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Gabriel
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{{Other uses}}{{Redirect|Jibrail|the village in Iran|Jibrail, Iran}}{{redirect-multi|2|Gibril|Jibril}}{{redirect|Angel Gabriel|the American comic book artist|Angel Gabriele}}









factoids
name Gabriel|birth_date = |death_date =



    |venerated_in = JudaismChristianityIslamBahá'í Faith|image = Pinturicchio - The Annunciation (detail) - WGA17770.jpg|imagesize = 220px|caption = Detail of Gabriel from Pinturicchio's The Annunciation (1501)|titles = Archangel, Angel of Revelation|beatified_by =
    pre-congregation>Pre-Congregation|canonized_place =|canonized_by =Archangel; Clothed in blue or white garments;ORTHODOXWIKI OTHERS= TYPE= INTERNET ACCESSDATE = 2013-11-15 DATE= REF=, Carrying a lily,RONNER >FIRST1= JOHN OTHERS= URL= HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=MJ5UCUPU8TCC TYPE= SERIES= DATE= MARCH 1993 LOCATION= MURFREESBORO, TN ISBN= 9780932945402 OCLC= 27726648 ID= AT= CHAPTER= QUOTE= "ARTISTS LIKE TO SHOW GABRIEL CARRYING A LILY (MARY'S FLOWER), A SCROLL AND A SCEPTER.", a trumpet, a shining lantern, a branch from Paradise, a scroll, and a scepter. TITLE= ST. GABRIEL, THE ARCHANGEL DATE= Portugal, Santander, Cebu>Santander, Cebu, ambassadors|major_shrine =|suppressed_date =|issues =}}File:Annunciation (van Eyck, Washington) Gabriel.jpg|thumb|Annunciation of Gabriel by Jan van EyckJan van EyckGabriel ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|g|eɪ|b|r|i|ə|l}}; , , , ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel. It was first described in the Hebrew Bible, and subsequently developed by other traditions.In the Hebrew Bible, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel, to explain his visions (Daniel 8:15–26, 9:21–27). Gabriel the archangel is also a character in other ancient Jewish writings such as the Book of Enoch. Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations.Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : The Creation of The World - The First Things Created (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.In the Christian New Testament in the Gospel of Luke, the angel Gabriel appears to Zechariah and the Virgin Mary, foretelling the births of John the Baptist and Jesus, respectively ((Gabriel#New Testament|Luke 1:11–38)). In many Christian traditions including Anglican, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, Gabriel is also referred to as a saint.WEB, Zimmerman, Julie, Friar Jack's Catechism Quiz: Test Your Knowledge on Angels,weblink AmericanCatholic.org, 16 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120521190231weblink">weblink 21 May 2012, For example, Book of Common Prayer 1662, Calendar (29 September) "S. Michael and all Angels", page xxix; or propers, page 227, "Saint Michael and All Angels".In Islam, Gabriel is an archangel whom God sent with revelation to various prophets, including Muhammad.BOOK, Ali, Maulana Muhammad, Gallegos, Christopher, The Religion of Islam,weblink 1936, eBookIt.com, Lahore, 9781934271186, 69, The first 5 verses of the 96th chapter of the Quran, the Clot, is believed by Muslims to have been the first verses revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad.In the Latter Day Saint movement, the angel Gabriel is the same individual as the prophet Noah in his mortal ministry.In Yazidism, Gabriel is one of the Seven Mysteries, the Heptad to which God entrusted the world and sometimes identified with Melek Taus.Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft5. Jahrgang 1997 diagonal-Verlag Ursula Spuler-Stegemann Der Engel Pfau zum Selbstvertändnis der Yezidi p. 14 (german)

    Judaism

    Jewish rabbis interpreted the "man in linen" as Gabriel in the Book of Daniel and the Book of Ezekiel. In the Book of Daniel, Gabriel is responsible for interpreting Daniel's visions. Gabriel's main function in Daniel is that of revealer, a role he continues in later literature. In the Book of Ezekiel, Gabriel is understood to be the angel that was sent to destroy Jerusalem. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Gabriel takes the form of a man, and stands at the left hand of God.BOOK,weblink Gabriel, Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906, December 2, 2016, 5, 540–543, Shimon ben Lakish (Syria Palaestina, 3rd century) concluded that the angelic names of Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel came out of the Babylonian exile (Gen. Rab. 48:9). Alongside archangel Michael, Gabriel is described as the guardian angel of Israel, defending this people against the angels of the other nations.Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : The Creation of The World - The First Things Created (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.In Kabbalah, Gabriel is identified with the sephirot of Yesod. Gabriel also has a prominent role as one of God's archangels in the Kabbalah literature. There, Gabriel is portrayed as working in concert with Michael as part of God's court. Gabriel is not to be prayed to because only God can answer prayers and sends Gabriel as his agent.According to Jewish mythology, in the Garden of Eden there is a tree of life or the "tree of souls"BOOK,weblink Origins of the Kabbalah, Books.google.com, 2014-05-01, 0691020477, 1990, that blossoms and produces new souls, which fall into the Guf, the Treasury of Souls. Gabriel reaches into the treasury and takes out the first soul that comes into his hand. Then Lailah, the Angel of Conception, watches over the embryo until it is born.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121030044612weblink">weblink 2012-10-30, 200_ THE TREASURY OF SOULS for Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism, Scribd., yes, 15 June 2015,

    Intertestamental literature

    The intertestamental period (roughly 200 BC – 50 AD) produced a wealth of literature, much of it having an apocalyptic orientation. The names and ranks of angels and devils were greatly expanded, and each had particular duties and status before God.In s:Book of Enoch/Chapter 09|1 Enoch 9:1–3]], Gabriel, along with Michael, Uriel and Suriel, "saw much blood being shed upon the earth" (9:1) and heard the souls of men cry, "Bring our cause before the Most High." (9:3) In 1 Enoch 10:1, the reply came from "the Most High, the Holy and Great One" who sent forth agents, including Gabriel—And the Lord said to Gabriel: "'Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle: for length of days shall they not have." s:Book of Enoch/Chapter 10|—1 Enoch 10:9]]Gabriel is the fifth of the five angels who keep watch: "Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim." (s:Book of Enoch/Chapter 20|1 Enoch 20:7]])When Enoch asked who the four figures were that he had seen: "And he said to me: 'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those days." (s:Book of Enoch/Chapter 40|Enoch 40:9]])

    Christianity

    New Testament

    File:Archangel Gabriel. Tsalenjikha fresco (Georgia, 14th c.).jpg|thumb|Archangel Gabriel. A fresco from the Tsalenjikha CathedralTsalenjikha CathedralFirst, concerning John the Baptist, an angel appeared to his father Zacharias, a priest of the course of Abia, ({{bibleref|Luke|1:5-7|9}}) whose barren wife Elisabeth was of the daughters of Aaron, while he ministered in the temple:Luke 1:10 And the whole multitude of the people were praying without at the time of incense.11 And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord standing on the right side of the altar of incense.12 And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth.15 For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb.16 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.18 And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.19 And the angel answering said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God; and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.20 And, behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.({{bibleref|Luke|1:10-20|KJV}} KJV) (other versions: {{bibleref|Luke|1:1-25|!}})File:Gabriel Archangel Hajdudorog.JPG|thumb|right|Gabriel on the southern deacons' door of the iconostasis in the Cathedral of HajdúdorogCathedral of HajdúdorogAfter completing his weekweblink" title="archive.is/20120720085450weblink">THE Dedication (Jesus' birth) "The priests serve 4 weeks per year: 1 week twice a year in courses, and the two week-long feasts, unleavened bread and tabernacles. Pentecost is a one-day observance, which would have come before Zacharias' (the 8th) course began, or at the latest, the 1st day of his course, which was from 12 thru 18 Sivan, or noon on the 19th, if Josephus is correct that courses changed at noon on the sabbaths." Josephus Antiquities b.7 ch.14 s.7 "eight days, from sabbath to sabbath." Josephus against Apion b.2 sect.8 "mid-day" of ministry, Zacharias returned to his house (in Hebron){{bibleref|Joshua|21:9-11|9}} with {{bibleref|Luke|1:39-40|9}} and his wife Elizabeth conceived. After she completed "five months" ({{bibleref|Luke|1:21-25|9}}) of her pregnancy, Gabriel is mentioned again:Luke 1:26 ¶ And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.29 And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.36 And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age: and this is the sixth month with her, who was called barren.37 For with God nothing shall be impossible.38 And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.({{bibleref|Luke|1:26-38|KJV}} KJV) (other versions: {{bibleref|Luke|1:26-38|!}})Gabriel only appears by name in those two passages in Luke. In the first passage the angel identified himself as Gabriel, but in the second it is Luke who identified him as Gabriel. The only other named angels in the New Testament are Michael the Archangel (in {{bibleref|Jude|1:9|9}}) and Abaddon (in {{bibleref|Revelation|9:11|9}}) . Gabriel is not called an archangel in the Bible. Believers are expressly warned not to worship angels (in {{bibleref|Colossians|2:18-19|9}} and {{bibleref|Revelation|19:10|9}}).See also Easton's Bible Dictionary s:Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897)/Angel|angel]] entry

    Gabriel's horn

    The trope of Gabriel blowing a trumpet blast to indicate the Lord's return to Earth is especially familiar in Negro spirituals. However, though the Bible mentions a trumpet blast preceding the resurrection of the dead, it never specifies Gabriel as the trumpeter. Different passages state different things: the angels of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:31); the voice of the Son of God (John 5:25-29); God's trumpet (I Thessalonians 4:16); seven angels sounding a series of blasts (Revelation 8-11); or simply "a trumpet will sound" (I Corinthians 15:52).S. Vernon McCasland, "Gabriel's Trumpet", Journal of Bible and Religion 9:3:159–161 (August 1941) {{jstor|1456405}}In related traditions, Gabriel is again not identified as the trumpeter. In Judaism, trumpets are prominent, and they seem to be blown by God himself, or sometimes Michael. In Zoroastrianism, there is no trumpeter at the last judgement. In Islamic tradition, it is Israfil who blows the trumpet, though he is not named in the Qur'an. The Christian Church Fathers do not mention Gabriel as the trumpeter; early English literature similarly does not.The earliest known identification of Gabriel as the trumpeter comes in John Wycliffe's 1382 tract, De Ecclesiæ Dominio.BOOK, Tracts & Treatises of John De Wycliffe, D.D., Vaughn, Robert, Wycliffe Society, 1845, 79, In the year 1455, in Armenian art, there is an illustration in an Armenian manuscript showing Gabriel sounding his trumpet as the dead climb out of their graves.Walters MS 543, fol. 14. Two centuries later, Gabriel is identified as the trumpeter, in John Milton's Paradise Lost (1667):Milton, Paradise Lost, XI.72ffBetwixt these rockie pillars Gabriel satChief of the Angelic guards (IV.545f)...He ended, and the Son gave signal highTo the bright minister that watch'd, he blewHis trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhapsWhen God descended, and perhaps once moreTo sound at general doom. (XI.72ff).Later, Gabriel's horn is omnipresent in Negro spirituals, but it is unclear how the Byzantine conception inspired Milton and the spirituals, though they presumably have a common source.Gabriel's horn also makes an appearance in The Eyes of Texas (1903) where it signifies the rapture.WEB, Nicar, Jim, The Origins of "The Eyes of Texas",weblink Longhorn Band, 6 July 2015,weblink 7 July 2015, yes, dmy-all, In Marc Connelly's play based on spirituals, The Green Pastures (1930), Gabriel has his beloved trumpet constantly with him, and the Lord has to warn him not to blow it too soon. Four years later "Blow, Gabriel, Blow" was introduced by Ethel Merman in Cole Porter's Anything Goes (1934).

    Feast days

    File:Gabriel from Vysotsky chin (14c, Tretyakov gallery).jpg|thumb|right|Icon of Gabriel, Byzantine, ca. 1387–1395 (Tretyakov GalleryTretyakov GallerySaint Gabriel Archangel's festivity day was exclusively celebrated the 18th of March as of many sources dating between the years 1588 and 1921, except for a source published in 1856,WEB, The Catholic Directory, Ecclasiastical Register, and Almanac,weblink April 29, 2017, where the feast was celebrated on April 7th for unknown reasons (a parentheses notes that the day is normally celebrated on March 18). Writer Elizabeth Drayson mentions the feast being celebrated in March 18 the year of 1588 in her 2013 book: "The Lead Books of Granada". BOOK, Drayson, Elizabeth, January 13, 2016, The Lead Books of Granada,weblink Palgrave Macmillan - 2013 edition, 3, 113735884X, One of the oldest out of print sources pronouncing the feast for March 18th, was first published in 1608 and has the name "Flos sanctorum: historia general de la vida y hechos de Jesu-Christo ... y de los santos de que reza y haze fiesta la Iglesia Catholica ..." by the Spanish writer Alonso de Villegas, a newer edition of this book was published in the year 1794.BOOK, de Villegas, Alonso, 1794, Flos sanctorum: historia general de la vida y hechos de Jesu-Christo...,weblink Spain, Imprenta de Isidro Aguasvivas, 250, Another source published in Ireland in 1886 «The Irish Ecclesiastical Record» also mentions March 18.BOOK, 1886, The Irish Ecclesiastical Record,weblink Browne and Nolan, 1886, 1112, There is a painting from 1886 by the Italian artist Diodore Rahoult, the 18th of March appears on the painting as well.WEB, Archangel Gabriel, divine messenger; commemoration on 18 March, 1886,weblink April 30, 2017, The feast of Saint Gabriel was included for the first time in the General Roman Calendar in 1921, for celebration on March 24. {{Citation needed|reason=A reliable citation is needed for the 1921 source. There are web blogs and pages that mention this, however some of these are probably basing their source on Wikipedia information. Printed information is preferred in these cases.|date=April 2017}} It is unknown whether this was a temporary change, however there is no recent mention of the feast commemoration between the years 1921 and 1969. In 1969 the day was officially transferred to September 29 for celebration in conjunction with the feast of St. Michael and St. Raphael.Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 119 The Church of England has also adopted the September 29 date, known as Michaelmas.The Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite celebrate his feast day on November 8 (for those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar, November 8 currently falls on November 21 of the modern Gregorian Calendar, a difference of 13 days). Eastern Orthodox commemorate him, not only on his November feast, but also on two other days: March 26 is the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel" and celebrates his role in the Annunciation. July 13 is also known as the "Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel", and celebrates all the appearances and miracles attributed to Gabriel throughout history. The feast was first established on Mount Athos when, in the 9th century, during the reign of Emperor Basil II and the Empress Constantina Porphyrogenitus and while Nicholas Chrysoverges was Patriarch of Constantinople, the Archangel appeared in a cellWEB,weblink The miracle of “Axion Estin”., near Karyes, where he wrote with his finger on a stone tablet the hymn to the Theotokos, "It is truly meet...".BOOK, Velimirovic, Bishop Nikolai, July 13: The Holy Archangel Gabriel, 1985, Prologue from Ochrid, Birmingham, UK, Lazarica Press, 978-0-948298-05-9,weblink 2007-07-31, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928014848weblink">weblink 2007-09-28, The Coptic Orthodox Church celebrates his feast on Paoni 13WEB,weblink تذكار رئيس الملائكة الجليل جبرائيل "غبريال" - عيد سنكسار يوم 13 بؤونة، شهر بؤونة، الشهر القبطي, st-takla.org, , Koiak 22 and Paoni 26.WEB,weblink رئيس الملائكة الجليل جبرائيل - كتاب الملائكة, Michael Ghaly -, Alex, st-takla.org, The Ethiopian Church celebrates his feast on December 28, with a sizeable number of its believers making a pilgrimage to a church dedicated to "Saint Gabriel" in Kulubi on that day.Nega Mezlekia, Notes from the Hyena's Belly: An Ethiopian Childhood (New York: Picador, 2000), p. 266. {{ISBN|0-312-28914-6}}.Additionally, Gabriel is the patron saint of messengers, those who work for broadcasting and telecommunications such as radio and television, remote sensing,{{Citation needed|date= February 2016}} postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.BOOK, Guiley, Rosemary, Encyclopedia of Angels,weblink 2013-11-15, 2nd, 2004, Facts on File, Inc., New York, NY, 9780816050239, 718132289, 140, "He is the patron saint to telecommunication workers, radio broadcasters, messengers, postal workers, clerics, diplomats, and stamp collectors.",

    Latter-day Saint teachings

    In Latter-day Saint theology, Gabriel is believed to have lived a mortal life as the prophet Noah. The two are regarded as the same individual; Noah being his mortal name and Gabriel being his heavenly name.{{citation |last= Skinner |first= Andrew C |author-link= Andrew C. Skinner |contribution= Noah |contribution-url=weblink |pages= 1016–1017 |editor1-last= Ludlow |editor1-first= Daniel H |editor1-link= Daniel H. Ludlow |title= Encyclopedia of Mormonism |location= New York |publisher= Macmillan Publishing |year= 1992 |isbn= 0-02-879602-0 |oclc= 24502140}}.

    {{anchor|Gabriel in Islam}}Islam

    {{See also|Angel of the Lord}}{{Redirect|Jibril|the 2018 German film|Jibril (film)}}Gabriel (Arabic: جبريل, Jibrīl or جبرائيل Jibrāʾīl)Nader, M. The Holy Spirit in the Quran. Submission.org. Retrieved 11 August 2009. is venerated as an archangel and as the Angel of Revelation in Islam. As the Bible portrays Gabriel as a celestial messenger sent to Daniel,Daniel 8.16, 9.21. Mary,Luke 1.26. and Zechariah,Luke 1.19. so too Islamic tradition holds that Gabriel was sent to numerous pre-Islamic prophets with revelation and divine injunctions, including Adam, whom Muslims believe was consoled by Gabriel some time after the Fall.BOOK, The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Glasse, Cyril, Suhail Academy, 2000, 969-519-018-9, Lahore, 136, He is known by many names in Islam, such as "the holy spirit", "keeper of holiness" and "peacock of paradise".Josef von Hammer-Purgstall Die Geisterlehre der Moslimen (the doctrin of spirits of muslims) 1852 original: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek digitalized: 22. July 2010 (german)According to Muslim belief, God revealed the Quran to the Islamic prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel, and the fifty-third chapter of the text describes the angel without naming him, in a passage that Islamic commentators have unanimously interpreted as referring to Gabriel. The passage in question, QURAN, 53, 4-11, ns, n, , reads:Gabriel is also named numerous times in the Qur'an (QURAN, 2, 97, ns, n, and QURAN, 66, 4, ns, n, for example). In QURAN, 2, 92-96, ns, n, , the Quran mentions Gabriel along with Michael, who is also venerated as an exalted angel in Islam. In Muslim tradition, Gabriel is considered one of the primary archangels. Exegesis narrates that Muhammad saw Gabriel in his full angelic splendor only twice, the first time being when he received his first revelation.Encyclopedia of Islam, DjabrailMuslims also revere Gabriel for a number of historical events predating the first revelation. Muslims believe that Gabriel was the angel who informed Zachariah of John's birth as well as Mary of the future nativity of Jesus,Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Zachariah; Story of Jesus and that Gabriel was one of three angels who had earlier informed Abraham of the birth of Isaac.Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Ishmael All of these events can be found also in the Quran. Gabriel also makes a famous appearance in the Hadith of Gabriel, where he questions Muhammad on the core tenets of Islam.Contrary to Christian tradition, Islamic traditions depict Gabriel as the warring angel. Accordingly he aided Muhammed to overcome his adversaries, significantly during the Battle of Badr and against a demon during the Mi'rajAl-qadi 'Iyad al-Yahsubi Ash - Shifa- Healing through defining The rights of Prophet Muhammad: الشفا بتعريف حقوق المصطفى (ص) [عربي/انكليزي] ترجمة Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah 2013 {{ISBN|978-2-745-16073-7}}Islam Issa Milton in the Arab-Muslim World Taylor & Francis 2016 {{ISBN|978-1-317-09592-7}} page 111

    Bahá'í Faith

    The Bahá'í Faith sees Gabriel as a messenger of God who delivered messages to Muhammad. He is mentioned in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baha'i religion.WEB,weblink The Kitáb-i-Íqán PART ONE, reference.bahai.org, 2014-09-10,

    Art, entertainment, and media

    File:Henry Ossawa Tanner - The Annunciation.jpg|thumb|The Annunciation, Henry Ossawa TannerHenry Ossawa TannerAngels are described as pure spirits.Gorgievski, Sandra. Face to Face with Angels: Images in Medieval Art and in Film, McFarland (2010) {{ISBN|9780786457564}}WEB, Dr. Christopher Evan Longhurst, Longhurst S.T.D., Christopher Evan. "The Science of Angelology in the Modern World: The Revival of Angels in Contemporary Culture", ''The Catholic Response'', Volume IX, No.2, September/October 2012 (pp. 32-36) ISSN 1553-0221, Academia.edu, 1970-01-01, The lack of a defined form allows artists wide latitude in depicting them.WEB,weblink Angels Exist But Have No Wings, Says Church, News.sky.com, 2013-12-20, 2014-05-01, Amelia R. Brown draws comparisons in Byzantine iconography between portrayals of angels and the conventions used to depict court eunuchs. Mainly from the Caucasus, they tended to have light eyes, hair, and skin; and those "castrated in childhood developed a distinctive skeletal structure, lacked full masculine musculature, body hair and beards...." As officials, they would wear a white tunic decorated with gold. Brown suggests that "Byzantine artists drew, consciously or not, on this iconography of the court eunuch".WEB, Brown, Amelia,weblink Brown, Amelia R., Painting the Bodiless: Angels and Eunuchs in Byzantine Art and Culture, University of Queensland (2007), Academia.edu, 1970-01-01, 2014-05-01, Some recent popular works on angels consider Gabriel to be female or androgynous.BOOK, Giovetti, Paola, Translated by Toby McCormick, Angels: The Role of Celestial Guardians and Beings of Light,weblink 2013-10-09, 1993, Samuel Weiser, York Beach, ME, 978-0877287797, 27173025, BOOK, Godwin, Malcolm, Angels An Endangered Species,weblink 2013-11-13, 1990, Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, 0671706500, 21227232, 43, "But Gabri-el is unique amongst an otherwise male or androgynous host, for it is almost certain that this great Archangel is the only female in the higher echelons.",

    Gabriel sculptures

    File:Gabor arkangyal.jpg|Archangel Gabriel Millennium Monument at Heroes' Square in BudapestFile:Bermatingen St Georg Heiligenfigur.jpg|Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Georg in BermatingenFile:Waldburg Pfarrkirche Verkündigung Engel.jpg|Archangel Gabriel in the church of St. Magnus in WaldburgFile:Annonciation portail Reims.jpg|Archangel Gabriel at the facade of the Cathedral of ReimsFile:To the victims of the german occupation.jpg|Archangel Gabriel at the Liberty square, Budapest

    Festivals

    • Baltimore's "Little Italy" has for over 80 years hosted an annual "end of summer" St. Gabriel Festival that features a procession with a statue of the saint carried through the streets.WEB,weblink Little Italy Hosts 83rd Annual St. Gabriel Festival, Baltimore.cbslocal.com, 2012-08-17, 2014-05-01, WEB,weblink Little Italy celebrates the Feast of Saint Gabriel in style, Baltimoreguide.com, 2011-08-17, 2014-05-01, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140116121237weblink">weblink 2014-01-16,
    File:Llanbeblig Hours (f. 1r.) The Annunciation, Gabriel kneeling on one knee.jpg|thumb|The Annunciation, Gabriel kneeling on one knee. Llanbeblig Book of HoursLlanbeblig Book of Hours

    Film

    Games

    • 2005: Spanish role-playing game (Anima: Beyond Fantasy) - Gabriel is as the humans know one of the seven "Beryls" (godlike beings of light) and is identified with the archangel of the same name. She has associated love, friendship, arts, and peace.
    • In the Japanese role-playing game Shin Megami Tensei - Gabriel is one of the Demons the player can summon to assist in battle.
    • In the video game (El Shaddai: Ascension of the Metatron), based on the Book of Enoch, Gabriel is featured alongside Michael, Raphael and Uriel as a guide for Enoch on his quest. All four archangels take the form of swans while on Earth. Gabriel is depicted as female in this interpretation, and implied to be an angel of wisdom. She is associated with the Veil weapon Enoch uses.

    Literature

    • In his epic poem Paradise Lost, John Milton made Gabriel chief of the angelic guards placed over Paradise
    • The Hebrew poem "Elifelet" (אליפלט) by Nathan Alterman, put to music and often heard on the Israeli Radio, tells of a heroic, self-sacrificing Israeli soldier being killed in battle. Upon the protagonist's death, the angel Gabriel descends to Earth, in order to comfort the spirit of the fallen hero and take him up to HeavenWEB,weblink התרנגולים - אליפלט - שירונט, Shiron.net, 2010-08-16, WEB,weblink אין לו אופי אפילו במיל, Haayal.co.il, 2010-08-16,
    • The main character of Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses (1988) believes that he is the modern incarnation of Gabriel
    • 2012: Japanese light novel series No Game No Life, Jibril is a member of the Flügel race and was a member of the Council of 18 Wings, a prominent section in the government. She is depicted as loving knowledge and books.
    • In the volume 3 of the Japanese light novel series The Devil Is a Part-Timer!, an archangel named Gabriel appeared and is the guardian of the Sephirah Yesod.
    • In August Wilson's "Fences" (1986), the mentally handicapped character Gabriel believes with every fibre of his soul that he is the Archangel Gabriel. He carries around a trumpet on him always, and strives to chase away the "hellhounds". In the last scene of the play, he calls for St. Peter to open up the gates.

    Music

    The eccentric English hagiographer and antiquarian, Sabine Baring-Gould (1834–1924), wrote the English lyrics to Gabriel's Message, which he translated from the Basque Christmas carol Birjina gaztetto bat zegoen, which was probably related to the 13th or 14th-century Latin chant Angelus Ad Virginem, which itself is based on the biblical account of the Annunciation in the Gospel of Luke. In Creed's song, "My Own Prison", Gabriel is mentioned deciphering the visions to the main character in the song. "Sugar Baby", the last track on Bob Dylan's Love and Theft album, contains this reference: "Just as sure as we're living, just as sure as we're born/ Look up, look up - seek your Maker - 'fore Gabriel blows his horn."

    Visual art

    See also (commons:Gabriel|Gabriel gallery in Commons).
    File:Leonardo da Vinci Annunciazione (dettaglio).jpg|thumb|Detail of Gabriel from Leonardo da Vinci's Annunciation]]File:Titian - Polyptych of the Resurrection - Archangel Gabriel - WGA22785.jpg|thumb|Angel of the Annunciation by TitianTitianDaniel 8:15 describes Gabriel as appearing in the "likeness of man" and in Daniel 9:21 he is referred to as "the man Gabriel." David Everson observes that "such anthropomorphic descriptions of an angel are consistent with previous ... descriptions of angels," as in Genesis 19:5.WEB, Student,weblink Everson, David. "Gabriel Blow Your Horn! - A Short History of Gabriel within Jewish Literature", Xavier University, December 2009, Bibleinterp.com, 2014-05-01, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140428164859weblink">weblink April 28, 2014, Gabriel is most often portrayed in the context of scenes of the Annunciation. In 2008 a 16th-century drawing by Lucas van Leyden of the Netherlands was discovered. George R. Goldner, chairman of the department of prints and drawings at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art, suggests that the sketch was for a stained glass window. "The fact that the archangel is an ordinary-looking person and not an idealized boy is typical of the artist", said Goldner.Vogel, Carol. "Angels Appear, and Museums Rejoice", New York Times, 25 July 2008In chronological order (to see each item, follow the link in the footnote):WEB
    , Links to images of Gabriel
    , The Text This Week
    ,weblink
    , 2007-02-12,

    Television

    • 1960: The Twilight Zone episode, "A Passage for Trumpet" – The down-and-out musician Joey Crown (Jack Klugman) meets an enigmatic trumpet player named "Gabe" (played by John Anderson), in what has been described as Rod Serling's version of It's a Wonderful Life.WEB, TV.com,weblink A Passage for Trumpet - the Twilight Zone, Tv.com, 2011-11-22, 2014-05-01,
    • 2005: TV series Supernatural – Gabriel (Richard Speight Jr.) is a runaway archangel posing as the demi-god Loki who kills people he deems evil with a sense of humor, but series protagonists Sam and Dean Winchester eventually discover his true nature. He is also known as "the Trickster".
    • 2014: Syfy Channel original series Dominion – Gabriel (portrayed by Carl Beukes) is the series antagonist, who plans to kill the Archangel Michael and annihilate humanity.

    See also

    References

    {{Reflist|30em}}

    Bibliography

    External links

    {{Commons category}} {{Navboxes|list={{New Testament people}}{{Christmas}}{{Book of Daniel}}{{Qur'anic people}}{{Angels in Abrahamic Religions}}{{Catholic saints}}{{Coptic saints}}}}{{Authority control}}


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