to commit genocide."{{sfn|Olusoga|Erichsen|2010|p=151}}

Zulu Kingdom

Between 1810 and 1828, the Zulu kingdom under Shaka Zulu laid waste to large parts of present-day South Africa and Zimbabwe. Zulu armies often aimed not only at defeating enemies but at their total destruction. Those exterminated included prisoners of war, women, children and even dogs.{{sfn|Jones|2006|pp=7–8}} (Controversial) estimates for the death toll range from 1 million to 2 million.Eugene Walter, Terror and Resistance (1969)Major Charters, Royal Artillery, "Notices of the Cape And Southern Africa, Since The Appointment, As Governor, Of Major-Gen. Sir Geo. Napier". United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, London: W. Clowes and Son, 1839, Part III, p. 24Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th editionBOOK, Victor Hanson, Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power,weblink 2007, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 978-0-307-42518-8, 313,

Americas

File:Woundedknee1891.jpg|thumb|Mass grave burial of Native Americans at the Wounded Knee MassacreWounded Knee Massacre{{See also|Genocide of indigenous peoples#Colonialism and genocide in the Americas}}According to historian David Stannard, over the course of more than four centuries from the 1490s into the 1900s, Europeans and white Americans "engaged in an unbroken string of genocide campaigns against the native peoples of the Americas."{{sfn|Stannard|1993|pp=146–47}} The indigenous peoples of the Americas experienced massacres, torture, terror, sexual abuse, systematic military occupations, removals of indigenous peoples from their ancestral territories, forced removal of Native American children to military-like boarding schools, allotment, and a policy of termination.Yes, Native Americans Were the Victims of Genocide; History News Network; Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz; 12 May 2016 From the earliest years of colonialism, conquistadores like Vasco Núñez de Balboa would brazenly advocate genocide against the native population.{{Harvnb|Kiernan|2007|p=81}}Some historians disagree that genocide, defined as a crime of intent, should be used to describe the colonization experience. Stafford Poole, a research historian, wrote: "There are other terms to describe what happened in the Western Hemisphere, but genocide is not one of them. It is a good propaganda term in an age where slogans and shouting have replaced reflection and learning, but to use it in this context is to cheapen both the word itself and the appalling experiences of the Jews and Armenians, to mention but two of the major victims of this century."Stafford Poole, quoted in BOOK, Robert Royal, 1492 and all that: political manipulations of history,weblink 1992, Ethics and Public Policy Center, 978-0-89633-174-7, 63, Noble David Cook, writing about the Black Legend and the conquest of the Americas wrote, "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World contact". He instead estimates that the death toll was caused by diseases like smallpox,BOOK, Noble David Cook, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650,weblink 13 February 1998, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-62730-6, 9–14, which according to some estimates had an 80–90% fatality rate in Native American populations.Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. {{ISBN|0-521-55203-6}} Political scientist Guenter Lewy says "even if up to 90 percent of the reduction in Indian population was the result of disease, that leaves a sizable death toll caused by mistreatment and violence."WEB, Guenter Lewy,weblink Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?, History News Network, 2007, 28 August 2013, Native American Studies professor Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz says, "Proponents of the default position emphasize attrition by disease despite other causes equally deadly, if not more so. In doing so they refuse to accept that the colonization of America was genocidal by plan, not simply the tragic fate of populations lacking immunity to disease. In the case of the Jewish Holocaust, no one denies that more Jews died of starvation, overwork, and disease under Nazi incarceration than died in gas ovens, yet the acts of creating and maintaining the conditions that led to those deaths clearly constitute genocide."An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States; Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz; Beacon Press; 2014; pp. 41–42Historian Andrés Reséndez argues that even though the Spanish were aware of the spread of smallpox, they made no mention of it until 1519, a quarter century after Columbus arrived in Hispaniola.WEB, Trever, David, The new book 'The Other Slavery' will make you rethink American history,weblinkweblink dead, 2019-06-20, Los Angeles Times, Instead he contends that enslavement in gold and silver mines was the primary reason why the Native American population of Hispaniola dropped so significantly.BOOK, Reséndez, Andrés, 2016, The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America,weblink Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 17, 978-0547640983, Andrés Reséndez, and that even though disease was a factor, the native population would have rebounded the same way Europeans did following the Black Death if it were not for the constant enslavement they were subject to. He further contends that enslavement of Native Americans was in fact the primary cause of their depopulation; that the majority of Indians enslaved were women and children compared to the enslavement of Africans which mostly targeted adult males and in turn they were sold at a 50% to 60% higher price,WEB, Lindley, Robin, The Other Slavery: An Interview with Historian Andrés Reséndez,weblinkweblink dead, 2019-06-20, History News Network, and that 2,462,000 to 4,985,000 Amerindians where enslaved between Columbus's arrival and 1900.Reséndez estimates between 2.462 and 4.985 million indigenous people were enslaved. BOOK, The other slavery: The uncovered story of Indian enslavement in America, Reséndez, Andrés, 2017, 978-0-544-94710-8, 324, Raphael Lemkin (coiner of the term genocide) considered colonial abuses of the Native population of the Americas to constitute cultural and even outright genocide including the abuses of the Encomienda system. He described slavery as "cultural genocide par excellence" noting "it is the most effective and thorough method of destroying culture, of desocializing human beings." He considers colonist guilty due to failing to halt the abuses of the system despite royal orders. He also notes the sexual abuse of Spanish colonizers of Native women as acts of "biological genocide."Raphael Lemkin's History of Genocide and ColonialismHolocaust Memorial Museumweblink In this vein, historian David Stannard described the encomienda as a genocidal system which "had driven many millions of native peoples in Central and South America to early and agonizing deaths."BOOK, Stannard, David E., 1993, American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World,weblink Oxford University Press, 139, 978-0195085570, David Stannard, Jason Hickel, anthropologist at the London School of Economics, asserts that during Spanish rule of Hispaniola, many Arawaks died from lethal forced labor in the mines, in which a third of workers died every six months.BOOK, Hickel, Jason, 2018, The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and its Solutions, Windmill Books, 70, 978-1786090034, Within two years of the arrival of Christopher Columbus, half the population of Hispaniola had been killed.David Stannard writes that by the year 1769, the destruction of the American aboriginal population down to just one-third of one percent of the total American population of 76 million was the most massive genocide in world history, and "there was, at last, almost no one left to kill."{{sfn|Stannard|1993|pp=146–47}} According to anthropologist Russell Thornton, for the American Indians "the arrival of the Europeans marked the beginning of a long holocaust, although it came not in ovens, as it did for the Jews. The fires that consumed North America Indians were the fevers brought on by newly encountered diseases, the flashes of settlers' and soldiers' guns, the ravages of "firewater," the flames of villages and fields burned by the scorched-earth policy of vengeful Euro-Americans."American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492; Russell Thornton; University of Oklahoma Press; 1987; pp. xv–xviii David Quammen likened colonial American practices toward Native Americans to those of Australia toward its aboriginal populations, calling both genocide.BOOK, Quammen, David, David Quammen, Monster of God: the man-eating predator in the jungles of history and the mind, 2003, W.W. Norton, New York, 978-0-393-05140-7, 252,weblink Some authors, including Holocaust scholar David Cesarani, have argued that United States government policies in furtherance of its so-called Manifest Destiny constituted genocide.BOOK, David Cesarani, Sarah Kavanaugh, Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies,weblink 2004, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-27510-1, 381, Several works on the subject were released around the year 1992 to coincide with the 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage. In 2003, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez urged Latin Americans not to celebrate the Columbus Day holiday. Chavez blamed Columbus for spearheading "the biggest invasion and genocide ever seen in the history of humanity."NEWS,weblink Columbus 'sparked a genocide', 21 October 2006, 12 October 2003, BBC News, The colonization of the Americas killed so many people it resulted in climate change and global cooling, according to scientists from University College London.NEWS, Kent, Lauren, 1 February 2019, European colonizers killed so many Native Americans that it changed the global climate, researchers say,weblink CNN, 1 February 2019, JOURNAL, 10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.12.004, Earth system impacts of the European arrival and Great Dying in the Americas after 1492, Quaternary Science Reviews, 207, 13–36, 2019, Koch, Alexander, Brierley, Chris, Maslin, Mark M., Lewis, Simon L., 2019QSRv..207...13K,

Argentina

The Conquest of the Desert was a military campaign mainly directed by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples, killing more than 1,300.Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; {{ISBN|84-599-5081-6}}. {{Page needed|date=December 2008}}Contemporary sources indicate that it was a deliberate genocide by the Argentine government.WEB, Andermann, Jens,weblink Argentine Literature and the 'Conquest of the Desert', 1872–1896: Violence, Birkbeck, University of London, 25 November 2016, "It is this sudden acceleration, this abrupt change from the discourse of 'defensive warfare' and 'merciful civilization' to that of 'offensive warfare' and of genocide, which is perhaps the most distinctive mark of the literature of the Argentine frontier.", Others perceived the campaign as intending to suppress only groups of aboriginals that refused to submit to the government and carried out attacks on European settlements.BOOK, =David, Rock, State Building and Political Movements in Argentina, 1860–1916,weblink 2002, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-4466-9, 93–94, "Civilización o genocidio, un debate que nunca se cierra" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050516212139weblink |date=16 May 2005 }} by Cacho Fernández – Qollasuyu Tawaintisuyu Indymedia {{es icon}}

Canada

{{see also|Ethnocide}}The Indian (First Nation) residential schools were primarily active following the passage of the Indian Act in 1876, until 1996, and were designed to remove children from the influence of their families and culture, and assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the system's existence, about 30% of native children, or roughly 150,000, were placed in residential schools nationally; at least 6,000 of these students died while in attendance.WEB, Residential School History: A Legacy of Shame,weblink Wabano Centre for Aboriginal Health, 28 June 2016, 2000, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151203062432weblink">weblink 3 December 2015, dmy, NEWS, Tasker, John Paul, Residential schools findings point to 'cultural genocide,' commission chair says,weblink 1 July 2016, CBC, 29 May 2015, The system has been described as cultural genocide: "killing the Indian in the child."WEB, The Residential School System,weblink Indigenous Foundations, UBC First Nations and Indigenous Studies, 28 June 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160627221843weblink">weblink 27 June 2016, dmy, NEWS, Luxen, Micah, Survivors of Canada's 'cultural genocide' still healing,weblink 28 June 2016, BBC, 24 June 2016, WEB,weblink First Steps With First Nations, April 2012, Brethren in Christ Canada, 28 June 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160817000352weblink">weblink 17 August 2016, dmy-all, The Executive Summary of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission found that physical genocide, biological genocide, and cultural genocide all occurred: physical, through abuse; biological, through the disruption of reproductive capacity; and cultural, through forced assimilation.WEB, Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future – Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada,weblink The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 28 June 2016, 31 May 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180921023350weblink">weblink 21 September 2018, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink More voices on Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Toronto Star, 4 February 2016, Part of this process during the 1960s through the 1980s, dubbed the Sixties Scoop, was investigated and the child seizures deemed genocidal by Judge Edwin Kimelman, who wrote, "You took a child from his or her specific culture and you placed him into a foreign culture without any [counselling] assistance to the family which had the child. There is something dramatically and basically wrong with that."Genocide; Szumski, Bonnie; Greenhaven Press; 2001; pp. 155–58

Haiti

Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the first ruler of an independent Haiti, ordered the killing of the white population of French creoles on Haiti, which culminated in the 1804 Haiti massacre. According to Philippe Girard, "when the genocide was over, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent."{{sfn|Robins|Jones|2009}}

Mexico

(File:Acuna-Soto_EID-v8n4p360_Fig1.png|thumb|Graph of population decline in central Mexico caused by successive epidemics)The Caste War of Yucatán (approx. 1847–1901) against the population of European descent, known locally as Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote: "Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."{{sfn|Robins|Jones|2009|p=50}}In 1835, Don Ignacio Zuniga, commander of the presidios of northern Sonora, asserted that since 1820, the Apaches had killed at least 5,000 Mexican settlers in retaliation for land encroachments in Apachería. The State of Sonora then offered a bounty on Apache scalps in 1835. Beginning in 1837, the State of Chihuahua also offered a bounty of 100 pesos per warrior, 50 pesos per woman and 25 pesos per child.James L. Haley (1981). Apaches: A History and Culture Portrait. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 50–51. {{ISBN|0806129786}}

Yaquis

The Mexican government's response to the various uprisings of the Yaqui tribe have been likened to genocide particularly under Porfirio Diaz.Yaquis: The Story of a People's War and a Genocide in Mexico Paco Ignacio Taboo II By the end of Diaz's rule at least 20,000 Yaquis were killed in Sonora and their population was reduced from 30,000 to 7,000. Mexican president Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said he'd be willing to offer apologies for the abuses in 2019.WEB, Mexico president wants no beef with Spain, hints at other apology requests,weblinkweblink dead, 2019-05-02, REUTERS,

Newfoundland

The Beothuks attempted to avoid contact with Europeans in Newfoundland by moving from their traditional settlements.{Margaret Conrad, History of the Canadian Peoples fifth edition pp. 256–57} The Beothuks were put into a position where they were forced from their traditional land and lifestyle into ecosystems that could not support them and that led to undernourishment and eventually starvation.weblink} {{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} While some scholars believe that the Beothuk primarily died out due to the elements noted above, another theory is that Europeans conducted a sustained campaign of genocide against them.BOOK, RP, Knowles, Modern Drama: Defining the Field, University of Toronto Press, 2003, 169, 978-0-8020-8621-1, Tomplins J, Worthen WB,weblink They were officially declared "extinct" after the death of Shanawdithit in 1829 in the capital, St. John's, where she had been taken.

Peru

"The indigenous rebellions of Túpac Amaru II and Túpac Katari against the Spanish between 1780 and 1782, cost over 100,000 colonists' lives in Peru and Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia)."{{sfn|Robins|Jones|2009|p=1}}

United States

{{further|Genocide of indigenous peoples#United States colonization and westward expansion}}In 1763, British militia's William Trent and Simeon Ecuyer gave smallpox-exposed blankets to Native American emissaries as gifts at Siege of Fort Pitt, "to Convey the Smallpox to the Indians", in one of the most famously documented cases of germ warfare. While it is uncertain how successful such attempts were against the target population,BOOK, David Dixon, Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac's Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America,weblink 16 February 2016, 2005, University of Oklahoma Press, 978-0-8061-3656-1, 152–155, BOOK, Michael N. McConnell, A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774,weblink 16 February 2016, 1997, University of Nebraska Press, 978-0-8032-8238-4, 195–96, BOOK, Gregory Evans Dowd, War under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, and the British Empire,weblink 16 February 2016, 2004, Johns Hopkins University Press, 978-0-8018-7892-3, 190, For historians who describe this specific attempt at intentional infection as successful, see:BOOK, William R. Nester, "Haughty Conquerors": Amherst and the Great Indian Uprising of 1763,weblink 16 February 2016, 2000, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-275-96770-3, 112, BOOK, Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America,weblink 16 February 2016, 1990, Norton, 978-0-393-30640-8, 447–448, historians have noted that, "history records numerous instances of the French, the Spanish, the British, and later on the American, using smallpox as an ignoble means to an end. For smallpox was more feared by the Indian than the bullet: he could be exterminated and subjugated more easily and quickly by the death-bringing virus than by the weapons of the white man."The Effect of Smallpox on the Destiny of the Amerindian; Esther Wagner Stearn, Allen Edwin Stearn; University of Minnesota; 1945; pp. 13–20, 73–94, 97 The leader of this battle, British High Commander Jeffery Amherst authorized the intentional use of disease as a biological weapon against indigenous populations, saying, "You will Do well to try to Innoculate the Indians by means of Blanketts, as well as to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race", and instructing his subordinates, "I need only Add, I Wish to Hear of no prisoners should any of the villains be met with arms."Henderson, Donald A. et al. Smallpox as a Biological Weapon. Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA 1999, 281(22):2127–37. {{doi|10.1001/jama.281.22.2127}}d'Errico, Peter. Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets.File:MankatoMN38.JPG|thumb|President Abraham Lincoln ordered the mass execution of 38 Native Americans in Minnesota for revolt against the government in 1862]]During the American Indian Wars, the United States Army carried out a number of massacres and forced relocations of Indigenous peoples, acts that some scholars say constitute genocide. The Sand Creek Massacre, which caused outrage in its own time, has been called genocide. General John Chivington led a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia in a massacre of 70–163 peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho, about two-thirds of whom were women, children, and infants. Chivington and his men took scalps and other body parts as trophies, including human fetuses and male and female genitalia.United States Congress Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, 1865 (testimonies and report) In defense of his actions Chivington stated,}}A study by Gregory Michno concluded that of 21,586 tabulated casualties in a selected 672 battles and skirmishes, military personnel and settlers accounted for 6,596 (31%), while indigenous casualties totaled about 14,990 (69%) for the period 1850–90. Michno's study almost exclusively uses Army estimates. His follow-up book "Forgotten Battles and Skirmishes" covers over 300 additional fights not included in these statistics.BOOK, Gregory, Michno, Encyclopedia of Indian wars: western battles and skirmishes, 1850–1890,weblink Mountain Press Publishing, 2003, 353, 978-0-87842-468-9, According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), between 1789 and 1846, "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians. The actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the given... Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate..."BOOK, Russell Thornton, American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492,weblink 1987, University of Oklahoma Press, 978-0-8061-2220-5, In the same 1894 report, the Census Bureau dismissed assertions that millions of Native Americans once inhabited what is now the United States, insisting instead that North America in 1492 was an almost empty continent, and "guesstimating" that aboriginal populations "could not have exceeded much over 500,000", whereas modern scholarship now estimates more than 10 million.WEB, Lord, Lewis,weblink Pre-Columbian Population: How Many People Were Here Before Columbus?, U.S. News & World Report: The Bronx High School of Science, August 1997, 68–70, 4 June 2017, BOOK, United States Census Bureau, Report on Indians taxed and Indians not taxed in the United States (except Alaska),weblink 5 February 2017, 1994, Norman Ross Publishing, 978-0-88354-462-4, 28, Chalk and Jonassohn argued that the deportation of the Cherokee tribe along the Trail of Tears would almost certainly be considered an act of genocide today.BOOK, Arthur Grenke, God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust Through the Centuries,weblink 1 January 2005, New Academia Publishing, LLC, 978-0-9767042-0-1, 161, The Indian Removal Act of 1830 led to the exodus. About 17,000 Cherokees—along with approximately 2,000 Cherokee-owned black slaves—were removed from their homes.Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed: a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232. The number of people who died as a result of the Trail of Tears has been variously estimated. American doctor and missionary Elizur Butler, who made the journey with one party, estimated 4,000 deaths.BOOK, Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians,weblink 16 February 2016, 1995, University of Nebraska Press, 978-0-8032-8734-1, 241 note 58, BOOK, John Ehle, Trials of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation,weblink 16 February 2016, 1989, Anchor Books, 978-0-385-23954-7, 390–92, BOOK, William L. Anderson, Cherokee Removal: Before and After,weblink 16 February 2016, 1992, University of Georgia Press, 978-0-8203-1482-2, 75–93, Historians David Stannard{{sfn|Stannard|1993|p=124}} and Barbara Mann{{sfn|Mann|2009}} have noted that the army deliberately routed the march of the Cherokee to pass through areas of known cholera epidemic, such as Vicksburg. Stannard estimates that during the forced removal from their homelands, following the Indian Removal Act signed into law by President Andrew Jackson in 1830, 8000 Cherokee died, about half the total population.{{sfn|Stannard|1993|p=124}}Archaeologist and anthropologist Ann F. Ramenofsky writes, "Variola Major can be transmitted through contaminated articles such as clothing or blankets. In the nineteenth century, the U. S. Army sent contaminated blankets to Native Americans, especially Plains groups, to control the Indian problem."Vectors of Death: The Archaeology of European Contact; University of New Mexico Press; 1987; pp. 147–48 While specific responsibility for the 1836-40 smallpox epidemic remains in question, scholars have asserted that the Great Plains epidemic was "started among the tribes of the upper Missouri River by failure to quarantine steam boats on the river", and Captain Pratt of the St. Peter "was guilty of contributing to the deaths of thousands of innocent people. The law calls his offense criminal negligence. Yet in light of all the deaths, the almost complete annihilation of the Mandans, and the terrible suffering the region endured, the label criminal negligence is benign, hardly befitting an action that had such horrendous consequences."Rotting Face: Smallpox and the American Indian; R. G. Robertson; Caxton Press; 2001 pp. 80–83, 298–312 Leading genocide expert Dirk Moses attributes "the genocide of many Native American tribes" including the Mandans, to governmental assimilationist policies that coexisted with officially or unofficially sanctioned efforts "to eradicate, diminish, or forcibly evict the 'savages{{'"}}.Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History; Berghahn Series; Volume 12 of Studies on war and genocide; A. Dirk Moses; Berghahn Books, 2008; pp. 443–45 When smallpox swept the northern plains of the US in 1837, Secretary of War Lewis Cass ordered that the Mandan (along with the Arikara, the Cree, and the Blackfeet) not be given smallpox vaccinations, which had been provided to other tribes in other areas.BOOK, Kotar, S.L., Gessler, J.E., Smallpox: A History, 2013, McFarland, 978-0786493272, 111, JOURNAL, 40041462, Washburn, Kevin K., American Indians, Crime, and the Law, Michigan Law Review, February 2006, 104, 4, 709–77, JOURNAL,weblink Valencia-Weber, Gloria, The Supreme Court's Indian Law Decisions: Deviations from Constitutional Principles and the Crafting of Judicial Smallpox Blankets, University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, January 2003, 5, 405, 408–09, 5 February 2017, The U.S. colonization of California started in earnest in 1849, and it resulted in a large number of state-subsidized massacres of Native Americans by colonists in the territory, causing several ethnic groups to be entirely wiped out. In one such series of conflicts, the so-called Mendocino War and the subsequent Round Valley War, the entirety of the Yuki people were brought to the brink of extinction, from a previous population of some 3,500 people to fewer than 100. According to Russell Thornton, estimates of the pre-Columbian population of California were at least 310,000, and perhaps as high as 705,000. By 1849, due to Spanish and Mexican colonization and epidemics this number had decreased to 100,000. But from 1849 and up until 1890 the Indigenous population of California had fallen below 20,000, primarily because of the killings.{{sfn|Thornton|1987|pp=107–09}} In An American Genocide, The United States and the California Catastrophe, 1846–1873, Historian Benjamin Madley recorded the number of killings of California Indians that occurred between 1846 and 1873. He found evidence that during this period, at least 9,400 to 16,000 California Indians were killed by non-Indians. Most of these killings occurred in more than 370 massacres (defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise").Madley 2016, pp. 11, 351 10,000 Indians were also kidnapped and sold as slaves.Pritzker, Barry. 2000, A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford University Press, p. 114 In a speech before representatives of Native American peoples in June, 2019, California governor Gavin Newsom apologized for the genocide. Newsom said, "That’s what it was, a genocide. No other way to describe it. And that’s the way it needs to be described in the history books."NEWS, Cowan, Jill, 'It's Called Genocide': Newsom Apologizes to the State's Native Americans, The New York Times, June 19, 2019,weblink June 20, 2019,

Asia

Afghanistan

Abdur Rahman's subjugation of the Hazara ethnic group in the late nineteenth century due to their fierce rebellion against the Afghan king gave birth to an intense feeling of hatred between the Pashtun and the Hazara that would last for years to come. Massive forced displacements, especially in Oruzgan and Daychopan, continued as lands were confiscated and populations were expelled or fled. Some 35,000 families fled to northern Afghanistan, Mashhad (Iran) and Quetta (Pakistan). It is estimated that more than 60%BOOK, تاریخ باستانی هزاره ها, دلجو, عباس, انتشارات امیری, 2014, 978-9936801509, کابل, of the Hazara were either massacred or displaced during Abdur Rahman's campaign against them. Hazara farmers were often forced to give up their property to Pashtuns and as a result many Hazara families had to move seasonally to the major cities in Afghanistan, Iran, or Pakistan in order to find jobs and sources of income. Quetta in Pakistan is home to the third largest settlements of Hazara outside Afghanistan.

British rule of India and elsewhere

Mike Davis argues in his book Late Victorian Holocausts that quote; "Millions died, not outside the 'modern world system', but in the very process of being forcibly incorporated into its economic and political structures. They died in the golden age of Liberal Capitalism; indeed many were murdered...by the theological application of the sacred principles of Smith, Bentham, and Mill."Davis, M (2001) Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World London Verso p. 9(File:WWHooperFamine1876-78GroupOfEmaciaedMenandOneWoman.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Famine stricken people during the famine of 1876–78 in Bengal)David characterizes the Indian famines under the British Raj, such as the Great Bengal famine of 1770 or the Great Famine of 1876-78 which took over 15 million lives as "colonial genocide." Some scholars, including Niall Ferguson, have disputed this judgement, while others, including Adam Jones, have affirmed it.Jones, Adam Chapter 2: State and Empire. Genocides a Comprehensive Introduction Routledge {{ISBN|978-1317533856}}Powell, Christopher Barbaric Civilization: A Critical Sociology of Genocide McGill-Queen's Press. pp. 238–45 {{ISBN|978-0773585560}}

Dzungar genocide

The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China, which they did from the early 17th century through the middle of the 18th century.Chapters 3–7 of {{Harvnb|Perdue|2005}} describe the rise and fall of the Dzungar empire and its relations with other Mongol tribes, the Qing dynasty, and the Russian empire. After a series of inconclusive military conflicts that started in the 1680s, the Dzungars were subjugated by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1911) in the late 1750s. According to Qing scholar Wei Yuan, 40 percent of the 600,000 Zunghar people were killed by smallpox, 20 percent fled to Russia or sought refuge among the Kazakh tribes and 30 percent were killed by the Qing army of Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols.Wei Yuan, 聖武記 Military history of the Qing Dynasty, vol.4. "計數十萬戶中,先痘死者十之四,繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二,卒殲於大兵者十之三。"{{sfn|Perdue|2005|p=285}}Historian Michael Edmund Clarke has argued that the Qing campaign in 1757–58 "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people".{{sfn|Clarke|2004|p=37}} Historian Peter Perdue has attributed the decimation of the Dzungars to a "deliberate use of massacre" and has described it as an "ethnic genocide".{{sfn|Perdue|2005|pp=283–85}} Mark Levene, a historian of genocide,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081216135041weblink">Dr. Mark Levene, Southampton University, see "Areas where I can offer Postgraduate Supervision". Retrieved 9 February 2009. has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence".{{sfn|Levene|2008|p=188}}

Japanese colonization of Hokkaido

{{see also|Shakushain's Revolt|Menashi-Kunashir Rebellion}}The Ainu are an indigenous people in Japan (Hokkaidō).NEWS, Philippa Fogarty, Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu,weblink BBC News, 6 June 2008, 16 February 2016, In a 2009 news story, Japan Today reported, "Many Ainu were forced to work, essentially as slaves, for Wajin (ethnic Japanese), resulting in the breakup of families and the introduction of smallpox, measles, cholera and tuberculosis into their communities. In 1869, after the Battle of Hakodate during the Boshin War, the new Meiji government renamed the Republic of Ezo Hokkaido, whose boundaries were formed by former members of the Tokugawa shogunate, and together with lands where the Ainu lived, they were unilaterally incorporated into Japan. It banned the Ainu language, took Ainu lands away, and prohibited the Ainu from engaging in salmon fishing and deer hunting."WEB, Andy Sharp,weblink Tokyo's thriving Ainu community keeps traditional culture alive, Japan Today, 1 March 2009, 16 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20131104102335weblink">weblink 4 November 2013, dmy-all, Roy Thomas wrote: "Ill treatment of native peoples is common to all colonial powers, and, at its worst, leads to genocide. Japan's native people, the Ainu, have, however, been the object of a particularly cruel hoax, because the Japanese have refused to accept them officially as a separate minority people."BOOK, Roy Thomas, Japan: The Blighted Blossom,weblink 16 February 2016, 1989, I.B.Tauris, 978-1-85043-125-1, 227, In 2004, the small Ainu community living in Russia wrote a letter to Vladimir Putin, urging him to recognize Japanese behavior against the Ainu people as genocide, which Putin declined to do.WEB, Vladimir Yampolski,weblink ru:Трагедия Айнов – Трагедия Российского дальнего востока, The tragedy of the Ainu – The tragedy of the Russian Far East, ru, kamtime.ru, 8 December 2004, 15 February 2016,

Ottoman Empire

{{anchor|late Ottoman genocides}}{{Further|Hamidian massacres}}(File:Armenian children massacred(ALT).jpg|thumbnail|Child victims of a massacre awaiting burial in an Armenian cemetery in Erzurum, 1895)

Bulgaria

During the April Uprising in Bulgaria against Ottoman rule, over 15,000 non-combatant Bulgarian civilians were massacred by the Ottoman army between 1876 and 1878, with the worst single incident being the Batak massacre.BOOK,weblink Bulgaria, R. J., Crampton, 2007, OUP Oxford, Google Books, 978-0198205142, EB1911, Bulgaria/History, Bulgaria: History, 4, Genocide and gross human rights violations: in comparative perspective, Kurt Jonassohn, 1999, p. 210

Armenians, Assyrians, Greeks

The Massacres of Badr Khan were conducted by Kurdish and Ottoman forces against the Assyrian Christian population of the Ottoman Empire between 1843 and 1847, resulting in the slaughter of more than 10,000 indigenous Assyrian civilians of the Hakkari region, with many thousands more sold into slavery.Aboona, H (2008), Assyrians, Kurds, and Ottomans: intercommunal relations on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire, Cambria Press, {{ISBN|978-1-60497-583-3}}.Gaunt & Beṯ-Şawoce 2006, p. 32Between 1894 and 1896 a series of ethno-religiously motivated Anti-Christian pogroms known as the Hamidian massacres were conducted against the ancient Armenian and Assyrian Christian populations by the forces of the Ottoman Empire.Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010), Historical Dictionary of Armenia (2nd ed.), Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, p. 154. The massacres mainly took place in what is today south eastern Turkey, north eastern Syria and northern Iraq. The death toll is estimated to have been as high as 325,000 people,Akçam, Taner (2006) (A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility) p. 42, Metropolitan Books, New York {{ISBN|978-0-8050-7932-6}}Angold, Michael (2006), O’Mahony, Anthony, ed., Cambridge History of Christianity, 5. Eastern Christianity, Cambridge University Press, p. 512, {{ISBN|978-0-521-81113-2}}. with a further 546,000 Armenians and Assyrians made destitute by forced deportations of survivors from cities, and the destruction or theft of almost 2500 of their farmsteads towns and villages. Hundreds of churches and monasteries were also destroyed or forcibly converted into mosques.Cleveland, William L. (2000). A History of the Modern Middle East (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview. p. 119. {{ISBN|0-8133-3489-6}}.The Adana massacre occurred in the Adana Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in April 1909. A massacre of Armenian and Assyrian Christians in the city of Adana and its surrounds amidst the Ottoman countercoup of 1909 led to a series of anti-Christian pogroms throughout the province.Raymond H. Kévorkian, "The Cilician Massacres, April 1909" in Armenian Cilicia, eds. Richard G. Hovannisian and Simon Payaslian. UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 7. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2008, pp. 339-69. Reports estimated that the Adana Province massacres resulted in the deaths of as many as 30,000 Armenians and 1,500 Assyrians.BOOK, Adalian, Rouben Paul, Totten, Samuel, Parsons, William S., Century of Genocide,weblink 28 August 2013, 2012, Routledge, 978-0415871914, 117–56, The Armenian Genocide, BOOK, Adalian, Rouben Paul, Historical Dictionary of Armenia,weblink 28 August 2013, 2010, Scarecrow Press, 978-0810874503, 70–71, Adana Massacre, David Gaunt, "The Assyrian Genocide of 1915", Assyrian Genocide Research Center, 2009From 1913 to 1923, the Greek genocide, Assyrian genocide, and Armenian genocide took place in the Ottoman Empire. Some historians consider these genocides to be a single event and refer to them as the late Ottoman genocides.JOURNAL, Smith, Roger W., 2015-03-11, Introduction: The Ottoman Genocides of Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks,weblink Genocide Studies International, 9, 1, 1–9, 2291-1847, 10.3138/gsi.9.1.01, BOOK, Late Ottoman genocides : the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies, 2009, Routledge, Schaller, Dominik J., Zimmerer, Jürgen., 978-0415480123, London, 263294453, BOOK, Genocide in the Ottoman Empire : Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks, 1913–1923, Shirinian, George, 978-1785334337, First, New York, 957139268, Shirinian, George N., 2017,

Russian Empire

Siberia

{{Further|Genocide of indigenous peoples#Tsardom of Russia's conquest of Siberia}}

Circassians

{{more information|Russo-Circassian War}}The Russian Tsarist Empire waged war against Circassia in the Northwest Caucasus for more than one hundred years, trying to replace Circassia's hold along the Black Sea coast. After a century of insurgency and war and failure to end the conflict, the Tsar ordered the expulsion of most of the Muslim population of the North Caucasus. Many Circassians, Western historians, Turks and Chechens claimed that the events of the 1860s constituted one of the first modern genocides, in which a whole population was eliminated in order to satisfy the desires (in this case economic) of a powerful country.{{citation needed|date=March 2014}}Antero Leitzinger flagged the affair the 19th century's largest genocide.WEB, Antero Leitzinger, Antero Leitzinger,weblink The Circassian Genocide, Global Politician, 14 December 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131109084500weblink">weblink 9 November 2013, Some estimates cite that approximately 1–1.5 million Circassians were killed and most of the Muslim population was deported. Ossete Muslims and Kabardins generally did not leave. The modern Circassians and Abazins are descended from those who managed to escape the onslaught and another 1.5 million Circassians and others later returned. This effectively annihilated (or deported) 90% of the nation.NEWS,weblink 145th Anniversary of the Circassian Genocide and the Sochi Olympics Issue, Reuters, 22 May 2009, 28 November 2009, dead,weblink 2 July 2012, dmy, Tsarist documents recorded more than 400,000 Circassians killed, 497,000 forced to flee and only 80,000 were left in their native area.{{sfn|Goble|2005}} Circassians were viewed as tools by the Ottoman government, and settled in restive areas whose populations had nationalist yearnings—Armenia, the Arab regions and the Balkans. Many more Circassians were killed by the policies of the Balkan states, primarily Serbia and Bulgaria, which became independent at that time.{{Citation needed|date=August 2010}} Still more Circassians were forcefully assimilated by nationalist Muslim states (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, etc.) who looked upon non-Turk/Arab ethnicity as a foreign presence and a threat.In May 1994, the then Russian President Boris Yeltsin admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognize "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide".{{sfn|Goble|2005}} In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to apologize, without response. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the US, Belgium, Canada and Germany sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with a request to recognize the genocide.{{Citation needed|date=July 2008}}On 5 July 2005, the Circassian Congress, an organisation that unites representatives of the various Circassian peoples in the Russian Federation, called on Moscow to acknowledge and apologize for the genocide.{{ru icon}} Circassian Genocide {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100325234223weblink |date=25 March 2010 }}. The Circassian Congress. 2008

Kyrgyz

In 1916 in the territory which is currently named Urkun, Kyrgyzstanis launched an uprising against Tsarist Russia. A public commission in Kyrgyzstan called the crackdown of 1916 in which 100,000 to 270,000 Kyrgyzstanis were killed a genocide though Russia rejected this characterization.NEWS, Commission Calls 1916 Tsarist Mass Killings Of Kyrgyz Genocide Print Share,weblink Radio Free Europe, Russian sources put the death toll at 3,000.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Pushkareva, Irina,weblink ru:Штюрмер, Борис Владимирович, Stürmer, Boris Vladimirovich, ru, Krugosvet, 1984, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071111155448weblink">weblink 11 November 2007,

Vietnam

{{further|Genocide of indigenous peoples#Vietnamese conquest of Champa and the Central Highlands}}

Europe

Antiziganism (Attempted extirpations of Romani/Gypsies)

There have been several attempts to extirpate Romani (Gypsies) throughout the history of Europe:In 1545, the Diet of Augsburg declared that "whosoever kills a Gypsy (Romani), will be guilty of no murder".David Crowe (2004): A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia (Palgrave Macmillan) {{ISBN|0-312-08691-1}} p.XI p.34 The subsequent massive killing spree which took place across the empire later prompted the government to step in to "forbid the drowning of Romani women and children".David Crowe (2004): A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia (Palgrave Macmillan) {{ISBN|0-312-08691-1}} p.XI p.35In England, the Egyptians Act 1530 banned Romani from entering the country and it also required those Romani who were already living in the country to leave it within 16 days. Failure to do so could result in the confiscation of their property, their imprisonment and deportation. The act was amended with the Egyptians Act 1554, which directed that they abandon their "naughty, idle and ungodly life and company" and adopt a settled lifestyle. For those Romani who failed to adhere to a sedentary existence, the Privy council interpreted the act in a way that permitted the execution of non-complying Romani "as a warning to others".BOOK, Mayall, David, English gypsies and state policies, Univ of Hertfordshire Press, 1995, f Interface collection Volume 7 of New Saga Library, 7, 21, 24, 978-0-900458-64-4,weblink 28 February 2010, In 1710, Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, issued an edict against the Romani, ordering "that all adult males were to be hanged without trial, whereas women and young males were to be flogged and banished forever."David Crowe (2004): A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia (Palgrave Macmillan) {{ISBN|0-312-08691-1}} p.XI p.36-37 Additionally, in the kingdom of Bohemia, the right ears of Romani men were to be cut off; in the March of Moravia, their left ears were to be cut off. In other parts of Austria, they would be branded on the back with a branding iron, representing the gallows. These mutilations enabled the authorities to identify the individuals as Romani on their second arrest. The edict encouraged local officials to hunt down Romani in their areas by levying a fine of 100 Reichsthaler on those who failed to do so. Anyone who helped Romani was to be punished by doing forced labor for half a year. The result was mass killings of Romani across the Holy Roman empire. In 1721, Charles VI amended the decree to include the execution of adult female Romani, while children were "to be put in hospitals for education".In 1774, Maria Theresa of Austria issued an edict which forbade marriages between Romani. When a Romani woman married a non-Romani man, she had to produce proof of "industrious household service and familiarity with Catholic tenets", a male Rom "had to prove his ability to support a wife and children", and "Gypsy children over the age of five were to be taken away and brought up in non-Romani families."David Crowe (2004): A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia (Palgrave Macmillan) {{ISBN|0-312-08691-1}} p.XI p.75

France

13th-century extermination of the Cathars

The Albigensian Crusade or the Cathar Crusade (1209–1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. The Crusade was primarily prosecuted by the French crown and it promptly took on a political flavour, resulting not only in a significant reduction in the number of practising Cathars, but also in a realignment of the County of Toulouse in Languedoc, bringing it into the sphere of the French crown and diminishing the distinct regional culture and high level of influence of the Counts of Barcelona.File:Albigensian Crusade 01.jpg|thumb|Pope Innocent III excommunicating the AlbigensiansAlbigensiansRaphael Lemkin, who in the 20th century coined the word "genocide",WEB,weblink Lemkin, Raphael, UN Refugee Agency, 30 July 2017, referred to the Albigensian Crusade as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history".{{sfn|Lemkin|2012|p=71}} Mark Gregory Pegg writes that "The Albigensian Crusade ushered genocide into the West by linking divine salvation to mass murder, by making slaughter as loving an act as His sacrifice on the cross."{{sfn|Pegg|2008|p=188}} Robert E. Lerner argues that Pegg's classification of the Albigensian Crusade as a genocide is inappropriate, on the grounds that it "was proclaimed against unbelievers ... not against a 'genus' or people; those who joined the crusade had no intention of annihilating the population of southern France ... If Pegg wishes to connect the Albigensian Crusade to modern ethnic slaughter, well—words fail me (as they do him)."{{sfn|Lerner|2010|p=92}} Laurence Marvin is not as dismissive as Lerner regarding Pegg's contention that the Albigensian Crusade was a genocide; he does however take issue with Pegg's argument that the Albigensian Crusade formed an important historical precedent for later genocides including the Holocaust.{{sfn|Marvin|2009b|pp=801–02}}Kurt Jonassohn and Karin Solveig Björnson describe the Albigensian Crusade as "the first ideological genocide".{{sfn|Jonassohn|Björnson|1998|p=50}} Kurt Jonassohn and Frank Chalk (who together founded the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies) include a detailed case study of the Albigensian Crusade in their genocide studies textbook The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies, authored by Strayer and Malise Ruthven.{{sfn|Chalk|Jonassohn|1990|pp=114–38}}

Huguenot persecutions

Vendee

(File:Fusillades de Nantes.jpg|thumb|Mass shootings at Nantes, 1793)In 1986, Reynald Secher argued that the actions of the French republican government during the revolt in the Vendée (1793–1796), a popular mostly Catholic uprising against the anti-clerical Republican government during the French Revolution was the first modern genocide.Secher, Reynald. A French Genocide: The Vendée, University of Notre Dame Press, (2003), {{ISBN|0-268-02865-6}}. Secher's claims caused a minor uproar in France and mainstream authorities rejected Secher's claims.
  • BOOK, Stefan, Berger, Stefan Berger, Mark, Donovan, Kevin, Passmore, Writing National Histories: Western Europe Since 1800,weblink 1999, Routledge, 978-0-415-16427-6,
  • François Lebrun, " La guerre de Vendée : massacre ou génocide ? ", L'Histoire, Paris, n°78, May 1985, pp. 93–99, 81. September 1985, pp. 99–101.
  • BOOK, Paul Tallonneau, Les Lucs et le génocide vendéen: comment on a manipulé les textes,weblink 1993, Editions Hécate, 978-2-86913-051-7,
  • Claude Petitfrère, La Vendée et les Vendéens, Editions Gallimard/Julliard, 1982.
  • Voir Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Le Seuil, 1987.
  • Hugh Gough, "Genocide & the Bicentenary: the French Revolution and the revenge of the Vendée", (Historical Journal, vol. 30, 4, 1987, pp. 977–88.) p. 987.
  • BOOK, Vovelle, Michel, Bourgeoisies de province et Revolution, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1987, quoted in Féhér,
  • BOOK, Price, Roger, A Concise History of France, Cambridge University Press, 1993, 107,
  • BOOK, Féhér, Ferenc, The French Revolution and the birth of modernity, University of California Press, 1990, 62, Claude Langlois, " Les héros quasi mythiques de la Vendée ou les dérives de l'imaginaire ", in F. Lebrun, 1987, pp. 426–34, et " Les dérives vendéennes de l'imaginaire révolutionnaire ", AESC, n°3, 1988, pp. 771–97. Timothy Tackett countered that "the Vendée was a tragic civil war with endless horrors committed by both sides—initiated, in fact, by the rebels themselves. The Vendeans were no more blameless than were the republicans. The use of the word genocide is wholly inaccurate and inappropriate."Voir l'intervention de Timothy Tackett, dans French Historical Studies, Autumn 2001, p. 572. However, historians Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn consider the Vendée a case of genocide.^ Jonassohn, Kurt and Karin Solveig Bjeornson Genocide and Gross Human Rights Violations p. 208, 1998, Transaction Publishers Historian Pierre Chaunu called the Vendée the first ideological genocide.Levene, Mark, Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: The rise of the West and the coming of Genocide p. 118 Adam Jones estimates that 150,000 Vendeans died in what he also considers a genocide.Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, p. 7 Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publishers, (2006)

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Khmelnytsky Uprising (; ; ; ; also known as the Cossack-Polish War,Polish-Cossack War the Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrectionThe Khmelnytsky insurrection Britannica.) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands. Under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, allied with the Crimean Tatars and local peasantry, fought against the armies and paramilitary forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The insurgency was accompanied by mass atrocities committed by Cossacks against the civilian population, especially against the Roman Catholic clergy and the Jews. In Jewish history, the Uprising is known for the concomitant outrages against the Jews who, in their capacity as leaseholders (arendators), were seen by the peasants as their immediate oppressors.Хмельницкий Богдан, The Shorter Jewish Encyclopedia, 2005.Herman Rosenthal. COSSACKS' UPRISING, The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.Most Jewish communities in the rebellious Hetmanate were devastated by the uprising and ensuing massacres, though occasionally a Jewish population was spared, notably after the capture of the town of Brody (the population of which was 70% Jewish). According to the book known as History of the Rus, Khmelnytsky's rationale was largely mercantile and the Jews of Brody, which was a major trading centre, were judged to be useful "for turnovers and profits" and thus they were only required to pay "moderate indemnities" in kind.WEB,weblink Chapter 4, p. 80., History of the Rus, : "А по симъ правиламъ и обширный торговый городъ Броды, наполненный почти одними Жидами, оставленъ въ прежней свободѣ и цѣлости, яко признанный отъ Рускихъ жителей полезнымъ для ихъ оборотовъ и заработковъ, а только взята отъ Жидовъ умѣренная контрибуція сукнами, полотнами и кожами для пошитья реестровому войску мундировъ и обуви, да для продовольствія войскъ нѣкоторая провизія."Although many modern sources still give estimates of Jews killed in the uprising at 100,000Sources estimating 100,000 Jews killed:
  • "Bogdan Chmelnitzki leads Cossack uprising against Polish rule; 100,000 Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish communities are destroyed." Judaism Timeline 1618–1770, CBS News. Accessed May 13, 2007.
  • "The peasants of Ukraine rose up in 1648 under a petty aristocrat Bogdan Chmielnicki. ... It is estimated that 100,000 Jews were massacred and 300 of their communities destroyed". Oscar Reiss. The Jews in Colonial America, McFarland & Company, 2004, {{ISBN|0-7864-1730-7}}, pp. 98–99.
  • "Moreover, Poles must have been keenly aware of the massacre of Jews in 1768 and even more so as the result of the much more widespread massacres (approximately 100,000 dead) of the earlier Chmielnicki pogroms during the preceding century." Manus I. Midlarsky. The Killing Trap: genocide in the twentieth century, Cambridge University Press, 2005,{{ISBN|0-521-81545-2}}, p. 352.
  • "... as many as 100,000 Jews were murdered throughout the Ukraine by Bogdan Chmielnicki's Cossack soldiers on the rampage." Martin Gilbert. Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past, Columbia University Press, 1999, {{ISBN|0-231-10965-2}}, p. 219.
  • "A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654 ..." Samuel Totten. Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources, Information Age Publishing, 2004, {{ISBN|1-59311-074-X}}, p. 25.
  • "In response to Poland having taken control of much of the Ukraine in the early seventeenth century, Ukrainian peasants mobilized as groups of cavalry, and these "cossacks" in the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648 killed an estimated 100,000 Jews." Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate Side of Joseph De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political Economy, McGill-Queen's Press, 2005, {{ISBN|0-7735-2976-4}}, p. 26
  • "Is there not a difference in nature between Hitler's extermination of three million Polish Jews between 1939 and 1945 because he wanted every Jew dead and the mass murder 1648–49 of 100,000 Polish Jews by General Bogdan Chmielnicki because he wanted to end Polish rule in the Ukraine and was prepared to use Cossack terrorism to kill Jews in the process?" Colin Martin Tatz. With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on Genocide, Verso, 2003, {{ISBN|1-85984-550-9}}, p. 146.
  • "... massacring an estimated one hundred thousand Jews as the Ukrainian Bogdan Chmielnicki had done nearly three centuries earlier." Mosheh Weiss. A Brief History of the Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, {{ISBN|0-7425-4402-8}}, p. 193.


or more,Sources estimating more than 100,000 Jews killed:
  • "This situation changed for the worse in 1648–49, the years in which the Chmelnicki massacres took place. These persecutions, which swept over a large part of the Polish Commonwealth, wrought havoc with the Jewry of that country. Many Jewish communities were practically annihilated by the ruthless Cossack bands, and many more were disintegrated by the flight of their members to escape the enemy... The Jews of the Ukraine, Podolia and Eastern Galicia bore the brunt of the massacres. It is estimated that about two hundred thousand Jews were killed in these provinces during the fatal years of 1648–49." Meyer Waxman. History of Jewish Literature Part 3, Kessinger Publishing, 2003, {{ISBN|0-7661-4370-8}}, p. 20.
  • "...carried out in 1648 and 1649 by the Cossacks of the Ukraine, led by Bogdan Chmielnicki. The anti-Semitic outburst took the lives of from 150,000 to 200,000 Jews." Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland & Co Inc, 2002, p. 56.
  • "Between 100,000–500,000 Jews were murdered by the Cossacks during the Chmielnicki massacres. Zev Garber, Bruce Zuckerman. Double Takes: Thinking and Rethinking Issues of Modern Judaism in Ancient Contexts, University Press of America, 2004, {{ISBN|0-7618-2894-X}}, p. 77, footnote 17.
  • "After defeating the Polish army, the Cossacks joined with the Polish peasantry, murdering over 100,000 Jews." Chmielnicki, Bohdan, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–05.
  • "In 1648–55 the Cossack under Bogdan Chmielnicki (1593–1657) joined with the Tartars in the Ukraine to rid themselves of Polish rule... Before the decade was over, more than 100,000 Jews had been slaughtered." Robert Melvin Spector. World Without Civilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis, University Press of America, 2005, {{ISBN|0-7618-2963-6}}, p. 77.
  • "By the time the Cossacks and the Poles signed a peace treaty in 1654, 700 Jewish communities had been destroyed and more than 100,000 Jews killed". Sol Scharfstein. Jewish History and You, KTAV Publishing House, 2004, {{ISBN|0-88125-806-7}}, p. 42.


others put the numbers killed at between 40,000 and 100,000,Sources estimating 40,000–100,000 Jews killed:
  • "Finally, in the spring of 1648, under the leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki (1595–1657), the Cossacks revolted in the Ukraine against Polish Rule. ... Although the exact number of Jews massacred is unknown, with estimates ranging from 40,000 to 100,000 ..." Naomi E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman. A Concise History Of The Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005, {{ISBN|0-7425-4366-8}}, p. 182.
  • "Even when there was mass destruction, as in the Chmielnicki uprising in 1648, the violence against Jews, where between 40000 and 100000 Jews were murdered ..." David Theo Goldberg, John Solomos. A Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies, Blackwell Publishing, 2002, {{ISBN|0-631-20616-7}}, p. 68.
  • "A lower estimate puts the Jewish pogrom deaths in the Ukraine, 1648–56, at 56,000." Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–1999, McFarland & Co Inc, 2002, p. 56.


and recent academic studies have argued fatalities were even lower.
A 2003 study by Israeli demographer Shaul Stampfer of Hebrew University dedicated solely to the issue of Jewish casualties in the uprising concludes that 18,000–20,000 Jews were killed of a total population of 40,000.Stampfer, Shaul: Jewish History, vol 17: "What Actually Happened to the Jews of Ukraine in 1648?", pages 165–178. 2003. Abstract free Paul Robert Magocsi states that Jewish chroniclers of the 17th century "provide invariably inflated figures with respect to the loss of life among the Jewish population of Ukraine. The numbers range from 60,000–80,000 (Nathan Hannover) to 100,000 (Sabbatai Cohen), but that "[t]he Israeli scholars Shmuel Ettinger and Bernard D. Weinryb speak instead of the 'annihilation of tens of thousands of Jewish lives', and the Ukrainian-American historian Jarowlaw Pelenski narrows the number of Jewish deaths to between 6,000 and 14,000".Paul Robert Magocsi, A History of Ukraine, University of Toronto Press, 1996, {{ISBN|0-8020-7820-6}}, p. 201. Orest Subtelny concludes:Between 1648 and 1656, tens of thousands of Jews—given the lack of reliable data, it is impossible to establish more accurate figures—were killed by the rebels, and to this day the Khmelnytsky uprising is considered by Jews to be one of the most traumatic events in their history.{{Citation needed|date=October 2019}}

Ireland

File:An gorta Mor.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Ireland's Holocaust mural on the Ballymurphy Road, BelfastBelfast

War of the Three Kingdoms

{{See also|Cromwellian conquest of Ireland|Cromwellian Plantation}}Towards the end of the War of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651), the English Rump Parliament sent the New Model Army to Ireland to subdue and take revenge on the Catholic population of the country and also to prevent Royalists loyal to Charles II from using Ireland as a base to threaten England. The force was initially under the command of Oliver Cromwell and it was later under the command of other parliamentary generals. The Army sought to secure the country, but also to confiscate the lands of Irish families that had been involved in the fighting. This became a continuation of the Elizabethan policy of encouraging Protestant settlement of Ireland, because the Protestant New Model army soldiers could be paid in confiscated lands rather than in cash.WEB, John Walsh,weblink "To Hell or to Connaught" Oliver Cromwell's Settlement of Ireland, Irish Cultural Society, April 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011165306weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, During the Interregnum (1651–1660), this policy was enhanced with the passing of the Act of Settlement of Ireland in 1652. Its goal was a further transfer of land from Irish to English hands. The immediate war aims and the longer term policies of the English Parliamentarians resulted in an attempt by the English to transfer the native population to the western fringes to make way for Protestant settlers. This policy was reflected in a phrase attributed to Cromwell: "To Hell or to Connaught" and has been described by historians as genocide.genocidal or near-genocidal:
  • BOOK, Albert Breton, Nationalism and Rationality,weblink 24 November 1995, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-48098-7, Regulating nations and ethnic communities, Brendam, O'Leary, John, McGarry, 248, "Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!'",
  • BOOK, Tim Pat Coogan, The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace,weblink 5 January 2002, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-312-29418-2, 6, The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide.,
  • BOOK, Peter Berresford Ellis, Eyewitness to Irish History,weblink 2007, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-05312-6, "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
  • {{harvnb|Levene|2005}} "[The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state."

British Empire

Great Irish Famine

(File:Irish potato famine Bridget O'Donnel.jpg|thumb|upright|Great Irish Famine)A small minority of historians regard the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1852) as an example of genocide. During the famine approximately 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland,BOOK, Ross, David, 2002, Ireland: History of a Nation, New Lanark: Geddes & Grosset, 978-1-84205-164-1, 226, harv,weblink causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%.{{sfn|Kinealy|1995|p=357}} The proximate cause of famine was a potato disease commonly known as potato blight.{{sfn|Ó Gráda|2000|p=7}} Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland{{spaced ndash}}where one-third of the population was entirely dependent on the potato for food{{spaced ndash}}was exacerbated by a host of political, social, and economic factors that remain the subject of historical debate.{{sfn|Woodham-Smith|1964|p=19}}{{sfn|Kinealy|1995|pp=xvi–ii, 2–3}}During the Famine, Ireland produced enough food, flax, and wool to feed and clothe double its nine million people.{{sfn|Finnegan|McCarron|2000}} When Ireland had experienced a famine in 1782–83, ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but government in the 1780s overrode their protests. There was no such export ban in the 1840s.{{sfn|Kinealy|1995|p=354}} Some historiansBOOK, New directions in Irish-American history, History of Ireland and the Irish diaspora, Kevin Kenny, illustrated, University of Wisconsin Press, 2003, 978-0-299-18714-9, 246, And, while few, if any, historians in Ireland today would endorse the idea of British genocide (in the sense of conscious intent to slaughter), this does not mean that government policies, whether adopted or rejected, had no impact on starvation, disease, mortality and emigration., harv, have argued that in this sense the famine was artificial, caused by the British government's choice not to stop exports.{{sfn|Finnegan|McCarron|2000}}Francis A. Boyle claimed that the government's actions violated sections (a), (b), and (c) of Article 2 of the CPPCG and constituted genocide in a legal opinion to the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 2 May 1996.WEB,weblink Francis A. Boyle: The Irish Famine was Genocide, History News Network, Francis A., Boyle, 18 July 2015, WEB, James, Mullin,weblink Irish Famine Education and the Holocaust 'Straw Man', American Chronicle, 28 April 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060518072827weblink">weblink 18 May 2006, WEB,weblink The Great Irish Famine, Nebraska Department of Education, Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, 26 November 1998, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000818232008weblink">weblink 18 August 2000, Charles E. Rice has also alleged that the British had committed genocide, also based on this retrospective application of Article 2.Mullin, James V.weblink" title="archive.today/20120709023854weblink">The New Jersey Famine Curriculum: a report Eire-Ireland:Journal of Irish Studies, Spring–Summer, 2002The claims were contested by Peter Gray, who concluded that UK government policy "was not a policy of deliberate genocide", but a dogmatic refusal to admit that the policy was wrong. James S. Donnelly, Jr., wrote, "while genocide was not in fact committed, what happened ... had the look of genocide to a great many Irish."WEB,weblink Irish Famine Unit VI Genocide, Nebraska Department of Education, 26 November 1998, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000818232008weblink">weblink 18 August 2000, Cecil Woodham-Smith claimed that while the export policy embittered the Irish, this did not implicate the policy in genocide, but rather in excessive parsimony obtuseness, short-sightedness, and ignorance.{{sfn|Woodham-Smith|1964|p=410}} Irish historian Cormac O' Grada rejects the term, stating that the English exhibited no desire to exterminate the Irish and that the challenges for providing relief were enormous.BOOK, The great Irish famine, 7, New studies in economic and social history, Cormac, Ó Gráda, Economic History Society, illustrated, reprinted, Cambridge University Press, 1995, 978-0-521-55787-0, 4, 68, [page 4] While no academic historian takes seriously any more the claim of 'genocide', the issue of blame remains controversial. [page 68] In sum the Great Famine of the 1840s, instead of being inevitable and inherent in the potato economy, was a tragic ecological accident. Ireland's experience during these years supports neither the complacency exemplified by the Whig view of political economy nor the genocide theories formerly espoused by a few nationalist historians.,weblink harv, {{sfn|Ó Gráda|2000|p=10}} W.D. Rubinstein also rejected the genocide claim.{{sfn|Rubinstein|2004|p={{google books|id=nMMAk4VwLLwC|p=89}}}}William Smith O'Brien, speaking on the subject of charity in a speech to the Repeal Association in February 1845, applauded the fact that the universal sentiment on the subject of charity was that they would accept no English charity. Despite Irish objections, a very considerable amount of relief supplies were in fact sent from England to Ireland. {{fact?|date=February 2017}}

Oceania

Australia

{{further|Australian genocide debate|Genocide of indigenous peoples#Colonization of Australia and Tasmania|Tasmania#Removal of Aborigines}}File:Skirmish near Creen Creek.jpg|thumb|Australian frontier warsAustralian frontier warsAccording to one report published in 2009, in 1789 the British deliberately spread smallpox from the First Fleet in order to counter overwhelming native tribes near Sydney in New South Wales. In his book An Indelible Stain, Henry Reynolds described this act as genocide.Flood, Dr Josephine, The Original Australians: Story of the Aboriginal People, published by Allen & Unwin, 2006, p. 125. However the majority of scholars disagree that the initial smallpox was the result of deliberate biological warfare and have suggested other causes.Flood, Dr Josephine, The Original Australians, p. 126.{{citation |author1=Macknight, C. C. |title="Macassans and the Aboriginal past" in Archaeologia Oceania |date=1986 |volume=21 |pages=69–75}}.{{citation |author1=John Connor |title=The Australian Frontier Wars, 1788–1838 |publisher=UNSW Press |year=2002 |page=29}}.The Black War was a period of conflict between British colonists and aboriginal Tasmanians in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in the early 19th century. The conflict, in combination with introduced diseases and other factors, had such devastating impacts on the aboriginal Tasmanian population that it was reported that they had been exterminated.{{sfn|Bonwick|1870}}BOOK, Clive Turnbull, Black War: The Extermination of the Tasmanian Aborigines,weblink 2003, Lansdowne, 128–32, Historian Geoffrey Blainey wrote that by 1830, "Disease had killed most of them but warfare and private violence had also been devastating."BOOK, Geoffrey Blainey, Geoffrey Blainey, A Land Half Won,weblink 1 January 1980, Macmillan, 978-0-333-29949-4, 75, Smallpox was the principal cause of aboriginal deaths in the 19th century.{{sfn|Glynn|Glynn|2004|p={{google books|id=tL4W3YNMYLIC|p=145}}}}Lemkin and most other comparative genocide scholars present the extinction of the Tasmanian aborigines as a textbook example of a genocide, while the majority of Australian experts are more circumspect.{{sfn|Curthoys|2008|p={{google books|id=RBgoNN4MG-YC|p= 240}}}}{{sfn|Levene|2005|p={{google books|id=3PsLXeDflfMC|p=344 footnote 105}}}} Detailed studies of the events surrounding the extinction have raised questions about some of the details and interpretations in earlier histories.{{sfn|Curthoys|2008|p={{google books|id=RBgoNN4MG-YC|p=250}}}}BOOK, A. Dirk Moses, Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History,weblink 2004, Berghahn Books, 978-1-57181-410-4, Reynolds, Henry, Henry Reynolds (historian), Genocide in Tasmania?, {{google books, 5zHAGNPTkqIC, 127–47, }} Curthoys concluded, "It is time for a more robust exchange between genocide and Tasmanian historical scholarship if we are to understand better what did happen in Tasmania."{{sfn|Curthoys|2008|p={{google books|id=id=RBgoNN4MG-YC|pp=229–47}}}}On the Australian continent during the colonial period (1788–1901), the population of 500,000–750,000 Australian aborigines was reduced to fewer than 50,000.{{sfn|Kiernan|2002|p=163}}{{sfn|Madley|2008|p=77}} Most were devastated by the introduction of alien diseases after contact with Europeans, while perhaps 20,000 were killed by massacres and fighting with colonists.{{sfn|Kiernan|2002|p=163}}

New Zealand

In the early 19th century, Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama (local Māori tribes) massacred the Moriori people. The Moriori were the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. These people lived by a code of non-violence and passive resistance (see Nunuku-whenua), which led to their near-extinction at the hands of Taranaki Māori invaders in the 1830s.WEB, Solomon, Māui, Denise Davis, Moriori, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, 2 September 2011,weblink 7 March 2014, In 1835, some Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama from the Taranaki region of North Island invaded the Chathams. On 19 November 1835, the Rodney, a European ship hired by the Māori, arrived carrying 500 Māori armed with guns, clubs, and axes, followed by another ship with 400 more warriors on 5 December 1835. They proceeded to enslave some Moriori and kill and cannibalise others. "Parties of warriors armed with muskets, clubs and tomahawks, led by their chiefs, walked through Moriori tribal territories and settlements without warning, permission or greeting. If the districts were wanted by the invaders, they curtly informed the inhabitants that their land had been taken and the Moriori living there were now vassals."{{sfn|King|2000|pp=59–60}}A council of Moriori elders was convened at the settlement called Te Awapatiki. Despite knowing of the Māori predilection for killing and eating the conquered, and despite the admonition by some of the elder chiefs that the principle of Nunuku was not appropriate now, two chiefs—Tapata and Torea—declared that "the law of Nunuku was not a strategy for survival, to be varied as conditions changed; it was a moral imperative."{{sfn|King|2000}} A Moriori survivor recalled: "[The Maori] commenced to kill us like sheep.... [We] were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed—men, women and children indiscriminately." A Māori conqueror explained, "We took possession... in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. Not one escaped..."BOOK, Diamond, Jared, Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, W.W. Norton, 1997, New York, 53, !Year!!Jews killed{{Harvnb|Hilberg|2003|p=1322}}.|1933–1940|1941|1942|1943|1944|1945
title-link = Guns, Germs, and Steel, After the invasion, Moriori were forbidden to marry Moriori, or to have children with each other. All became slaves of the invaders. Many Moriori women had children by their Maori masters. A small number of Moriori women eventually married either Maori or European men. Some were taken from the Chathams and never returned. Only 101 Moriori out of a population of about 2,000 were left alive by 1862.{{sfn|Kopel|Gallant|Eisen|2003}} Although the last Moriori of unmixed ancestry, Tommy Solomon,WEB,weblink Tommy Solomon of Chatham Island, education-resources.co.nz, 7 April 2006, 15 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123025254weblink">weblink 23 January 2016, dmy-all, died in 1933, several thousand mixed-ancestry Moriori are alive today.

20th century (from World War I)

World War I through World War II

In 1915, during World War I, the concept of crimes against humanity was introduced into international relations for the first time when the Allied Powers sent a letter to the government of the Ottoman Empire, a member of the Central Powers, protesting massacres that were taking place within the Empire.1915 declaration:
  • {{citation|url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/T?&report=hr933&dbname=106& |title=Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution |publisher=106th Congress, 2nd Session, House of Representatives }};
  • {{citation|url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c109:H.RES.316: |title=Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution (Introduced in House of Representatives) |publisher=109th Congress, 1st Session |date=15 September 2005 }}; {{citation|url=http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:HE00316:|title=H.res.316|date=14 June 2005|accessdate=15 September 2005|publisher=House Committee/Subcommittee:International Relations actions|postscript=: Status: Ordered to be Reported by the Yeas and Nays: 40 – 7.}}
  • {{citation|url=http://www.armenian-genocide.org/Affirmation.160/current_category.7/affirmation_detail.html|title=The French, British and Russian joint declaration|type=original source of the telegram|publisher=The Department of State|place=Washington, D.C.|date=24 May 1915|accessdate=4 June 2017}}

Ottoman Empire/Turkey

File:Morgenthau336.jpg|thumb|Of this photo, the U.S. ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Sr.Henry Morgenthau, Sr.On 24 May 1915, the Allied Powers (Britain, France, and Russia) jointly issued a statement that for the first time ever explicitly charged a government with committing a "crime against humanity" in reference to that regime's persecution of its Christian minorities, including Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks.{{Citation | title = The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century | first = Manus I | last = Midlarsky | page = 342}} Many researchers consider these events to be part of the policy of planned ethnoreligious purification of the Turkish state advanced by the Young Turks.{{harvnb|Jones|2010|pp=171–72}} A resolution was placed before the IAGS membership to recognize the Greek and Assyrian/Chaldean components of the Ottoman genocide against Christians, alongside the Armenian strand of the genocide (which the IAGS has already formally acknowledged). The result, passed emphatically in December 2007 despite not inconsiderable opposition, was a resolution which I co-drafted, reading as follows:... (IAGS resolution is on p. 172)WEB,weblink Resolution by the International Association of Genocide Scholars, IAGS, December 2007, 15 February 2016, {{dead link|date=November 2019|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}NEWS,weblink Genocide Resolution approved by Swedish Parliament â€“ full text, Armenia NEWS.am, 15 March 2010, 15 February 2016, Gaunt, David. Massacres, Resistance, Protectors: Muslim-Christian Relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias Press, 2006.JOURNAL, 10.1080/14623520801950820, Schaller, Dominik J., Zimmerer, Jürgen, 2008, Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies â€“ introduction, Journal of Genocide Research, 10, 1, 7–14, harv, This joint statement stated, "[i]n view of these new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres."

Armenians

The Armenian Genocide (, (Romanization of Armenian|translit.:) ; ) refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I. It was implemented through wholesale massacres and deportations, with the deportations consisting of forced marches under conditions designed to lead to the death of the deportees. The total number of resulting deaths is generally held to have been between one and one and a half million.{{Citation | author-link = Vahakn N. Dadrian| last = Dadrian | first = Vahakn N | title = The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus | place = Oxford | publisher = Berghahn | year = 1995}}.
  • {{Citation | first = Peter | last = Balakian | title = The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response | place = New York | publisher = HarperCollins | year = 2003}}.
  • {{Citation | first = Donald | last = Bloxham | title = The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians | place = Oxford | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 2005}}.
  • {{Citation | first = Taner | last = Akçam | author-link = Taner Akçam | title = The Young Turks' Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire | place = Princeton | publisher = Princeton University Press | year = 2012| title-link = The Young Turks' Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire }}
The genocide began on 24 April 1915, when Ottoman authorities arrested some 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Constantinople. Thereafter, the Ottoman military uprooted Armenians from their homes and forced them to march for hundreds of miles, without food and water, to the desert of what is now Syria. Massacres ignored age and gender, with rape and other acts of sexual abuse being commonplace.{{Citation | first1 = Hans-Lukas | last1 = Kieser | authorlink2 = Hans-Lukas Kieser| first2 = Dominik J | last2 = Schaller | title = Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah |trans-title=The Armenian Genocide and the Shoah | language = German |publisher = Chronos | year = 2002 | isbn = 978-3-0340-0561-6 | page = 114}} The majority of Armenian diaspora communities were founded as a result of these events. Mass killings continued under the Republic of Turkey during the Turkish–Armenian War phase of Turkish War ofIndependence.BOOK, Christopher J. Walker, Armenia, the Survival of a Nation,weblink 1980, St. Martin's Press, 978-0-312-04944-7,
  • BOOK, Akçam, Taner, A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility, 2007, 327,weblink 9780805086652,
File:Marcharmenians.jpg|thumb|Armenian civilians, escorted by armed Ottoman soldiers, are marched through Kharpert to a prison in the nearby Mezireh district, April 1915.]]Modern Turkey succeeded the Ottoman Empire in 1923 and vehemently denies that a genocide took place. It has resisted calls in recent years by scholars, countries and international organizations to acknowledge the crime. The Armenian genocide is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Lemkin coined "genocide" with the Armenian genocide in mind.Freeman, Michael. 1995. ‘Genocide, Civilisation and Modernity’. The British Journal of Sociology 46(2): 207–23.

Assyrians

The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo; Aramaic: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ, ) was committed against the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War by the Young Turks.BOOK, Assyrians: the continuous saga,weblink January 2005, F.A. Aprim, 40, Frederick A., Aprim, The Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia (Tur Abdin, Hakkari, Van, Siirt region in modern-day southeastern Turkey and Urmia region in northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish and allied Kurdish) forces between 1914 and 1920.BOOK,weblink Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, Bat Ye'or, Ye'or, Bat, Miriam, Kochan, David, Littman, 2002, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 148–49, 978-0-8386-3943-6, 47054791, This genocide paralleled the Armenian Genocide and Greek genocide.{{sfn|Jones|2006|p={{Google books|id=BqdVudSuTRIC|p=54}}}} The Assyro-Chaldean National Council stated in a 4 December 1922, memorandum that the total death toll is unknown, but it estimated that about 750,000 Assyrians died between 1914 and 1918.{{Citation | first = Joseph | last = Yacoub | language = French | title = La question assyro-chaldéenne, les Puissances européennes et la SDN (1908–1938) |trans-title=The Assyro-Chaldean question: the European Powers and the League of Nations, 1908–38 | type = thèse | place = Lyon | year = 1985 | page = 156}}, 4 vol.

Greeks

The Greek genocide{{Citation | url =weblink | publisher = Assyrian International News Agency | date = 15 December 2007 | title = International Genocide Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian, Greek Genocides | accessdate =15 December 2007}} refers to the fate of the Greek population of the Ottoman Empire during and in the aftermath of World War I (1914–18). Like Armenians and Assyrians, the Greeks were subjected to various forms of persecution including massacres, expulsions, and death marches by Young Turks.{{sfn|Jones|2010}}BOOK, Paul, Betts, Years of Persecution, Years of Extermination: Saul Friedlander and the Future of Holocaust Studies,weblink 17 November 2012, 17 August 2010, Continuum, 978-1-4411-2987-1, 214–, Already in the period 1912–14, the Young Turk leadership aimed to replace the multi-ethnic and multi-confessional.... The elimination of the Armenian, Assyrian, and Greek populations was an integral part of the Young Turk struggle for ..., Mass killing of Greeks continued under the Turkish National Movement during the Greco-Turkish War phase of the Turkish War of Independence.{{Citation | title = Death by Government | first = Rudolph | last = Rummel | year = 1994}} George W. Rendel of the British Foreign Office, among other diplomats, noted the massacres and deportations of Greeks during the post-Armistice period.{{Citation | publisher = Foreign Office | type = memorandum | first = GW | last = Rendel | title = Turkish Massacres and Persecutions of Minorities since the Armistice | date = 20 March 1922}} Estimates of the number of Anatolian Greeks killed range from 348,000 to 900,000.Jones 2010, pp. 150–51: ‘By the beginning of the First World War, a majority of the region’s ethnic Greeks still lived in present-day Turkey, mostly in Thrace (the only remaining Ottoman territory in Europe, abutting the Greek border), and along the Aegean and Black Sea coasts. They would be targeted both prior to and alongside the Armenians of Anatolia and the Assyrians of Anatolia and Mesopotamia… The major populations of "Anatolian Greeks" include those along the Aegean coast and those in Cappadocia (central Anatolia), but not the Greeks of the Thrace region west of the Bosphorus… A "Christian genocide" framing acknowledges the historic claims of Assyrian and Greek peoples, and the movements now stirring for recognition and restitution among Greek and Assyrian diasporas. It also brings to light the quite staggering cumulative death toll among the various Christian groups that were targeted for genocide… of the 1.5 million Greeks of Asia minor—Ionians, Pontians, and Cappadocians—approximately 750,000 were massacred and 750,000 were exiled. Pontian deaths alone totaled 353,000.Jones 2010, p. 166: ‘An estimate of the Pontian Greek death toll at all stages of the anti-Christian genocide is about 350,000; for all the Greeks of the Ottoman realm taken together, the toll surely exceeded half a million, and may approach the 900,000 killed that a team of US researchers found in the early postwar period. Most surviving Greeks were expelled to Greece as part of the tumultuous "population exchanges" that set the seal on a heavily "Turkified" state.’Taner Akcam (21 August 2007). A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. Henry Holt and Company. p. 107. {{ISBN|978-1-4668-3212-1}}.{{sfn|Rummel|1998|p=Chapter 5}}

Dersim Kurds

The Dersim massacre refers to the depopulation of Dersim in Turkish Kurdistan, in 1937–38, in which approximately 13,000–40,000 Alevi KurdsTurkey's Alevis 'under the shadow of military tanks', Al JazeeraA Modern History of the Kurds: Third Edition p. 209, David McDowall were killed and thousands more were driven into exile. A key component of the Turkification process was a policy of massive population resettlement. The main document, the 1934 Law on Resettlement, was used to target the region of Dersim as one of its first test cases, with disastrous consequences for the local population.{{sfn|Andreopoulos|1988|p= 11}}Many Kurds and some ethnic Turks consider the events that took place in Dersim to constitute genocide. A prominent proponent of this view is İsmail Beşikçi.{{Citation | language = Turkish | first = İsmail | last = Besikçi | title = Tunceli Kanunu (1935) ve Dersim Jenosidi | publisher = Belge Yayınları | year = 1990}} Under international laws, the actions of the Turkish authorities were arguably not genocide, because they were not aimed at the extermination of a people, but at resettlement and suppression.{{sfn|van Bruineßen|1994}} A Turkish court ruled in 2011 that the events could not be considered genocide because they were not directed systematically against an ethnic group.NEWS, Saymaz, Ismail, İsmail Saymaz, Turkish prosecutor refuses to hear Dersim 'genocide' claim,weblink 24 November 2011, Hürriyet Daily News, 14 March 2011, Scholars such as Martin van Bruinessen, have instead talked of an ethnocide directed against the local language and identity.{{sfn|van Bruineßen|1994}}

Kingdom of Iraq

The Simele massacre ( {{transl|syr|pramta d-Simele}}, {{transl|ar|maḏbaḥat Summayl}}) was a massacre committed by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Iraq during a campaign which systematically targeted the Assyrians of northern Iraq in August 1933. The term is used to describe not only the massacre in Simele, but also the killing spree that took place in 63 Assyrian villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts which led to the deaths of between 5,000{{Harvnb|Zubaida|2000|p=370}} and 6,000WEB, Displaced persons in Iraqi Kurdistan and Iraqi refugees in Iran,weblink fidh.org, International Federation for Human Rights, January 2003, 23 September 2011, WEB, DeKelaita, Robert, The Origins and Developments of Assyrian Nationalism,weblink Committee on International Relations Of the University of Chicago, Assyrian International News Agency, 22 November 2009, 23 September 2011, Assyrians.The Simele massacre inspired Raphael Lemkin to create the concept of genocide.BOOK, Sargon Donabed, Reforging a Forgotten History: Iraq and the Assyrians in the 20th Century,weblink 1 February 2015, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-8605-6, 110–, In 1933, Lemkin delivered a presentation to the Legal Council of the League of Nations conference on international criminal law in Madrid, for which he prepared an essay on the Crime of Barbarity as a crime against international law. The concept of the "crime of barbarity" evolved into the idea of genocide, and it was based on the Simele massacre and the Armenian Genocide, and it later included the Holocaust.WEB, Raphael Lemkin,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100416164051weblink">weblink 16 April 2010, EuropeWorld, 22 June 2001, 23 September 2011,

Russia and the Soviet Union

Pogroms of Jews

The Whitaker Report of the United Nations used the massacre of 100,000 to 250,000 Jews in more than 2,000 pogroms during the White Terror in Russia as an example of genocide.WEB, UN Whitaker Report on Genocide, 1985, paragraphs 14 to 24 pages 5 to 10» .,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190613150627weblink">weblink dead, 2019-06-13, preventgenocideinternational, During the Russian Civil War, between 1918 and 1921 a total of 1,236 violent incidents against Jews occurred in 524 towns in Ukraine. The estimates of the number of killed range between 30,000 and 60,000."History and Culture of Jews in Ukraine ("«Нариси з історії та культури євреїв України»)«Дух і літера» publ., Kyiv, 2008, с. 128 – 135D. Vital. Zionism: the crucial phase. Oxford University Press. 1987. p. 359] Of the recorded 1,236 pogroms and excesses, 493 were carried out by Ukrainian People's Republic soldiers under command of Symon Petliura, 307 by independent Ukrainian warlords, 213 by Denikin's army, 106 by the Red Army and 32 by the Polish Army.R. Pipes. A Concise History of the Russian Revolution. Vintage Books. 1996. p. 262.

Decossackization

During the Russian Civil War the Bolsheviks engaged in a genocidal campaign against the Don Cossacks.BOOK, Mikhail, Heller, Aleksandr, Nekrich, Alexander Nekrich, Utopia in power: the history of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the present,weblink January 1988, Summit Books, 978-0-671-64535-9, Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, 1999. {{ISBN|0-674-07608-7}} pp. 8–9BOOK, Orlando Figes, A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891–1924,weblink 1997, Pimlico, 978-0-7126-7327-3, Orlando Figes, 660, BOOK, Donald Rayfield, Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those who Killed for Him,weblink 2004, Random House, 978-0-375-50632-1, Donald Rayfield, 83, BOOK, R. J. Rummel, Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocides and Mass Murders Since 1917,weblink Transaction Publishers, 978-1-4128-2750-8, R. J. Rummel, {{google books, sK5CJFpb2DAC, 2, |year=1996}} University of York Russian specialist Shane O'Rourke states that "ten thousand Cossacks were slaughtered systematically in a few weeks in January 1919" and that this "was one of the main factors which led to the disappearance of the Cossacks as a nation".Soviet order to exterminate Cossacks is unearthed {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091210025518weblink |date=December 10, 2009 }} University of York Communications Office, 21 January 2003 The late Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev, head of the Presidential Committee for the Rehabilitation of Victims of Political Repression, notes that "hundreds of thousands of Cossacks were killed".Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. {{ISBN|0-300-08760-8}} p. 102 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141119143859weblink |date=November 19, 2014 }} Historian Robert Gellately claims that "the most reliable estimates indicate that between 300,000 and 500,000 were killed or deported in 1919–20" out of a population of around three million.Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160505235017weblink |date=May 5, 2016 }} Knopf, 2007 {{ISBN|1-4000-4005-1}} pp. 70–71.Peter Holquist states the overall number of executions is difficult to establish. In some regions hundreds were executed. In Khoper, the tribunal was very active, with a one-month total of 226 executions. The Tsymlianskaia tribunal oversaw the execution of over 700 people. The Kotel'nikovo tribunal executed 117 in early May and nearly 1,000 overall. Others were not quite as active. The Berezovskaia tribunal made a total of twenty arrests in a community of 13,500 people. Holquist also notes that some of White reports of Red atrocities in the Don were consciously scripted for agitation purposes.Holquist, Peter, "A Russian Vendee: The Practice of Revolutionary Politics in the Don Countryside, 1917–1921." Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1994. In one example, an insurgent leader reported that 140 were executed in Bokovskaia, but later provided a different account, according to which only eight people in Bokovskaia were sentenced to death, and the authorities did not manage to carry these sentences out. This same historian emphasises he is "not seeking to downplay or dismiss very real executions by the Soviets".Peter Holquist. "Conduct merciless mass terror": decossackization on the Don, 1919{{dead link|date=December 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}"Research by Pavel Polian from Russian Academy of Sciences on the subject of forced migrations in Russia shows that more than 45,000 Cossacks were deported from the Terek province to Ukraine. Their land was distributed among pro-soviet Cossacks and Chechens.BOOK, Pavel Polian, Against Their Will (book), Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR, Central European University Press, 2004, 978-963-9241-68-8, 60,

Joseph Stalin

Multiple documented instances of unnatural mass death occurred in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. These include Union-wide famines in the early 1920s and early 1930s and deportations of ethnic minorities.

Holodomor

File:GolodomorKharkiv.jpg|thumb|Starved peasants on a street in KharkivKharkivDuring the Soviet famine of 1932–33 that affected Ukraine, Kazakhstan and some densely populated regions of Russia, the highest scale of death was in Ukraine. The events there are referred to as the Holodomor and they are recognized as genocide by the governments of Australia, Argentina, Georgia, Estonia, Italy, Canada, Lithuania, Poland, the US and Hungary. The famine was caused by the confiscation of the whole 1933 harvest in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the Kuban (a densely populated Russian region), and some other parts of the Soviet Union, leaving the peasants too little to feed themselves. As a result, an estimated ten million died, including three to seven million in Ukraine, one million in the North Caucasus and one million elsewhere.BOOK, Conquest, Robert, Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine, Oxford University Press, 1986, London, 306, 978-0-19-505180-3, In addition to the requisitioning of crops and livestock in Ukraine, all food was confiscated by Soviet authorities. Any and all aid and food was prohibited from entering the Ukrainian republic. Ukraine's Yuschenko administration recognized the Holodomor as an act of genocide and pushed international governments to acknowledge this.NEWS, Helen, Fawkes,weblink Legacy of famine divides Ukraine, BBC, News, 24 November 2006, This move was opposed by the Russian government and some members of the Ukrainian parliament, especially the Communists. A Ukrainian court found Joseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Genrikh Yagoda, Yakov Yakovlev, Stanislav Kosior, Pavel Postyshev, Vlas Chubar and Mendel Khatayevich posthumously guilty of genocide on 13 January 2010.NEWS,weblink Holodomor famine, Stalin, Ukraine, RT, 14 January 2010, {{Dead link|date=March 2016}}{{cbignore}}NEWS,weblink Sentence to Stalin, his comrades for organizing Holodomor takes effect in Ukraine, Kyiv Post, 21 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110123071649weblink">weblink 23 January 2011, As of 2010, the Russian government's official position was that the famine took place, but was not an ethnic genocide; former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych supported this position.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Ukraine must not blame neighbors for famine – Yanukovych | newspaper = RIA Novosti | date = 16 January 2010 | place = RU}}{{Citation | url =weblink | archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101122202838weblink">weblink | archivedate =22 November 2010 | title = Yanukovych: Famine of 1930s was not genocide against Ukrainians | newspaper = Kyiv Post | date = 27 April 2010}} A ruling of 12 January 2010 by Kyiv's Court of Appeal declared the Soviet leaders guilty of "genocide against the Ukrainian national group in 1932–33 through the artificial creation of living conditions intended for its partial physical destruction."NEWS, Interfax-Ukraine, Our Ukraine Party: Yanukovych violated law on Holodomor of 1932–1933, Kyiv Post, 27 April 2010,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100501041658weblink">weblink 1 May 2010, 10 August 2010,

Poles in the Soviet Union

Several scholars write that the killing, on the basis of nationality and politics, of more than 120,000 ethnic Poles in the Soviet Union from 1937–38 was genocide.{{sfn|Sommer|2010|pp=417–18}} An NKVD official remarked that Poles living in the Soviet Union were to be "completely destroyed". Under Stalin the NKVD's Polish operation soon arrested some 144,000, of whom 111,000 were shot and surviving family members deported to Kazakhstan.Norman M. Naimark, Stalin's Genocides (Princeton University 2010), NKVD at pp. 85–86 (arrested, shot), quote at 85.Wendy Z. Goldman, Inventing the Enemy: Denunciation and Terror in Stalin's Russia (New York: Cambridge University Press 2011), p. 217.Robert Conquest, The Great Terror. A reassessment (Oxford University 1990), pp. 405–07. "The Purge affected not only the Polish Party members but the Polish population as a whole." Between 1926 and 1939 Poles in the Soviet Union decreased by 168,000.In practice abandoning its 'official socialist' ideology of the "fraternity of peoples", the Soviets in the Great Terror of 1937–1938 targeted "a national group as an enemy of the state." During their Polish operation against party enemies the NKVD hit "Soviet Poles and other Soviet citizens associated with Poland, Polish culture, or Roman Catholicism. The Polish ethnic character of the operation quickly prevailed in practice... ." Stalin was pleased at "cleaning out this Polish filth." Among the several different nationalities targeted in the Great Terror (e.g., Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Belarusians), "ethnic Poles suffered more than any other group."Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands. Europe between Hitler and Stalin (New York: Basic Books 2010), pp. 93 (quote: "fraternity"); 94 (quote: "Soviet Poles"); 96 (Stalin quote); 103–04 (quote: "ethnic Poles"). In the Polish operation Snyder lists 143,810 arrested, 111,091 executed, mostly Poles (p. 103). Other operations targeted Latvians, Estonians, Finns (p. 104), and "the Belarusian intelligentsia" (p. 98). In 1940 the Soviets also killed thousands of Polish POWs, among about 22,000 Polish citizens shot in the Katyn forest and other places.Naimark, Stalin's Genocides (Princeton Univ. 2010): Katyn killings, pp. 91–92.Norman Davies, Heart of Europe. The past in Poland's present (Oxford University 1984, 2001) pp. 58–59 (Katyn), p. 422 (Soviet President Gorbachev sent Polish President Jaruzelski documentary evidence re Katyn "proving that the mass murder of c.25,000 Polish officers had been perpetrated by the Soviet NKVD in 1940").

Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachay, Kalmyks, Meskhetian Turks, and Volga Germans

The decree on the deportation of Volga Germans was published on August 28, 1941. Men aged 15–55 and later women between the ages of 16 and 45 were forced to work in the forests and mines of Siberia and Central Asia under conditions similar to those prevailing in the slave labor camps of the Gulag. The expulsion of the Germans from the Volga ended in September 1941. The number sent to Siberia and Kazakhstan totaled approximately 438,000. Together with 27,000 evicted in the same ethnic cleansing of the Stalingrad Oblast and 47,000 of the Saratov Oblast, the total number sent to forced internal exile was about 950,000, of which 30% died during deportation(285.000)and most never returned to volga region.On 26 February 2004 the plenary assembly of the European Parliament recognized the deportation of Chechen people during Operation Lentil (23 February 1944), as an act of genocide, on the basis of the 1907 (Hague Conventions (1907)|IV Hague Convention: The Laws and Customs of War on Land) and the CPPCG.WEB,weblink Chechnya: European Parliament recognises the genocide of the Chechen People in 1944, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, 27 February 2004, 13 February 2016, The event began on 23 February 1944, when the entire population of Checheno-Ingushetia was summoned to local party buildings where they were told they were to be deported as punishment for their alleged collaboration with the Germans. The inhabitants were rounded up and imprisoned in Studebaker trucks and sent to Siberia.BOOK, John B. Dunlop, Russia Confronts Chechnya: Roots of a Separatist Conflict,weblink 28 September 1998, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-63184-6, 65, {{harvnb|Gammer|2006|p=170}}
  • Many times, resistance was met with slaughter, and in one such instance, in the aul of Khaibakh, about 700 people were locked in a barn and burned to death. By the next summer, Checheno-Ingushetia was dissolved; a number of Chechen and Ingush placenames were replaced with Russian ones; mosques and graveyards were destroyed, and a massive campaign to burn numerous historical Chechen texts was nearly complete.{{harvnb|Gammer|2006|p=182}}
  • {{harvnb|Jaimoukha|2004|p=212}} Throughout the North Caucasus, about 700,000 (according to Dalkhat Ediev, 724297,Ediev, Dalkhat. Demograficheskie poteri deportirovannykh narodov SSSR, Stavropol 2003, Table 109, p. 302 of which the majority, 412,548, were Chechens, along with 96,327 Ingush, 104,146 Kalmyks, 39,407 Balkars and 71,869 Karachais). Many died on the trip, of exposure in Siberia's extremely harsh environment. The NKVD, supplying the Russian perspective, gives the statistic of 144,704 killed in 1944–1948 alone (with a death rate of 23.5% for all groups). Estimates for Chechen deaths alone (excluding the NKVD statistic), range from about 170,000 to 200,000BOOK, Aleksandr Nekrich, The Punished Peoples: The Deportation and Fate of Soviet Minorities at the End of the Second World War,weblink 1981, W.W. Norton, Incorporated, 978-0-393-00068-9,
  • BOOK, John B. Dunlop, Russia Confronts Chechnya: Roots of a Separatist Conflict,weblink 1998, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-63619-3, 62–70, Gammer.The Lone Wolf and the Bear, pp. 166–71 thus ranging from over a third of the total Chechen population to nearly half being killed (of those that were deported, not counting those killed on the spot) in those 4 years alone. Both the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the European Union Parliament marked it as genocide in 2004.WEB, Bataev, A.,weblink ru:Европарламент: депортация вайнахов – геноцид, European Parliament: deportation of the Vainakhs – genocide, ru, HRO.org, 18 March 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040712015729weblink">weblink 12 July 2004,

Deportations of Baltic people

File:AntanasSniečkus7-11-1970Vlns.jpg|thumb|Antanas Sniečkus, the leader of the Communist Party of LithuaniaCommunist Party of LithuaniaThe mass deportations of up to 17,500 Lithuanians, 17,000 Latvians and 6,000 Estonians carried out by Stalin were the start of another genocide. Added to the killing of the Forest Brethren and the renewed Dekulakization that followed the Soviet reconquest of the Baltic states at the end of World War II, the total number deported to Siberia was 118,559 from Lithuania, 52,541 from Latvia, and 32,540 from Estonia.BOOK, Naimark, Norman M., Stalin's Genocides, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-15238-7, 89, 5 December 2011, The high death rate of the deportees during their first few years in exile, caused by the failure of the Soviet authorities to provide them with suitable clothing and housing after they reached their destination, led some sources to label the affair an act of genocide.BOOK, R. J. Rummel, Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocides and Mass Murders Since 1917,weblink Transaction Publishers, 978-1-4128-2750-8, 1996,
  • J. Pohl, "Stalin's genocide against the 'Repressed Peoples'", Journal of Genocide Research, Volume 2, Number 2, 1 June 2000, pp. 267–93
  • Lauri Mälksoo, "Soviet Genocide? Communist Mass Deportations in the Baltic States and International Law", Leiden Journal of International Law (2001), 14: pp. 757–87 Cambridge University Press Based on the Martens Clause and the principles of the Nuremberg Charter, the European Court of Human Rights held that the March deportation constituted a crime against humanity.Postimees 31 March 2009: Martin Arpo: kommunismiaja kuritegude tee Euroopa Inimõiguste KohtuniWEB,weblink ECHR decision on the case Kolk and Kislyiy v. Estonia: Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to Crimes against Humanity, derechos.org, Council of Europe, 17 January 2006, 15 February 2016, According to Erwin Oberlander, these deportations are a crime against humanity, rather than genocide.BOOK, Oberlander, Erwin, Forgotten Pages in Baltic History: Diversity and Inclusion, Rodopi, 978-9042033153, 253–54, Martyn Housden, David James Smith, 2011,
Lithuania began holding trials for genocide in 1997. Latvia and Estonia followed in 1998.BOOK, Travis, Hannibal, Ethnonationalism, Genocide, and the United Nations, Routledge, 978-0-415-53125-2, 82, 2013, Latvia has since convicted four security officers and in 2003 it sentenced a former KGB agent to five years in prison. Estonia tried and convicted ten men and is investigating others. In Lithuania by 2004 23 cases were before the courts, but as of the end of the year none had been convicted.BOOK, Budryte, Dovile, Taming Nationalism? Political Community Building in the Post-Soviet Baltic States, Ashgate, 978-0-7546-4281-7, 182, 2005, In 2007 Estonia charged Arnold Meri (then 88 years old), a former Soviet Communist Party official and highly decorated former Red Army soldier, with genocide. Shortly after the trial opened, it was suspended because of Meri's frail health and then abandoned when he died.NEWS, BBC staff,weblink BBC News, Estonian man on genocide charge, 23 August 2007, WEB,weblink Estonian Red Army veteran dies amidst genocide trial, 28 March 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120614031605weblink">weblink 14 June 2012, A memorial in Vilnius, Lithuania, is dedicated to genocidal victims of Stalin and Hitler,WEB,weblink Genocide in Lithuania, people.cohums.ohio-state.edu, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060911160640weblink">weblink 11 September 2006, {{better source|date=March 2012}} and the Museum of Genocide Victims in Lithuania, which opened on 14 October 1992 in the former KGB headquarters, chronicles the imprisonment and deportation of Lithuanians.WEB, Eugenijus, Peikštenis,weblink Lithuanian Museum of Genocide Victims, Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, 26 November 2016,

Crimean Tatars

The ethnic cleansingBOOK, Levene, Mark, Annihilation: Volume II: The European Rimlands 1939–1953, 2013, Oxford University Press, 978-0199683048, 333, Naimark 2002, p. 104BOOK, Kohl, Philip L., Kozelsky, Mara, Ben-Yehuda, Nachman, Selective Remembrances: Archaeology in the Construction, Commemoration, and Consecration of National Pasts, 2008, University of Chicago Press, 978-0226450643, 92, and deportation of the Crimean Tatars from Crimea was ordered by Joseph Stalin as a form of collective punishment for alleged collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime in Taurida Subdistrict during 1942–1943. The state-organized removal is known as the Sürgünlik in Crimean Tatar. A total of more than 230,000 people were deported (the entire ethnic Crimean Tatar population), of which more than 100,000 died from starvation or disease.Some activists, politicians, scholars and historians go even further and consider this deportation a crime of genocide.{{sfn|Tatz|Higgins|2016|p=28}}{{sfn|Uehling|2015|p=3}}{{sfn|Blank|2015|p=18}}{{sfn|Legters|1992|p=104}} Professor Lyman H. Legters argued that the Soviet penal system, combined with its resettlement policies, should count as genocidal since the sentences were borne most heavily specifically on certain ethnic groups, and that a relocation of these ethnic groups, whose survival depends on ties to its particular homeland, "had a genocidal effect remediable only by restoration of the group to its homeland".{{sfn|Legters|1992|p=104}} Soviet dissidents Ilya Gabay{{sfn|Fisher|2014|p=150}} and Pyotr Grigorenko{{sfn|Allworth|1998|p=216}} both classified the event as a genocide. Historian Timothy Snyder included it in a list of Soviet policies that “meet the standard of genocide.”WEB,weblink The fatal fact of the Nazi-Soviet pact, Snyder, Timothy, 2010-10-05, the Guardian, 2018-08-06, Some academics disagree with the classification of deportation as genocide. Professor Alexander Statiev argues that Stalin's administration did not have a conscious genocidal intent to exterminate the various deported peoples, but that Soviet "political culture, poor planning, haste, and wartime shortages were responsible for the genocidal death rate among them." He rather considers these deportations an example of Soviet assimilation of "unwanted nations."{{sfn|Statiev|2010|pp=243–264}} According to Professor Amir Weiner, "...It was their territorial identity and not their physical existence or even their distinct ethnic identity that the regime sought to eradicate."{{sfn|Weiner|2002|pp=44–53}} According to Professor Francine Hirsch, "although the Soviet regime practiced politics of discrimination and exclusion, it did not practice what contemporaries thought of as racial politics." To her, these mass deportations were based on the concept that nationalities were "sociohistorical groups with a shared consciousness and not racial-biological groups".{{sfn|Hirsch|2002|pp=30–43}} In contrast to this view Jon K. Chang contends that the deportations had been in fact based on ethnicity; and that "social historians" in the west have failed to champion the rights of marginalized ethnicities in the Soviet Union.JOURNAL, K. Chang, Jon, Ethnic Cleansing and Revisionist Russian and Soviet History, Academic Questions, 8 April 2019, 32, 2, 270, 10.1007/s12129-019-09791-8, On 12 December 2015, the Ukrainian Parliament issued a resolution recognizing this event as genocide and established 18 May as the "Day of Remembrance for the victims of the Crimean Tatar genocide."Radio Free Europe, 21 January 2016 The parliament of Latvia recognized the event as an act of genocide on 9 May 2019.WEB,weblink Latvian Lawmakers Label 1944 Deportation Of Crimean Tatars As Act Of Genocide, 2019-05-09, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 2019-05-10, WEB,weblink Saeima pieņem paziņojumu par Krimas tatāru deportāciju 75.gadadienu, atzīstot notikušo par genocīdu, 2019-05-09, saeima.lv, 2019-05-11, The Parliament of Lithuania did the same on 6 June 2019.WEB,weblink Lithuanian parliament recognizes Soviet crimes against Crimean Tatars as genocide, 2019-06-06, The Baltic Times, 2019-06-06, Canadian Parliament passed a motion on June 10, 2019, recognizing the Crimean Tatar deportation of 1944 (Sürgünlik) as a genocide perpetrated by Soviet dictator Stalin, designating May 18 to be a day of remembrance.WEB,weblink Borys Wrzesnewskyj,weblink

Japan

File:Nanking bodies 1937.jpg|thumb|The corpses of massacred victims with a Japanese soldier standing nearby, NanjingNanjingDuring the Nanking massacre which was committed during the early months of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese committed mass killings against the Chinese, with up to 300,000 killed. Bradley Campbell described the Nanking Massacre as a genocide, because the Chinese were unilaterally killed by the Japanese en masse during the aftermath of the battle for the city, despite its successful and certain outcome.JOURNAL, Campbell, Bradley, Genocide as social control, Sociological Theory, June 2009, 27, 2, 154, 40376129, Also, genocide may occur in the aftermath of warfare when mass killings continue after the outcome of a battle or a war has been decided. For instance, after the Chinese city of Nanking was occupied by the Japanese in December 1937, Japanese soldiers massacred over 250,000 residents of the city., 10.1111/j.1467-9558.2009.01341.x, harv,

Dominican Republic

In 1937, Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo ordered the execution of Haitians living in the Dominican Republic. The Parsley massacre, known in the Dominican Republic as "El Corte" (the Cutting), lasted approximately five days. The name comes from claims that soldiers used a Shibboleth to identify suspected Haitians, showing them parsley leaves and asking them to pronounce the name of the plant. Spanish-speaking Dominicans would be able to pronounce the Spanish word for parsley ("perejil") correctly, whereas native Haitian Creole speakers would struggle to pronounce the 'r' adequately. Those who mispronounced "perejil" were assumed to be Haitian and slaughtered. The program resulted in the deaths of 20,000 to 30,000 people.WEB,weblink Parsley Massacre: The Genocide That Still Haunts Haiti-Dominican Relations, Ibtimes.com, 15 October 2012, 11 March 2014,

Republic of China and Tibet

In the 1930s, the Kuomintang's Republic of China government supported Muslim warlord Ma Bufang when he launched seven expeditions into Golog, causing the deaths of thousands of Tibetans.BOOK,weblink's%20seven%20genocidal%20golog&f=false, Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity, Uradyn Erden, Bulag, 2002, Rowman & Littlefield, 54, 978-0-7425-1144-6, 28 June 2010, Uradyn Erden Bulag called the events that followed genocidal, while David Goodman called them ethnic cleansing. One Tibetan counted the number of times Ma attacked him, remembering the seventh attack that made life impossible.BOOK,weblink China reconstructs, 10, Fu Li, Hui, 1961, China Welfare Institute, 16, 28 June 2010, Ma was anti-communist and he and his army wiped out many Tibetans in northeast and eastern Qinghai and destroyed Tibetan Buddhist Temples.BOOK,weblink China's campaign to "Open up the West": national, provincial, and local perspectives, David SG, Goodman, 2004, Cambridge University Press, 72, 978-0-521-61349-1, 28 June 2010, BOOK,weblink The other global city, Shail, Mayaram, 2009, Taylor & Francis, US, 76–7, 978-0-415-99194-0, 30 July 2010, Ma also patronized the Panchen Lama, who was exiled from Tibet by the Dalai Lama's government.

Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe

File:WW2-Holocaust-Europe.png|thumb|Major deportation routes to the extermination camps in Europe.]]

The Holocaust {|class"wikitable" style"float:right; margin-left:1em; font-size:100%"

under 100,000
1,100,000
2,700,000
500,000
600,000
100,000
The Holocaust is widely recognized as genocide. The term appeared in the indictment of 24 German leaders. Count three of the indictment stated that all the defendants had "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide – namely, the extermination of racial and national groups...."BOOK, Kristen R., Monroe, Ethics in an Age of Terror and Genocide: Identity and Moral Choice,weblink 2011, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-15143-4, 10–, The term "the Holocaust" (from the Greek hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt") is often used to describe the killing of approximately six million European Jews, as part of a program of deliberate extermination that was planned and executed by the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany, which was led by Adolf Hitler.{{sfn|Niewyk|Nicosia|2000|p=45}}Also see "The Holocaust", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007: "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women and children, and millions of others, by Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this 'the final solution to the Jewish question'". Many scholars do not include other groups in the definition of the Holocaust, reserving the term for the genocide of the Jews.{{Citation| last = Weissman | first = Gary | title = Fantasies of Witnessing: Postwar Attempts to Experience the Holocaust | publisher = Cornell University Press | year = 2004 | isbn = 978-0-8014-4253-7 | page = 94 | quote = Kren illustrates his point with his reference to the Kommissararbefehl. 'Should the (strikingly unreported) systematic mass starvation of Soviet prisoners of war be included in the Holocaust?' he asks. Many scholars would answer no, maintaining that 'the Holocaust' should refer strictly to those events involving the systematic killing of the Jews'. | url =weblink }}{{Citation | title = The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion | publisher = Yad Vashem | quote = The Holocaust, as presented in this resource center, is defined as the sum total of all anti-Jewish actions carried out by the German regime between 1933 and 1945: from stripping the German Jews of their legal and economic status in the 1930s, to segregating and starving Jews in the various occupied countries, to the murder of close to six million Jews in Europe. The Holocaust is part of a broader aggregate of acts of oppression and murder of various ethnic and political groups in Europe by the Germans.}}{{sfn|Niewyk|Nicosia|2000|p=45}}{{Citation | contribution = Holocaust | title = Encyclopædia Britannica | year = 2007 | quote = the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question."}}ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Holocaust, Encarta, 1993, dead,weblink 31 October 2009, Holocaust, the almost complete destruction of Jews in Europe by Germany and its collaborators during World War II (1939–1945). The leadership of Germany ordered the extermination of 5.6 million to 5.9 million Jews (see National Socialism). Jews often refer to the Holocaust as the Shoah (from the Hebrew word for "catastrophe" or "total destruction")., {{Citation |last=Paulson |first=Steve |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/genocide/holocaust_overview_01.shtml|title=A View of the Holocaust |publisher=BBC.co.uk |quote=The Holocaust was the Germans' assault on the Jews between 1933 and 1945. It culminated in what the Germans called the 'Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Europe', in which six million Jews were murdered.}}{{Citation|url=http://www.auschwitz.dk/|contribution=The Holocaust|title=Auschwitz|place=DK|quote=The Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of six million Jews by the Germans during World War 2.}}{{Citation | url =weblink | archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090116174139weblink">weblink | archivedate =16 January 2009 | contribution = Holocaust | type = definition | title = Encyclopedia of the Holocaust | publisher = Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies | quote = (Heb., sho'ah). In the 1950s the term came to be applied primarily to the destruction of the Jews of Europe under the German regime, and it is also employed in order to describe the annihilation of other groups of people during World War II. The mass extermination of Jews has become the archetype of GENOCIDE, and the terms sho'ah and 'holocaust' have become linked to the attempt by the German state to destroy European Jewry during World War II... One of the first to use the term in this historical perspective was the Jerusalem historian BenZion Dinur (Dinaburg), who, in the spring of 1942, stated that the Holocaust was a 'catastrophe' that symbolized the unique situation of the Jewish people among the nations of the world.}}{{Citation | publisher = The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies | title = List of definitions | contribution = Holocaust | quote = A term for the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945.}}{{Citation | url =weblink | contribution = The Holocaust | title = Compact Oxford English Dictionary | quote = the mass murder of Jews under the German regime in World War II. }}{{Citation | title = The 33rd Annual Scholars' Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches | type = definition | contribution = The Holocaust | quote = the German attempt to annihilate European Jewry}}, cited in {{Citation | last = Hancock | first = Ian | url =weblink | archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040710194912weblink">weblink | archivedate =10 July 2004 |contribution=Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview | editor-last = Stone | editor-first = Dan | title = The Historiography of the Holocaust | publisher = Palgrave-Macmillan | place = New York | year = 2004 | pages = 383–96}}{{Citation | author-link = Yehuda Bauer| last = Bauer | first = Yehuda | title = Rethinking the Holocaust | place = New Haven | publisher = Yale University Press | year = 2001 | page = 10}}{{Citation | author-link = Lucy Dawidowicz| last = Dawidowicz | first = Lucy | title = The War Against the Jews: 1933–1945 | publisher = Bantam | year = 1986 | page = xxxvii | quote = 'The Holocaust' is the term that Jews themselves have chosen to describe their fate during World War II.}}File:Einsatzgruppe shooting.jpg|thumb|left|German police shooting women and children from the Mizocz GhettoMizocz GhettoThe Holocaust was accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave laborers until they died. When Nazi Germany conquered new territory in Eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings.NEWS,weblink Ukrainian mass Jewish grave found, BBC News, 5 June 2007, 15 February 2016, Jews and Romani were crammed into ghettos before being transported in box cars by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority were killed in gas chambers. Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal nation."BOOK, Michael Berenbaum, Arnold Kramer, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, The world must know: the history of the Holocaust as told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,weblink 2005, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 978-0-8018-8358-3, 103, {|class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin-right:2em; font-size:100%"!Extermination Camp!!Estimate of number killed!!RefAuschwitz concentration camp>Auschwitz-Birkenau1,000,000HTTP://AUSCHWITZ.ORG/EN/HISTORY/THE-NUMBER-OF-VICTIMS/>TITLE=THE NUMBER OF VICTIMSACCESSDATE=18 APRIL 2016, {{Harvnb1998|p=62}}.|Treblinka870,000Treblinka, Yad Vashem.Belzec extermination camp>Belzec600,000Belzec, Yad Vashem.|Majdanek79,000–235,000HTTP://WWW.YADVASHEM.ORG/ODOT_PDF/MICROSOFT%20WORD%20-%206622.PDF>TITLE=MAJDANEKACCESSDATE=5 FEBRUARY 2017, HTTP://EN.AUSCHWITZ.ORG.PL/M/INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_CONTENT&TASK=VIEW&ID=44&ITEMID=8>TITLE=MAJDANEK VICTIMS ENUMERATED. CHANGES IN THE HISTORY TEXTBOOKS?LAST=RESZKADATE=23 DECEMBER 2005GAZETA WYBORCZA>PUBLISHER=AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU STATE MUSEUMARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111106112513/HTTP://EN.AUSCHWITZ.ORG.PL/M/INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_CONTENT&TASK=VIEW&ID=44&ITEMID=8, 6 November 2011, |CheÅ‚mno320,000Chelmno, Yad Vashem.Sobibór extermination camp>Sobibór250,000Sobibor, Yad Vashem.{|class="sortable wikitable" style="float:right; clear:right; text-align:right; margin-left:1em; font-size:100%"|+The following figures by Lucy Dawidowicz show the annihilation of the Jewish population of Europe by (pre-war) country:!Country!EstimatedPre-WarJewishpopulation!Estimatedkilled!Percentkilled|Poland|3,300,000|3,000,000|90|Baltic countries|253,000|228,000|90|Germany and Austria|240,000|210,000|87.5|Bohemia and Moravia|90,000|80,000|89|Slovakia|90,000|75,000|83|Greece|70,000|54,000|77|Netherlands|140,000|105,000|75|Hungary|650,000|450,000|70|Byelorussian SSR|375,000|245,000|65|Ukrainian SSR|1,500,000|900,000|60|Belgium|65,000|40,000|60|Yugoslavia|43,000|26,000|60|Romania|600,000|300,000|50|Norway|2,173|890|41|France|350,000|90,000|26|Bulgaria|64,000|14,000|22|Italy|40,000|8,000|20|Luxembourg|5,000|1,000|20|Russian SFSR|975,000|107,000|11|Denmark|8,000|52|

Poland

File:The Black Book of Poland (21–24).jpg|thumb|Photos from The Black Book of Poland, published in London in 1942 by Polish government-in-exilePolish government-in-exileThe Intelligenzaktion ("anti-intelligentsia action") was a highly secretive genocidal action of Nazi Germany against Polish elites (primarily intelligentsia; teachers, doctors, priests, community leaders etc.) in the early stages of World War II. It was conducted as part of an attempt to complete the Germanization of the western regions of occupied Poland before their planned annexation. The operation cost the lives of 100,000 Poles according to the Institute of National Remembrance.BOOK, Maria Wardzyńska, 2009,weblink Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion, The year was 1939. Operation of German security police in Poland. Intelligenzaktion, Institute of National Remembrance, Portal edukacyjny Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, 978-83-7629-063-8, PDF file, direct download 2.56 MB, 1/356, Polish, Oblicza się, że akcja „Inteligencja” pochłonęła ponad 100 tys. ofiar. Translation: It is estimated that Intelligenzaktion took the lives of 100,000 Poles [p. 8, or p. 10 in PDF]., Adolf Hitler believed that the Polish elites might inspire the Poles to disobey their new German masters so he decreed that they had to be eliminated beforehand.BOOK, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression: Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality,weblink 1, 1946, U.S. Government Printing Office, Nuremberg, Chapter XIII. Germanization and Spoliation, 20 November 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160415120534weblink">weblink 15 April 2016, The aim was the elimination of Polish society's elite, which was very broadly defined as: Polish nobles, intelligentsia, teachers, entrepreneurs, social workers, military veterans, members of national organizations, priests, judges, political activists, and anyone who had attended secondary school.Richard C. Lukas, Forgotten Holocaust, p. 8; {{ISBN|0-781-80528-7}}. It was continued by the German AB-Aktion operation in Poland in the spring and summer of 1940, which saw the massacre of Lwów professors and the execution of about 1,700 Poles in the Palmiry forest. Several thousand civilians were executed or imprisoned. The Einsatzgruppen were also responsible for the indiscriminate killing of Poles during the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union (which itself had invaded a sizeable portion of pre-WWII Polish territory, killing dozens of thousands of imprisoned Poles in turn).BOOK, Headland, Ronald, Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941–1943,weblink 21 November 2016, 1992, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 978-0-8386-3418-9, 94, {{Failed verification|date=November 2016}}Our strength is our quickness and our brutality.... I have given the order—and will have everyone shot who utters but one word of criticism—that the aim of this war does not consist in reaching certain geographical lines, but in the enemies’ physical elimination. Thus, for the time being only in the east, I put ready my Death’s Head units, with the order to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of the Polish race or language... Adolf Hitler, Obersalzberg Speech, given on 22 August 1939, a week before the invasion

Volhynia and Eastern Galicia

File:Lipniki massacre.jpg|thumb|Massacres of Poles in VolhyniaMassacres of Poles in VolhyniaThe massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) West in the Nazi-occupied regions of Eastern Galicia (Nazi created Distrikt Galizien in General Government), and UPA North in Volhynia (in Nazi created Reichskommissariat Ukraine), from March 1943 until the end of 1944. The peak took place in July/August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the liquidation of the entire male Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age.Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's holocaust. Published by McFarland. p. 247Władysław Filar, Wydarzenia wołyńskie 1939–1944. Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek. Toruń 2008 {{ISBN|978-83-7441-884-3}} Despite this, most were women and children. The UPA killed 40,000–60,000 Polish civilians in Volhynia,Grzegorz Motyka, Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji "Wisła". Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943–1947. Kraków 2011, p. 447 from 25,000Timothy Snyder, Rekonstrukcja narodów. Polska, Ukraina, Litwa, Białoruś 1569–1999, Sejny 2009, p. 196 to 30,000–40,000 in Eastern Galicia. The killings were directly linked with the policies of the Bandera fraction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, whose goal, specified at the Second Conference of the OUN-B, was to remove non-Ukrainians from a future Ukrainian state.{{sfn|Gibney|Hansen|2005|p=204}}The massacres are recognized in Poland as ethnic cleansing with "marks of genocide".WEB, Uchwala Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 15 lipca 2009 r. w sprawie tragicznego losu Polakow na Kresach Wschodnich,weblink Biuro Prasowe Kancelarii Sejmu, 17 August 2011, According to IPN prosecutor Piotr Zając, the crimes have a "character of genocide".BOOK, Piotr, Zając,weblink ZBRODNIE PRZESZŁOŚCI Opracowania i materiały prokuratorów IPN, CRIMES OF THE PAST Studies and materials of the IPN prosecutors, pl, The Institute of National Remembrance, 2, Persecution of Polish ethnics in the area of Volyn in 1939–1945 – criminal law assessment of events based on the findings of investigations OKŚZpNP in Lublin, Radosław, Ignatiew, Warsaw, 2008, 34–49, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160306081758weblink">weblink 6 March 2016, dmy-all, On 22 July 2016, the Parliament of Poland passed a resolution declaring 11 July a National Day of Remembrance to honor the Polish victims murdered by Ukrainian nationalists, and formally calling the massacres a Genocide."Polish MPs adopt resolution calling 1940s massacre genocide". Radio Poland. 22 July 2016.

Romani people

(File:Persecution of Roma.gif|thumb|upright=1.5|Map of persecution of the Roma)The treatment of the Romani people was not consistent in the different areas that Nazi Germany conquered. In some areas (e.g. Luxembourg and the Baltic countries), the Nazis killed virtually the entire Romani population. In other areas (e.g. Denmark and Greece), there is no record of Romanis being subjected to mass killings.See History of the Holocaust: a Handbook and a Dictionary, Edelheit, Edelheit & Edelheit, p. 458, Free Press, 1995Donald Niewyk and Frances Nicosia write that the death toll was at least 130,000 out of the nearly one million Romani who resided in Nazi-controlled Europe.{{Harvnb|Niewyk|Nicosia|2000|p=47}}. Michael Berenbaum writes that serious scholarly estimates lie between 90,000 and 220,000.{{Harvnb|Berenbaum|2005|p=126}}. A study by Sybil Milton, senior historian at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, calculated a death toll of at least 220,000 and possibly closer to 500,000, but this study explicitly excluded the Independent State of Croatia where the genocide of Romanies was intense.WEB,weblink Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, U.S. District Court – Eastern New York, 11 September 2000, 29 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120516101356weblink">weblink 16 May 2012, dmy, Martin Gilbert estimates a total of more than 220,000 deaths out of the 700,000 Romani who lived in Europe.BOOK, Gilbert, Martin, Martin Gilbert, The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust, Routledge, London & New York, 2002, 978-0-415-28145-4, (ref Map 182 p. 141 with Romani deaths by country & Map 301 p. 232) Note: formerly The Dent Atlas of the Holocaust; 1982, 1993. Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, has argued in favor of a much higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 deaths, claiming that the Romani death toll proportionally equaled or exceeded that of Jewish victims.Hancock, Ian. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020815234046weblink">Jewish Responses to the Porajmos (The Romani Holocaust), Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota.

Disabled and mentally ill

.}}Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally ill adults in institutions were killed; 5,000 children in institutions; and 1,000 Jews in institutions.{{Harvnb|Lifton|2000|p=142}}. Outside the mental health institutions, the figures are estimated to number 20,000 (according to Dr. Georg Renno, the deputy director of Schloss Hartheim, one of the euthanasia centers) or 400,000 (according to Franz Ziereis, the commandant of Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp). Another 300,000 were forcibly sterilized.{{Harvnb|Neugebauer|1998}}. Overall it has been estimated that over 270,000 individuals with mental disorders of all kinds were put to death, although their mass murder has received relatively little historical attention. Along with the physically disabled, people suffering from dwarfism were persecuted as well. Many were put on display in cages and experimented on by the Nazis.WEB, J Tithonus Pednaud,weblink The Ovitz Family – Nazi Experiments, Thehumanmarvels.com, 2008, 18 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116033002weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, Despite not being formally ordered to take part, psychiatrists and psychiatric institutions were at the center of justifying, planning and carrying out the atrocities at every stage, and "constituted the connection" to the later annihilation of Jews and other "undesirables" in the Holocaust.{{Harvnb|Strous|2007}}. After strong protests by the German Catholic and Protestant churches on 24 August 1941 Hitler ordered the cancellation of the T4 program.{{Harvnb|Lifton|2000|p=95}}.The program was named after Tiergartenstraße 4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, the headquarters of the General Foundation for Welfare and Institutional Care,{{Harvnb|Sereny|1995|pp=48–49}}. led by Philipp Bouhler, head of Hitler's private chancellery (Kanzlei des Führer der NSDAP) and Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician.Brandt was tried in December 1946 at Nuremberg, along with 22 others, in a case known as United States of America vs. Karl Brandt et al., also known as the Doctors' Trial. He was hanged at Landsberg Prison on 2 June 1948.

Post–World War II Central and Eastern Europe

Ethnic cleansing of Germans

File:Vertreibung.jpg|thumb|Expulsion of Germans from CzechoslovakiaExpulsion of Germans from CzechoslovakiaAfter WWII ended, about 11-12 millionJürgen Weber, Germany, 1945–1990: A Parallel History, Central European University Press, 2004, p. 2, {{ISBN|963-9241-70-9}}Peter H. Schuck, Rainer Münz, Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany, Berghahn Books, 1997, p. 156, {{ISBN|1-57181-092-7}} Germans were forced to flee from or were expelled from several countries throughout Eastern and Central Europe including Russia, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia and the prewar territory of Poland. A large number of them were also displaced when Germany's former eastern provinces were given to Poland as part of the Potsdam Agreement, regardless of those annexed lands being ethnically, politically, and culturally German for nearly a thousand years. The majority of these expelled and displaced Germans ended up in what remained of Germany, with some being sent to West Germany and others being sent to East Germany.The ethnic cleansing of the Germans was the largest displacement of a single European population in modern history.Arie Marcelo Kacowicz, Pawel Lutomski, Population resettlement in international conflicts: a comparative study, Lexington Books, 2007, p. 100, {{ISBN|978-0739116074}}: "... largest movement of European people in modern history" weblink Estimates for the total number of those who died during the removals range from 500,000 to 2,000,000, where the higher figures include "unsolved cases" of persons reported as missing and presumed dead. Many German civilians were sent to internment and labor camps as well, where they often died. The events are usually classified as either a population transfer,{{sfn|Frank|2008}}Europe and German unification, Renata Fritsch-Bournazel p. 77, Berg Publishers 1992 or an ethnic cleansing.BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements, Edmund Jan, Osmańczyk, Routledge, 2003, 978-0-415-93924-9, 656, {{dead link|date=October 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • BOOK,weblink Fires of hatred: ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe, Norman M., Naimark, Harvard University Press, 2001, 978-0-674-00994-3, 15, 112. 121, 136,
  • BOOK,weblink A clean sweep?: the politics of ethnic cleansing in western Poland, 1945–1960, T. David, Curp, University of Rochester Press, 2006, 978-1-58046-238-9, 200,
  • BOOK,weblink Ethnicity and democratisation in the new Europe, Karl, Cordell, Routledge, 1999, 978-0-415-17312-4, 175,
  • BOOK, Jüdische Geschichte als allgemeine Geschichte, Dan, Diner, Raphael, Gross, Yfaat, Weiss, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006, 978-3-525-36288-4, 163,
  • BOOK, Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present, Volume 3, Matthew J., Gibney,weblink ABC-CLIO, 2005, 978-1-57607-796-2, 196,
BOOK, Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948. Harvard Cold War studies book series, Philipp, Ther, Ana, Siljak, Eagle, Glassheim, Rowman & Littlefield, 2001, 978-0-7425-1094-4, 197,
  • BOOK, What is genocide?, Martin, Shaw, Martin Shaw (sociologist), Polity, 2007, 978-0-7456-3182-0, 56, BOOK, Dictionary of genocide, Volume 2, Paul, Totten, Bartrop, Steven L, Jacobs, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, 978-0-313-34644-6, harv,
  • {{harvnb|Frank|2008|p=5}}BOOK, What is genocide?, Martin, Shaw, Martin Shaw (sociologist), Polity, 2007, 978-0-7456-3182-0, pp. 56, 60–61
  • {{sfn|Rubinstein|2004|p={{google books|id=nMMAk4VwLLwC|p=260}}}}
Felix Ermacora, among a minority of legal scholars, equated ethnic cleansing with genocide,European Court of Human Rights – Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, 12 July 2007. § 47 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160115212503weblink |date=15 January 2016 }}BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Hans-Heinrich, Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich Jescheck, 1995, 978-90-04-14280-0, and stated that the expulsion of the Germans therefore constituted genocide.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110516024318weblink">weblink 16 May 2011, Gutachten Ermacora 1991, Felix, Ermacora, Felix Ermacora, 1991,

Partition of India

The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian EmpireThe Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan by Yasmin Khan that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (which later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later the Republic of India) on 15 August 1947. During the Partition, one of British India's greatest provinces, the Punjab Province, was split along communal lines into West Punjab and East Punjab (later split into the three separate modern-day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh). West Punjab was formed out of the Muslim majority districts of the former British Indian Punjab Province while East Punjab was formed out of the Hindu and Sikh majority districts of the former province.File:Vultures and corpses in the street of Calcutta, 1946.jpg|thumb|Corpses in the street of Calcutta after the Direct Action DayDirect Action DayHindus, Muslims and Sikhs who had co-existed for a millennium attacked each other in what is argued to be a retributive genocideJOURNAL, Brass, Paul R., The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: Means, methods, and purposes, Journal of Genocide Research, Routledge, 5, 1, 2003, 71–101,weblink 10.1080/14623520305657, 18 April 2016, of horrific proportions, accompanied by arson, looting, rape and abduction of women. The Indian government claimed that 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women were abducted, and the Pakistani government claimed that 50,000 Muslim women were abducted during riots. By 1949, there were governmental claims that 12,000 women had been recovered in India and 6,000 women had been recovered in Pakistan.BOOK, Visweswaran, Kamala, Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation,weblink 18 April 2016, 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-4051-0062-5, 123, By 1954 there were 20,728 recovered Muslim women and 9,032 Hindu and Sikh women recovered from Pakistan.BOOK, Menon, Ritu, Bhasin, Kamla, Borders & Boundaries: Women in India's Partition,weblink 18 April 2016, 1998, Rutgers University Press, 978-0-8135-2552-5, 99, This partition triggered off what was one of the world's largest mass migrations in modern history.WEB,weblink The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies, 3 March 2011, Crispin Bates, BBC, 16 August 2014, Around 11.2 million people successfully crossed the India-West Pakistan border, mostly through the Punjab. 6.5 million Muslims migrated from India to West Pakistan and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs from West Pakistan arrived in India. However many people went missing.A study of the total population inflows and outflows in the districts of the Punjab, using the data provided by the 1931 and 1951 Census has led to an estimate of 1.26 million missing Muslims who left western India but did not reach Pakistan.JOURNAL, Khwaja, Asim, Mian, Atif, 30 August 2008, The Big March: Migratory Flows after the Partition of India,weblink Economic & Political Weekly, 43, 16 January 2016, Bharadwaj, Prasant, The corresponding number of missing Hindus/Sikhs along the western border is estimated to be approximately 0.84 million.Bharadwaj, Prasant; Khwaja, Asim; Mian, Atif (30 August 2008). "The Big March: Migratory Flows after the Partition of India" (PDF). Economic & Political Weekly: 43. Retrieved 16/01/2016 This puts the total number of missing people due to Partition-related migration along the Punjabi border at around 2.23 million.Nisid Hajari, in "Midnight’s Furies" (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt) wrote:NEWS,weblink The Great Divide, Dalrymple, William, 29 June 2015, The New Yorker, 0028-792X, 19 March 2016, Gangs of killers set whole villages aflame, hacking to death men and children and the aged while carrying off young women to be raped. Some British soldiers and journalists who had witnessed the Nazi death camps claimed Partition’s brutalities were worse: pregnant women had their breasts cut off and babies hacked out of their bellies; infants were found literally roasted on spits.”By the time the violence had subsided, Hindus and Sikhs had been completely wiped out of Pakistan's West Punjab and similarly Muslims were completely wiped out of India's East Punjab.Partition also affected other areas of the subcontinent besides the Punjab. Anti-Hindu riots took place in Hyderabad, Sind. On 6 January anti-Hindu riots broke out in Karachi, leading to an estimate of 1100 casualties.BOOK, The Making of Exile: Sindhi Hindus and the Partition of India, Bhavnani, Nandita, Westland, 2014, 978-93-84030-33-9, 776,000 Sindhi Hindus fled to India.BOOK, The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750–1947, Markovits, Claude, Cambridge University Press, 2000, 978-0-521-62285-1, 278, Anti-Muslim riots also rocked Delhi. According to Gyanendra Pandey's recent account of the Delhi violence between 20,000 and 25,000 Muslims in the city lost their lives.BOOK, The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia: Refugees, Boundaries, Histories, Zamindar, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali, Columbia University Press, 2010, 978-0-231-13847-5, 247, Tens of thousands of Muslims were driven to refugee camps regardless of their political affiliations and numerous historic sites in Delhi such as the Purana Qila, Idgah and Nizamuddin were transformed into refugee camps. At the culmination of the tensions in Delhi 330,000 Muslims were forced to flee the city to Pakistan. The 1951 Census registered a drop of the Muslim population in Delhi from 33.22% in 1941 to 5.33% in 1951.BOOK, Muslims In Indian Cities, Sharma, Bulbul, HarperCollins Publishers India, 2013, 978-93-5029-555-7,

Since 1951

The CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951 (Resolution 260 (III)). After the necessary 20 countries became parties to the Convention, it came into force as international law on 12 January 1951. At that time however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the treaty, which caused the Convention to languish for over four decades.

Australia 1900–1969

{{Further|Stolen Generation|History wars|Bringing them home}}Sir Ronald Wilson was once the president of Australia's Human Rights Commission. He stated that Australia's program in which 20–25,000 Aboriginal children were forcibly separated from their natural familiesManne, Robert "The cruelty of denial", The Age, 9 September 2006 was genocide, because it was intended to cause the Aboriginal people to die out. The program ran from 1900 to 1969.NEWS, A Stolen Generation Cries Out, Reuters, May 1997,weblink The nature and extent of the removals have been disputed within Australia, with opponents questioning the findings contained in the Commission report and asserting that the size of the Stolen Generation had been exaggerated. The intent and effects of the government policy were also disputed.

Zanzibar

In 1964, towards the end of the Zanzibar Revolution—which led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries—John Okello claimed in radio speeches to have killed or imprisoned tens of thousands of the Sultan's "enemies and stooges",BOOK, Parsons, Timothy, The 1964 Army Mutinies and the Making of Modern East Africa, 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group,weblink 978-0-325-07068-1, 107, harv, but estimates of the number of deaths vary greatly, from "hundreds" to 20,000. The New York Times and other Western newspapers gave figures of 2–4,000;NEWS, Conley, Robert, Nationalism Is Viewed as Camouflage for Reds, New York Times, 1, 19 January 1964,weblink 16 November 2008, harv, NEWS, Slaughter in Zanzibar of Asians, Arabs Told,weblink Los Angeles Times, 4, 20 January 1964, 2 March 2016, subscription, the higher numbers possibly were inflated by Okello's own broadcasts and exaggerated media reports.{{sfn|Plekhanov|2004|p=91}}{{sfn|Sheriff|Ferguson|1991|p=241}} The killing of Arab prisoners and their burial in mass graves was documented by an Italian film crew, filming from a helicopter, in Africa Addio.Jacopetti, Gualtiero (Director). (1970) Many Arabs fled to safety in Oman{{sfn|Plekhanov|2004|p=91}} and by Okello's order no Europeans were harmed.{{sfn|Speller|2007|p=7}} The violence did not spread to Pemba.{{sfn|Sheriff|Ferguson|1991|p=241}} Leo Kuper described the killing of Arabs in Zanzibar as genocide.Israel W. Charny. Encyclopedia of Genocide, ABC-CLIO, 1999 {{ISBN|978-0-87436-928-1}} {{Google books|id=8Q30HcvCVuIC|p=378}} cites Genocide:Its Political Use in the 20th Century, London: Penguin Books, 1981; New Haven, Connecticut:Yale University Press 1982.

Biafra 1966-1970

{{further|Nigerian Civil War}}After Nigeria gained its independence from British rule in 1960, stigma towards the Igbo ethnic group of the east increased. When a supposedly Igbo led coupweblink overthrew and murdered senior government officials, the other ethnic groups of Nigeria, particularly the Hausa, launched a massive anti-Igbo campaign. This campaign began with the 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom and the 1966 Nigerian counter-coup. In the pogrom, Igbo property was destroyed and up to 300,000 Igbos fled the North and sought safety in the East and about 30,000 Igbos were killed. In the counter-coup that followed, Igbo civilians and military personnel were also systematically murderedweblink On May 30, 1967, when the Igbos declared their independence from Nigeria and formed the breakaway state of Biafra, the Nigerian and British governmentsweblink launched a total blockade of Biafra. Initially on the offensive, Biafra began to suffer and its government frequently had to move because the Nigerian army kept on conquering its capital cities. The main cause of death was starvation, and children suffered the most. Children were often afflicted with Kwashiorkor, a disease caused by malnutrition. The people resorted to cannibalism on many occasionsweblink The documentation of the suffering of the Igbo children is attributed to the work of the French Red Cross and other Christian organisations. There are many estimates for the death toll of the Igbo in the genocide. The number of soldiers who were killed in the war is estimated to be 100,000 and the number of civilians who were also killed ranges from 500,000 to 3.5 million. More than half of those who died in the war were children. Currently, Nigeria still suppresses peaceful protests by Biafra independence hopefuls, often by sending soldiers to beat protestors and even to kill themweblink

Algeria

{{further|Algerian War}}After independence was gained after the Algerian War the Harkis (Muslims who supported the French during the war) were seen as traitors by many Algerians, and many of those who stayed behind suffered severe reprisals after independence. French historians estimate that somewhere between 50,000 and 150,000 Harkis and members of their families were killed by the FLN or by lynch mobs in Algeria, often in atrocious circumstances or after torture.BOOK, Alistair, Horne, 537, A Savage War of Peace, 978-0-670-61964-1, 1978,weblink

Cambodia 1975-1979

File:Photos of victims in Tuol Sleng prison (2).JPG|thumb|Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide MuseumTuol Sleng Genocide Museum{{further|Cambodian genocide}}In Cambodia, a genocide was carried out by the Khmer Rouge (KR) regime led by Pol Pot between 1975 and 1979 in which an estimated one and a half to three million people died.{{sfn|Frey|2009|p=83}} The KR group had planned to create a form of agrarian socialism which was founded on the ideals of Stalinism and Maoism. The KR policies of forced relocation of the population from urban centers, torture, mass executions, use of forced labor, malnutrition, and disease led to the death of an estimated 25 percent of the total population (around 2 million people).{{sfn|Etcheson|2005|p=119}}{{sfn|Heuveline|1998|pp=49-65}} The genocide ended following the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia.{{sfn|Mayersan|2013|p=182}} At least 20,000 mass graves, known as the Killing Fields, have since been uncovered.{{sfn|Etcheson|2005|p=114}}

Guatemala 1981–1983

File:Memorial Rio Negro.jpg|thumb|Memorial to the victims of the Río Negro massacresRío Negro massacresDuring the Guatemalan civil war, between 140,000 and 200,000 people are estimated to have died and more than one million fled their homes and hundreds of villages were destroyed. The officially chartered Historical Clarification Commission attributed more than 93% of all documented human rights violations to U.S.–supported Guatemala's military government; and estimated that Maya Indians accounted for 83% of the victims.Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission, United Nations website, 1 March 1999
  • Staff. Guatemala 'genocide' probe blames state, BBC, 25 February 1999. Although the war lasted from 1960 to 1996, the Historical Clarification Commission concluded that genocide might have occurred between 1981 and 1983, when the government and guerrilla had the fiercest and bloodiest combats and strategies, especially in the oil-rich area of Ixcán on the northern part of Quiché.{{sfn|Comisión para el Esclarecimiento Histórico: Agudización|1999|p=}} The total numbers of killed or "disappeared" was estimated to be around 200,000,The Secrets in Guatemala’s Bones. The New York Times. 30 June 2016. although this is an extrapolation that was done by the Historical Clarification Commission based on the cases that they documented, and there were no more than 50,000.{{sfn|Asociación Americana para el Avance de la Ciencia|1999|p=}} The commission also found that U.S. corporations and government officials "exercised pressure to maintain the country's archaic and unjust socio-economic structure," and that the Central Intelligence Agency backed illegal counterinsurgency operations.Guatemalan Army Waged 'Genocide,' New Report Finds. The New York Times. 26 February 1999.
File:RIOS M genocida 07Apr06.JPG|thumb|Efraín Ríos MonttEfraín Ríos MonttIn 1999, Nobel peace prize winner Rigoberta Menchú brought a case against the military leadership in a Spanish Court. Six officials, among them Efraín Ríos Montt and Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores, were formally charged on 7 July 2006 to appear in the Spanish National Court after Spain's Constitutional Court ruled in 2005 that Spanish courts could exercise universal jurisdiction over war crimes committed during the Guatemalan Civil War.WEB, James M. Jr, Yoch,weblink Spain judge charges ex-generals in Guatemala genocide case, jurist.law.pitt.edu, 8 July 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100306234002weblink">weblink 6 March 2010, In May 2013, Rios Montt was found guilty of genocide for killing 1,700 indigenous Ixil Mayans during 1982–83 by a Guatemalan court and sentenced to 80 years in prison.Castillo, Mariano (13 May 2013). Guatemala's Rios Montt guilty of genocide. CNN. Retrieved 17 May 2013. However, on 20 May 2013, the Constitutional Court of Guatemala overturned the conviction, voiding all proceedings back to 19 April and ordering that the trial be "reset" to that point, pending a dispute over the recusal of judges.NEWS, Mike, McDonald, Guatemala's top court annuls Ríos Montt genocide conviction,weblink Reuters, 21 May 2013, 26 March 2016, NEWS, The Guardian, 20 May 2013, Ríos Montt genocide case collapses,weblink London, Ríos Montt's trial was supposed to resume in January 2015,NEWS,weblink Guatemala Rios Montt genocide trial to resume in 2015, BBC News, 6 November 2013, 6 November 2013, but it was suspended after a judge was forced to recuse herself.WEB, Eighteen Months After Initial Conviction, Historic Guatemalan Genocide Trial Reopens but is Ultimately Suspended,weblink www.ijmonitor.org, 8 July 2015, 6 January 2015, Doctors declared Ríos Montt unfit to stand trial on 8 July 2015, noting that he would be unable to understand the charges brought against him.NEWS, Guatemala: Ex-ruler Rios Montt found unfit for trial – BBC News,weblink 8 July 2015, BBC News, 8 July 2015,

Bangladesh Liberation War Genocide of 1971

An academic consensus holds that the events that took place during the Bangladesh Liberation War constituted genocide.WEB, Payaslian, Simon, 20th Century Genocides,weblink Oxford bibliographies, During the nine-month-long conflict an estimated 300,000 to 3 million people were killed and the Pakistani armed forces raped between 200,000–400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in an act of genocidal rape.JOURNAL, Sharlach, Lisa, Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the Former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda, New Political Science, 2010, 22, 1, 89–102, 10.1080/713687893, A 2008 study estimated that up to 269,000 civilians died in the conflict; the authors noted that this is far higher than two earlier estimates.Obermeyer, Ziad, et al., "Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme", British Medical Jornal, June 2008.File:Protest against War Crimes at Shahabag Square (8459696133).jpg|thumb|2013 Shahbag protests2013 Shahbag protestsA case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on 20 September 2006 for alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators:PRESS RELEASE,weblink Raymond Faisal Solaiman v People's Republic of Bangladesh & Ors, Federal Court of Australia, Federal Magistrates Court of Australia at Sydney, 20 September 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091214084924weblink">weblink 14 December 2009, {{bquote|We are glad to announce that a case has been filed in the Federal Magistrate's Court of Australia today under the Genocide Conventions Act 1949 and War Crimes Act. This is the first time in history that someone is attending a court proceeding in relation to the [alleged] crimes of Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. The Proceeding number is SYG 2672 of 2006. On 25 October 2006, a direction hearing will take place in the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia, Sydney registry before Federal Magistrate His Honor Nicholls.}}On 21 May 2007, at the request of the applicant the case was discontinued.This judgement can be found via the Federal Court of Australia home page {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070903215345weblink |date=3 September 2007 }} by following the links and using SYG/2672/2006 as the key for the database

Burundi 1972 and 1993

After Burundi gained its independence in 1962, two events occurred which were labeled genocide. The first event was the mass-killing of Hutus by the Tutsi army in 1972BOOK, Michael Bowen, Gary Freeman, Kay Miller, Passing by: The United States and Genocide in Burundi, 1972,weblink 1973, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and the second event was the killing of Tutsis by the Hutu population in 1993 which was recognized as an act of genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 2002.International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi: Final Report {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090716020747weblink |date=16 July 2009 }} Source Name: United Nations Security Council, S/1996/682; received from Ambassador Thomas Ndikumana, Burundi Ambassador to the United States, Date received: 7 June 2002. Paragraph 496.

North Korea

Several million people in North Korea have died of starvation since the mid-1990s, with aid groups and human rights NGOs often stating that the North Korean government has systematically and deliberately prevented food aid from reaching the areas most devastated by food shortages.WEB,weblink Action Against Hunger stops its activities in North Korea, ReliefWeb, 10 March 2000, 15 February 2016, An additional one million people have died in North Korea's political prison camps, which are used to detain dissidents and their entire families, including children, for perceived political offences.WEB,weblink When will we stop the genocide in North Korea?, Robert Park, 20 April 2011, Washington Post, 15 February 2016, In 2004, Yad Vashem called on the international community to investigate "political genocide" in North Korea.In September 2011, a Harvard International Review article argued that the North Korean government was violating the UN Genocide Convention by systematically killing half-Chinese babies and members of religious groups.WEB,weblink North Korea and the Genocide Movement, Robert Park, Harvard International Review, 27 September 2011, 16 February 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160220011528weblink">weblink 20 February 2016, dead, North Korea's Christian population, which was considered to be the center of Christianity in East Asia in 1945 and included 25–30% of the inhabitants of Pyongyang, has been systematically massacred and persecuted; as of 2012 50,000–70,000 Christians were imprisoned in North Korea's concentration camps.Park, Robert, "The Case for Genocide in North Korea", The Korea Herald, 8 February 2012.

Equatorial Guinea

Francisco Macías Nguema was the first President of Equatorial Guinea, from 1968 until his overthrow in 1979.WEB,weblink Francisco Macias Nguema, dictatorofthemonth.com, December 2001, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050328174604weblink">weblink 28 March 2005, During his presidency, his country was nicknamed "the Auschwitz of Africa". Nguema's regime was characterized by its abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; he acted as chief judge and sentenced thousands to death. This led to the death or exile of up to 1/3 of the country's population. From a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 had been killed, in particular those of the Bubi ethnic minority on Bioko associated with relative wealth and education.NEWS, Kim, Sengupta,weblink Coup plotter faces life in Africa's most notorious jail, The Independent, 11 May 2007, {{Dead link|date=April 2016}}{{cbignore}}NEWS, Geoffrey, Wansell,weblink True hell on earth: Simon Mann faces imprisonment in the cruellest jail on the planet, The Daily Mail, 18 May 2007, 17 April 2016, Uneasy around educated people, he had killed everyone who wore spectacles. All schools were ordered closed in 1975. The economy collapsed and skilled citizens and foreigners emigrated.NEWS, Anthony, Daniels,weblink If you think this one's bad you should have seen his uncle, Telegraph.co.uk, 29 August 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051124171044weblink">weblink 24 November 2005, dmy, The Telegraph, On 3 August 1979, he was overthrown by Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.WEB,weblink Chinese President Meets Equatorial Guinean President, 20 November 2001, People's Daily Online, Beijing, China, Macías Nguema was captured and tried for genocide and other crimes along with 10 others. All were found guilty, four received terms of imprisonment and Nguema and the other six were executed on 29 September.John B. Quigley (2006) The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, {{ISBN|0-7546-4730-7}}. {{google books|id=ZXZ8qMR5YVQC|p=31-32}}
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Equatorial Guinea, 2006, Encyclopedia of the Nations, Thomson Corporation, harv,
John B. Quigley noted at Macías Nguema's trial that Equatorial Guinea had not ratified the Genocide convention and that records of the court proceedings show that there was some confusion over whether Nguema and his co-defendants were tried under the laws of Spain (the former colonial government) or whether the trial was justified on the claim that the Genocide Convention was part of customary international law. Quigley stated, "The Macias case stands out as the most confusing of domestic genocide prosecutions from the standpoint of the applicable law. The Macias conviction is also problematic from the standpoint of the identity of the protected group."John B. Quigley (2006) The Genocide Convention: An International Law Analysis, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, {{ISBN|0-7546-4730-7}}. {{google books|id=ZXZ8qMR5YVQC|p=32}}

Indonesia

Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66

In the mid-1960s, hundreds of thousands of leftists and those tied to the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) were massacred by the Indonesian military and right-wing paramilitary groups after a failed coup attempt which was blamed on the Communists. At least 500,000 people were killed over a period of several months, with thousands more being interned in prisons and concentration camps under extremely inhumane conditions.BOOK, Gellately, Robert, Robert Gellately, Kiernan, Ben, Ben Kiernan, July 2003, The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective,weblink Cambridge University Press, 290–91, 978-0521527507, 17 August 2015, BOOK, Cribb, Robert, Kahin, Audrey, 15 September 2004, Historical Dictionary of Indonesia, Scarecrow Press, 264, 978-0810849358, Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. {{ISBN|9004156917}} p. 80. The violence culminated in the fall of President Sukarno and the commencement of Suharto's thirty-year authoritarian rule. Some scholars have described the killings as genocide,BOOK, Robinson, Geoffrey B., 2018, The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66,weblink Princeton University Press, 4, 9781400888863, BOOK, McGregor, Katharine, Melvin, Jess, Pohlman, Annie, 2018, The Indonesian Genocide of 1965: Causes, Dynamics and Legacies (Palgrave Studies in the History of Genocide),weblink Palgrave Macmillan, 978-3319714547, including Robert Cribb, Jess Melvin and Joshua Oppenheimer.Robert Cribb (2004). "The Indonesian Genocide of 1965–1966." In Samuel Totten (ed). Teaching about Genocide: Approaches, and Resources. Information Age Publishing, pp. 133–43. {{ISBN|159311074X}}Joshua Oppenheimer. Suharto’s Purge, Indonesia’s Silence. The New York Times. 29 September 2015.JOURNAL, Melvin, Jess, 2017, Mechanics of Mass Murder: A Case for Understanding the Indonesian Killings as Genocide, Journal of Genocide Research, 19, 4, 487–511, 10.1080/14623528.2017.1393942, According to scholars and a 2016 international tribunal held in the Hague, Western powers, including Great Britain, Australia and the United States, aided and abetted the mass killings.BOOK, Simpson, Bradley, 2010, Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S.–Indonesian Relations, 1960–1968,weblink Stanford University Press, 193, 978-0804771825, "Washington did everything in its power to encourage and facilitate the army-led massacre of alleged PKI members, and U.S. officials worried only that the killing of the party's unarmed supporters might not go far enough, permitting Sukarno to return to power and frustrate the [Johnson] Administration's emerging plans for a post-Sukarno Indonesia.", Kai Thaler (2 December 2015). 50 years ago today, American diplomats endorsed mass killings in Indonesia. Here’s what that means for today. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 December 2015.NEWS, Perry, Juliet, Tribunal finds Indonesia guilty of 1965 genocide; US, UK complicit,weblink CNN, 21 July 2016, 6 June 2017, NEWS, Bevins, Vincent, 20 October 2017, What the United States Did in Indonesia,weblink The Atlantic, 30 October 2017, U.S. Embassy officials provided kill lists to the Indonesian military which contained the names of 5,000 suspected high-ranking members of the PKI.Ex-agents say CIA compiled death lists for Indonesians San Francisco Examiner, 20 May 1990. Retrieved 8 September 2015.BOOK, Robinson, Geoffrey B., 2018, The Killing Season: A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965–66,weblink Princeton University Press, 203, 9781400888863, a US Embassy official in Jakarta, Robert Martens, had supplied the Indonesian Army with lists containing the names of thousands of PKI officials in the months after the alleged coup attempt. According to the journalist Kathy Kadane, "As many as 5,000 names were furnished over a period of months to the Army there, and the Americans later checked off the names of those who had been killed or captured." Despite Martens later denials of any such intent, these actions almost certainly aided in the death or detention of many innocent people. They also sent a powerful message that the US government agreed with and supported the army's campaign against the PKI, even as that campaign took its terrible toll in human lives., U.S. Seeks to Keep Lid on Far East Purge Role. The Associated Press via The Los Angeles Times, 28 July 2001. Retrieved 8 September 2015.Bellamy, Alex J. (2012). Massacres and Morality: Mass Atrocities in an Age of Civilian Immunity. Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-928842-9}}. p. 210.Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. {{ISBN|9004156917}} p. 81. Many of those accused of being Communists were journalists, trade union leaders and intellectuals."The Look of Silence": Will New Film Force U.S. to Acknowledge Role in 1965 Indonesian Genocide? Democracy Now! 3 August 2015.Methods of killing included beheading, evisceration, dismemberment and castration.Michael Atkinson (16 July 2015). A Quiet Return to the Killing Fields of Indonesia. In These Times. Retrieved 3 August 2015. A top-secret CIA report stated that the massacres "rank as one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century, along with the Soviet purges of the 1930s, the Nazi mass murders during the Second World War, and the Maoist bloodbath of the early 1950s."

West New Guinea/West Papua

An estimated 100,000+ Papuans have died since Indonesia took control of West New Guinea from the Dutch Government in 1963.WEB,weblink Virginia, Gawler, Report claims secret genocide in Indonesia, University of Sydney, 19 August 2005, 27 March 2016, WEB, Elizabeth, Brundige, Winter, King, Priyneha, Vahali, Stephen, Vladeck, Xiang, Yuan,weblink Indonesian Human Rights Abuses in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control, Yale Law School, April 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090227145157weblink">weblink 27 February 2009, BOOK, John, Wing, Peter, King,weblink Genocide in West Papua?: The role of the Indonesian state apparatus and a current needs assessment of the Papuan people, West Papua Project, Sydney, 978-0-9752391-7-9, August 2005, 27 March 2016, An academic report alleged that "contemporary evidence set out [in this report] suggests that the Indonesian government has committed proscribed acts with the intent to destroy the West Papuans as such, in violation of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and the customary international law prohibition this Convention embodies."{{rp|75}}

East Timor

File:Re-enactment Santa Cruz massacre.jpg|thumb|A re-enactment of the Santa Cruz massacreSanta Cruz massacreEast Timor was occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999 as an annexed territory with provincial status. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a lower range of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period from 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 excess deaths from hunger and illness, including the Indonesian military using "starvation as a weapon to exterminate the East Timorese",WEB, Sian, Powell,weblink UN verdict on East Timor, The Australian, Yale University Genocide Studies Program, 19 January 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060512142628weblink">weblink 12 May 2006, most of which occurred during the Indonesian occupation.WEB, Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group, The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999: A Report by the Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste, Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG), 9 February 2006,weblinkweblink 22 February 2012, dead, dmy, Earlier estimates of deaths during the occupation ranged from 60,000 to 200,000.WEB, Nunes, Joe, East Timor: Acceptable Slaughters, The architecture of modern political power,weblink 1996, According to Sian Powell a UN report confirmed that the Indonesian military used starvation as a weapon and employed Napalm and chemical weapons, which poisoned the food and water supply. Ben Kiernan wrote:the crimes committed ... in East Timor, with a toll of 150,000 in a population of 650,000, clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide ...[with] both political and ethnic groups as possible victims of genocide. The victims in East Timor included not only that substantial 'part' of the Timorese 'national group' targeted for destruction because of their resistance to Indonesian annexation...but also most members of the twenty-thousand strong ethnic Chinese minority.WEB, Ben, Kiernam,weblink War, Genocide, and Resistance in East Timor, 1975–99: Comparative Reflections on Cambodia, yale.edu, 15 July 2003, 202, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060920124313weblink">weblink 20 September 2006, See Kiernan's footnotes on pp. 174–75: "clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide..." – Leo Kuper, Genocide (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981)

Bangladesh

Biharis

Immediately following the Bangladesh independence war of 1971, the Biharis living in Bangladesh were accused of being "traitors" or "pro-Pakistani" by the Bengalis, and an estimated 1,000 to 150,000 Biharis were killed by Bengali mobs in what is described as "Retributive Genocide".BOOK, George Fink, Stress of War, Conflict and Disaster,weblink 14 February 2016, 2010, Academic Press, 978-0-12-381382-4, 292, WEB, R.J. Rummel, Rudolph Rummel,weblink Statistics Of Pakistan's Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, University of Hawai'i, 1997, 13 February 2016, Mukti Bahini has been accused of crimes against minority Biharis by the Government of Pakistan. According to a white paper released by the Pakistani government, the Awami League killed 30,000 Biharis and West Pakistanis. Bengali mobs were often armed, sometimes with machetes and bamboo staffs.Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge. p. 231. {{ISBN|978-0415486194}}. 300 Biharis were killed by Bengali mobs in Chittagong. The massacre was used by the Pakistani Army as a justification to launch Operation Searchlight against the Bengali nationalist movement.D'Costa, Bina (2010). Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia. Routledge. p. 103. {{ISBN|978-0415565660}}. Biharis were massacred in Jessore, Panchabibi and Khulna (where, in March 1972, 300 to 1,000 Biharis were killed and their bodies were thrown into a nearby river).Gerlach, Christian (2010). Extremely Violent Societies: Mass Violence in the Twentieth-Century World (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-521-70681-0}}.Bennett Jones, Owen (2003). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm (2nd revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 171. {{ISBN|978-0-300-10147-8}}."Massacre of Biharis in Bangladesh". The Age. 15 March 1972. Retrieved 4 June 2013. Having generated unrest among Bengalis,Siddiqi, Abdul Rahman (2005). East Pakistan: The Endgame: An Onlooker's Journal 1969–1971. Oxford University Press. p. 171. {{ISBN|978-0195799934}}. Biharis became the target of retaliation. The Minorities at Risk project puts the number of Biharis killed during the war at 1,000;"Chronology for Biharis in Bangladesh". The Minorities at Risk (MAR) Project. Retrieved 27 March 2013. however, R.J. Rummel cites a "likely" figure of 150,000."Statistics Of Pakistan'S Democide". Hawaii.edu. Retrieved 31 July 2013.

Indigenous Chakmas

In Bangladesh, the persecution of the indigenous tribes of the Chittagong Hill Tracts such as the Chakma, Marma, Tripura and others, who are mainly Buddhists, has been described as genocidal.{{sfn|Gray|1994}}{{sfn|O'Brien|2004}}{{sfn|Mey|1984}}{{sfn|Moshin|2003}}{{sfn|Roy|2000}} There are also accusations of Chakmas being forced to leave their religion, many of them children who have been abducted for this purpose. The conflict started soon after Bangladeshi independence in 1971, when the Constitution imposed Bengali as the only sole language and a military coup happened in 1975. Subsequently, the government encouraged and sponsored the massive settlement of Bangladeshis in the region, which changed the indigenous population's demographics from 98 percent in 1971 to fifty percent by 2000. The Bangladeshi government sent one third of its military forces to the region to support the settlers, sparking a protracted guerilla war between Hill tribes and the military.{{sfn|O'Brien|2004}} During this conflict, which officially ended in 1997, and during the subsequent period, a large number of human rights violations against the indigenous peoples have been reported, with violence against indigenous women being particularly extreme.{{sfn|Chakma|Hill|2013}}Bengali soldiers and some fundamentalists settlers were also accused of raping native Jumma (Chakma) women "with impunity", with the Bangladeshi security forces doing little or nothing to protect the Jummas and instead assisting the rapists and settlers.WEB,weblink Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh – rapists act with impunity, McEvoy, Mark, 3 April 2014, Survival International – The movement for tribal peoples, Although Bangladesh is an officially secular country,WEB,weblink Fundamental Principles of State Policy: Secularism and freedom of religion (Substituted for the former article 12 by the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 2011 (Act XIV of 2011), section 11), Bangladesh Legislative and Parliamentary Affairs Division Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, 2011, 13 February 2016, the events leading up to East Pakistan's secession amounted to religious and ethnic genocide.JOURNAL, The politics of genocide scholarship: the case of Bangladesh, Patterns of Prejudice, 1 December 2007, 0031-322X, 467–92, 41, 5, 10.1080/00313220701657286, Donald, Beachler,

Argentina

(File:Acto recuperación de La Perla (Córdoba)-24MAR07-Autor Martín Gaitán(4).jpg|thumb|Commemoration in Argentina)In September 2006, Miguel Osvaldo Etchecolatz, who had been the police commissioner of the province of Buenos Aires during the Dirty War (1976–1983), was found guilty of six counts of murder, six counts of unlawful imprisonment and seven counts of torture in a federal court. The judge who presided over the case, Carlos Rozanski, described the offences as part of a systematic attack that was intended to destroy parts of society that the victims represented and as such was genocide. Rozanski noted that CPPCG does not include the elimination of political groups (because that group was removed at the behest of Stalin), but instead based his findings on 11 December 1946 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 96 barring acts of genocide "when racial, religious, political and other groups have been destroyed, entirely or in part" (which passed unanimously), because he considered the original UN definition to be more legitimate than the politically compromised CPPCG definition.Naomi Klein. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Macmillan, 2007 {{ISBN|978-0-8050-7983-8}}. {{google books|id=b1uQNYbE8DkC|p=100–102}}

Ethiopia

Ethiopia's former Soviet-backed Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam was tried in an Ethiopian court, in absentia, for his role in mass killings. Mengistu's charge sheet and evidence list covered 8,000 pages. The evidence against him included signed execution orders, videos of torture sessions and personal testimonies.Ethiopian Dictator Sentenced to Prison by Les Neuhaus, The Associated Press, 11 January 2007 The trial began in 1994 and on 12 December 2006 Mengistu was found guilty of genocide and other offences. He was sentenced to life in prison in January 2007.Mengistu is handed life sentence BBC, 11 January 2007NEWS,weblink Mengistu found guilty of genocide, BBC News, 12 December 2006, 15 February 2016, Ethiopian law includes attempts to annihilate political groups in its definition of genocide.NEWS,weblink Ethiopian leader guilty of genocide, TVNZ, Reuters, 13 December 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071114004558weblink">weblink 14 November 2007, 106 Derg officials were accused of genocide during the trials, but only 36 of them were present. Several former Derg members have been sentenced to death.NEWS,weblink Court sentences Major Melaku Tefera to death, Ethiopian Reporter, 10 December 2005, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928055949weblink">weblink 28 September 2007, Zimbabwe refused to respond to Ethiopia's extradition request for Mengistu, which permitted him to avoid a life sentence. Mengistu supported Robert Mugabe, the former long-standing President of Zimbabwe, during his leadership of Ethiopia.WEB, Bernard, Hibbitts,weblink No Zimbabwe extradition of Mengistu after Ethiopia genocide conviction, University of Pittsburgh legal news, 13 December 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080112002308weblink">weblink 12 January 2008, Michael Clough, a US attorney and longtime Ethiopia observer, told Voice of America in a statement released on 13 December 2006,WEB,weblink Ex-Ethiopian dictator guilty of genocide, UPI.com, 13 December 2006, 11 March 2014, The biggest problem with prosecuting Mengistu for genocide is that his actions did not necessarily target a particular group. They were directed against anybody who was opposing his government, and they were generally much more political than based on any ethnic targeting. In contrast, the irony is the Ethiopian government itself has been accused of genocide based on atrocities committed in Gambella. I'm not sure that they qualify as genocide either. But in Gambella, the incidents, which were well documented in a human rights report of about 2 years ago, were clearly directed at a particular group, the tribal group, the Anuak.An estimated 150,000 university students, intellectuals and politicians were killed during Mengistu's rule.NEWS, Tsegaye Tadesse,weblink 'Butcher of Addis Ababa' is guilty of genocide with torture regime, The Scotsman, 13 December 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080106181413weblink">weblink 6 January 2008, Amnesty International estimates that up to 500,000 people were killed during the Ethiopian Red TerrorThe World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World by Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, p. 457

Baathist Iraq

{{See also|Human rights in Saddam Hussein's Iraq}}

Genocide of Kurds

{{See also|1988 Anfal campaign}}On 23 December 2005, a Dutch court ruled in a case brought against Frans van Anraat for supplying chemicals to Iraq, that "[it] thinks and considers it legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets the requirement under the genocide convention as an ethnic group. The court has no other conclusion than that these attacks were committed with the intent to destroy the Kurdish population of Iraq." Because van Anraat supplied the chemicals before 16 March 1988, the date of the Halabja poison gas attack he was guilty of a war crime but not guilty of complicity in genocide.NEWS, Anne, Penketh,weblink Dutch court says gassing of Iraqi Kurds was 'genocide', The Independent, 24 December 2005, 17 April 2015, NEWS,weblink Dutch man sentenced for role in gassing death of Kurds, CBC News, 23 December 2005, 17 April 2016,

Marsh Arabs

{{See also|Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes}}The water diversion plan for the Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes was accompanied by a series of propaganda articles by the Iraqi regime directed against the Ma'dan,Robert Fisk, The Great War for Civilisation, Harper, London 2005, p. 844 and the wetlands were systematically converted into a desert, forcing the residents out of their settlements in the region. The western Hammar Marshes and the Qurnah or Central Marshes became completely desiccated, while the eastern Hawizeh Marshes dramatically shrank. Furthermore, villages in the marshes were attacked and burnt down and there were reports of the water being deliberately poisoned.,The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171215044941weblink |date=15 December 2017 }} UNEP, p. 44The majority of the Maʻdān were displaced either to areas adjacent to the drained marshes, abandoning their traditional lifestyle in favour of conventional agriculture, or to towns and camps in other areas of Iraq. An estimated 80,000 to 120,000 fled to refugee camps in Iran.WEB, Rojas-Burke, Joe,weblink Iraq's Marsh Arabs, Modern Sumerians, The Oregonian, simplysharing.com, 14 May 2003, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110527021202weblink">weblink 27 May 2011, The Marsh Arabs, who numbered about half a million in the 1950s, have dwindled to as few as 20,000 in Iraq. Only 1,600 of them were estimated to still be living on traditional dibins by 2003.Cole, p. 13Besides the general UN-imposed Gulf war sanctions, there was no specific legal recourse for those displaced by the drainage projects, nor was there prosecution of those involved. Article 2.c of the Genocide Convention (to which Iraq had acceded in 1951WEB, United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV Human Rights: 1. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide,weblink treaties.un.org, 4 February 2017, ) forbids "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part." Additionally, the Saint Petersburg Declaration says that "the only legitimate object which States should endeavour to accomplish during war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy", a provision potentially violated by the Ba'athist government as part of their campaign against the insurgents which had taken refuge in the marshlands.WEB, Iraqi push to complete strategic 'Third River',weblink 28 September 2015, 30 August 1992,

People's Republic of China

{{further|History of Tibet (1950–present)}}

Tibet

On 5 June 1959 Shri Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India, presented a report on Tibet to the International Commission of Jurists (an NGO). The press conference address on the report states in paragraph 26:}}The report of the International Commission of Jurists (1960) claimed that there was only "cultural" genocide. ICJ Report (1960) page 346: "The committee found that acts of genocide had been committed in Tibet in an attempt to destroy the Tibetans as a religious group, and that such acts are acts of genocide independently of any conventional obligation. The committee did not find that there was sufficient proof of the destruction of Tibetans as a race, nation or ethnic group as such by methods that can be regarded as genocide in international law."However, cultural genocide is also contested by academics such as Barry Sautman.JOURNAL, Sautman, Barry, October 2006, Colonialism, genocide, and Tibet, Asian Ethnicity, 7, 3, 243–65, 10.1080/14631360600926949, harv, Tibetan is the everyday language of the Tibetan people.BOOK, Melvyn Goldstein, William Siebenschuh, Tashi Tsering, The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering,weblink 21 February 1997, M.E. Sharpe, 978-0-7656-3178-7,
  • BOOK, Melvyn C. Goldstein, Gelek Rimpoche, A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State,weblink 1 January 1989, University of California Press, 978-0-520-06140-8,
The Central Tibetan Administration and other Tibetan in exile media claimed that approximately 1.2 million Tibetans have died of starvation, violence, or other indirect causes since 1950.CTA: Chinese Government Covering Up Dark Facts
  • BBC News – Tibet country profile – Overview White states "In all, over one million Tibetans, a fifth of the population, had died as a result of the Chinese occupation right up until the end of the Cultural Revolution."BOOK, David White, Himalayan Tragedy: The Story of Tibet's Panchen Lamas,weblink 2002, Tibet Society of the UK, 978-0-9542179-0-7, 98, This figure has been refuted by Patrick French, the former Director of the Free Tibet Campaign in London.NEWS, Patrick French,weblink He May Be a God, but He's No Politician, The New York Times, 22 March 2008, 13 February 2016,
Jones argued that the struggle sessions after the 1959 Tibetan uprising may be considered genocide, based on the claim that the conflict resulted in 92,000 deaths.{{sfn|Jones|2010|pp= 95–96}} However, according to tibetologist Tom Grunfeld, "the veracity of such a claim is difficult to verify."BOOK, A. Tom Grunfeld, A. Tom Grunfeld, The Making of Modern Tibet,weblink 14 February 2016, 1996, M.E. Sharpe, 978-0-7656-3455-9, 247, In 2013, Spain's top criminal court decided to hear a case brought by Tibetan rights activists who alleged that China's former President Hu Jintao had committed genocide in Tibet.NEWS,weblink BBC News – Spain probes Hu Jintao 'genocide' in Tibet court case, Bbc.co.uk, 11 October 2013, 11 March 2014, Spain's High Court dropped this case in June 2014.NEWS,weblink Spain drops 'genocide' case against China's Tibet leaders, Bbc.com, 24 June 2014, 13 February 2016,

Brazil

{{See also|Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil}}The Helmet Massacre of the Tikuna people took place in 1988 and it was initially treated as homicide. During the massacre four people died, nineteen were wounded, and ten disappeared. Since 1994 the episode has been treated by Brazilian courts as genocide. Thirteen men were convicted of genocide in 2001. In November 2004, after an appeal was filed before Brazil's federal court, the man initially found guilty of hiring men to carry out the genocide was acquitted, and the killers had their initial sentences of 15–25 years reduced to 12 years.WEB,weblink Brazilian Justice Acquits Man Sentenced for 1988 Massacre of Indians, Brazzil Magazine, 12 November 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050209104914weblink">weblink 9 February 2005, In November 2005, during an investigation code-named Operation Rio Pardo, Mario Lucio Avelar, a Brazilian public prosecutor in Cuiabá, told Survival International that he believed that there were sufficient grounds to prosecute for genocide of the Rio Pardo Indians. In November 2006 twenty-nine people were arrested with others implicated, such as a former police commander and the governor of Mato Grosso state.Eamonn McCann. weblink" title="archive.today/20120724071310weblink">Longing for a saviour Belfast Telegraph, 24 May 2007 In 2006 the Brazilian Supreme Federal Court (STF) unanimously reaffirmed that the crime known as the Haximu massacre (perpetrated on the Yanomami Indians in 1993)WEB,weblink Supreme Court upholds genocide ruling, Survival International, 4 August 2006, 10 April 2016, was a genocide and that the decision of a federal court to sentence miners to 19 years in prison for genocide in connection with other offenses, such as smuggling and illegal mining, was valid.WEB,weblink Federal Court is competent to judge the Haximu genocide, Cimi – Indianist Missionary Council, 7 August 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070709034346weblink">weblink 9 July 2007,

Post-Soviet Afghanistan

Massacres of Hazaras and other groups by the Taliban

Between 1996 and 2001 15 massacre campaigns were committed by the Taliban and Al-Qaeda; the United Nations stated: "These are the same type of war crimes as were committed in Bosnia and should be prosecuted in international courts" NEWS,weblink Taliban massacres outlined for UN, Newsday, October 2001, Chicago Tribune, Following the 1997 massacre of 3,000 Taliban prisoners by Abdul Malik Pahlawan in Mazar-i-SharifNEWS,weblink Afghan powerbrokers: Who's who, BBC News, November 19, 2001, 2011-04-01, (which the Hazaras did not commitNEWS, Cooper, Kenneth J., TALIBAN MASSACRE BASED ON ETHNICITY,weblinkweblink dead, 31 October 2019, The Washington Post, November 28, 1998, ) thousands of Hazara men and boys were massacred by other Taliban members in the same city in August 1998weblink After the attack, Mullah Niazi, the commander of the attack and the new governor of Mazar, declared from several mosques in the city in separate speeches:Last year you rebelled against us and killed us. From all your homes you shot at us. Now we are here to deal with you. (...)Hazaras are not Muslim, they are Shia. They are kofr (infidels). The Hazaras killed our force here, and now we have to kill Hazaras. (...)If you do not show your loyalty, we will burn your houses, and we will kill you. You either accept to be Muslims or leave Afghanistan. (...)[W]herever you [Hazaras] go we will catch you. If you go up, we will pull you down by your feet; if you hide below, we will pull you up by your hair. (...)If anyone is hiding Hazaras in his house he too will be taken away. What [Hizb-i] Wahdat and the Hazaras did to the Talibs, we did worse...as many as they killed, we killed more.WEB,weblink Incitement of violence against Hazaras by governor Niazi, Afghanistan, the massacre in Mazar-e-Sharif, Human Rights Watch, November 1998, 29 September 2018, In these killings 2,000WEB, THE MASSACRE IN MAZAR-I SHARIF,weblinkweblink dead, 2019-06-05, Human Rights Watch, November 1998 Vol. 10, No. 7 (C), to 5,000, or perhaps up to 20,000NEWS, Gizabi, Akram, Opinion: US–Taliban peace talks betray the trust of the Afghan people,weblinkweblink dead, 2019-10-31, Military Times, Mazarmassacres, Hazara were systematically executed across the city. The Taliban searched for combat age males by conducting door to door searches of Hazara households, shooting them and slitting their throats right in front of their families. Human rights organizations reported that the dead were lying on the streets for weeks before the Taliban allowed their burial due to stench and fear of epidemics. There were also reports of Hazara women being abducted as sex slaves. In November 2001 Hazara leaders claimed that the Taliban executed 15,000NEWS, Caroll, Rory, Pits reveal evidence of massacre by Taliban,weblinkweblink dead, 31 October 2019, 30 October 2019, The Guardian, 7 April 2002, of their people in Bamiyan; the United Nation investigated three mass graves allegedly containing the victims in 2002. The persecution of Hazaras has been called genocide by media outlets.NEWS, Gier, Nick, The Genocide of the Hazaras,weblinkweblink dead, 31 October 2019, Sandpoint Reader, 3 January 2016,

Democratic Republic of the Congo

During the Congo Civil War (1998–2003), pygmies were hunted down and eaten by both sides in the conflict, who regarded them as subhuman.NEWS, Jonathan Clayton,weblink Pygmies struggle to survive in war zone where abuse is routine, TimesOnline.com, 16 December 2004, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100525095020weblink">weblink 25 May 2010, Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, asked the UN Security Council to recognize cannibalism as both a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.WEB, PRESS CONFERENCE BY INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO,weblink NEWS,weblink DR Congo pygmies appeal to UN, BBC News, 23 May 2003, 15 February 2016, Minority Rights Group International reported evidence of mass killings, cannibalism and rape. The report, which labeled these events as a campaign of extermination, linked the violence to beliefs about special powers held by the Bambuti.NEWS,weblink DR Congo pygmies 'exterminated', BBC News, 6 July 2004, 15 February 2016, In Ituri district, rebel forces ran an operation code-named "Effacer le tableau" (to wipe the slate clean). The aim of the operation, according to witnesses, was to rid the forest of pygmies.NEWS,weblink Africa: Pygmy rights and continued discrimination, irinnews.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081117203329weblink">weblink 17 November 2008, NEWS, Basildon, Peta, Basildon Peta,weblink Rebels 'eating Pygmies' as mass slaughter continues in Congo despite peace agreement, The Independent, Beni, Congo, 9 January 2003, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101226172041weblink">weblink 26 December 2010, dmy,

Hutus

File:Ntrama Church Altar.jpg|thumb|Over 5,000 people seeking refuge in Ntarama church were killed by grenade, machete, rifle, or burnt alive.]]In 2010 a report accused Rwanda's Tutsi-led army of committing genocide against ethnic Hutus. The report accused the Rwandan Army and allied Congolese rebels of killing tens of thousands of ethnic Hutu refugees from Rwanda and locals in systematic attacks between 1996 and 1997. The government of Rwanda rejected the accusation.NEWS, Max, Delany, Rwanda dismisses UN report detailing possible Hutu genocide in Congo,weblink The Christian Science Monitor, 27 August 2010, 10 April 2016, NEWS, Rwanda's Kagame rejects as 'absurd' genocide assertions,weblink CNN, 17 September 2010, 10 April 2016,

Somalia

1988–1991 Isaaq genocide

The Isaaq genocide or "(Sometimes referred to as the Hargeisa Holocaust)"JOURNAL, Ingiriis, Mohamed Haji, 2016-07-02, "We Swallowed the State as the State Swallowed Us": The Genesis, Genealogies, and Geographies of Genocides in Somalia, African Security, 9, 3, 237–258, 10.1080/19392206.2016.1208475, 1939-2206, BOOK,weblink's%20holocaust&f=false, A View From The Foothills: The Diaries of Chris Mullin, Mullin, Chris, 2010, Profile Books, 978-1847651860, was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1988 and 1991 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.BOOK,weblink Past human rights abuses in Somalia: report of a preliminary study conducted for the United Nations (OHCHR/UNDP-Somalia), Mburu, Chris, Rights, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human, Office, United Nations Development Programme Somalia Country, 2002-01-01, s.n., A number of genocide scholars (including Israel Charny,BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of genocide, Charny, Israel W., 1999, ABC-CLIO, 9780874369281, Gregory Stanton,BOOK, Countries at Risk Report, Gregory H., Stanton, Genocide Watch, 2012,weblink Deborah Mayersen,BOOK,weblink Genocide and Mass Atrocities in Asia: Legacies and Prevention, Mayersen, Deborah, Pohlman, Annie, 2013-06-03, Routledge, 978-1135047702, and Adam JonesBOOK,weblink Genocide, war crimes and the West: history and complicity, Jones, Adam, 2017, Zed Books, 978-1842771914, ) as well as international media outlets, such as The Guardian,BOOK,weblink Comprehending and mastering African conflicts: the search for sustainable peace and good governance, Adedeji, Adebayo, African Centre for Development and Strategic Studies (Ijebu-Ode Nigeria), 1999, Zed Books, in association with African Centre for Development and Stratetgic Studies, 978-1856497626, The Washington PostNEWS,weblink Genocide in the Horn of Africa, Cyllah, Almami, 1990-07-01, 2017-01-17, Prendergast, John, 0190-8286, The Washington Post, and Al JazeeraWEB,weblink Somaliland: Kill All but the Crows, 16 June 2016, Al Jazeera, 21 January 2017, among others, have referred to the case as one of genocide. In 2001, the United Nations commissioned an investigation on past human rights violations in Somalia, specifically to find out if "crimes of international jurisdiction (i.e. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The investigation was commissioned jointly by the United Nations Co-ordination Unit (UNCU) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The investigation concluded with a report confirming the crime of genocide to have taken place against the Isaaqs in Somalia.BOOK,weblink Past human rights abuses in Somalia: report of a preliminary study conducted for the United Nations (OHCHR/UNDP-Somalia), Mburu, Chris, Rights, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human, Office, United Nations Development Programme Somalia Country, 2002-01-01, s.n.,

2007 Bantu attacks

In 2007 attacks on Somalia's Bantu population and Jubba Valley dwellers from 1991 onwards were reported, noting that "Somalia is a rare case in which genocidal acts were carried out by militias in the utter absence of a governing state structure."Catherine L. Besteman, "Genocide in Somalia's Jubba Valley and Somali Bantu Refugees in the U.S" 9 April 2007 Accessed 25 January 2011

Chechnya

(File:Fosse commune de Saadi-Kotar.jpg|thumb|A Russian soldier stands by a mass grave of Chechens in Komsomolskoye, 2000){{see also|First Chechen War|Second Chechen War|Casualties of the Second Chechen War}}Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Chechnya declared independence from the Russian Federation. President Boris Yeltsin refused to accept its independence; subsequently, this escalated when Russian troops attacked Chechnya in the First Chechen War in 1994, and they attacked Chechnya again in the Second Chechen War in 1999. By 2009, Chechen resistance was crushed and the war ended with Russia again taking control over Chechnya. Numerous war crimes were reported during both conflicts.WEB, War Crimes In Chechnya and the Response of the West, Human Rights Watch, 29 February 2000,weblink 18 November 2018, Amnesty International estimated that between 20,000 and 30,000 have been killed in the First Chechen War alone, mostly by indiscriminate attacks by Russian forces on densely populated areas.WEB, Brief summary of concerns about human rights violations in the Chechen Republic, Amnesty International, April 1996,weblink 18 November 2018, Some scholars estimated that the brutality of the Russian government attacks on such a small ethnic group amounted to a crime of genocide.JOURNAL, Haque, Mozammel, Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, 1999, Genocide in Chechnya and the World Community, 41394437, 52, 4, 15–29, JOURNAL, Jones, Adam, 2011, 10.1080/14623528.2011.554083, Let Our Fame Be Great: Journeys Among the Defiant People of the Caucasus, Journal of Genocide Research, 13, 1, 199–202, The German-based NGO Society for Threatened Peoples accused the Russian authorities of genocide in its 2005 report on Chechnya.Sarah Reinke: Schleichender Völkermord in Tschetschenien. Verschwindenlassen – ethnische Verfolgung in Russland – Scheitern der internationalen Politik. Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker, 2005, p. 8 (PDF {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140812015310weblink |date=12 August 2014 }})

Sri Lanka

{{See also|Alleged war crimes during the Sri Lankan Civil War|List of attacks on civilians attributed to Sri Lankan government forces}}The Sri Lankan military was accused of human rights violations during Sri Lanka's 26-year civil war.WEB, Recurring Nightmare,weblink Human Rights Watch, 16, March 2008,
  • WEB, Factual Supplement to the Report to Congress on Measures Taken by the Government of Sri Lanka and International Bodies To Investigate and Hold Accountable Violators of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law,weblink United States Department of State, 4 April 2012, 24 June 2017,weblink 20 May 2018, dead, dmy-all, A United Nation's Panel of Experts looking into these alleged violations found "credible allegations, which if proven, indicate that serious violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law were committed both by the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE, some of which would amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity".BOOK, Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka, United Nations,weblink 31 March 2011, Some activists and politicians also accused the Sri Lankan government of carrying out genocide against the minority Sri Lankan Tamil people, who are mostly Hindu, during and after the war.WEB,weblink Tamil Genocide in Sri Lanka, Clearly 90% are Hindus…, Struggle for Hindu Existence.org, 16 March 2012, 13 February 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130127011318weblink">weblink 27 January 2013,
Bruce Fein alleged that Sri Lanka's leaders committed genocide,NEWS, Sri Lankan army commanders 'assassinated surrendering Tamils',weblink The Daily Telegraph, 18 December 2011, Alex Spillius, Emanuel Stoakes, London, along with Tamil Parliamentarian Suresh Premachandran.NEWS, Leading Sri Lanka Tamil Politician Claims 'Genocide' by Military,weblink Voice of America, 12 May 2009, 18 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160425203526weblink">weblink 25 April 2016, dead, NEWS, Gopalan, T. N., TNA team in India,weblink BBC Sinhala, 12 January 2009, 27 March 2016, Refugees escaping Sri Lanka also stated that they fled from genocide,NEWS, Allard, Tom, Tamil boat people fleeing 'genocide',weblink The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 October 2009, and various Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora groups echoed these accusations.NEWS, Haviland, Charles, US calls for 'accountability' in Sri Lanka's war,weblink BBC Sinhala, 6 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160108232607weblink">weblink 8 January 2016, NEWS, Surendiran, Suren, Britain and the slaughter of the Tamils,weblink The Guardian, 21 April 2009, London, 27 March 2016, In 2009, thousands of Tamils protested in cities all over the world against the atrocities. (See 2009 Tamil diaspora protests.)NEWS, Taylor, Lesley Ciarula, Thousands protest Tamil 'genocide',weblink Toronto Star, 31 January 2009,
  • NEWS, Thousands march for Tamil rights,weblink BBC News, 20 June 2009, Various diaspora activists formed a group called Tamils Against Genocide to continue the protest.WEB, About TAG,weblink Tamils Against Genocide, 24 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121124071338weblink">weblink 24 November 2012, dead, Legal action against Sri Lankan leaders for alleged genocide has been initiated. Norwegian human rights lawyer Harald Stabell filed a case in Norwegian courts against Sri Lankan President Rajapaksa and other officials.NEWS, War Crimes, Genocide Case Filed in Norway Courts,weblink The Sunday Leader, 15 May 2011,
  • NEWS, War crime, genocide case against Rajapaksa placed in Norway courts,weblink TamilNet, 8 May 2011,
Politicians in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu also made accusations of genocide.NEWS, Parties condemn "genocide of Sri Lankan Tamils",weblink The Hindu, 23 December 2006, Chennai, India,
  • NEWS, CPI to protest Lanka violence,weblink BBC Sinhala, 29 September 2008, In 2008 and 2009 the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu M. Karunanidhi repeatedly appealed to the Indian government to intervene to "stop the genocide of Tamils",NEWS, Stop genocide of Sri Lankan Tamils,weblink The Hindu, 6 October 2008, Chennai, India,
  • NEWS, Gopalan, T. N., Send telegrams to Delhi – CM,weblink BBC Sinhala, 5 October 2008,
  • NEWS, Help stop genocide, Karunanidhi tells Sonia,weblink The Hindu, 10 April 2009, Chennai, India, while his successor J. Jayalalithaa called on the Indian government to bring Rajapaksa before international courts for genocide.NEWS, Summon Mahinda to international court- Jayalalitha,weblink BBC Sinhala, 13 May 2011, The women's wing of the Communist Party of India, passed a resolution in August 2012 finding that "Systematic sexual violence against Tamil women" by Sri Lankan forces constituted genocide, calling for an "independent international investigation".NEWS, Women's conference in Tamil Nadu terms oppression of Eezham Tamils as genocide,weblink TamilNet, 11 August 2012,
In January 2010, a Permanent Peoples' Tribunal (PPT) held in Dublin, Ireland, found Sri Lanka guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity, but found insufficient evidence to justify the charge of genocide.WEB, People's Tribunal on Sri Lanka,weblink Permanent Peoples' Tribunal, 24 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160108232606weblink">weblink 8 January 2016, dead, NEWS, Sri Lanka 'guilty' of war crimes,weblink BBC Sinhala, 17 January 2010, The tribunal requested a thorough investigation as some of the evidence indicated "possible acts of genocide". Its panel found Sri Lanka guilty of genocide at its 7–10 December 2013 hearings in Berman, Germany. It also found that the US and UK were guilty of complicity. A decision on whether India, and other states, had also acted in complicity was withheld. PPT reported that LTTE could not be accurately characterized as "terrorist", stating that movements classified as "terrorist" because of their rebellion against a state, can become political entities recognized by the international community.WEB,weblink Verdict, Ptsrilanka.org, 11 March 2014, NEWS, Dublin tribunal takes up genocide investigation,weblink TamilNet, 3 November 2012, The International Commission of Jurists stated that the camps used to intern nearly 300,000 Tamils after the war's end may have breached the convention against genocide.NEWS, Sri Lankan camps breach convention against genocide,weblink ABC News (Australia), ABC News, 7 June 2009, In 2015, Sri Lanka's Tamil majority Northern Provincial Council (NPC) "passed a strongly worded resolution accusing successive governments in the island nation of committing 'genocide' against Tamils".NEWS, Tamil Province charges Colombo with genocide,weblink The Hindu, 11 February 2015, The resolution asserts that "Tamils across Sri Lanka, particularly in the historical Tamil homeland of the NorthEast, have been subject to gross and systematic human rights violations, culminating in the mass atrocities committed in 2009. Sri Lanka's historic violations include over 60 years of state sponsored anti-Tamil pogroms, massacres, sexual violence, and acts of cultural and linguistic destruction perpetrated by the state. These atrocities have been perpetrated with the intent to destroy the Tamil people, and therefore constitute genocide."NEWS, NPC passes resolution asking UN to investigate genocide of Tamils by Sri Lanka state,weblink Tamil Guardian, 10 February 2015, The Sri Lankan government denied the allegations of genocide and war crimes.NEWS, Sri Lanka 'counting civilian war deaths',weblink BBC News, 24 November 2011,

Myanmar

File:Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh after being driven out of Myanmar, 2017.JPG|thumb|325px|Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh after being driven out of MyanmarMyanmar{{See also|Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar}}Myanmar's government has been accused of crimes against the Muslim Rohingya minority that are alleged to amount to genocide. It has been alleged that Rohingya are the primary targets of hate crimes and discrimination amounting to genocide fueled by extremist nationalist Buddhist monks and Thein Sein's government. Muslim groups have claimed that they were subjected to genocide, torture, arbitrary detention, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.WEB, Burma – United to End Genocide,weblink 7 October 2015, NEWS, Muslim groups sue Myanmar president for Rohingya 'genocide',weblink the Guardian, 7 October 2015, Agence France-Presse in New, York, 6 October 2015, On 25 August 2017, the Myanmar military forces and local Buddhist extremists started attacking the Rohingya people and committing atrocities against them in the country's north-west Rakhine state. The atrocities included attacks on Rohingya people and locations, looting and burning down Rohingya villages, mass killing of Rohingya civilians, gang rapes, and other sexual violence.Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) estimated in December 2017 that during the persecution, the military and the local Buddhists killed at least 10,000 Rohingya people.WEB,weblink Rohingya death toll likely above 10,000, MSF says amid exodus, James Bennett, 14 Dec 2017, ABC News, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 1 October 2018,weblink 11 January 2018, dead, dmy-all, At least 392 Rohingya villages in Rakhine state were reported as burned down and destroyed,WEB,weblink Myanmar: UN Fact-Finding Mission releases its full account of massive violations by military in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan States, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 30 September 2018, as well as the looting of many Rohingya houses,WEB,weblink Massacre in Myanmar: One grave for 10 Rohingya men, Wa Lone, Kyaw Soe Oo, 8 February 2018, Reuters, and widespread gang rapes and other forms of sexual violence against the Rohingya Muslim women and girls.NEWS, Rohingya crisis: Burmese military guilty of widespread rape of fleeing women and girls, Human Rights Watch says,weblink The Independent, 16 November 2017, Michelle Nichols, NEWS, Rohingya women gang-raped by Myanmar army,weblink The Daily Star, 13 November 2017, NEWS, Rohingya Were Raped Systematically by Myanmar's Military,weblink The New York Times, 16 November 2017, Rick Gladstone, The military drive also displaced a large number of Rohingya people and made them refugees. According to the United Nations reports, {{as of|2018|September|lc=y}}, over 700,000 Rohingya people had fled or had been driven out of Rakhine state who then took shelter in the neighboring Bangladesh as refugees. In December 2017, two Reuters journalists who had been covering the Inn Din massacre event were arrested and imprisoned.The 2017 persecution against the Rohingya Muslims and non-Muslims has been termed as ethnic cleansing and genocide by various United Nations agencies, International Criminal Court officials, human rights groups, and governments.NEWS,weblink CBS News, AP finds mass graves, latest evidence of Rohingya genocide in Myanmar, 5 October 2019, NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, U.N. genocide advisor: Myanmar waged 'scorched-earth campaign' against the Rohingya, 5 October 2019, NEWS,weblink CNN, UN official convinced of Myanmar Rohingya 'genocide', 5 October 2019, WEB,weblink Amnesty International, 10 April 2018, UN Security Council: End disgraceful inaction on Myanmar's Rohingya crisis, NEWS,weblink CNN, Tillerson: Myanmar clearly 'ethnic cleansing' the Rohingya, 5 October 2019, NEWS,weblink Guardian, 'Hallmarks of genocide': ICC prosecutor seeks justice for Rohingya, 5 October 2019, WEB,weblink Burma: New Satellite Images Confirm Mass Destruction, 17 October 2017, Human Rights Watch, British prime minister Theresa May and United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called it "ethnic cleansing" while the French President Emmanuel Macron described the situation as "genocide".NEWS, Downing Street says Burma's treatment of Rohingya Muslims looks like 'ethnic cleansing',weblink The Independent, 13 November 2017, Joe Watts, Caroline Mortimer, WEB,weblink Efforts To Address Burma's Rakhine State Crisis, Rex W. Tillerson, 22 November 2017, U.S. State Department,weblink 20 February 2018, dead, dmy-all, NEWS, French President labels attacks on Rohingya minority as 'genocide',weblink SBS News, 20 September 2017, The United Nations described the persecution as "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing". In late September that year, a seven-member panel of the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal found the Myanmar military and the Myanmar authority guilty of the crime of genocide against the Rohingya and the Kachin minority groups.NEWS, Permanent Peoples Tribunal finds Myanmar guilty of genocide,weblink New Straits Times, 22 September 2017, Bernama, NEWS, Myanmar found guilty of genocide,weblink The Daily Star, 23 September 2017, The Myanmar leader and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi was again criticized for her silence over the issue and for supporting the military actions.Ramzy, Austin, "270,000 Rohingya Have Fled Myanmar, U.N. Says", 8 September 2017, New York Times retrieved 9 September 2017 Subsequently, in November 2017, the governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar signed a deal to facilitate the return of Rohingya refugees to their native Rakhine state within two months, drawing a mixed response from international onlookers.WEB,weblink Myanmar Rohingya crisis: Deal to allow return of Muslim refugees, 23 November 2017, 26 November 2017, BBC, In August 2018, the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, reporting the findings of their investigation into the August–September 2017 events, declared that the Myanmar military—the Tatmadaw, and several of its commanders (including Commander-in-chief Senior General Min Aung Hlaing)—should face charges in the International Criminal Court for "crimes against humanity", including acts of "ethnic cleansing" and "genocide," particularly for the August–September 2017 attacks on the Rohingya.Human rights situations that require the Council’s attention: Report of the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar, (Advance Unedited Version: English) 24 August 2018, United Nations, Human Rights Council, 39th session, 10–28 September 2018, Agenda item 4, retrieved 28 August 2018"U.N. calls for Myanmar generals to be tried for genocide, blames Facebook for incitement," 27 August 2018, Reuters News Service, retrieved 28 August 2018"Myanmar Rohingya: UN says military leaders must face genocide charges," 27 August 2018, BBC News, retrieved 28 August 2018"Investigators call for genocide prosecutions over slaughter of Rohingyas," 27 August 2018, CBS News, retrieved 28 August 2018"Myanmar Generals Had 'Genocidal Intent' Against Rohingya, Must Face Justice: U.N.," 27 August 2018, U.S. News, retrieved 28 August 2018"Year After Rohingya Massacres, Top Generals Unrepentant and Unpunished," 27 August 2018, New York Times, retrieved 28 August 2018

ISIL

{{Further|Persecution of Christians by ISIL|Genocide of Shias by ISIL|Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL}}

Yemen

{{See|Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen|Famine in Yemen (2016–present)|Human rights violations during the Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)}}The Saudi Arabian- and United Arab Emirates-led coalition fighting in Yemen has been accused of carrying out a "genocide".NEWS, Saudi-led coalition in Yemen accused of 'genocide' after airstrike on funeral hall kills 140,weblink The Independent, 9 October 2016, NEWS, Calls for accountability as Yemen suffers genocide by starvation,weblink Business Live, 9 October 2018, WEB, Bachman, Jeff, Genocide in Yemen?,weblink www.sites.tufts.edu, NEWS, Saudi aggression in Yemen: Our exports support Arab genocide,weblink Irish Examiner, 30 November 2018, NEWS, When will America stop participating in Yemen's genocidal war?,weblink The Guardian, 15 November 2018, U.S. Congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard said: "The United States’ support for Saudi Arabia's genocidal war in Yemen, with no authorization from Congress, has resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of Yemeni civilians."WEB, Gabbard, Tulsi, Video: Rep. Tulsi Gabbard Votes to End U.S. Support for Saudi Arabia's Genocidal War in Yemen,weblink www.gabbard.house.gov, 14 February 2019,

International prosecution

Ad hoc tribunals

In 1951 only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the CPPCG: France and the Republic of China. The CPPCG was ratified by the Soviet Union in 1954, the United Kingdom in 1970, the People's Republic of China in 1983 (having replaced the Taiwan-based Republic of China on the UNSC in 1971), and the United States in 1988. In the 1990s the international law on the crime of genocide began to be enforced.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

{{See also|Bosnian genocide|Srebrenica massacre}}(File:Srebrenica Massacre - Exhumed Grave of Victims - Potocari 2007.jpg|thumb|Exhumed mass grave of Srebrenica massacre victims in 2007)File:Radovan Karadzic ICTY.jpg|thumb|Radovan Karadžić, the former president of Republika Srpskapresident of Republika SrpskaIn July 1995 Serbian forces killed more than 8,000WEB,weblink Srebrenica-Potočari: spomen obilježje i mezarje za žrtve genocida iz 1995 godine. Liste žrtava prema prezimenu, Srebrenica-Potocari: Memorial and Cemetery for the victims of the genocide of 1995. Lists of victims by surname, Bosnian, 1995, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140418221608weblink">weblink 18 April 2014, WEB, ICTY: The Conflicts, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, 5 August 2013,weblink
  • BOOK,weblink The United Nations, Kirsten Nakjavani Bookmiller, 2008, Infobase Publishing, 4 August 2013, 978-1438102993, , p. 81.
  • BOOK,weblink Victory Has a Thousand Fathers: Sources of Success in Counterinsurgency, Christopher Paul, Colin P. Clarke, Beth Grill, 2010, Rand Corporation, 4 August 2013, 978-0833050786, , p. 25.
  • NEWS, Mladic Arrives in The Hague, 31 May 2011, The New York Times,weblink Marlise, Simons, Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War. The killing was perpetrated by units of the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) under the command of General Ratko Mladić. The Secretary-General of the United Nations described the mass murder as the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War.UN Press Release SG/SM/9993UN, 11/07/2005 "Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s message to the ceremony marking the tenth anniversary of the Srebrenica massacre in Potocari-Srebrenica". Retrieved 9 August 2010.Institute for War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update: Briefly Noted (TU No 398, 18 March 2005) weblink A paramilitary unit from Serbia known as the Scorpions, officially a part of the Serbian Interior Ministry until 1991, participated in the massacre,NEWS,weblink Srebrenica Video Vindicates Long Pursuit by Serb Activist, The Washington Post, 26 May 2011, Daniel, Williams, WEB,weblink ICTY – Kordic and Cerkez Judgement – 3. After the Conflict, 11 July 2012, along with several hundred Russian and Greek volunteers.BOOK,weblink Memories of Mass Repression: Narrating Life Stories in the Aftermath of Atrocity, Norman M. Naimark, 2011, Transaction Publishers, 4 August 2013, 978-1412812047, , p. 3.
  • WEB, Greece faces shame of role in Serb massacre, 5 January 2013, The Guardian,weblink
In 2001 the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) delivered its first conviction for the crime of genocide, against General Krstić for his role in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre (on appeal he was found not guilty of genocide but was instead found guilty of aiding and abetting genocide).The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in weblink" title="archive.today/20120525111049weblink">Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Trial Chamber I – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001) that genocide had been committed. (see paragraph 560 for name of group in English on whom the genocide was committed). The judgement was upheld in weblink" title="archive.today/20120529184845weblink">Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Appeals Chamber – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)In February 2007 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) returned a judgement in the Bosnian Genocide Case. It upheld the ICTY's findings that genocide had been committed in and around Srebrenica but did not find that genocide had been committed on the wider territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war. The ICJ also ruled that Serbia was not responsible for the genocide nor was it responsible for "aiding and abetting it", although it ruled that Serbia could have done more to prevent the genocide and that Serbia failed to punish the perpetrators.NEWS, Arthur, Max,weblink Court: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, The San Francisco Chronicle, Associated Press, 26 February 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070810091849weblink">weblink 10 August 2007, dmy, Before this ruling the term Bosnian Genocide had been used by some academicsWEB,weblink HNPG 036P (or 033T) History: Bosnian Genocide In the Historical Perspective, University of California Riverside, 2003, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070516181854weblink">weblink 16 May 2007, dmy, WEB,weblink Winter 2007 Honors Courses, University of California Riverside, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070810134723weblink">weblink 10 August 2007, dmy, WEB,weblink Winter 2008 Honors Courses, University of California Riverside, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071029073204weblink">weblink 29 October 2007, dmy, and human rights officials.WEB,weblink Milosevic to Face Bosnian Genocide Charges, Human Rights Watch, 11 December 2001, 10 April 2016, In 2010, Vujadin Popović, Lieutenant Colonel and the Chief of Security of the Drina Corps of the Bosnian Serb Army, and Ljubiša Beara, Colonel and Chief of Security of the same army, were convicted of genocide, extermination, murder and persecution by the ICTY for their role in the Srebrenica massacre and were each sentenced to life in prison.NEWS,weblink Seven convicted over 1995 Srebrenica massacre, CNN, 10 June 2010,
  • NEWS,weblink Life for Bosnian Serbs over genocide at Srebrenica, BBC News, 10 June 2010,
  • NEWS,weblink Hague court sentences Bosnian Serbs to life for Srebrenica genocide, Times Online, 10 June 2010, London, David, Charter,
  • NEWS,weblink Bosnian Serbs convicted of genocide over Srebrenica massacre, The Telegraph, 10 June 2010, London, Bruno, Waterfield, In 2016 and 2017, Radovan KaradžićNEWS, The Hindu, 24 March 2016, Radovan Karadzic sentenced to 40-year imprisonment for Srebrenica genocide, war crimes,weblink and Ratko Mladić were sentenced for genocide.WEB,weblink UN hails conviction of Mladic, the 'epitome of evil,' a momentous victory for justice, 22 November 2017, UN News Centre, 23 November 2017,
German courts handed down convictions for genocide during the Bosnian War. Novislav Djajic was indicted for his participation in the genocide, but the Higher Regional Court failed to find that there was sufficient certainty for a criminal conviction for genocide. Nevertheless, Djajic was found guilty of 14 counts of murder and one count of attempted murder.WEB,weblink Novislav Djajic, Trial Watch, 19 June 2013, 15 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160214040321weblink">weblink 14 February 2016, dmy-all, At Djajic's appeal on 23 May 1997, the Bavarian Appeals Chamber found that acts of genocide were committed in June 1992, confined within the administrative district of Foca.weblink" title="archive.today/20120525111049weblink">Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Trial Chamber I – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001), The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, paragraph 589. citing Bavarian Appeals Court, Novislav Djajic case, 23 May 1997, 3 St 20/96, section VI, p. 24 of the English translation. The Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Düsseldorf, in September 1997, handed down a genocide conviction against Nikola Jorgic, a Bosnian Serb from the Doboj region who was the leader of a paramilitary group located in the Doboj region. He was sentenced to four terms of life imprisonment for his involvement in genocidal actions that took place in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, other than Srebrenica;Oberlandesgericht Düsseldorf, "Public Prosecutor v Jorgic", 26 September 1997 (Trial Watch) Nikola Jorgic {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140224162507weblink |date=24 February 2014 }} and "On 29 November 1999, the Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Düsseldorf condemned Maksim Sokolovic to 9 years in prison for aiding and abetting the crime of genocide and for grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions."Trial watch Maksim Sokolovic {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150706082940weblink |date=6 July 2015 }}

Rwanda

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offences committed in Rwanda during the genocide that occurred there during April and May 1994, commencing on 6 April. The ICTR was created on 8 November 1994 by the UN Security Council to resolve claims in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994. For approximately 100 days from the assassination of President Juvénal Habyarimana on 6 April through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate.As of mid-2011, the ICTR had convicted 57 people and acquitted 8. Another ten persons were still on trial while one is awaiting trial. Nine remain at large.WEB,weblink United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Status of Cases, ICTR, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110813085127weblink">weblink 13 August 2011, The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu, ended in 1998 with his conviction for genocide and crimes against humanity.WEB,weblink United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Status of Cases, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, ICRT, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121202141407weblink">weblink 2 December 2012, This was the world's first conviction for genocide, as defined by the 1948 Convention. Jean Kambanda, interim Prime Minister during the genocide, pleaded guilty.

Cambodia

{{See also|The Killing Fields|Autogenocide|Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum|Cambodian genocide|Cambodian genocide denial}}File:Skulls from the killing fields.jpg|thumb|Skulls at Choeung EkChoeung EkThe Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, Ta Mok and other leaders, organized the mass killing of ideologically suspect groups, ethnic minorities such as ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese (or Sino-Khmers), Chams and Thais, former civil servants, former government soldiers, Buddhist monks, secular intellectuals and professionals, and former city dwellers. Khmer Rouge cadres defeated in factional struggles were also liquidated in purges. Man-made famine and slave labor resulted in many hundreds of thousands of deaths.BOOK, Marek Sliwinski, Le génocide khmer rouge: une analyse démographique,weblink 1995, Harmattan, 978-2-7384-3525-5, 82, Craig Etcheson suggested that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a "most likely" figure of 2.2 million. After 5 years of researching 20,000 grave sites, he concluded that "these mass graves contain the remains of 1,386,734 victims of execution."WEB, Sharp, Bruce, Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia, 1 April 2005,weblink 13 January 2013, However, some scholars argued that the Khmer Rouge were not racist and had no intention of exterminating ethnic minorities or the Cambodian people; in this view, their brutality was the product of an extreme version of communist ideology.BOOK, Red Holocaust, Rosefielde, Steven, Steven Rosefielde, 2009, Routledge, 978-0-415-77757-5, Red Holocaust (2009 book), On 6 June 2003 the Cambodian government and the United Nations reached an agreement to set up the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), which would focus exclusively on crimes committed by the most senior Khmer Rouge officials during the period of Khmer Rouge rule from 1975 to 1979.WEB,weblink Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: 57/228 Khmer Rouge trials B1, United Nations General Assembly, 22 May 2003, 11 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070703061139weblink">weblink 3 July 2007, The judges were sworn in in early July 2006.NEWS, Kevin Doyle,weblink Putting the Khmer Rouge on Trial, Time (magazine), Time, 26 July 2007, 13 February 2016,
  • NEWS, Ian, MacKinnon,weblink Crisis talks to save Khmer Rouge trial, The Guardian, 7 March 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071116020356weblink">weblink 16 November 2007, dmy,
  • WEB,weblink The Khmer Rouge Trial Task Force, Royal Cambodian Government, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050403182720weblink">weblink 3 April 2005,
The investigating judges were presented with the names of five possible suspects by the prosecution on 18 July 2007.NEWS, Andrew, Buncombe, Judge quits Cambodia genocide tribunal, The Independent,weblink London, 11 October 2011, File:KSAMPHAN3July2009-1.jpg|thumb|Khieu Samphan at a public hearing before the Pre-Trial Cambodia TribunalCambodia Tribunal
  • Kang Kek Iew was formally charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity and detained by the Tribunal on 31 July 2007. He was indicted on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity on 12 August 2008.NEWS,weblink Cambodian tribunal indicts Khmer Rouge jailer, Ker Munthit, USA Today, Associated Press, 12 August 2008, 5 February 2017, His appeal was rejected on 3 February 2012, and he continued serving a sentence of life imprisonment.WEB,weblink Kaing Guek Eav alias Duch Sentenced to Life Imprisonment by the Supreme Court Chamber, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, 3 February 2012, 5 February 2017,
  • Nuon Chea, a former prime minister, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial began on 27 June 2011.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110517092819weblink">weblink dead, 17 May 2011, Case 002, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, 5 February 2017, WEB,weblink 002/19-09-2007: Closing Order, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, 15 September 2010, 5 February 2017, On 16 November 2018, he was sentenced to a life in prison for genocide.NEWS, UN genocide adviser welcomes historic conviction of former Khmer Rouge leaders, UN News, 16 November 2018,weblink 18 November 2018,
  • Khieu Samphan, a former head of state, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial also began on 27 June 2011. On 16 November 2018, he was sentenced to a life in prison for genocide.
  • Ieng Sary, a former foreign minister, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. His trial began on 27 June 2011. He died in March 2013.
  • Ieng Thirith, wife of Ieng Sary and a former minister for social affairs, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. She was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. Proceedings against her have been suspended pending a health evaluation.WEB,weblink 002/19-09-2007: Decision on immediate appeal against Trial Chamber's order to release the accused Ieng Thirith, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, 13 December 2011, 5 February 2017,
Some of the international jurists and the Cambodian government disagreed over whether any other people should be tried by the Tribunal.

International Criminal Court

{{See also|International Criminal Court}}The ICC can only prosecute crimes committed on or after 1 July 2002.WEB,weblink Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Article 11, United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, 17 July 1999, 4 June 2017, WEB,weblink ICC: About the court, International Criminal Court, ICC, 6 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100309082156weblink">weblink 9 March 2010,

Darfur, Sudan

{{See also|Second Sudanese Civil War|War in Darfur|Darfur genocide}}File:Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090131-N-0506A-342.jpg|thumb|Sudanese President Omar al-BashirOmar al-BashirThe ongoing racialNEWS,weblink CBS News, Witnessing Genocide in Sudan, 8 October 2004, 10 April 2016, Racism at root of Sudan's Darfur crisis – CSMonitor.comWEB,weblink Humanitarian Intervention in Darfur: A Viable Option?, 7 November 2008, Turkishweekly.net, 9 September 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160108232607weblink">weblink 8 January 2016, dmy-all, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091208024419weblink">Encyclopædia BritannicaNEWS,weblink BBC News, Sudan country profile, 27 April 2010, 3 May 2010, NEWS,weblink Huffington Post, Al-Bashir Arrest Warrant Issued By International Criminal Court, 4 March 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100221202708weblink">weblink 21 February 2010, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070128121659weblink">The Online NewsHour: Crisis in Sudan | Janjaweed Militia | PBS conflict in Darfur, Sudan, which started in 2003, was declared a genocide by United States Secretary of State Colin Powell on 9 September 2004 in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040911045335weblink">Powell Declares Killing in Darfur 'Genocide', The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, 9 September 2004 Since that time however, no other permanent member of the UN Security Council has followed suit. In January 2005, an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council Resolution 1564 of 2004, issued a report stating that "the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide."WEB,weblink Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General, United Nations, 4, 25 January 2005, 5 February 2017, Nevertheless, the Commission cautioned that "The conclusion that no genocidal policy has been pursued and implemented in Darfur by the Government authorities, directly or through the militias under their control, should not be taken in any way as detracting from the gravity of the crimes perpetrated in that region. International offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocide."In March 2005, the Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur to the ICC, taking into account the Commission report but without mentioning any specific crimes.WEB,weblink Security Council Resolution 1593 (2005), United Nations Security Council, 31 March 2005, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050529082238weblink">weblink 29 May 2005, dmy, Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United States and China, abstained from the vote on the referral resolution.Security Council Refers Situation in Darfur, Sudan, to Prosecutor of International Criminal Court, UN Press Release SC/8351, 31 March 2005 As of his fourth report to the Security Council, the Prosecutor found "reasonable grounds to believe that the individuals identified [in the UN Security Council Resolution 1593] have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes", but did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute for genocide.WEB,weblink Fourth Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the Security Council pursuant to UNSC 1593 (2005), International Criminal Court (ICC), 14 December 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614011746weblink">weblink 14 June 2007, dmy, In April 2007, the ICC issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior, Ahmad Harun, and a Janjaweed militia leader, Ali Kushayb, for crimes against humanity and war crimes.WEB,weblink Statement by Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the United Nations Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1593 (2005), International Criminal Court (ICC), 5 June 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080813022926weblink">weblink 13 August 2008, On 14 July 2008, the ICC filed ten charges of war crimes against Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanity and two of murder. Prosecutors claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity.NEWS, Peter, Walker,weblink Darfur genocide charges for Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, 15 July 2008, The Guardian, 14 July 2008, London, On 4 March 2009 the ICC issued a warrant for al-Bashir's arrest for crimes against humanity and war crimes, but not genocide. This is the first warrant issued by the ICC against a sitting head of state.Staff. Warrant issued for Sudan's leader, BBC, 4 March 2009

See also

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Notes

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References

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  • BOOK, M., Gammer, The Lone Wolf and the Bear: Three Centuries of Chechen Defiance of Russian Rule,weblink 2006, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 978-1-85065-748-4, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Richard A., Gray, 1994, Genocide in the Chittagong Hill tracts of Bangladesh, Reference Services Review, 22, 4, 59–79, harv, 10.1108/eb049231,
  • WEB, Goble, Paul,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070105172808weblink">weblink 5 January 2007, Circassians demand Russian apology for 19th century genocide, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, 15 July 2005, 8, 23, harv,
  • BOOK, Amjad, Jaimoukha, The Chechens: A Handbook,weblink 2004, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-203-35643-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Jones, Adam,weblink Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, Routledge/Taylor & Francis Publishers, 2006, 978-0-415-35385-4, harv, Excerpts Chapter 1: Genocide in prehistory, antiquity, and early modernity
  • JOURNAL, Kiernan, Ben, Ben Kiernan, 2002, Cover-up and Denical of Genocide: Australia, the USA, East Timor, and the Aborigines,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030316030745weblink">weblink 16 March 2003, Critical Asian Studies, 34, 2, 163–92, harv, 10.1080/14672710220146197,
  • BOOK, Kiernan, Ben, 3, 2007, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-10098-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Kinealy, Christine, 1995, This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine 1845–52, Gill & Macmillan, 978-1-57098-034-3, 357, harv,
  • BOOK, Michael, King, Moriori: A People Rediscovered,weblink 2000, Viking, 978-0-14-010391-5, harv,
  • WEB, Dave, Kopel, Paul, Gallant, Joanne D., Eisen, A Moriori Lesson: a brief history of pacifism, National Review Online, 11 April 2003,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030411221908weblink">weblink 11 April 2003, harv,
  • BOOK, Mark, Levene, Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2: The Rise of the West and Coming Genocide,weblink 2005, I.B. Tauris, 978-1-84511-057-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Levene, Mark, 2008, Empires, Native Peoples, and Genocides, A. Dirk, Moses,weblink Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History, 183–204, Oxford and New York, Berghahn, 978-1-84545-452-4, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Madley, Benjamin, 2008, From Terror to Genocide: Britain's Tasmanian Penal Colony and Australia's History Wars, Journal of British Studies, 47, 1, 77–106, 10.1086/522350, harv, 10.1086/522350,
  • {{Citation | last = McCarthy | first = Justin | title = Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922 | publisher = Darwin | year = 1995}}
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  • BOOK, Moshin, A., 2003, The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh: On the Difficult Road to Peace, Boulder, Col., Lynne Rienner Publishers, harv,
  • BOOK, Niewyk, Donald L., Francis R., Nicosia, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, 45, The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II.,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, O'Brien, Sharon, The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, Dinah Shelton, Macmillan Library Reference, 2004, 176–77, harv,
  • BOOK, Cormac, Ó Gráda, Black '47 and Beyond: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy, and Memory,weblink 2000, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-07015-5, 10, harv,
  • BOOK, Olusoga, David, Erichsen, Casper W., 2010, The Kaiser's Holocaust: Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism, London, Faber and Faber, 978-0571231416, harv,
  • BOOK, Perdue, Peter C., 2005,weblink China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia, Cambridge, MA; London, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-01684-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Robins, Nicholas, Jones, Adam, Genocides by the Oppressed,weblink Indiana University Press, 2009, 978-0-253-22077-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Roy, Rajkumari, 2000, Land Rights of the Indigenous Peoples of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, Copenhagen, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, harv,
  • BOOK, Rubinstein, W. D., Genocide: A History,weblink Pearson Education, 2004ref=harv,
  • BOOK, Rudolph J., Rummel, Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900,weblink LIT Verlag Münster, 978-3-8258-4010-5, 1998, harv,
  • BOOK, Sarkin-Hughes, Jeremy, Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904–1908,weblink 2008, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-36257-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Abdul, Sheriff, Ed, Ferguson, Zanzibar under colonial rule,weblink 1991, J. Currey, 978-0-8214-0996-1, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Sommer, Tomasz, 2010, Execute the Poles: The Genocide of Poles in the Soviet Union, 1937–1938. Documents from Headquarters, The Polish Review, 55, 4, 417–36, 27920673, harv,
  • {{citation|last=Speller|first=Ian|title=An African Cuba? Britain and the Zanzibar Revolution, 1964.|journal=Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History|year=2007|volume=35|issue=2|pages=1–35|url=http://eprints.maynoothuniversity.ie/841/|ref=harv|doi=10.1080/03086530701337666}}
  • BOOK, David E., Stannard, American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World,weblink 1993, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-508557-0, harv, ... estimated population for the year 1769 ... Nationwide by this time only about one-third of one percent of America's population—250,000 out of 76,000,000 people—were natives. The worst human holocaust the world had ever witnessed ... finally had leveled off. There was, at last, almost no one left to kill.,
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  • JOURNAL, Weisbord, Robert G., 2003, The King, the Cardinal and the Pope: Leopold II's genocide in the Congo and the Vatican, Journal of Genocide Research, 5, 35–45, 10.1080/14623520305651, harv,
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