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Fujian
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{{Other uses}}{{redirect|Hokkian|Hokkien dialect speaking in the South Fujian|Hokkien}}{{more citations needed|date=July 2014}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2012}}







factoids
0.1emProvince of China>Province| translit_lang1 = NameChinese}}zh|Fújiàn ShÄ›ng}})Abbreviation}}Mǐn, POJ: Bân}})Hokkien POJ}}| translit_lang1_info2 = Hok-kiànFoochow}}| translit_lang1_info3 = Hók-gióng| translit_lang1_type4 = | translit_lang1_info4 = | translit_lang1_type5 = | translit_lang1_info5 = | translit_lang1_type6 = | translit_lang1_info6 = | translit_lang2 = | translit_lang2_type = | translit_lang2_info = | translit_lang2_type1 = | translit_lang2_info1 = | image_map = Fujian in China (+all claims hatched).svg| mapsize = 275px| map_alt = Map showing the location of Fujian Province| map_caption = Map showing the location of Fujian Province25.9118.3type:adm1stdisplay=it}}zhFuzhou {{transl>zhNanping>Jianzhou| seat_type = Capital| seat = Fuzhou| seat1_type = Largest city| seat1 = Xiamen| parts_type = Divisions| parts_style = paraPrefectures of China>prefecturesQuemoy is included as a county and Matsu Islands>Matsu as a township. countiesTownships of China>townshipsParty chief of the Communist Party of China>Secretary| leader_name = Yu Weiguo| leader_title1 = Governor| leader_name1 = Tang DengjiePUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF COMMERCE - PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 5, 2013, mdy, | area_total_km2 = 121400List of Chinese administrative divisions by area>23rd| elevation_max_m = 2158| elevation_max_point = | elevation_max_ft = | elevation_max_rank = | elevation_min_m = | elevation_min_point = | elevation_min_ft = | elevation_min_rank = PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA DATE=29 APRIL 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130727021210/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/NEWSANDCOMINGEVENTS/T20110429_402722516.HTM DF=MDY, | population_total = 38,565,000| population_as_of = 2017List of Chinese administrative divisions by population>17th| population_density_km2 = autoList of Chinese administrative divisions by population density>14th| demographics_type1 = Demographics| demographics1_footnotes = | demographics1_title1 = Ethnic compositionHan Chinese>Han – 98%She people – 1%Hui people>Hui – 0.3%| demographics1_title2 = Languages and dialectsMin Chinese>Min (inc. Hokkien dialects, Fuzhounese), Mandarin Chinese, Hakka language>Hakka| iso_code = CN-FJGross domestic product>GDP {{nobold|(2018)}}Renminbi>CNÂ¥3.58 trillion{{USD}}540.78 billionHTTP://TJJ.FUJIAN.GOV.CN/XXGK/TJGB/201802/T20180226_1487394.HTM>TRANS-TITLE=STATISTICAL COMMUNIQUé OF FUJIAN ON THE 2017 NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLISHER=FUJIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS DATE=2018-02-22List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP>10th)| blank1_name_sec1 =  â€¢ per capitaList of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita>6th)| blank2_name_sec1 =  â€¢ growth| blank2_info_sec1 = Human Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2014)}}TITLE=CHINA NATIONAL HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2016UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME>PAGE=146List of Chinese administrative divisions by Human Development Index>11th)| website = www.Fujian.gov.cn| footnotes = | official_name = | image_skyline = Wuyi_Mountains_Sea_of_clouds_4.jpg| image_caption = Panorama of the Wuyi Mountains}}







factoids
|wuu = Foh-ji|j = Fuk1-gin3f1g3}}|y = Fūk-gin|h = Fuk-kian|poj = Hok-kiàn|buc = Hók-gióng|hhbuc = Ho̤h-ge̤̍ng|mblmc = Hŭ-gṳ̿ing|showflag = |order = st|altname = Abbreviation|t2 = 閩|s2 = 闽Min River (Fujian)>Min River]|p2 = Mǐn|gr2 = Miin|bpmf2 = ㄇㄧㄣˇ|w2 = Min3m3}}|j2 = Man5|y2 = Máhn|tl2 = Bân|buc2 = Mìng|hhbuc2 = Máng|mblmc2 = Mâing}}Fujian ({{zh|c={{Audio|Fu2jian4.ogg|福建|help=no}}|labels=no}}; alternately romanized as Fukien) is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, Guangdong to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the east. Its capital is Fuzhou, while its largest city by population is Xiamen, both located near the coast of the Taiwan Strait in the east of the province. The name Fujian came from the combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou (present Nanping), a city in Fujian, during the Tang dynasty.While its population is chiefly of Han origin, it is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse provinces in China. Historically the dialects of the language group Min Chinese were most commonly spoken within the province, including the Hokkien dialects of southeastern Fujian. This is reflected in the abbreviation of the province's name (閩). Hakka Chinese is also spoken, by the Hakka people in Fujian. Min and Hakka Chinese are unintelligible with Mandarin Chinese. Due to emigration, a sizable amount of the ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines speak Hokkien.As a result of the Chinese Civil War, Historical Fujian is now divided between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan), and both territories are named the Fujian province in their respective administration divisions. The majority of the territory of historical Fujian (the mainland territory and a few islands) currently make up the Fujian province of the PRC. The Fujian province of the ROC is made up of the Matsu Islands, the Wuqiu Islands and the Kinmen Islands, the two latter archipelagos constituting Kinmen County.With a population of 39 million, Fujian ranks 17th in population among Chinese provinces. Its GDP is CN¥3.58 trillion, ranking 10th in GDP. Along with its coastal neighbours Zhejiang and Guangdong, Fujian's GDP per capita is above the national average, at CN¥92,830. It has benefited from its geographical proximity with Taiwan.

History

Prehistoric Fujian

Recent archaeological discoveries in 2011 demonstrate that Fujian had entered the Neolithic Age by the middle of the 6th millennium BC.JOURNAL, Rolett, Barry V.; Zheng, Zhuo; Yue, Yuanfu, April 2011, Holocene sea-level change and the emergence of Neolithic seafaring in the Fuzhou Basin (Fujian, China),weblink Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 788–797, From the Keqiutou site (7450–5590 BP), an early Neolithic site in Pingtan Island located about {{convert|70|km}} southeast of Fuzhou, numerous tools made of stones, shells, bones, jades, and ceramics (including wheel-made ceramics) have been unearthed, together with spinning wheels, which is definitive evidence of weaving.The Tanshishan () site (5500–4000 BP) in suburban Fuzhou spans the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Age where semi-underground circular buildings were found in the lower level. The Huangtulun () site (ca.1325 BC), also in suburban Fuzhou, was of the Bronze Age in character.Tianlong Jiao (2013)Jiao, Tianlong. 2013. "The Neolithic Archaeology of Southeast China." In Underhill, Anne P., et al. A Companion to Chinese Archaeology, 599-611. Wiley-Blackwell. notes that the Neolithic appeared on the coast of Fujian around 6,000 B.P. During the Neolithic, the coast of Fujian had a low population density, with the population depending on mostly on fishing and hunting, alongside with limited agriculture.There were four major Neolithic cultures in coastal Fujian, with the earliest Neolithic cultures originating from the north in coastal Zhejiang.
  • Keqiutou culture 壳丘头文化 (c. 6000–5500 BP, or c. 4050–3550 BC)
  • Tanshishan culture 昙石山文化 (c. 5000–4300 BP, or c. 3050–2350 BC)
  • Damaoshan culture 大帽山文化 (c. 5000–4300 BP)
  • Huangguashan culture 黄瓜山文化 (c. 4300–3500 BP, or c. 2350–1550 BC)
There were two major Neolithic cultures in inland Fujian, which were highly distinct from the coastal Fujian Neolithic cultures. These are the Niubishan culture (牛鼻山文化) from 5000–4000 years ago, and the Hulushan culture (葫芦山文化) from 2050 to 1550 BC.

Minyue kingdom

Fujian was also where the kingdom of Minyue was located. The word "Mǐnyuè" was derived by combining "Mǐn" ({{zh|t=閩 |s=闽 |poj=bân}}), which is perhaps an ethnic name ({{zh|t=蠻 |s=蛮 |p=mán |poj=bân |links=no}}), and "Yuè", after the State of Yue, a Spring and Autumn period kingdom in Zhejiang to the north. This is because the royal family of Yuè fled to Fujian after its kingdom was annexed by the State of Chu in 306 BC. Mǐn is also the name of the main river in this area, but the ethnonym is probably older.

Han dynasty

{{see also|Han campaigns against Minyue}}Minyue was a de facto kingdom until one of the emperors of the Qin dynasty, the first unified imperial Chinese state, abolished its status. In the aftermath of the Qin dynasty's fall, civil war broke out between two warlords, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang. The Minyue king Wuzhu sent his troops to fight with Liu and his gamble paid off. Liu was victorious and founded the Han dynasty. In 202 BC, he restored Minyue's status as a tributary independent kingdom. Thus Wuzhu was allowed to construct his fortified city in Fuzhou as well as a few locations in the Wuyi Mountains, which have been excavated in recent years. His kingdom extended beyond the borders of contemporary Fujian into eastern Guangdong, eastern Jiangxi, and southern Zhejiang.Fuijan. Britannica.com.After Wuzhu's death, Minyue maintained its militant tradition and launched several expeditions against its neighboring kingdoms in Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, primarily in the 2nd century BC. This was stopped by the Han dynasty as it expanded southward. The Han emperor eventually decided to get rid of the potential threat by launching a military campaign against Minyue. Large forces approached Minyue simultaneously from four directions via land and sea in 111 BC. The rulers in Fuzhou surrendered to avoid a futile fight and destruction and the first kingdom in Fujian history came to an abrupt end.The Han dynasty collapsed at the end of the 2nd century AD, paving the way for the Three Kingdoms era. Sun Quan, the founder of the Kingdom of Wu, spent nearly 20 years subduing the Shan Yue people, the branch of the Yue living in mountains.

Jin era

The first wave of immigration of the noble class arrived in the province in the early 4th century when the Western Jin dynasty collapsed and the north was torn apart by invasions by nomadic peoples from the north, as well as civil war. These immigrants were primarily from eight families in central China: Lin (林), Huang (黄), Chen (陈), Zheng (郑), Zhan (詹), Qiu (邱), He (何), and Hu (胡). The first four remain as the major surnames of modern Fujian.Nevertheless, isolation from nearby areas owing to rugged terrain contributed to Fujian's relatively undeveloped economy and level of development, despite major population boosts from northern China during the "barbarian" invasions. Population density in Fujian remained low compared to the rest of China. Only two commanderies and sixteen counties were established by the Western Jin dynasty. Like other southern provinces such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, Fujian often served as a destination for exiled prisoners and dissidents at that time.During the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, the Southern Dynasties reigned south of the Yangtze River, including Fujian.

Sui and Tang dynasties

{{see also|Early western influence in Fujian}}During the Sui and Tang eras a large influx of migrants settled in Fujian.BOOK,weblink The Pan-Pearl River Delta: An Emerging Regional Economy in a Globalizing China, 41, The Tang dynasty (618–907) oversaw the next golden age of China, which contributed to a boom in Fujian’s culture and economy. Fuzhou's economic and cultural institutions grew and developed. The later years of the Tang dynasty saw a number of political upheavals in the Chinese heartland, prompting another wave of Chinese to immigrate to Fujian.

Min kingdom

As the Tang dynasty ended, China was torn apart in the period of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. During this time, a second major wave of immigration arrived in the safe haven of Fujian, led by General Wang, who set up an independent Kingdom of Min with its capital in Fuzhou. After the death of the founding king, however, the kingdom suffered from internal strife, and was soon absorbed by Southern Tang, another southern kingdom.Fukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:weblinkQuanzhou city was blooming into a seaport under the reign of the Min Kingdom{{citation needed|date=January 2015}} and was the largest seaport in the world.{{when|date=January 2015}} For a long period of time its population was also greater than Fuzhou.WEB, zh:中国网事:千年古港福建"泉州港"被整合改名引网民争议,weblink Xinhua News, 2014-08-17, Due to the Ispah Rebellion, Quanzhou city lost foreign interest of trading and its formerly welcoming international image as the foreigners were all massacred or deported.

Song dynasty

The Lý dynasty monarchs of Vietnam were of Chinese ethnicity.WEB,weblink The Stranger Kings of the Lý and Trần Dynasties – Le Minh Khai's SEAsian History Blog, Leminhkhai.wordpress.com, 2013-09-07, 2018-06-27, Jinjiang district of Quanzhou prefecture was the origin of Lý Thái Tổ 李公蘊, the ancestor of the Lý dynasty ruling family.{{efn|1=《(:s:夢溪筆談/卷25|夢溪筆談·卷二十五·雜誌二)》:「桓死,安南大亂,久無酋長。其後國人共立閩人李公蘊為主。」}}WEB,weblink zh:千年前泉州人李公蕴越南当皇帝 越南史上重要人物之一, fjsen.com, 2010-10-12, WEB,weblink zh:两安海人曾是安南皇帝 有关专家考证李公蕴、陈日煚籍属晋江安海, qzwb.com, 2008-12-28, BOOK, The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, 228, Lynn Pan, Harvard University Press, 0674252101, China, Fujian was the home of Lý Công Uẩn. The ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn has been accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng.BOOK, Cuong Tu Nguyen, Thiền Uyển Tập Anh,weblink 1997, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-1948-4, 371, The founder of the Trần Dynasty in Vietnam, Emperor Trần Thái Tông, was the great-grandson of a Chinese person who came to Vietnam from Fujian from the Chinese Chen clan. Several members of the family, like the prince Trần Quốc Tuấn, continued to know how to speak Chinese.BOOK, K. W. Taylor, A History of the Vietnamese,weblink 9 May 2013, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-87586-8, 120–, BOOK, Kenneth R. Hall, Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800,weblink 2008, Lexington Books, 978-0-7391-2835-0, 159–, The name of the prince’s great grandfather was Trần Kinh.People from the Song dynasty of China, like Zhao Zhong and Xu Zongdao, fled to the Trân dynasty after the Mongol invasion of China. The Daoist cleric Xu Zongdaowho, who recorded the Mongol invasion and called them "Northern bandits", also came from Fujian.WEB,weblink Giặc Bắc đến xâm lược!: Translations and Exclamation Points – Le Minh Khai's SEAsian History Blog, Leminhkhai.wordpress.com, 2015-12-04, 2018-06-27, Fujian or Guangxi was the origin of the ethnic Chinese Tran who migrated to Vietnam along with a large number of other Chinese, during the Vietnamese Ly dynasty, where they served as officials. Distinctly Chinese last names are found in the Tran and Ly dynasty Imperial exam records.BOOK, Alexander Woodside, Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century,weblink 1971, Harvard Univ Asia Center, 978-0-674-93721-5, 8–, Ethnic Chinese are recorded in Tran and Ly dynasty records of officials.BOOK, Geoffrey C. Gunn, History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800,weblink 1 August 2011, Hong Kong University Press, 978-988-8083-34-3, 112–, Clothing, food, and language were all Chinese dominated in Van Don where the Tran had moved after leaving their home province of Fujian. The Chinese language could still be spoken by the Tran in Vietnam. The side of Vietnam that borders the ocean was colonized by Chinese migrants from Fujian. This included the Tran among them who settled in the capital's southeastern area.BOOK, Hall, Secondary Cities & Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, c. 1400-1800,weblink 1 January 1955, Lexington Books, 978-0-7391-3043-8, 159–, The Red River Delta was subjected to migration of people from different provinces all over China through Fujian's major city port. The Tran and Van Don port arose as a result of this interaction.BOOK, Jayne Werner, John K. Whitmore, George Dutton, Sources of Vietnamese Tradition,weblink 21 August 2012, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-51110-0, 29–, Fujian and Guangdong Chinese moved to the Van Don coastal port during Ly Anh Tong's rule to engage in commerce.BOOK, Philippe Truong, The Elephant and the Lotus: Vietnamese Ceramics in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,weblink 2007, MFA Pub., 978-0-87846-717-4, 18, The usurpation of the Ly occurred after they married with the fishing Fujianese Tran family.BOOK, Ainslie Thomas Embree, Robin Jeanne Lewis, Encyclopedia of Asian history,weblink 1988, Scribner, 190, In 1172 Fujian was attacked by Pi-she-ye pirates from Taiwanweblinkweblinkweblink pp. 165-166.weblink

Ming dynasty

In the early Ming dynasty, Quanzhou was the staging area and supply depot of Zheng He's naval expeditions. Further development was severely hampered by the sea trade ban, and the area was superseded by nearby ports of Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai despite the lifting of the ban in 1550.{{citation needed|date=January 2015}} Large-scale piracy by Wokou was eventually wiped out by Chinese military and Japanese authority of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.{{citation needed|date=January 2015}}An account of Ming dynasty Fujian was written by No In weblinkweblink pp. 269-271.The Pisheya appear in Quanzhou Ming era records.Chuan-chou Fu-chi (Ch.10) Year 1512

Qing dynasty

The late Ming and early Qing dynasty symbolized an era of large influx of refugees and another 20 years of sea trade ban under the Kangxi Emperor, a measure intended to counter the refuge Ming government of Koxinga in the island of Taiwan.The seaban implented by the Qing forced many people to evacuate the coast in order to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources. This has led to the myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of water".Incoming refugees did not translate into a major labor force, owing to their re-migration into prosperous regions of Guangdong. In 1683, the Qing dynasty conquered Taiwan and annexed it into the Fujian province, as Taiwan Prefecture. Settlement of Taiwan by Han Chinese followed. Today, most Taiwanese are descendants of Hokkien people from Southern Fujian. Fujian arrived at its present extent after Taiwan was developed into an independent province (Fujian-Taiwan-Province) starting in 1885.BOOK, Skinner, George William, Baker, Hugh D. R., The City in late imperial China, 1977, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-0892-0, 197, Just ten years later, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan via the Treaty of Shimonoseki after losing the First Sino-Japanese War.

Republic of China

{{see also|Fujian People's Government|Fujian Province, Republic of China}}The Xinhai revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty brought the province into the rule of the Republic of China.Fujian briefly gained independence from China again under the Fujian People's Government until it was recontrolled by Republic of China.It came under Japanese sea blockade during World War II.

People's Republic of China

Fujian's slow development in its early days has proved a blessing for the province's ecology; today, the province has the highest forest coverage rate and the most diverse biosphere in China whereas central China suffers from severe overpopulation and displays severe signs of soil erosion, with frequent droughts and floods due to lack of forest coverage.{{Citation needed|date=May 2016}}Development has been accompanied by a large influx of population from the overpopulated areas in the north and west, and much of the farmland and forest, as well as cultural heritage sites such as the temples of king Wuzhu, have given way to ubiquitous high-rise buildings. The government faces challenges at all levels to sustain development while at the same time preserving Fujian's unique and vital natural and cultural heritage.

Geography

File:Peak Yunu.jpg|thumb|Wuyi MountainsWuyi Mountains(File:Min River in Nanping.JPG|thumb|Min River (閩江) in Nanping (南平))The province is mostly mountainous and is traditionally said to be "Eight parts mountain, one part water, and one part farmland" (八山一水一分田). The northwest is higher in altitude, with the Wuyi Mountains forming the border between Fujian and Jiangxi. It is the most forested provincial-level administrative region in China, with a 62.96% forest coverage rate in 2009.WEB,weblink Forestry in Fujian Province, zh, English.forestry.gov.cn, January 21, 2010, May 7, 2012, Fujian's highest point is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, with an altitude of {{convert|2157|m|mi}}.Fujian faces East China Sea to the east, South China Sea to the south, and the Taiwan Strait to the southeast. The coastline is rugged and has many bays and islands. Major islands include Quemoy (also known as Kinmen) (controlled by the Republic of China), Haitan Island, and Nanri Island. Meizhou Island occupies a central place in the cult of the goddess Matsu, the patron deity of Chinese sailors.The Min River and its tributaries cut through much of northern and central Fujian. Other rivers include the Jin and the Jiulong. Due to its uneven topography, Fujian has many cliffs and rapids.Fujian is separated from Taiwan by the {{convert|180|km|mi}}-wide Taiwan Strait. Some of the small islands in the Taiwan Strait are also part of the province. The islands of Quemoy and Matsu are under the administration of the Republic of China.Fujian contains several faults, the result of collision between the Asiatic Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate. The Changle-Naoao and Longan-Jinjiang fault zones in this area have annual displacement rates of 3–5 mm. They could cause major earthquakes in the future.JOURNAL, Guo, Jianming, Xu, Shiyang, Fan, Hailong, 2017-05-05, Neotectonic interpretations and PS-InSAR monitoring of crustal deformations in the Fujian area of China,weblink Open Geosciences, 9, 1, 126–132, 10.1515/geo-2017-0010, 2391-5447, Fujian has a subtropical climate, with mild winters. In January, the coastal regions average around {{convert|7|–|10|C|F}} while the hills average {{convert|6|–|8|C|F}}. In the summer, temperatures are high, and the province is threatened by typhoons coming in from the Pacific. Average annual precipitation is {{convert|1400|–|2000|mm|in}}.

Transportation

Roads

{{As of|2012}}, there are {{convert|54,876|km|mi|0|abbr=off}} of highways in Fujian, including {{convert|3,500|km|mi|abbr=off}} of expressways. The top infrastructure projects in recent years have been the Zhangzhou-Zhaoan Expressway (US$624 million) and the Sanmingshi-Fuzhou expressway (US$1.40 billion). The 12th Five-Year Plan, covering the period from 2011 to 2015, aims to double the length of the province's expressways to {{convert|5500|km|mi}}.WEB, China Briefing Business Reports,weblink Asia Briefing, 2012, February 8, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120904053006weblink">weblink September 4, 2012,

Railways

(File:Fuzhou Train.JPG|thumb|Fuzhou train station)Due to Fujian's mountainous terrain and traditional reliance on maritime transportation, railways came to the province comparatively late. The first rail links to neighboring Jiangxi, Guangdong and Zhejiang Province, opened respectively, in 1959, 2000 and 2009. As of October 2013, Fujian has four rail links with Jiangxi to the northwest: the Yingtan–Xiamen Railway (opened 1957), the Hengfeng–Nanping Railway (1998), Ganzhou–Longyan Railway (2005) and the high-speed Xiangtang–Putian Railway (2013). Fujian's lone rail link to Guangdong to the west, the Zhangping–Longchuan Railway (2000), will be joined with the high-speed Xiamen–Shenzhen Railway (Xiashen Line) in late 2013. The Xiashen Line forms the southern-most section of China's Southeast Coast High-Speed Rail Corridor. The Wenzhou–Fuzhou and Fuzhou–Xiamen sections of this corridor entered operation in 2009 and links Fujian with Zhejiang with trains running at speeds of up to {{convert|250|km/h|mph|0|abbr=on}}.Within Fujian, coastal and interior cities are linked by the Nanping–Fuzhou (1959), Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo (2007) and Longyan–Xiamen Railways, (2012). To attract Taiwanese investment, the province intends to increase its rail length by 50 percent to {{convert|2500|km|0|abbr=on}}.WEB, China Expat city Guide Dalian,weblink China Expat, 2008, February 8, 2009,

Air

The major airports are Fuzhou Changle International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Quanzhou Jinjiang International Airport, Nanping Wuyishan Airport, Longyan Guanzhishan Airport and Sanming Shaxian Airport. Xiamen is capable of handling 15.75 million passengers as of 2011. Fuzhou is capable of handling 6.5 million passengers annually with a cargo capacity of more than 200,000 tons. The airport offers direct links to 45 destinations including international routes to Japan, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Hong Kong.

Administrative divisions

The People's Republic of China controls most of the province and divides it into nine prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities (including a sub-provincial city):{| class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; font-size:smaller; text-align:center"! colspan="9" |Administrative divisions of Fujian(File:Fujian prfc map.png|300px){{Color box|#7C9973|border=darkgray}} {{small|Prefecture-level city district areas}} {{Color box|#729996|border=darkgray}} {{small|County-level cities}}!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | â„–!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division codeWEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码, Ministry of Civil Affairs, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Area in km2{{zh}}BOOK, zh-hans, Shenzhen Statistical Bureau, China Statistics Print, zh:《深圳统计年鉴2014》,weblink 2015-05-29, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Population 2010BOOK, Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, zh:中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 1, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Seat!! scope="col" colspan="3" | DivisionsBOOK, zh-hans, Ministry of Civil Affairs, zh:《中国民政统计年鉴2014》, August 2014, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-7130-9, !! scope="col" style="width:45px;"| Districts!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"| Counties!! scope="col" style="width:45px;"| CL cities style="font-weight: bold"   ! 350000 !! Fujian ProvinceFuzhou city >| 12! 1 !! 350100 !! Fuzhou cityGulou District, Fuzhou>Gulou District 6 6 1 style="background:#98fb98;"! 2 !! 350200 !! Xiamen citySiming District > style="background:gray;"| ! 6 !! 350300 !! Putian cityChengxiang District > ! 8 !! 350400 !! Sanming cityMeilie District >| 1! 7 !! 350500 !! Quanzhou cityFengze District >| 3! 9 !! 350600 !! Zhangzhou cityLongwen District >| 1! 4 !! 350700 !! Nanping cityJianyang District >| 3! 3 !! 350800 !! Longyan cityXinluo District >| 1! 5 !! 350900 !! Ningde cityJiaocheng District >| 2 {{legendSub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China>border=1px solid #AAAAAA}} {|class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"! colspan="5" |Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations! English !! Chinese !! Pinyin !! Fuzhou BUC !! Hokkien POJFujian Province >Fújiàn ShÄ›ng >Hók-gióng-sÄ“ng >| Hok-kiàn-séngFuzhou city >| Hok-chiu-chhÄ«Xiamen city >| Ä’-mnÌ‚g-chhÄ«Putian city >| Phô͘-chhân-chhÄ«Sanming city >| Sam-bêng-chhÄ«Quanzhou city >| Choân-chiu-chhÄ«Zhangzhou city >| Chiang-chiu-chhÄ«Nanping city >| Lâm-pêng-chhÄ«Longyan city >| Lêng-nâ-chhÄ«Ningde city >| Lêng-tek-chhÄ«All of the prefecture-level cities except Nanping, Sanming, and Longyan are found along the coast.The nine prefecture-level divisions are subdivided into 85 county-level divisions (28 districts, 13 county-level cities, and 44 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1,107 township-level divisions (605 towns, 328 townships, 18 ethnic townships, and 156 subdistricts).The People's Republic of China claims five of the six townships of Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as a county of the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.WEB,weblink zh:2018年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:泉州市, 2018 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Quanzhou City, zh-hans, National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China, 2018, 10 August 2019, WEB,weblink 泉州市人民政府 [Quanzhou City People's Government], zh-hans, 10 August 2019, zh:建治沿革, WEB,weblink zh:泉州市历史沿革, Quanzhou City Historical Development, XZQH.org, 14 July 2015, zh-hans, 10 August 2019, The PRC claims Wuqiu Township, Kinmen County, Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of Xiuyu District of the prefecture-level city of Putian.Finally, the PRC claims Matsu Islands (Lienchiang County), Republic of China (Taiwan) as a township of its Lianjiang County, which is part of the prefecture-level city of Fuzhou.Together, these three groups of islands make up the Republic of China's Fujian Province.

Urban areas{|class"wikitable sortable collapsible" style"font-size:90%;"

! colspan="6" | Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities!#!!City!!style ="background-color: #aaaaff;"|Urban area!!style ="background-color: #aaffaa;"|District area!!style ="background-color: #ffaaaa;"|City properBOOK, Compiled by 国务院人口普查办公室 [Department of Population Census of the State Council], 国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编 [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics], 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-6659-6, !!Census dateXiamen>|2010-11-01Fuzhou{{efn-lr>name=FuzhouChangle District>Changle (Changle CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}}{{efn-lrDoes not include Beigan, Lienchiang, Dongyin, Lienchiang>Dongyin Township, Juguang, Lienchiang, & Nangan, Lienchiang>Nangan Township (controlled by Taiwan) in the city proper count.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efn-lrsee Fuzhou}}2010-11-01Jinjiang, Fujian>Jinjiang1,172,8271,986,447{{smallsee Quanzhou}}>|2010-11-01Quanzhou{{efn-lr>name=QuanzhouKinmen>Jinmen County (controlled by Taiwan) in the city proper count.}}>|2010-11-01Putian>|2010-11-01Nan'an, Fujian>Nan'an718,5161,418,451{{smallsee Quanzhou}}>|2010-11-01Zhangzhou>|2010-11-01Fuqing>see Fuzhou}}2010-11-01Shishi, Fujian>Shishi469,969636,700{{smallsee Quanzhou}}>|2010-11-01Longyan{{efn-lr>name=LongyanYongding District, Longyan>Yongding (Yongding County). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}}460,086662,4292,559,5452010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efn-lrsee Longyan}}2010-11-01Longhai City>Longhai422,993877,762{{smallsee Zhangzhou}}>|2010-11-01Sanming>|2010-11-01Fu'an>see Ningde}}2010-11-01Nanping{{efn-lr>name=NanpingJianyang District>Jianyang (Jianyang CLC). The new district not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}}301,370467,8752,645,5482010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new district)}}{{efn-lrsee Nanping}}2010-11-01Fuding>see Ningde}}2010-11-01Ningde>|2010-11-01Yong'an>see Sanming}}2010-11-01Jian'ou>see Nanping}}2010-11-01Shaowu>see Nanping}}2010-11-01Wuyishan, Fujian>Wuyishan122,801121,317{{smallsee Nanping}}>|2010-11-01Zhangping>see Longyan}}2010-11-01{{notelist-lr}}

Politics

{{further|List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China}}List of the Secretaries of the CPC Fujian Committee
  • Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): June 1949 – October 1954
  • Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954 – June 1958
  • Jiang Yizhen (江一真): acting 1958–1970
  • Han Xianchu (韩先楚): April 1971 – December 1973
  • Liao Zhigao (廖志高): December 1974 – February 1982
  • Xiang Nan (项南): February 1982 – March 1986
  • Chen Guangyi (陈光毅)ï¼› March 1986 – December 1993
  • Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): December 1993 – October 1996
  • Chen Mingyi (陈明义): October 1996 – December 2000 
  • Song Defu (宋德福): December 2000 – February 2004
  • Lu Zhangong (卢展工): February 2004 – November 2009
  • Sun Chunlan (孙春兰): November 2009 – December 2012
  • You Quan (尤权): December 2012 – October 2017
  • Yu Weiguo (于伟国): October 2017 – present
List of Governors
  • Zhang Dingcheng (张鼎丞): August 1949 – October 1954  
  • Ye Fei (叶飞): October 1954 – January 1959
  • Jiang Yizhen (江一真): October 1959 – December 1962
  • Wen Jinshui (魏金水): December 1962 – August 1968 
  • Han Xianchu (韩先楚): August 1968 – December 1973
  • Liao Zhigao (廖志高): November 1974-December 1979
  • Ma Xingyuan (马兴元): December 1979 – January 1983
  • Hu Ping (胡平): January 1983 – September 1987
  • Wang Zhaoguo (王兆国): September 1987 – November 1990
  • Jia Qinglin (贾庆林): November 1990 – April 1994
  • Chen Mingyi (陈明义): April 1994 – October 1996
  • He Guoqiang (贺国强): October 1996 – August 1999
  • Xi Jinping (ä¹ è¿‘å¹³): August 1999 – October 2002
  • Lu Zhangong (卢展工): October 2002 – December 2004
  • Huang Xiaojing (黄小晶): December 2004 – April 2011
  • Su Shulin (苏树林): April 2011 – November 2015
  • Yu Weiguo (于伟国): November 2015 – January 2018
  • Tang Dengjie (唐登杰): January 2018 – present

Economy

File:FuzhouTaijiang.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|FuzhouFuzhouFujian is one of the more affluent provinces with many industries spanning tea production, clothing and sports manufacturers such as Anta, 361 Degrees, Xtep, Peak Sport Products and Septwolves. Many foreign firms have operations in Fujian. They include Boeing, Dell, GE, Kodak, Nokia, Siemens, Swire, TDK and Panasonic.Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces,weblink{|table class="wikitable sortable" Historical GDP of Fujian Province for 1952 –present (SNA2008)China NBS / Bulletin on Reforming Fujian's GDP Accounting and Data Release System: fj.gov.cn (23-Oct-17) (Chinese)(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Geary–Khamis dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017Purchasing power parity (PPP) for Chinese yuan is estimate according to International Monetary Fund>IMF WEO (October 2017) data; Exchange rate of CN¥ to US$ is according to State Administration of Foreign Exchange, published on China Statistical Yearbook.) align=center year GDP GDP per capita (GDPpc) based on mid-year population Reference index align=center GDP in millions realgrowth(%) GDPpc exchange rate1 foreign currency to CNY align=center CNYUSDPurchasing power parity(Geary–Khamis dollar>Int'l$.)CNYUSDPPP(Int'l$.)USD 1Int'l$. 1(PPP) align=right 20162,881,060433,744822,9488.474,70711,24721,3396.64233.5009 align=right 20152,623,920421,283739,2379.068,64511,02119,3396.22843.5495 align=right 20142,429,260395,465684,2219.964,09710,43418,0536.14283.5504 align=right 20132,207,780356,485617,23311.058,7029,47816,4116.19323.5769 align=right 20121,988,380314,991559,98111.453,2508,43614,9976.31253.5508 align=right 20111,770,380274,104505,02912.347,7647,39513,6256.45883.5055 align=right 20101,484,580219,304448,43213.940,3205,95612,1796.76953.3106 align=right 20091,232,420180,416390,31512.333,6774,93010,6666.83103.1575 align=right 20081,088,940156,793342,77913.029,9384,3119,4246.94513.1768 align=right 2007930,190122,329308,53115.225,7303,3848,5347.60403.0149 align=right 2006762,74095,680265,05214.821,2262,6637,3767.97182.8777 align=right 2005658,86080,430230,45111.618,4482,2526,4538.19172.8590 align=right 2000376,45445,474138,4389.311,1941,3524,1178.27842.7193 align=right 199052,22810,91930,6757.51,7633691,0354.78321.7026 align=right 19808,7065,8105,82118.43482322331.49841.4955 align=right 19786,6374,26817.82731761.5550 align=right 19703,4701,4109.9173702.4618 align=right 19622,21289998.6137562.4618 align=right 19572,2038466.7154592.6040 align=right 19521,27357323.3102462.2227In terms of agricultural land, Fujian is hilly and farmland is sparse. Rice is the main crop, supplemented by sweet potatoes and wheat and barley.ukien. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 20, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:weblink Cash crops include sugar cane and rapeseed. Fujian leads the provinces of China in longan production, and is also a major producer of lychees and tea. Seafood is another important product, with shellfish production especially prominent.Because of the geographic location with Taiwan, Fujian has been considered the battlefield frontline in a potential war between mainland China and Taiwan. Hence, it received much less investment from Chinese central government and developed much slower than the rest of China before 1978. Since 1978, when China opened to the world, Fujian has received significant investment from overseas Fujianese around the world, Taiwanese and foreign investment. Today, although Fujian is one of the wealthier provinces of China, its GDP per capita is only about the average of China's coastal administrative divisions.WEB,weblink Fujian GDP expected to hit 1 trillion yuan, China Daily, December 19, 2008, May 7, 2012, See also List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capitaMinnan Golden Triangle which includes Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou accounts for 40 percent of the GDP of Fujian province.Fujian province will be the major economic beneficiary of the opening up of direct transport with Taiwan which commenced on December 15, 2008. This includes direct flights from Taiwan to major Fujian cities such as Xiamen and Fuzhou. In addition, ports in Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou will upgrade their port infrastructure for increased economic trade with Taiwan.NEWS,weblink The Economist, Ever cuddlier, December 18, 2008, NEWS,weblink Bloomberg, China Pledges Loans to Taiwan Firms to Boost Ties (Update2), December 21, 2008, Fujian is the host of China International Fair for Investment and Trade annually. It is held in Xiamen to promote foreign investment for all of China.In 2011, Fujian's nominal GDP was 1.74 trillion yuan (US$276.3 billion), a rise of 13 percent from the previous year.WEB,weblink zh:福建省2009年国民经济和社会发展统计公报_中国统计信息网, Tjcn.org, March 2, 2010, May 7, 2012, Its GDP per capita was 46,802 yuan (US$7,246 (9th)).By 2015 Fujian expects to have at least 50 enterprises that have over 10 billion RMB in annual revenues. The government also expects 55 percent of GDP growth to come from the industrial sectorweblink The China Perspective | Fujian Economic News and Data

Economic and Technological Development Zones

File:Anhai Bay - DSCF8869.JPG|thumb|Mud clams, oysters and shrimp are raised in Anhai Bay off (Shuitou, Fujian|Shuitou]].Ruǎn Jīnshān; Li Xiùzhū; Lín Kèbīng; Luō Dōnglián; Zhōu Chén; Cài Qīnghǎi (阮金山;李秀珠;林克冰;罗冬莲;周宸;蔡清海), 安海湾南岸滩涂养殖贝类死亡原因调查分析 (Analysis of the causes of death of farmed shellfish on the mudflats in the southern part of Anhai Bay), 《福建水产》 (Fujian Aquaculture), 2005-04)
  • Dongshan Economic and Technology Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Economic & Technical Development Zone
  • Fuzhou Free Trade Zone
  • Fuzhou Hi-Tech Park
  • Fuzhou Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Jimei Taiwan Merchant Investment Area
  • Meizhou Island National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Wuyi Mountain National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Xiamen Export Processing Zone
  • Xiamen Free Trade Zone
  • Xiamen Haicang Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Xiamen Torch New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone (Chinese version)
  • Xinglin Taiwan Merchant Investment Area

Demographics

(File:She ethnic townships in Fujian.png|thumb|upright=0.7|She ethnic townships in Fujian)As of 1832, the province was described as having an estimated "population of fourteen millions."BOOK, Roberts, Edmund, Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat, 1837, Harper & Brothers, New York, 122,weblink Han Chinese make up 98% of the population. Various Fujianese peoples (Min-speaking groups) make up the largest subgroups of Han Chinese in Fujian. This includes the Hoklo people, Fuzhounese people, Teochew people and Putian people.Hakka, a Han Chinese people with its own distinct identity, live in the southwestern parts of the province bordering Guangdong. Hui'an, also a Han branch with their distinct culture and fashion, populate Fujian's southeast coastline near Chongwu in Hui'an County. The She, scattered over mountainous regions in the north, is the largest minority ethnic group of the provinceweblink ethnic Chinese around the world, especially in Southeast Asia, trace their ancestries to the Fujianese branches of Hoklo people and Teochew people. Descendants of Southern Min speaking emigrants make up the predominant majority ethnic Chinese populations of Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. While Eastern Min speaking people, especially Fuzhounese people, is one of the major sources of China immigrants in the United States, especially since the 1990s.NEWS, Semple, Kirk, In Chinatown, Sound of the Future Is Mandarin,weblink 9 July 2014, New York Times, 21 October 2009,

Religion

{{Pie chartXiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150925123928weblink The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et al.) was not reported by Wang.}}|label1 = Chinese ancestral religion|value1 = 31.31|color1 = FireBrick|label2 = Christianity|value2 = 3.5|color2 = DodgerBlueThis may include: }}The predominant religions in Fujian are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 31.31% of the population believes and is involved in Chinese ancestral religion, while 3.5% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 65.19% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in Chinese folk religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.{||File:Quanzhou Tianhou Gong 20120229-21.jpg|Temple of Tianhou (the Queen of Heaven) in QuanzhouFile:Roadside hillock Buddhist temple in Siming, Xiamen, Fujian, China.jpg|A roadside Buddhist temple in Siming, XiamenFile:Shuitou - Hai chao an - DSCF8926.JPG|A small folk temple in ShuitouFile:Zhangzhou Guanyuan Weihuimiao 20120225-5.jpg|A folk temple in ZhangzhouFile:Mosque in Quanzhou, Fujian, China.jpg|One of the oldest mosques in China is located in Quanzhou.File:玫瑰山庄.JPG|Rare Rose Hill Catholic parish in Fuzhou

Culture

{{see also|Music of Fujian|Hakka architecture|Dog Kung Fu}}Because of its mountainous nature and the numerous waves of migration from north and central China in the course of history, Fujian is one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse places in all Han Chinese areas of China. Local dialects can become unintelligible within {{convert|10|km}}. This is reflected in the expression that "if you drive five miles in Fujian the culture changes, and if you drive ten miles, the language does".French, Howard W. "Uniting China to Speak Mandarin, the One Official Language: Easier Said Than Done." The New York Times. July 10, 2005. Retrieved June 13, 2008. Most varieties spoken in Fujian are assigned to a broad Min category. Early classifications, such as those of Li Fang-Kuei in 1937 and Yuan Jiahua in 1960, divided Min into Northern and Southern subgroups. More recent classifications subdivide Min intoBOOK, Kurpaska, Maria, Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects", Walter de Gruyter, 2010, 978-3-11-021914-2, 49, 52, 71, BOOK, Chinese, Jerry, Norman, Jerry Norman (sinologist), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988, 978-0-521-29653-3, 233, (The seventh subdivision of Min, Qiong Wen, is not spoken in Fujian.) Hakka, another subdivision of spoken Chinese, is spoken around Longyan by the Hakka people who live there.As is true of other provinces, the official language in Fujian is Mandarin, which is used for communication between people of different localities, although native Fujian peoples still converse in their native languages and dialects respectively.Several regions of Fujian have their own form of Chinese opera. Min opera is popular around Fuzhou; Gaojiaxi around Jinjiang and Quanzhou; Xiangju around Zhangzhou; Fujian Nanqu throughout the south, and Puxianxi around Putian and Xianyou County.File:GuanBingG.JPG|thumb|KompyangKompyangFujian cuisine, with an emphasis on seafood, is one of the eight great traditions of Chinese cuisine. It is composed of traditions from various regions, including Fuzhou cuisine and Min Nan cuisine. The most prestigious dish is Fotiaoqiang (literally "Buddha jumps over the wall"), a complex dish making use of many ingredients, including shark fin, sea cucumber, abalone and Shaoxing wine (a type of Chinese alcoholic beverage).Many well-known teas originate from Fujian, including oolong, Wuyi Yancha, Lapsang souchong and Fuzhou jasmine tea. Indeed, the tea processing techniques for three major classes tea, namely, oolong, white tea and black tea were all developed in the province. Fujian tea ceremony is an elaborate way of preparing and serving tea. In fact, the English word "tea" is borrowed from Hokkien of the Min Nan languages. (Mandarin and Cantonese pronounce the word chá.)Fuzhou bodiless lacquer ware, a noted type of lacquer ware, is noted for using a body of clay and/or plaster to form its shape; the body later removed. Fuzhou is also known for Shoushan stone carvings.

Tourism

File:Hekeng - view from the lookout - DSCF3048.JPG|thumb|Hekeng village, in Shuyang Town, is one of the many tulou villages of Fujian's Nanjing CountyNanjing CountyFujian is home to a number of tourist attractions, including four UNESCO World Heritage Sites, one of the highest in China.In the capital of Fuzhou is the Yongquan Temple, a Buddhist temple built during the Tang dynasty.The Wuyi Mountains was the first location in Fujian to be listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 1999. They are a mountain range in the prefecture of Nanping and contains the highest peak in Fujian, Mount Huanggang. It is famous as a natural landscape garden and a summer resort in China.The Fujian Tulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in southwest Fujian. They were listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2008.Gulangyu Island, Xiamen, is notable for its beaches, winding lanes and rich architecture. The island is on China's list of National Scenic Spots and is classified as a 5A tourist attraction by the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA). It was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Site in 2017. Also in Xiamen is the South Putuo Temple.The Guanghua Temple is a Buddhist temple in Putian. It was built in the penultimate year of the Southern Chen Dynasty. Located in the northern half of the mouth of Meizhou Bay, it is about 1.8 nautical miles from the mainland and faces the Strait of Taiwan to the southeast. Covering an area of six square miles, the island is swathed in luxuriant green foliage. The coastline is indented with over 12 miles of beach area. Another buddhist temple, Nanshan Temple is located in Zhangzhou.Around Meizhou Islands is the Matsu pilgrimageThe Kaiyuan Temple, is a Buddhist temple in West Street, Quanzhou, China, the largest in Fujian province with an area of 78,000 square metres."Kaiyuan Temple". Chinaculture.org. Retrieved 31 January 2012. Although it is known as a both a Hindu and Buddhist temple, on account of added Tamil-Hindu influences, the main statue in the most important hall is that of Vairocana Buddha, the main Buddha according to Huayan Buddhism.Mount Taimu is a mountain and a scenic resort in Fuding. It offers a grand view of mountain and sea, and is famous for its natural scenery including granite caves, odd-shaped stones, steep cliffs, clear streams, cascading waterfalls, and cultural attractions such as ancient temples and cliff Inscriptions.The Danxia landform in Taining was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2010. It is a unique type of petrographic geomorphologyfound in China. Danxia landform is formed from red-coloured sandstones and conglomerates of largely Cretaceous age. The landforms look very much like karst topography that forms in areas underlain by limestones, but since the rocks that form danxia are sandstones and conglomerates, they have been called "pseudo-karst" landforms. They were formed by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion)

Notable individuals

The province and its diaspora abroad also has a tradition of educational achievement and has produced many important scholars, statesmen and other notable people since the time of the Song dynasty, such as:
  • Cai Jing (1047–1126), government official and calligrapher who lived during the Northern Song dynasty
  • Li Gang (1083–1140), a politician and general serving during the transition from the Northern Song to the Southern Song dynasty
  • Zhu Xi (1130–1200), Confucian philosopher
  • Ong Sum Ping (14th–15th century), royal son-in-law of Sultan Muhammad Shah of Brunei
  • Yu Dayou (1503–1579), Ming dynasty general and martial artist
  • Ingen (1592–1673), well known Buddhist monk, poet and calligrapher who lived during Ming Dynasty
  • Hong Chengchou (1593–1665), Ming dynasty official
  • Shi Lang (1621–1696), Qing dynasty admiral
  • Koxinga (1624–1662), Ming dynasty general who expelled the Dutch from Taiwan
  • Lin Zexu (1785–1850), Qing dynasty scholar and official
  • Zhan Shi Chai (1840s–1893), entertainer as "Chang the Chinese giant"
  • Wong Nai Siong (1849–1924), scholar, revolutionary, discovered the town of Sibu in Sarawak, east Malaysia in 1901
  • Lin Shu (1852–1924), translator
  • Yan Fu (1854–1921), scholar and translator
  • Sa Zhenbing (1859–1952), high-ranking naval officer of Mongolian origin
  • Zheng Xiaoxu (1860–1938), statesman, diplomat and calligrapher
  • Lin Changmin((:zh:æž—é•·æ°‘)) (1876—1925), a high-rank governor in the Beiyang Government
  • Lin Juemin (1887–1911), one of 72 Revolutionary Martyrs at Huanghuagang, Guangzhou
  • Lin Yutang (1894–1976), writer
  • Zheng Zhenduo (1898–1958), literary historian
  • Ong Schan Tchow ({{zh|c=(:zh:翁占秋|翁占秋)}}) (1900–1945), artist well known for the painting of the “Book of Chrysanthemums”
  • José Rizal (1861–1896), National Hero of the Philippines whose lineage is from Fujian
  • Lin Huiyin (1904–1955), architect and writer
  • Tsai Chi-Kun (1912–2004), "father of the Taiwan Symphony"
  • Go Seigen (1914–2014), pseudonym of Go champion Wú QÄ«ngyuán
  • Lin Dan (born 1983), professional badminton player
  • Jeremy Lin (born 1988), professional basketball player

Sports

Fujian includes professional sports teams in both the Chinese Basketball Association and the Chinese League One.The representative of the province in the Chinese Basketball Association are the Fujian Sturgeons, who are based in Jinjiang, Quanzhou. The Fujian Sturgeons made their debut in the 2004–2005 season, and finished in seventh and last place in the South Division, out of the playoffs. In the 2005–2006 season, they tied for fifth, just one win away from making the playoffs.The Xiamen Lanshi F.C represent Xiamen in the Chinese League One. Other football teams include Fujian Broncos F.C. and Fujian Tianxin F.C.

Education

High schools

Colleges and universities

{{see also|List of universities and colleges in Fujian}}

National

Provincial

Private

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

Economic data

External links

{{Commons|Fujian}}{{Wikisource1911Enc|Fu-kien}}{{Wikivoyage}}
  • {{zh icon}} {{Official website|www.fujian.gov.cn/|Fujian Government Website (PRC)}}
  • {{zh icon}} {{Official website|www.fkpg.gov.tw/|Fujian Provincial Government (ROC)}}
  • {{en icon}} {{zh icon}} Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850
{{Geographic location|Centre = Fujian|North = |Northeast = Zhejiang|East = Taiwan Strait / {{flag>Changhua County}}, {{flagHsinchu}}, {{flagKaohsiung}}, {{flagLienchiang County}}, {{flagPenghu County}}, {{flagNew Taipei}}, {{flagTainan}}, {{flagYunlin County}}|South = |Southwest = Guangdong|West = |Northwest = Jiangxi}}{{Fujian topics}}{{Fujian}}{{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China}}{{Authority control}}

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