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Freeman Dyson
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| image = Freeman Dyson.jpg| alt = | caption = Dyson at the Long Now Seminar in San Francisco, California in 2005| birth_name = Freeman John Dysondf=yes12|15}}| birth_place = Crowthorne, Berkshire, England| nationality = British-AmericanEsther Dyson, George Dyson (science historian)>George Dyson, Dorothy Dyson, Mia Dyson, Rebecca Dyson, Emily Dyson| death_date = | death_place =| field = Physics, mathematics Richard FeynmanFREEMAN DYSON > School of Natural SciencesAbram Samoilovitch BesicovitchDYSON>FIRST=FREEMANURL=HTTP://WWW.WEBOFSTORIES.COM/PLAY/4332?O=MS, www.sns.ias.edu/dyson}} He is the son of George Dyson.}}Verena Huber-Dyson (1950–1958)HTTP://MOLESFAREWELLTRIBUTES.COM/TRIBUTE/DETAILS/1427/VERENA-HUBER-DYSON/OBITUARY.HTML DATE=12 MARCH 2016 ACCESS-DATE=3 DECEMBER 2017, Imme Jung (1958-)}}{{Quantum field theory}}{{Modern physics}}Freeman John Dyson {{post-nominals|country=GBR|FRS}} (born 15 December 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician. He is known for his work in quantum electrodynamics, solid-state physics, astronomy and nuclear engineering.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Scientist wins $1m religion prize, 9 May 2000, 2010-05-02, {{harvp|Dyson, F.J.|1979}}. Disturbing the Universe, p. 131, "I had finally become an American ... The decision to abjure my allegiance to Queen Elizabeth might have been a difficult one, but the Queen's ministers made it easy for me." He theorized several concepts that bear his name, such as Dyson's transform, Dyson tree, Dyson series, and Dyson sphere.He is professor emeritus in the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, a Visitor of Ralston College,WEB
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, and a member of the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.Board of Sponsors. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 3 December 2017.

Biography

Early life

Born on 15 December 1923, at Crowthorne in Berkshire, Dyson is the son of the English composer George Dyson, who was later knighted. His mother had a law degree, and after Dyson was born she worked as a social worker.WEB,weblink The Scientist as Rebel, 5 December 2017, Wild River Review Interview by Joy E. Stocke Although not known to be related to the early 20th-century astronomer Frank Watson Dyson, as a small boy Dyson was aware of him and has credited the popularity of an astronomer sharing his surname with helping to spark his own interest in science.Freeman Dyson. From Eros to Gaia 1992 p.vii At the age of five he calculated the number of atoms in the sun.AV MEDIA, Video, Greatest Mysteries of the Cold War: America's Interplanetary Spaceship (Project Orion), BBC Four, As a child, he showed an interest in large numbers and in the solar system, and was strongly influenced by the book Men of Mathematics by Eric Temple Bell. Politically, Dyson says he was "brought up as a socialist".BOOK, Ghodsee, Kristen, 2015, The Left Side of History: World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe, Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 5, 978-0-822-35823-7, From 1936 to 1941, Dyson was a Scholar at Winchester College, where his father was Director of Music. At age 17 he studied mathematics with G.H. Hardy at Trinity College, Cambridge (where he won a scholarship at age 15) and at age 19 was assigned to war work in the Operational Research Section (ORS) of the Royal Air Force's Bomber Command,WEB, Dyson, Freeman, A Failure of Intelligence,weblink MIT Technology Review Magazine, MIT Technology Review, 20 October 2013, 1 November 2006, Prominent physicist Freeman Dyson recalls the time he spent developing analytical methods to help the British Royal Air Force bomb German targets during World War II., where he developed analytical methods to help the Royal Air Force bomb German targets during the Second World War. After the war, Dyson was readmitted to Trinity College, Cambridge,Fractals in Physics: Essays in Honour of Benoit B. Mandelbrot : Proceedings of the International Conference Honouring Benoit B. Mandelbrot on His 65th Birthday, Vence, France, 1–4 October 1989, p. 66 where he obtained a BA degree in mathematics.WEB, Freeman Dyson,weblink Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Princeton University, 15 April 2014, From 1946 to 1949, he was a Fellow of his college, occupying rooms just below those of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, who resigned his professorship in 1947.Dyson, F. (10 Nov 2011) "What Can You Really Know", New York Review of Books In 1947, Dyson published two papers in number theory."The Approximation to Algebraic Numbers by Rationals," Acta Mathematica (Uppsala), 89, 1947, pp. 225–240."On Simultaneous Diophantine Approximations," Proceedings of the LondonMathematical Society, Series 2, 49, 1947, pp. 409–420. Friends and colleagues describe him as shy and self-effacing, with a contrarian streak that his friends find refreshing but his intellectual opponents find exasperating. "I have the sense that when consensus is forming like ice hardening on a lake, Dyson will do his best to chip at the ice", Steven Weinberg said of him. His friend, the neurologist and author Oliver Sacks, said: "A favourite word of Freeman's about doing science and being creative is the word 'subversive'. He feels it's rather important not only to be not orthodox, but to be subversive, and he's done that all his life."MAGAZINE, Dawidoff, Nicholas,weblink The Civil Heretic, The New York Times Magazine, 25 March 2009, {{clarify|reason=How does the following pertain to character?|date=November 2013}}

Career in the United States

On G. I. Taylor's advise and recommendation, Dyson moved to the United States in 1947 as a Commonwealth Fellow to earn a physics doctorate with Hans Bethe at Cornell University (1947–48).INTERVIEW, Freeman Dyson, Finn Aaserud, Freeman Dyson,weblink American Institute of Physics, Princeton, New Jersey, 17 December 1986, Oral History Interviews, BOOK, QED and the Men Who Made It, Schweber, Silvan S., Princeton University Press, 1994, Princeton, NJ, 392ff, Within a week, however, he had made the acquaintance of Richard Feynman.WEB,weblink Freeman Dyson: A 'Rebel' Without a Ph.D, 11 June 2015, Event at 1:17, Quanta Magazine, 20 January 2016, The budding English physicist recognized the brilliance of the flamboyant American, and attached himself as quickly as possible. He then moved to the Institute for Advanced Study (1948–49), before returning to England (1949–51), where he was a research fellow at the University of Birmingham.WEB, Freeman Dyson,weblink The American Institute of Physics, 23 August 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131017131442weblink">weblink 17 October 2013, dmy-all, Dyson never got his PhD degree.In 1949, Dyson demonstrated the equivalence of two then-current formulations of quantum electrodynamics (QED): Richard Feynman's diagrams and the operator method developed by Julian Schwinger and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga.JOURNAL, F. J. Dyson, The radiation theories of Tomonaga, Schwinger, and Feynman, Phys. Rev., 75, 486–502, 1949, 10.1103/PhysRev.75.486, 3, 1949PhRv...75..486D, He was the first person after their creator to appreciate the power of Feynman diagrams, and his paper written in 1948 and published in 1949 was the first to make use of them. He said in that paper that Feynman diagrams were not just a computational tool, but a physical theory, and developed rules for the diagrams that completely solved the renormalization problem. Dyson's paper and also his lectures presented Feynman's theories of QED in a form that other physicists could understand, facilitating the physics community's acceptance of Feynman's work. J. Robert Oppenheimer, in particular, was persuaded by Dyson that Feynman's new theory was as valid as Schwinger's and Tomonaga's. Oppenheimer rewarded Dyson with a lifetime appointment at the Institute for Advanced Study, "for proving me wrong", in Oppenheimer's words.Also in 1949, in related work, Dyson invented the Dyson series.JOURNAL, F. J. Dyson, The S matrix in quantum electrodynamics, Phys. Rev., 75, 1736–1755, 1949, 10.1103/PhysRev.75.1736, 11, 1949PhRv...75.1736D, It was this paper that inspired John Ward to derive his celebrated Ward identity.JOURNAL, J. C. Ward, Phys. Rev., 78, 182, 1950, 1950PhRv...78..182W, 10.1103/PhysRev.78.182, An Identity in Quantum Electrodynamics, 2, . [Note: this Ward letter opens with "It has been recently proven by Dyson ..."]In 1951, Dyson joined the faculty at Cornell as a physics professor, although still lacking a doctorate, and in 1953, he received a permanent post at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, where he has now lived for more than sixty years. In 1957, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States and renounced his British nationality. One reason he gave decades later is that his children born in the United States had not been recognized as British subjects.From 1957 to 1961, he worked on Project Orion, which proposed the possibility of space-flight using nuclear pulse propulsion. A prototype was demonstrated using conventional explosives, but the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, in which Dyson was involved and supported, permitted only underground nuclear weapons testing, so the project was abandoned.In 1958, he led the design team for the TRIGA, a small, inherently safe nuclear reactor used throughout the world in hospitals and universities for the production of medical isotopes.A seminal paper by Dyson came in 1966, when, together with Andrew Lenard and independently of Elliott H. Lieb and Walter Thirring, he proved rigorously that the exclusion principle plays the main role in the stability of bulk matter.JOURNAL, F. J. Dyson, A. Lenard, J. Math. Phys., 8, 3, 423–434, 1967, 10.1063/1.1705209, Stability of Matter. I, 1967JMP.....8..423D, JOURNAL, F. J. Dyson, A. Lenard, J. Math. Phys., 9, 5, 698–711, 1968, 10.1063/1.1664631, Stability of Matter. II, 1968JMP.....9..698L, JOURNAL, E. H. Lieb, W. Thirring, Phys. Rev. Lett., 35, 687–689, 1975, 10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.687, Bound for the Kinetic Energy of Fermions Which Proves the Stability of Matter, 11, 1975PhRvL..35..687L, Hence, it is not the electromagnetic repulsion between outer-shell orbital electrons which prevents two wood blocks that are left on top of each other from coalescing into a single piece, but rather it is the exclusion principle applied to electrons and protons that generates the classical macroscopic normal force. In condensed matter physics, Dyson also analysed the phase transition of the Ising model in 1 dimension and spin waves.F. J. Dyson, E. H. Lieb, Selected papers by Freeman Dyson, AMS (1996).Dyson also did work in a variety of topics in mathematics, such as topology, analysis, number theory and random matrices. There is an interesting story involving random matrices. In 1973, the number theorist Hugh Montgomery was visiting the Institute for Advanced Study and had just made his pair correlation conjecture concerning the distribution of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. He showed his formula to the mathematician Atle Selberg who said it looked like something in mathematical physics and he should show it to Dyson, which he did. Dyson recognized the formula as the pair correlation function of the Gaussian unitary ensemble, which has been extensively studied by physicists. This suggested that there might be an unexpected connection between the distribution of primes 2,3,5,7,11,  ... and the energy levels in the nuclei of heavy elements such as uranium.John Derbyshire, Prime Obsession, 2004, {{ISBN|0309085497}}.Around 1979, Dyson worked with the Institute for Energy Analysis on climate studies. This group, under the direction of Alvin Weinberg, pioneered multidisciplinary climate studies, including a strong biology group. Also during the 1970s, he worked on climate studies conducted by the JASON defense advisory group.Dyson retired from the Institute for Advanced Study in 1994.WEB,weblink 2011-12-19, InterViews Freeman Dyson, 2004-07-23, National Academy of Sciences, In 1998, Dyson joined the board of the Solar Electric Light Fund. {{As of|2003}} he was president of the Space Studies Institute, the space research organization founded by Gerard K. O'Neill; {{as of|2013}} he is on its Board of Trustees.WEB,weblink Officers and Board, Space Studies Institute, 6 January 2013, Dyson is a long-time member of the JASON group.Dyson has won numerous scientific awards but never a Nobel Prize. Nobel physics laureate Steven Weinberg has said that the Nobel committee has "fleeced" Dyson, but Dyson himself remarked in 2009, "I think it's almost true without exception if you want to win a Nobel Prize, you should have a long attention span, get hold of some deep and important problem and stay with it for ten years. That wasn't my style." Dyson is a regular contributor to The New York Review of Books.In 2012, he published (with William H. Press) a fundamental new result about the Prisoner's Dilemma in PNAS."Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma contains strategies that dominate any evolutionary opponent". William H. Press and Freeman Dyson. PNAS vol. 109 no. 26 pp 0409–10413

Concepts

Biotechnology and genetic engineering

Dyson cheerfully admits his record as a prophet is mixed, but "it is better to be wrong than to be vague."Dyson, F.J. (1999) The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet"To answer the world's material needs, technology has to be not only beautiful but also cheap."{{harvp|Dyson, F.J.|1979}}. "The Greening of the Galaxy" in Disturbing the Universe

The Origin of Life

Dyson favors the dual origin concept: Life first formed cells, then enzymes, and finally, much later, genes. This was first propounded by the Russian Alexander Oparin.Oparin, A. I. The Origin of Life, Moscow Worker publisher, 1924 (Russian) J. B. S. Haldane developed the same theory independently.The Origin of Life, J.B.S.Haldane, The Rationalist Annual, 1929 Dyson has simplified things by saying simply that life evolved in two stages, widely separated in time. He regards it as too unlikely that genes could have developed fully blown in one process, because of the biochemistry. He proposes that in a primitive early cell containing ATP and AMP, DNA was invented accidentally because of the similarity of the two. Current cells contain adenosine triphosphate or ATP and adenosine 5'-monophosphate or AMP, which greatly resemble each other but have completely different functions. ATP transports energy around the cell, and AMP is part of RNA and the genetic apparatus. Dyson proposes that in a primitive early cell containing ATP and AMP, RNA and replication were invented accidentally because of the similarity of the two. He suggests that AMP was produced when ATP molecules lost two of their phosphate radicals, and then one cell somewhere performed Eigen's experiment and produced RNA.Unfortunately there is no direct evidence for the dual origin concept, because once genes developed, they took over, obliterating all traces of the earlier forms of life. In the first origin, the cells were probably just drops of water held together by surface tension, teeming with enzymes and chemical reactions, and a primitive kind of growth or replication. When the liquid drop became too big, it split into two drops. Many complex molecules formed in these "little city economies" and the probability that genes would eventually develop in them was much greater than in the prebiotic environment.Freeman Dyson, Origins of Life,,. Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1999File:Dyson rings.PNG|thumb|Artist's concept of Dyson rings, forming a stable Dyson swarm, or "Dyson sphere"]]

Dyson sphere

}}In 1960, Dyson wrote a short paper for the journal Science, titled "Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation".JOURNAL, Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation, 10.1126/science.131.3414.1667, Science, 131, 1667–1668, Freeman J., Dyson, 3 June 1960, 3414, 17780673, 1960Sci...131.1667D, In it, he theorized that a technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilization might completely surround its native star with artificial structures in order to maximize the capture of the star's available energy. Eventually, the civilization would completely enclose the star, intercepting electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths from visible light downwards and radiating waste heat outwards as infrared radiation. Therefore, one method of searching for extraterrestrial civilizations would be to look for large objects radiating in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum.Dyson conceived that such structures would be clouds of asteroid-sized space habitats, though science fiction writers have preferred a solid structure: either way, such an artifact is often called a Dyson sphere, although Dyson used the term "shell". Dyson says that he used the term "artificial biosphere" in the article meaning a habitat, not a shape.20 minutes into a video The general concept of such an energy-transferring shell had been advanced decades earlier by author Olaf Stapledon in his 1937 novel Star Maker, a source that Dyson has credited publicly.SPEECH, Living Through Four Revolutions, Freeman, Dyson, Perimeter Institute Public Lecture Series, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1 June 2011,weblink {{harvp|Dyson, F.J.|1979}}. Disturbing the Universe, p. 211, "Some science fiction writers have wrongly given me the credit of inventing the artificial biosphere. In fact, I took the idea from Olaf Stapledon, one of their own colleagues"

Dyson tree

Dyson has also proposed the creation of a Dyson tree, a genetically-engineered plant capable of growing on a comet. He suggested that comets could be engineered to contain hollow spaces filled with a breathable atmosphere, thus providing self-sustaining habitats for humanity in the outer Solar System.

Space colonies

Dyson has been interested in space travel since he was a child, reading such science fiction classics as Olaf Stapledon's Star Maker. As a young man, he worked for General Atomics on the nuclear-powered Orion spacecraft. He hoped Project Orion would put men on Mars by 1965, Saturn by 1970. He's been unhappy for a quarter-century on how the government conducts space travel:He still hopes for cheap space travel, but is resigned to waiting for private entrepreneurs to develop something new and inexpensive.Dyson also proposed the use of bioengineered space colonies to colonize the Kuiper Belt on the outer edge of our Solar System. He proposed that habitats could be grown from space hardened spores. The colonies could then be warmed by large reflector plant leaves that could focus the dim, distant sunlight back on the growing colony. This was illustrated by Pat Rawlings on the cover of the National Space Society's Ad Astra magazine.

Space exploration

Dyson's eternal intelligence

Dyson's proposal that intelligent beings may be capable of thinking an infinite number of thoughts in an open/ expanding universe.Freeman J. Dyson, "Time without end: Physics and biology in an open universe," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 51, Issue 3 (July 1979), pp. 447-460; {{doi|10.1103/RevModPhys.51.447}}.

Dyson's transform

Dyson also has some credits in pure mathematics. His concept "Dyson's transform" led to one of the most important lemmas of Olivier Ramaré's theorem that every even integer can be written as a sum of no more than six primes.

Dyson series

The Dyson series, the formal solution of an explicitly time-dependent Schrödinger equation by iteration, and the corresponding Dyson time-ordering operator mathcal T,, an entity of basic importance in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics, are also named after Dyson.File:Freeman dyson.jpg|thumb|upright|Freeman Dyson in 2007 at the Institute for Advanced StudyInstitute for Advanced Study

Quantum physics and prime numbers

Dyson and Hugh Montgomery discovered together an intriguing connection between quantum physics and Montgomery's pair correlation conjecture about the zeros of the Zeta function. The primes 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, ... are described by the Riemann Zeta function, and Dyson had previously developed a description of quantum physics based on m by m arrays of totally random numbers.JOURNAL, Dyson, Freeman J., 1962, A Brownian?Motion Model for the Eigenvalues of a Random Matrix, J. Math. Phys., 3, 6, 1191, 10.1063/1.1703862, 1962JMP.....3.1191D, What Montgomery and Dyson discovered is that the eigenvalues of these matrices are spaced apart in exactly the same manner as Montgomery conjectured for the nontrivial zeros of the Zeta function. Andrew Odlyzko has verified the conjecture on a computer, using his Odlyzko–Schönhage algorithm to calculate many zeros. Dyson recognized this connection because of a number-theory question Montgomery asked him. Dyson had published results in number theory in 1947, while a Fellow at Trinity College, Cambridge and so was able to understand Montgomery's question. If Montgomery had not been visiting the Institute for Advanced Study that week, this connection might not have been discovered.There are in nature one, two, and three dimensional quasicrystals. Mathematicians define a quasicrystal as a set of discrete points whose Fourier transform is also a set of discrete points. Andrew Odlyzko has done extensive computations of the Fourier transform of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann Zeta function, and they seem to form a one dimensional quasicrystal. This would in fact follow from the Riemann hypothesis.Freeman Dyson, Selected papers, 1990-2014, pp. 41–42, World Scientific, 2015

Views

Metaphysics

Dyson has suggested a kind of cosmic metaphysics of mind. In his book Infinite in All Directions he writes about three levels of mind: "The universe shows evidence of the operations of mind on three levels. The first level is the level of elementary physical processes in quantum mechanics. Matter in quantum mechanics is ... constantly making choices between alternative possibilities according to probabilistic laws. ... The second level at which we detect the operations of mind is the level of direct human experience. ... [I]t is reasonable to believe in the existence of a third level of mind, a mental component of the universe. If we believe in this mental component and call it God, then we can say that we are small pieces of God's mental apparatus" (p. 297).

Climate change

Dyson agrees that anthropogenic global warming exists, and has written that "[one] of the main causes of warming is the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from our burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal and natural gas."WEB,weblink Edge, Heretical Thoughts about Science and Society, 8 August 2007, Freeman Dyson, 2007-09-05, dl However, he believes that existing simulation models of climate fail to account for some important factors, and hence the results will contain too much error to reliably predict future trends:and, in 2009:He is among signatories of a letter to the UN criticizing the IPCCWEB,weblink Don't fight, adapt, yes, 19 August 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160911074152weblink">weblink 11 September 2016, dmy, Open Letter to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. National Post. 13 December 2007WEB, N/A,weblink Wiggles, Open Mind, 16 December 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091217074129weblink">weblink 17 December 2009, and has also argued against ostracizing scientists whose views depart from the acknowledged mainstream of scientific opinion on climate change, stating that "heretics" have historically been an important force in driving scientific progress. "[H]eretics who question the dogmas are needed  ... I am proud to be a heretic. The world always needs heretics to challenge the prevailing orthodoxies."Dyson says his views on global warming have been strongly criticized. In reply, he notes that "[m]y objections to the global warming propaganda are not so much over the technical facts, about which I do not know much, but it's rather against the way those people behave and the kind of intolerance to criticism that a lot of them have."weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090608114821weblink">"Freeman Dyson Takes On The Climate Establishment", interview published 2 June 2009 by Yale University's Environment 360In 2008, he endorsed the now common usage of "global warming" as synonymous with global anthropogenic climate change, referring to "measurements that transformed global warming from a vague theoretical speculation into a precise observational science."Dyson, F. (12 June 2008) "The Question of Global Warming", The New York Review of Books. Retrieved on 2011-10-07.He has, however, argued that political efforts to reduce the causes of climate change distract from other global problems that should take priority:}}In an opinion piece in the Boston Globe of 3 Dec 2015 he wrote,}}Since originally taking interest in climate studies in the 1970s, Dyson has suggested that carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere could be controlled by planting fast-growing trees. He calculates that it would take a trillion trees to remove all carbon from the atmosphere.Freeman J. Dyson, "Can we control the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?", Energy, Volume 2, Issue 3, September 1977, Pages 287–291. {{doi|10.1016/0360-5442(77)90033-0}}In a 2014 interview, he said that "What I'm convinced of is that we don't understand climate ... It will take a lot of very hard work before that question is settled."NEWS, Lin, Thomas, At 90, Freeman Dyson Ponders His Next Challenge,weblink 2014-04-02, Wired, 2014-03-31, He is a member of the academic advisory councilWEB,weblink Academic Advisory Council, The Global Warming Policy Foundation (GWPF), 2017-01-19, of the Global Warming Policy Foundation — the climate sceptic think tank chaired by Nigel Lawson.

Nuclear winter

From his 1988 book Infinite in All Directions, he offered some criticism of then current models predicting a devastating nuclear winter in the event of a large-scale nuclear war:}}

Warfare and weapons

At the British Bomber Command, Dyson and colleagues proposed removing two gun turrets from the RAF Lancaster bombers, to cut the catastrophic losses due to German fighters in the Battle of Berlin. A Lancaster without turrets could fly {{convert|50|mph|-1|abbr=on}} faster and be much more maneuverable.. "The Children's Crusade" in Disturbing the Universe}}On hearing the news of the bombing of Hiroshima:. "The Blood of a Poet" in Disturbing the Universe}}In 1967, in his capacity as a military adviser Dyson wrote an influential paper on the issue of possible US use of tactical nuclear weapons in the Vietnam War. When a general said in a meeting, "I think it might be a good idea to throw in a nuke now and then, just to keep the other side guessing ..."{{harvp|Dyson, F.J.|1979}}. "The Ethics of Defense" in Disturbing the Universe, p. 149. Dyson became alarmed and obtained permission to write an objective report discussing the pros and cons of using such weapons from a purely military point of view. (This report, Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Southeast Asia, published by the Institute for Defense Analyses, was obtained, with some redactions, by the Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability under the Freedom of Information act in 2002.)F.J. Dyson, R. Gomer, S. Weinberg, S.C. Wright "Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Southeast Asia" (March 1967) [declassified December 2002] It was sufficiently objective that both sides in the debate based their arguments on it. Dyson says that the report showed that, even from a narrow military point of view, the US was better off not using nuclear weapons. Dyson stated on the Dick Cavett show that the use of nuclear weaponry was a bad idea for the US at the time because "our targets were large and theirs were small." (His unstated assumption was that the Soviets would respond by supplying tactical nukes to the other side.)Dyson opposed the Vietnam War, the Gulf War and the invasion of Iraq. He supported Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election and The New York Times has described him as a political liberal. He was one of 29 leading US scientists who wrote a strongly supportive letter to Obama regarding his administration's 2015 nuclear deal with Iran.WEB, Broad, William J., 8 August 2015, 29 U.S. Scientists Praise Iran Nuclear Deal in Letter to Obama,weblink The New York Times, 9 August 2015,

Civil defence

While teaching for a few weeks in Zurich, Dyson was visited by two officials from the Swiss civil defence authority. Their experts were telling them that fairly simple shelters on a large scale would enable them to survive a nuclear attack, and they wanted confirmation. They knew that Dyson had a security clearance. Dyson reassured them that their shelters would do the job. The US does not build such shelters because it would be contrary to the doctrine of mutual assured destruction, since the US would be able to launch a first strike but survive retaliation.Dyson, F.J. (1984) "Shelters" in Weapons and Hope

The role of failure

On English academics

}}

Science and religion

He is a nondenominational Christian and has attended various churches from Presbyterian to Roman Catholic. Regarding doctrinal or Christological issues, he has said, "I am neither a saint nor a theologian. To me, good works are more important than theology."SPEECH,weblink Freeman Dyson, Templeton Prize Lecture, Progress In Religion, Edge.org, 15 March 2000, 2011-10-07, Dyson partially disagrees with the famous remark by his fellow physicist Steven Weinberg that "With or without religion, good people can behave well and bad people can do evil; but for good people to do evil—that takes religion."WEB, Religion from the Outside, Freeman Dyson,weblink 22 June 2006, The New York Review of Books, 2011-10-07, While Dyson has labeled himself a Christian, he identifies himself as agnostic about some of the specifics of his faith.BOOK, Back to Hell, Xulon Press, 9781591608158, Moses Gbenu,weblink 110, The cash part of this award is over $1 million. Three facts are significant about this award. First, the same award was given to an agnostic Mathematician Freeman Dyson, the Buddhist Dalai Lama, Mother Theresa, and Charles R. Filmore, son of the founder of the mind-science cult, Unity., 15 February 2014, June 2003, BOOK, Species of Origins: America's Search for a Creation Story, 2002, Rowman & Littlefield, 9780742507654, Karl Giberson, Donald A. Yerxa,weblink 141, Dyson is not a hard-nosed materialist and, in fact, criticizes his colleagues who champion that viewpoint. Officially, he calls himself an agnostic, but his writings make it clear that his agnosticism is tinged with something akin to deism., 15 February 2014, For example, here is a passage from Dyson's review of The God of Hope and the End of the World from John Polkinghorne:}}In The God Delusion (2006), biologist Richard Dawkins criticized Dyson for accepting the religious Templeton Prize in 2000; "It would be taken as an endorsement of religion by one of the world's most distinguished physicists."BOOK, The God Delusion, Dawkins, Richard, Bantam Press, 2006, 978-0-61868-000-9, 152, The God Delusion, However, Dyson declared in 2000 that he is a (non-denominational) Christian, and he has disagreed with Dawkins on several occasions, as when he criticized Dawkins' understanding of evolution.WEB, John Brockman,weblink Richard Dawkins—Freeman Dyson: an exchange, 2007, Edge.org, 21 October 2015,
  • Dyson was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1966, Max Planck Medal in 1969, the J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize in 1970,BOOK, Winners, the blue ribbon encyclopedia of awards, Walter, Claire, Facts on File Inc., 1982, 9780871963864, 438, JOURNAL, March 1970, Theoreticians Name Dyson As Winner of Oppenheimer Prize, Physics Today, 23, 3, 97, 1970PhT....23c..97., 10.1063/1.3022048, and the Harvey Prize in 1977.
With his first wife, the Swiss mathematician Verena Huber-Dyson, Dyson had two children, Esther and George. In 1958, he married Imme Jung, a masters runner, and they had four more children, Dorothy, Mia, Rebecca, and Emily Dyson.Dyson's eldest daughter, Esther, is a digital technology consultant and investor; she has been called "the most influential woman in all the computer world."NEWS,weblink Esther Dyson: Breaking through tech's glass ceiling, McKelvey, Tara, 27 May 2014, 11 February 2017, BBC, His son George is a historian of science,See excerpt from Digerati: Encounters with the Cyber Elite by John Brockman (HardWired Books, 1996) one of whose books is Project Orion: The Atomic Spaceship 1957–1965.

Honours and awards

Works

Books

{{external media | width = 210px | align = right | headerimage=(File:Freeman Dyson at Harvard cropped.jpg|210px)
| video1 =Freeman Dyson: Let's look for life in the outer solar system, TED Talks, February 2003
| video2 =Freeman Dyson 1 - My middle class upbringing, Web of Stories (1st of a series)
| video3 =Big Ideas: Freeman Dyson on Living Through Four Revolutions, TVO, 1 June 2011 at Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Canada
}}

Articles

  • INTERVIEW, Freeman Dyson: By the Book, The New York Times, Sunday Book Review, 18 April 2015, 8, INTERVIEW, Freeman Dyson: By the Book,weblink The New York Times, 16 April 2015,
  • "Birds and Frogs" â€“ Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 2009JOURNAL, Dyson, Freeman, February 2009, Birds and Frogs,weblink Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 56, 2, 212–223, 1088-9477,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110304104413weblink">weblink 2011-03-04, no, 2015-04-23
,

Documentaries

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Brower, Kenneth, 1978. The Starship and the Canoe, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • BOOK, Schweber, Silvan S., Silvan S. Schweber, QED and the Men Who Made It: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga, Princeton University Press, 1994, 978-0-691-03327-3,weblink harv,
  • Schewe, Phillip F., 2014. Maverick Genius: The Pioneering Odyssey of Freeman Dyson. St. Martin's Griffin: {{ISBN|978-1250042569}}.

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{official website}}

By Dyson

About Dyson

{{Authority control }}{{Wolf Prize in Physics}}{{Matteucci Medallists}}{{Templeton Prize Laureates}}{{John von Neumann Lecturers}}

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