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GNOME
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{{about|the desktop environment||Gnome (disambiguation)}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2014}}







factoids
| operating system = Unix-likeWayland (display server protocol)>Wayland or X11| language count = 38| language = | language footnote = WEB
,weblink
, GNOME 3.28 Release Notes
, Day
, Allan
, The GNOME Project
, May 22, 2014, | genre = Desktop environment
GNU General Public License>GPLv2+WEB
, GNOME License
,weblink
, 2017-12-08,
ACCESSDATE=18 JUNE 2019, }}GNOME ({{IPAc-en|(|É¡|)|n|oÊŠ|m}})WEB
,weblink
, Introducing GNOME 3.12
, Karen
, Sandler
, The GNOME Project
, YouTube
, video
, March 26, 2014
, July 2, 2014,
WEB
,weblink
, GNOME 3: Fewer interruptions
, Jason
, Clinton
, The GNOME Project
, YouTube
, video
, April 2, 2011
, April 7, 2011, is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix-likeWEB
,weblink
, Portability of the GNOME desktop environment
, Matthias
, Clasen
, February 19, 2014
, March 18, 2014, operating systems. GNOME was originally an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project.
MAILING LIST
,weblink
, Re: GNOME -> Gnome
, 6 April 2010
, 26 March 2017
, GNOME marketing list
, Klapper
, Andre,
GNOME is part of the GNU ProjectWEB
,weblink
, GNU Software
, Free Software Foundation
, June 16, 2014, and developed by The GNOME Project which is composed of both volunteers and paid contributors, the largest corporate contributor being Red Hat.
{{Citation
| format = PDF
| url =weblink
| title = GNOME census
| publisher = Neary}}
WEB
, Gnome
,weblink
, Staring into the abyss
, July 27, 2012
, March 15, 2014, It is an international project that aims to develop software frameworks for the development of software, to program end-user applications based on these frameworks, and to coordinate efforts for internationalization and localization and accessibility of that software.
GNOME 3 is the default desktop environment on many major Linux distributions including Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux Enterprise (exclusively), Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, SteamOS, Tails, Kali Linux, Antergos, Endless OS and Solaris, a major Unix operating system; and provided as an official edition by Manjaro; also the continued fork of the last GNOME 2 release that goes under the name MATE is default on many Linux distros that targets low usage of system resources.

History

{{See also|History of free and open-source software#Desktop (1984–)}}

GNOME 1

(File:GNOME 1.0 (1999, 03) with GNOME Panel 1 and File Manager.png|thumb|GNOME 1, 1999)GNOME was started on August 15WEB
, The GNOME Desktop project
,weblink
, mail.gnome.org
, 2015-08-11
, 1997-08-15
, Miguel
, de Icaza, 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico MenaWEB
,weblink
, About Us
, December 9, 2011, as a free software project to develop a desktop environment and applications for it.WEB
,weblink
, The GNOME Desktop project
, December 10, 2011, It was founded in part because K Desktop Environment, which was growing in popularity, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which used a proprietary software license until version 2.0 (June 1999).{{citation
| url =weblink
| title = Announcement: Qt version 2.0 released
| date = June 25, 1999
| access-date = April 16, 2014
| deadurl = yes
| archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000309083519weblink">weblink
| archivedate = March 9, 2000}}
WEB
,weblink
, Stallman on Qt, the GPL, KDE, and GNOME
, Stallman
, Richard Stallman
, September 5, 2000
, September 9, 2005, In place of Qt, the GTK toolkit was chosen as the base of GNOME. GTK uses the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a free software license that allows software linking to it to use a much wider set of licenses, including proprietary software licenses.WEB
,weblink
, Why you shouldn't use the Lesser GPL for your next library
, Free Software Foundation
, January 20, 2008, GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GNU General Public License (GPL) for its applications.The GNOME Project: "GNOME Foundation Guidelines on Copyright Assignment". Accessed March 26, 2013. {{webarchive
| url =weblink
| date = March 4, 2012}}
The name "GNOME" was initially an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment, referring to the original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft's OLE,BOOK
,weblink
, GTK / Gnome Application Development
, Pennington
, Havoc
, Havoc Pennington
, What is Gnome?
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100514071800weblink">weblink
, 1999
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100711161132weblink">weblink
, July 11, 2010, but the acronym was eventually dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project.
The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001. De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code (later Ximian) in 1999 in Massachusetts; this company developed GNOME's infrastructure and applications, and in 2003 was purchased by Novell.{{anchor|GNOME Office}} During the transition to GNOME 2 around the year 2001 and shortly thereafter there were brief talks about creating a GNOME Office suite.WEB
,weblink
, GNOME Office, how far along are we?
, John
, Gowin
, Linux Orbit
, November 9, 2001
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050101055043weblink">weblink
, January 1, 2005,
MAILING LIST
,weblink
, GUADEC Results
, Sam
, TH
, gnome-office-list
, LWN.net
, April 10, 2001
, May 3, 2014, On September 15, 2003 GNOME-Office 1.0, consisting of AbiWord 2.0, GNOME-DB 1.0 and Gnumeric 1.2.0 was released.WEB
,weblink
, GNOME-Office 1.0 Released; Nautilus Becomes Object-Oriented
, Eugenia
, Loli
, OSNews
, September 15, 2003
, May 4, 2014,
WEB
,weblink
, GNOME-Office 1.0 Released
, Philipp
, Esselbach
, Linux Compatible
, September 15, 2003
, May 4, 2014,
PRESS RELEASE
,weblink
, GNOME-Office 1.0 Released
, September 15, 2003
, May 4, 2014, Although some release planning for GNOME Office 1.2 was happening on gnome-office mailing list,MAILING LIST
,weblink
, Next GNOME-Office release
, Martin
, Sevior
, gnome-office-list
, June 30, 2004
, May 4, 2014,
MAILING LIST
,weblink
, Update on progress for GNOME-Office-1.2
, Martin
, Sevior
, gnome-office-list
, July 30, 2004
, May 4, 2014,
MAILING LIST
,weblink
, Three weeks until gnome-office-1.2, what progress on the website?
, Martin
, Sevior
, gnome-office-list
, October 2, 2004
, May 4, 2014, and Gnumeric 1.4 was announced as a part of it,MAILING LIST
,weblink
, Gnumeric 1.4 is Here!
, Morten
, Welinder
, gnome-office-list
, December 19, 2004
, May 4, 2014, the 1.2 release of the suite itself never materialized. {{As of|2014|5|4|df=US}} GNOME wiki only mentions "GNOME/Gtk applications that are useful in an office environment".WEB
,weblink
, Office Applications
, The GNOME Project
, May 4, 2014
, yes
,weblink
, December 3, 2013
, mdy,

GNOME 2

File:Ubuntu 10.10 preview.png|thumb|GNOME 2.32 (September 2010), latest version of GNOME 2, running on Ubuntu 10.10Ubuntu 10.10GNOME 2 was very similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows, icons, and files. GNOME 2 started out with Sawfish, but later switched to Metacity as its default window manager. The handling of windows, applications, and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen, and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However, these features can be moved to almost any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.As of 2009, GNOME 2 was the default desktop for OpenSolaris.BOOK
,weblink
, Pro OpenSolaris: A New Open Source OS for Linux Developers and Administrators
, Harry
, Foxwell
, Hung
, Tran
, 2009
, Apress
, 51,

GNOME 3

File:GNOME Shell & GNOME Weather 3.14--running on AOSC OS3.jpg|thumb|GNOME 3 has a modern approach in User Interface Design and naming applications. This screenshot shows "GNOME Weather" running on "GNOME ShellGNOME ShellGNOME 1 and 2 followed the traditional desktop metaphor. GNOME 3, released in 2011, changed this with GNOME Shell, a more abstract metaphor where switching between different tasks and virtual desktops takes place in a separate area called "Overview". Also, since Mutter replaced Metacity as the default window manager, the minimize and maximize buttons no longer appear by default, and the title bar, menu bar and tool bar combinated in one horizontal bar called "header bar" via Client-Side Decoration mechanism. Adwaita replaced Clearlooks as the default theme.WEB
, A new default theme for GTK
,weblink
, blogs.gnome.org
, 24 December 2014, Many GNOME Core Applications also went through redesigns to provide a more consistent user experience.
File:GThumb v3.4--Edit mode.png|thumb|GNOME tries to provide an efficient, easy-to-use, and high quality User Experience (UX) on both desktop and tablet systems by using Client-Side Decoration (CSD) and a modern approach in designing User Interface (UI)]]

Criticism

The release of GNOME 3, notable for its move away from the traditional menu bar and taskbar, has caused considerable controversy in the GNU and Linux community. Many users and developers have expressed concerns about usability. A few projects have been initiated to continue development of GNOME 2.x or to modify GNOME 3.x to be more like the 2.x releases.GNOME 3 aims to provide a single interface for desktop computers and tablet computers. This means using only input techniques that work on all those devices, requiring abandonment of certain concepts to which desktop users were accustomed, such as right-clicking, or saving files on the desktop.These major changes initially evoked widespread criticism. The MATE desktop environment was forked from the GNOME 2 code-base with the intent of retaining the traditional GNOME 2 interface, whilst keeping compatibility with modern Linux technology, such as GTK 3. The Linux Mint team addressed the issue in another way by developing the "Mint GNOME Shell Extensions" that ran on top of GNOME Shell and allowed it to be used via the traditional desktop metaphor. This eventually led to the creation of the Cinnamon user interface, which was forked from the GNOME 3 codebase.Among those critical of the early releases of GNOME 3 is Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel. Torvalds abandoned GNOME for a while after the release of GNOME 3.0, saying "The developers have apparently decided that it's 'too complicated' to actually do real work on your desktop, and have decided to make it really annoying to do". Torvalds stated that his objections were universally held by the varied Linux developers he knew.{{citation
|title=Linus Torvalds Ditches GNOME For Xfce
|url=http://digitizor.com/2011/08/04/linus-torvalds-ditches-gnome-for-xfce/
|author=Ricky
|work=Digitizor
|date=2011-08-04
|accessdate=2011-11-08}} In 2013, Torvalds resumed using GNOME, saying "things had gotten much better in the past year" but noting that "they have extensions now that are still much too hard to find; but with extensions you can make your desktop look almost as good as it used to look two years ago".WEB
,weblink
, Torvalds: I want to be nice, and curse less, but it's just not in me
, The Register
, November 7, 2012
, January 2, 2013,
WEB
, Heath
, Nick
, March 4, 2013
,weblink
, Linus Torvalds switches back to Gnome 3.x desktop
, ZDNet
, June 19, 2013, Torvalds has suggested that the "GNOME Tweak Tool" should be merged into GNOME 3.WEB,weblink Linus Torvalds switches back to Gnome 3.x desktop, Nick, Heath, ZDNet,
As of 2015, critical reception has been much more positive.WEB
, Hoffman
, Chris
, How GNOME 3.14 is winning back disillusioned Linux users
,weblink
, PC World
, IDG TechNetwork
, 5 April 2015, For example, Debian, a Linux distribution that had historically used GNOME 2, switched to Xfce when GNOME 3 was released but readopted GNOME 3 in time for the release of Debian 8 "Jessie".WEB
, Tozzi
, Christopher
, Open Source GNOME 3 Desktop Environment Wins Back Fans
,weblink
, The VAR Guy
, Penton
, 5 April 2015,

Releases

Release cycle

Each of the component software products in the GNOME project has its own version number and release schedule. However, individual module maintainers coordinate their efforts to create a full GNOME stable release on an approximately six-month schedule, alongside its underlying libraries such as GTK and GLib. Some experimental projects are excluded from these releases.GNOME version numbers follow the scheme v.xx.yy. Here, v is a major version, which can include large changes such as ABI breakage; these have no regular schedule and occur in response to requirements for large-scale changes. xx is a minor version, released on the above schedule of approximately every 6 months, in which the 1- or 2-digit number's parity indicates the type of release: if xx is even (e.g. 3.20) the release is considered stable, whereas if xx is odd it represents a current development snapshot (e.g. 3.21) that will eventually evolve into the next stable release. yy indicates a point release, e.g. 3.20.6; these are made on a frequency of weeks in order to fix issues, add non-breaking enhancements, etc.GNOME releases are made to the main FTP server in the form of source code with configure scripts, which are compiled by operating system vendors and integrated with the rest of their systems before distribution. Most vendors only use stable and tested versions of GNOME, and provide it in the form of easily installed, pre-compiled packages. The source code of every stable and development version of GNOME is stored in the GNOME git source code repository. Interested users can always obtain a snapshot of the _master_ development branch or any other branch/tag and build a cutting-edge version for their own use.A number of build-scripts (such as JHBuild or formerly GARNOME) are available to help automate the process of compiling the source code.

Release history {|class"wikitable collapsible collapsed" style"width:100%;"

! colspan=6 | Release history! Version! Date! Information!| August 1997FIRST=MIGUEL DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 24, 2001, mdy, ! 1.0| March 1999 LOCATION=SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA DATE=MARCH 3, 1999, January 11, 2016, ! 1.2| May 2000 PUBLISHER=THE GNOME PROJECT ACCESSDATE=JUNE 8, 2014, ! 1.4| April 2001 LOCATION=COPENHAGEN, DENMARK AGENCY=BUSINESS WIRE ACCESSDATE=JUNE 8, 2014, ! colspan="4" style="background:light-gray"|GNOME 2! 2.0| June 2002Human Interface Guidelines.HTTP://MAIL.GNOME.ORG/ARCHIVES/DESKTOP-DEVEL-LIST/2002-JUNE/MSG00592.HTML DATE=JUNE 27, 2002 MAILINGLIST=DESKTOP-DEVEL FIRST=JEFF, ! 2.2| February 2003 PUBLISHER=THE GNOME PROJECT ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 19, 2019, ! 2.4September 2003}} DATE=SEPTEMBER 11, 2003 MAILINGLIST=GNOME-ANNOUNCE FIRST=JEFF, ! 2.6| March 2004spatial file manager, and a new GTK file dialog is introduced. A short-lived fork of GNOME, GoneME, is created as a response to the changes in this version.HTTP://MAIL.GNOME.ORG/ARCHIVES/GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST/2004-MARCH/MSG00131.HTML DATE=MARCH 31, 2004 MAILINGLIST=GNOME-ANNOUNCE FIRST=ANDREW, ! 2.8| September 2004Novell Evolution>Evolution.GNOME 2.8 RELEASE NOTES > URL=HTTPS://HELP.GNOME.ORG/MISC/RELEASE-NOTES/2.8/ PUBLISHER=THE GNOME PROJECT ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 19, 2019, ! 2.10| March 2005Totem (media player)>Totem and Sound Juicer applications.GNOME 2.10 RELEASED! > URL=HTTPS://WWW.GNOME.ORG/PRESS/2005/03/GNOME-2-10-RELEASED/ PUBLISHER=THE GNOME PROJECT ACCESSDATE=JUNE 8, 2014, ! 2.12| September 2005 ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 31, 2010, ! 2.14| March 2006Ekiga video conferencing application; Deskbar search tool; Pessulus lockdown editor; Fast user switching; Sabayon system administration tool.HTTP://LIBRARY.GNOME.ORG/MISC/RELEASE-NOTES/2.14/ ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 31, 2010, ! 2.16| September 2006Tomboy (software)>Tomboy notetaking application; Disk Usage Analyzer disk usage analyser; Orca (assistive technology)>Orca screen reader; GNOME Power Manager (improving laptop battery life); improvements to Totem, Nautilus; compositing support for Metacity; new icon theme. Based on GTK 2.10 with new print dialog.HTTP://MAIL.GNOME.ORG/ARCHIVES/GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST/2006-SEPTEMBER/MSG00042.HTML > TITLE=CELEBRATING THE RELEASE OF GNOME 2.16! ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 20, 2007 LAST=NEWREN AUTHORLINK=, ! 2.18| March 2007Seahorse (software)>Seahorse GNU Privacy Guard security application, allowing encryption of emails and local files; Baobab disk usage analyser improved to support ring chart view; Orca screen reader; improvements to Evince, Epiphany and GNOME Power Manager, Volume control; two new games, GNOME Sudoku and glChess. MP3 and AAC audio encoding.HTTP://MAIL.GNOME.ORG/ARCHIVES/GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST/2007-MARCH/MSG00056.HTML DATE=MARCH 14, 2007 MAILINGLIST=GNOME-ANNOUNCE FIRST=ELIJAH, ! 2.20| September 2007codec installer.HTTPS://ARSTECHNICA.COM/NEWS.ARS/POST/20070919-GNOME-2-20-OFFICIALLY-RELEASED.HTML FIRST = PAUL AUTHORLINK = ARS TECHNICA > DATE = SEPTEMBER 19, 2007, September 20, 2007, ! 2.22| March 2008Cheese (software)>Cheese, a tool for taking photos from webcams and Vinagre; basic window compositing support in Metacity; introduction of GVFS; improved playback support for DVDs and YouTube, MythTV support in Totem; internationalised clock applet; Google Calendar support and message tagging in Evolution (software)>Evolution; improvements in Evince, Tomboy, Sound Juicer and Calculator.HTTP://MAIL.GNOME.ORG/ARCHIVES/GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST/2008-MARCH/MSG00060.HTML > TITLE=CELEBRATING THE RELEASE OF GNOME 2.22! ACCESSDATE=MARCH 12, 2008 LAST=UNTZ AUTHORLINK=, Deprecate GnomeVFS in favor of GVfs and GIO (software).HTTPS://HELP.GNOME.ORG/MISC/RELEASE-NOTES/2.22/#SECT:GVFS-GIO, GNOME 2.22 Release Notes, Section "GVFS and GIO", ! 2.24| September 2008Ekiga 3.0, tabbed browsing in Nautilus, better multiple screens support and improved digital TV support.HTTP://MAIL.GNOME.ORG/ARCHIVES/GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST/2008-SEPTEMBER/MSG00132.HTML DATE=SEPTEMBER 24, 2008 MAILINGLIST=GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST FIRST=VINCENT, ! 2.26| March 2009Brasero (software)>Brasero, simpler file sharing, media player improvements, support for Multi-monitor and fingerprint reader support.HTTP://MAIL.GNOME.ORG/ARCHIVES/GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST/2009-MARCH/MSG00091.HTML DATE=MARCH 18, 2009 MAILINGLIST=GNOME-ANNOUNCE-LIST FIRST=VINCENT, ! 2.28| September 2009GTK version 2.18.HTTP://WWW.OSNEWS.COM/STORY/22224/GNOME_2_28_RELEASED LAST=HOLWERDA PUBLISHER=OSNEWS ACCESSDATE=APRIL 5, 2009, ! 2.30| March 2010Vinagre. iPod and iPod Touch devices are now partially supported via GVFS through libimobiledevice. Uses GTK 2.20.HTTP://WWW.OSNEWS.COM/STORY/23092/GNOME_2_30_RELEASED LAST=HOLWERDA PUBLISHER=OSNEWS ACCESSDATE=APRIL 4, 2010, ! 2.32| September 2010 ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 31, 2010, ! colspan="4" style="background:light-gray"|GNOME 3! 3.0| April 2011GNOME Shell. A redesigned settings framework with fewer, more focused options. Topic-oriented help based on the Mallard (documentation)>Mallard markup language. Side-by-side window tiling. A new visual theme and default font. Adoption of GTK 3.0 with its improved language bindings, themes, touch, and multiplatform support. Removal of long-deprecated development APIs.HTTP://LIBRARY.GNOME.ORG/MISC/RELEASE-NOTES/3.0/ > TITLE = GNOME 3.0 RELEASE NOTES ACCESSDATE = APRIL 7, 2011, ! 3.2| September 2011| Online accounts support; Web applications support; contacts manager; documents and files manager; quick preview of files in the File Manager; greater integration; better documentation; enhanced looks and various performance improvements.! 3.4| March 2012GNOME Contacts. Search for documents from the Activities overview. Application menus support. Refreshed interface components: New color picker, redesigned scrollbars, easier to use spin buttons, and hideable title bars. Smooth scrolling support. New animated backgrounds. Improved system settings with new Wacom panel. Easier extensions management. Better hardware support. Topic-oriented documentation. Video calling and Live Messenger support in Empathy. Better accessibility: Improved Orca integration, better high contrast mode, and new zoom settings. Plus many other application enhancements and smaller details.HTTP://LIBRARY.GNOME.ORG/MISC/RELEASE-NOTES/3.4/ PUBLISHER = THE GNOME PROJECT, March 28, 2012, ! 3.6| September 2012braille support in Orca (assistive technology)>Orca. In Web, the previously blank start page was replaced by a grid that holds your most visited pages, plus better full screen mode and a beta of WebKit2. Evolution renders email using WebKit. Major improvements to Disks. Revamped Files application (also known as Nautilus), with new features like Recent files and search.! 3.8| March 2013| Refreshed Core components: A new applications view with frequently used and all apps. An overhauled window layout. New input methods OSD switcher. The Notifications & Messaging tray now react to the force with which the pointer is pressed against the screen edge. Added Classic mode for those who prefer a more traditional desktop experience. The GNOME Settings application features an updated toolbar design. New Initial Setup assistant. GNOME Online Accounts integrates with more services. Web has been upgraded to use the WebKit2 engine. Web has a new private browsing mode. Documents has gained a new dual page mode & Google Documents integration. Improved user interface of Contacts. GNOME Files, GNOME Boxes and GNOME Disks have received a number of improvements. Integration of ownCloud. New GNOME Core Applications: GNOME Clocks and GNOME Weather.! 3.10| September 2013GNOME Maps, GNOME Notes, GNOME Music and GNOME Photos. New geolocation features, such as automatic time zones and world clocks. HiDPI supportHTTPS://GITLAB.GNOME.ORG/GNOME/GNOME-SHELL/COMMIT/D868E6BFAFF4E1174220AE6158CD7A0A02904FFC DATE=FEBRUARY 12, 2014, and smart card support. D-Bus activation made possible with GLib 2.38HTTPS://WIKI.GNOME.ORG/INITIATIVES/GNOMEGOALS/DBUSACTIVATABLE >TITLE=CONVERT APPLICATIONS TO DBUSACTIVATABLE, ! 3.12 FIRST=JACK PUBLISHER=TECHREPUBLIC DATE=MARCH 28, 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140328234824/HTTP://WWW.TECHREPUBLIC.COM/ARTICLE/GNOME-3-10-HAS-RESURRECTED-WHAT-WAS-ONCE-THE-DARLING-OF-THE-LINUX-DESKTOP/, GNOME Videos, GNOME Terminal and gedit were given a fresh look, more consistent with the HIG. A search provider for the terminal emulator is included in GNOME Shell. Improvements to GNOME Software and high-density display support. A new sound recorder application. New desktop notifications API. Progress in the Wayland (display server protocol)>Wayland port has reached a usable state that can be optionally previewed.{{Citation needed|date=April 2015}}! 3.14| September 2014GNOME Software supports managing installed add-ons. GNOME Photos adds support for Google. Redesigned UI for Evince, Sudoku, Mines and Weather. Hitori is added as part of GNOME Games.{{Citation needed>date=April 2015}}! 3.16| March 2015DATE=MARCH 28, 2015, February 19, 2019, ! 3.18| September 2015| Major changes include Google Drive integration in Files. Firmware updates through Software. Automatic screen brightness. Touchpad gestures. Several new applications: GNOME Calendar and GNOME Character Map. Significant improvements to Files, Boxes and Polari. Smaller changes and bug fixes.! 3.20| March 2016DATE=MARCH 23, 2016, ! 3.22| September 2016| GNOME 3.22 applications are based on GTK 3.22, the last gtk-3.x release Wayland is now default. Comprehensive Flatpak support. GNOME Software can install and update Flatpaks, GNOME Builder can create them, and the desktop provides portal implementations to enable sandboxed applications. Improvements to core GNOME applications include support for batch renaming in Files, sharing support in GNOME Photos, an updated look for GNOME Software, a redesigned keyboard settings panel, and much more.! 3.24| March 2017 PUBLISHER=OMG! UBUNTU! DATE=JULY 23, 2017, ! 3.26| September 2017DATE= SEPTEMBER 13, 2017, ! 3.28
  • weblink
  • weblink ! 3.30| 5 September 2018| ! 3.32| 13 March 2019| ! colspan="4" style="background:light-gray"|GNOME 4! 4.0| Unknown| Based on GTK 4. Successor of GNOME Shell. ...

    Features

    User Interface Design

    {{hatnote|See also: Since GNOME 2, productivity has been a key focus for GNOME. To meet this end, the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) were created. All GNOME programs share a coherent style of graphical user interface (GUI) but are not limited to the employment of the same GUI widgets. Rather, the design of the GNOME GUI is guided by concepts described in the GNOME HIG, itself relying on insights from cognitive ergonomics.WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME Human Interface Guidelines, Following the HIG, developers can create high-quality, consistent, and usable GUI programs, as it addresses everything from GUI design to recommended pixel-based layout of widgets.
    During the GNOME 2 rewrite, many settings deemed of little value to the majority of users were removed. Havoc Pennington summarized the usability work in his 2002 essay "Free Software UI", emphasizing the idea that all preferences have a cost, and it is better to make software behave correctly by default than to add a UI preference to get the desired behavior:}}

    Accessibility

    GNOME aims to make and keep the desktop environment physically and cognitively ergonomic for people with disabilities. The GNOME HIG tries to take this into account as far as possible but specific issues are solved by special software.GNOME addresses computer accessibility issues by using the Accessibility Toolkit (ATK) application programming interface, which allows enhancing user experience by using special input methods and speech synthesis and speech recognition software. Particular utilities are registered with ATK using Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface (AT-SPI), and become globally used throughout the desktop. Several assistive technology providers, including Orca screen reader and Dasher input method, were developed specifically for use with GNOME.

    Internationalization and Localization

    The internationalization and localization of GNOME software relies on locale.

    Login sessions

    GNOME provides two different login sessions, one is based on GNOME Panel and Metacity (Window Manager), this session is called GNOME Flashback,WEB
    , Projects/GnomeFlashback - GNOME Wiki
    ,weblink
    , 21 December 2018, it is light-weight,WEB
    , GNOME/Flashback - ArchWiki
    ,weblink
    , 21 December 2018,
    WEB
    , How to Install Classic GNOME Flashback in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS
    ,weblink
    , 21 December 2018, has lower hardware requirements than GNOME Shell and consumes less memory and CPU,
    WEB
    , Debian -- Details of package gnome-session-flashback in buster
    ,weblink
    , 21 December 2018,
    it provides a traditional and highly customizable taskbar (panel) with many plug-ins bundled in one package (gnome-applets) including a customizable start menu. Another session is based on GNOME Shell and Mutter (Window Manager), this session is default, it offers a mobile-like paradigm for launching applications and accessing open windows and virtual desktops, but through the use of extensions it is possible for the appearance to be that of a traditional taskbar and provide a basic start menu, this default session uses more RAM and CPU due to use of JavaScript for GNOME Shell and all of its extensions, and requiring 3D-acceleration.

    GNOME Flashback

    (File:GNOME Flashback with Applications menu on Ubuntu 18.04.png|thumb|GNOME Flashback with Applications menu on Ubuntu 18.04)GNOME Flashback is an official session for GNOME 3. It provides a similar user experience to the GNOME 2.x series session by providing a traditional desktop taskbar (panel) with many plug-ins bundled in one package (gnome-applets), and a start menu. It has customization capacities as built-in.GNOME Flashback consists of the following components:
    • GNOME Panel—a highly configurable taskbar
    • Metacity (Window Manager)
    • gnome-applets—a collection of useful applets for the GNOME Panel

    GNOME Shell

    {{overlay| image = GNOME Shell.png| float = right| width = 400| height = 225| padding = 0px 7pxGNOME Shell Overview mode}}| overlay1 = Activities button| overlay1top = 0| overlay1left = 1| overlay2 = Dash| overlay2top = 110| overlay2left = 7| overlay3 = Notification area| overlay3top = 0| overlay3left = 195| overlay4 = Search bar| overlay4top = 8| overlay4left = 140| overlay5 = Status menu| overlay5top = 0| overlay5left = 392| overlay6 = Workspace list| overlay6top = 110| overlay6left = 392}}{{see also|Mission Control (macOS)}}GNOME Shell is the default Graphical Shell of the GNOME desktop environment. It features a top bar holding (from left to right) an Activities button, an application menu, a clock and an integrated system status menu.WEB
    ,weblink
    , Terminology for Gnome Shell
    , GNOME Wiki
    , The GNOME Project
    , May 22, 2014
    , yes
    ,weblink
    , May 22, 2014
    , mdy, WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME 3.10 Release Notes
    , Day
    , Allan
    , The GNOME Project
    , May 22, 2014, The application menu displays the name of the application in focus and provides access to functions such as accessing the application's preferences, closing the application, or creating a new application window. The status menu holds various system status indicators, shortcuts to system settings, and session actions including logging out, switching users, locking the screen, and suspending the computer.
    Clicking on the Activities button, moving the mouse to the top-left hot corner or pressing the Super key brings up the Overview.WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME 3 Cheat Sheet
    , GNOME Wiki
    , The GNOME Project
    , June 13, 2014, The Overview gives users an overview of current activities and provides a way to switch between windows and workspaces and to launch applications. The Dash on the left houses shortcuts to favorite applications and open windows and an application picker button to show a list of all installed applications. A search bar appears at the top and a workspace list for switching between workspaces is on the right. Notifications appear from the bottom of the screen.WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME Shell Design
    , The GNOME Project
    , December 3, 2011,

    GNOME Classic

    (File:GNOME Classic 3.32 screenshot.png|thumb|GNOME 3 Classic Mode)Beginning with GNOME 3.8, GNOME provides a suite of officially supported GNOME Shell extensions that provide Applications menu (a basic start menu) and "Places menu" on the top bar, and a panel with windows list at the bottom of the screen that lets quickly minimize and restore open windows, a "Show Desktop" button in the bottom left and virtual desktops in the bottom right corner.WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME 3.8 Release Notes
    , Day
    , Allan
    , The GNOME Project
    , June 13, 2014,

    Development

    GNOME is developed by The GNOME Project,WEB
    , GNOME Quick SWOT Analysis
    , The GNOME Project
    ,weblink
    , March 18, 2014, and, like most free software projects, GNOME development is loosely managed. Discussion chiefly occurs on a number of public mailing lists.WEB
    ,weblink
    , GTK and GNOME Mailing Lists
    , The GNOME Project
    , December 4, 2011, GNOME developers and users gather at an annual GUADEC meeting to discuss the current state and the future direction of GNOME.WEB
    ,weblink
    , About
    , GNOME Users And Developers European Conference (GUADEC)
    , December 3, 2011
    , yes
    ,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111004061840weblink">weblink
    , October 4, 2011
    , mdy, GNOME incorporates standards and programs from freedesktop.org to better support interoperability with other desktops.
    GNOME is mainly written in C, XML, C++, C#, HTML, Vala, Python, JavaScript, CSS, and more. A number of language bindings are available.

    Development platform

    The GLib data structures and utilities library, GObject object and type system and GTK widget toolkit comprise the central part of GNOME development platform. This foundation is further extended with D-Bus IPC framework, Cairo 2D vector-based drawing library, Clutter accelerated graphics library, Pango international text rendering library, PulseAudio low-level audio API, GStreamer multimedia framework, and several specialized libraries including NetworkManager, PackageKit, Telepathy (instant messaging) and WebKit.WEB
    ,weblink
    , Platform libraries
    , Bull
    , Phil
    , The GNOME Project
    , May 21, 2014,
    • GNOME Display Manager (GDM), which manages user sessions, X and Wayland alike.
    • Tracker automatically searches the specified directories for files and keeps an index of them to provide fast search; heavily integrated into GNOME Shell and GNOME Files
    • GVfs, an abstraction layer framework for file systems augmenting GIO; well integrated into GNOME Files and GNOME Disks
    • dconf a backend for GSettings
    • Mutter, the Wayland compositor and X Window Manager
    • Linux color management, udev, etc.
    • Evolution Data Server, responsible for managing mail, calendar, address book, tasks and memo information
    • Meson is replacing GNU Build System (autotools) as build automation tools of choice
    • BuildStream a distribution agnostic build and integration tool
    The GNOME desktop environment does not consist solely of the graphical control element library GTK and the core applications that make use of it. There are quite a few additional software packages that make up the GNOME desktop environment, such as the above.

    Wayland

    GNOME runs on Wayland and the X Window System.WEB
    ,weblink
    , What's new in Fedora 25 Workstation
    , Fedora Magazine
    , November 21, 2016
    , Red Hat, Wayland support was introduced in GNOME 3.10 and deemed “for the majority of users […] a usable day to day experience” by 3.20,WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME 3.20 Release Notes
    , GNOME, at which point Wayland became the default user session.WEB
    ,weblink
    , session: give Wayland sessions priority · GNOME/gdm@6cd2d24
    , Github, GNOME 3.24 will extend Wayland compatibility to NVidia drivers.WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME Lands Mainline NVIDIA Wayland Support Using EGLStreams
    , Phoronix, With GNOME 3.30, it is possible to run GNOME without X.Org Server, using only Wayland.

    systemd

    In May 2011 Lennart Poettering proposed systemd as a GNOME dependency.MAILING LIST
    ,weblink
    , systemd as external dependency
    , May 18, 2011
    , June 12, 2014
    , desktop-devel
    , Poettering
    , Lennart
    , Lennart Poettering, As systemd is available only on Linux, the proposal led to a discussion of possibly dropping support for other platforms in future GNOME releases. Since GNOME 3.2 multiseat support has only been available on systems using systemd.WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME 3.2 Release Notes
    , Olav
    , Vitters
    , André
    , Klapper
    , Allan
    , Day
    , The GNOME Project
    , October 5, 2011, In November 2012 the GNOME release team concluded that systemd can be relied upon for non-basic functionality.MAILING LIST
    ,weblink
    , 20121104 meeting minutes
    , November 6, 2012
    , June 12, 2014
    , release-team
    , Peters
    , Frederic,

    Applications

    Core Applications

    There are a large number of GTK and Clutter-based programs written by various authors. Since the release of GNOME 3.0, The GNOME Project concentrates on developing a set of programs that accounts for the GNOME Core Applications.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030514015921weblink">weblink Clock Applets, May 14, 2003, web.archive.org, The commonalities of the GNOME Core Applications are the adherence to the current GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) as well as the tight integration with underlying GNOME layers like e.g. GVfs and also with one another e.g. GOA (gnome-online-accounts)WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME wiki: GnomeOnlineAccounts, settings and GNOME Files with Google DriveWEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME 3.18 Will Let You Access Your Google Drive Files in Nautilus
    , 2015-09-30, WEB
    ,weblink
    , GNOME 3.18 lands with Google Drive
    , 2015-09-30, and GNOME Photos with Google Photos. Some programs are simply existing programs with a new name and revamped user interface, while others have been written from scratch.

    Games

    GNOME Games have the look and feel of the GNOME Core Applications and are released simultaneously with GNOME. All have been rewritten to conform to the current GNOME Human Interface Guidelines.

    Development tools

    Programmers have written software to provide development tools consistent with the GNOME desktop and to facilitate the development of GNOME software:GNOME Builder is the new integrated development environment, Anjuta is the older one. Glade Interface Designer software constructs graphical interfaces using the graphical control elements in GTK. Devhelp is an API browser, Accerciser an accessibility explorer.There are several debugging tools, including Nemiver, GtkInspectorWEB
    ,weblink
    , GtkInspector Author's blog entry
    , Matthias Clasen
    , May 15, 2014
    , May 17, 2014, WEB
    ,weblink
    , GtkInspector in GNOME wiki
    , May 15, 2014
    , May 17, 2014, and Alleyoop, have also been provided to facilitate development of GNOME software.
    Integration options for third-party development tools (e.g. NoFlo) also exist.WEB
    ,weblink
    , Bergius: Flowhub and the GNOME Developer Experience
    , LWN.net
    , May 2, 2014
    , May 24, 2014,
    The libsoup library enables access HTTP servers from Gnome applications.BOOK, Negus, Christopher, Red Hat Linux Bible,weblink Wiley, 2003, 994, 9780764543333, 2017-08-15, libsoup: Library for enabling GNOME libraries to access HTTP servers., BuildStream is a flexible and extensible framework for the modelling of build and CI pipelines in a declarative YAML format, written in Python.WEB,weblink GNOME Wiki: BuildStream, It's mascot is a Beaver, 'cause beavers build things in a stream.

    Gallery

    {{Commons category-inline|screenshots of GNOME}}File:Gnome-2.6-en.png | GNOME 2.6 (March 2004)File:Desktop with screenlets(ubuntu).png | GNOME 2.24 on Ubuntu 8.10 with screenlets (October 2008)File:GNOME Weather 3.32 screenshot.png | GNOME Weather 3.32 (March 2019)File:GNOME Shell 3.32 overview screenshot.png | "Applications view" in GNOME Shell 3.32 (March 2019)File:GNOME Files 3.32 screenshot.png | GNOME Files 3.32 (March 2019)File:GNOME Clocks 3.32 World screenshot.png | GNOME Clocks 3.32 (March 2019)File:GNOME Software 3.32 screenshot.png | GNOME Software 3.32 (March 2019)File:GNOME System Monitor 3.32 screenshot.png | GNOME System Monitor 3.32 (March 2019)

    See also

    References

    {{Reflist|30em}}

    External links

    {{Commons category}}
    • {{Official website}}
    {{GNOME}}{{Desktop environments and window managers for X11 and Wayland}}{{GNU}}{{Authority control}}

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