Fraser Stoddart

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Fraser Stoddart
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{{Use British English|date=January 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2017}}

| birth_place = Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom| death_date = | death_place = | residence = United Kingdom, United States| citizenship = United StatesUnited Kingdom>Britishweblink}}| thesis1_title = Studies on plant gums of the Acacia group| thesis1_url =weblink| thesis1_year = 1967| thesis2_title = Some adventures in stereochemistry| thesis2_url =weblink| thesis2_year = 1980| children = TwoNorma Agnes Scholan2004 surname = STODDART id = U36360 edition = online Oxford University PressACCESSDATE=27 MAY 2016DATE=16 FEBRUARY 2004, | field = Supramolecular chemistry| work_institution = Queen's University (1967–70)University of Sheffield (1970–1990)University of Birmingham (1990–1997)University of California, Los Angeles (1997–2008)Northwestern University (2008– )University of New South Wales (2019– )| alma_mater = University of Edinburgh
  • Edmund Langley HirstWEB,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-10-05,weblink, James Fraser Stoddart: Curriculum Vitae, Full Version, yes,
  • D M W Anderson}}
David Leigh (scientist)>David Leigh2009 WINNER OF THE RSC MERCK AWARD>URL=HTTP://WWW.RSC.ORG/SCIENCEANDTECHNOLOGY/AWARDS/MERCKAWARD/2009WINNER.ASPACCESSDATE=6 OCTOBER 2016, Mechanically interlocked molecular architectures>Mechanically interlocked molecular architectures (MIMAs) }}(File:President_Barack_Obama_greets_the_2016_American_Nobel_Prize_winners_in_the_Oval_Office.jpg|thumb|President Barack Obama greets the 2016 American Nobel Prize winners in the Oval Office, Nov. 30, 2016, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart (Right), Laureate of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry from Northwestern University,)File:Rotaxane Crystal Structure EurJOrgChem page2565 year1998.png|thumb|250px|Crystal structure of a rotaxane with a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) macrocyclemacrocycleFile:Catenane Crystal Structure ChemComm page634 1991 commons.png|thumb|250px|Crystal structure of a catenane with a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) macrocyclemacrocycleFile:Molecular Borromean Rings Atwood Stoddart commons.png|thumb|250px|Crystal structure of molecular Borromean ringsmolecular Borromean ringsSir James Fraser Stoddart {{postnominals|country=GBR|FRS|FRSE|FRSC}} (born 24 May 1942) is a Scottish chemist who is Board of Trustees Professor of Chemistry and head of the Stoddart Mechanostereochemistry Group in the Department of Chemistry at Northwestern University in the United States.WEB,weblink Nanotechnology Star Fraser Stoddart to Join Northwestern, NewsCenter, Northwestern University, 2007-08-16, He works in the area of supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology. Stoddart has developed highly efficient syntheses of mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures such as molecular Borromean rings, catenanes and rotaxanes utilizing molecular recognition and molecular self-assembly processes. He has demonstrated that these topologies can be employed as molecular switches.A. Coskun, M. Banaszak, R. D. Astumian, J. F. Stoddart, B. A. Grzybowski, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 19–30 His group has even applied these structures in the fabrication of nanoelectronic devices and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).A. Coskun, J. M. Spruell, G. Barin, W. R. Dichtel, A. H. Flood, Y. Y. Botros, J. F. Stoddart. Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41 (14), 4827–59. His efforts have been recognized by numerous awards including the 2007 King Faisal International Prize in Science.JOURNAL, Stoddart Wins King Faisal International Prize, Chemical & Engineering News, 19 March 2007, 85, 12, 71,weblink 26 May 2016, WEB, Fraser Stoddart is awarded the 2007 King Faisal International Prize for Science,weblink California NanoSystems Institute, 17 January 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 10 February 2007, dmy-all, He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Ben Feringa and Jean-Pierre Sauvage in 2016 for the design and synthesis of molecular machines.NEWS, Staff, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016,weblink 5 October 2016, Nobel Foundation, 5 October 2016, NEWS, Chang, Kenneth, Chan, Sewell, 3 Makers of 'World's Smallest Machines' Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry,weblink 5 October 2016, New York Times, 5 October 2016, WEB, Davis, Nicola, Sample, Ian, live, the Guardian, 2016-10-05,weblink 2016-10-05, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016JOURNAL, Van Noorden, Richard, Castelvecchi, Davide, World's tiniest machines win chemistry Nobel, Nature (journal), Nature, 2016, 10.1038/nature.2016.20734, 538, 7624, 152–153, 27734892, 2016Natur.538..152V,

Education and early life

Fraser Stoddart was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 24 May 1942. He was brought up as a tenant farmer on Edgelaw Farm, a small community consisting of three families, and received early schooling at the local village school in Carrington, Midlothian, before going on to Melville College in Edinburgh.JOURNAL, Capecelatro, Alex N., From Auld Reekie to the City of Angels, and all the Meccano in between: A Glimpse into the Life and Mind of Sir Fraser Stoddart, The UCLA USJ, 2007, 20,weblink WEB,weblink It's all Kids Stuff, December 2014, FP News, The magazine and Annual Review of The Stewart's Melville FP Club, Daniel Stewart's and Melville College Former Pupils Club, 13–14, 29 July 2015, He was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree in 1964 followed by a Doctor of Philosophy in 1967THESIS, PhD, University of Edinburgh, Studies on plant gums of the Acacia group, James Fraser, Stoddart, 1967,weblink from the University of EdinburghWEB, 2005 – Professor J Fraser Stoddart,weblink The University of Edinburgh, 26 May 2016, the latter for research on natural gums in Acacias supervised by Edmund Langley Hirst and D M W Anderson.


In 1967, he went to Queen's University (Canada) as a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow, and then, in 1970, to the University of Sheffield as an Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) Research Fellow, before joining the academic staff as a Lecturer in Chemistry. In 1978, he was transferred to the ICI Corporate Laboratory where he first started investing the mechanically interlocked molecules that would eventually become molecular machines.WEB,weblink Sir J. Fraser Stoddart – Facts,, 18 November 2018, He was a Science Research Council Senior Visiting Fellow at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1978. After spending a sabbatical (1978–81) at the ICI Corporate Laboratory in Runcorn, England, he returned to Sheffield where he was promoted to a Readership in 1982.He was awarded a Doctor of Science degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1980THESIS, DSc, University of Edinburgh, Some adventures in stereochemistry, James Fraser, Stoddart, 1980,weblink 605975820, {{open access}} for his research into stereochemistry beyond the molecule. In 1990, he moved to the Chair of Organic Chemistry at the University of Birmingham and was Head of the School of Chemistry there (1993–97) before moving to UCLA as the Saul Winstein Professor of Chemistry in 1997, succeeding Nobel laureate Donald Cram.In July 2002, he became the Acting Co-Director of the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI). In May 2003, he became the Fred Kavli Chair of NanoSystems Sciences and served from then through August 2007 as the Director of the CNSI.WEB, Wolpert, Stuart, UCLA Chemist Fraser Stoddart Named Director of California NanoSystems Institute,weblink UCLA Newsroom, 6 November 2003, During 35 years, nearly 300 PhD students and postdoctoral researchers have been trained in his laboratories.In 2008, he established the Mechanostereochemistry Group and was named Board of Trustees Professor in Chemistry at Northwestern 2016, he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Ben Feringa and Jean-Pierre Sauvage for the design and synthesis of molecular machines. In 2017, Stoddart introduced a skin care line called "Noble", which utilizes the same Nobel Prize-winning nano-cubes.WEB,weblink Nobel Prize winner introduces skin care line, December 5, 2017, July 4, 2018, In the same year, Stoddart was also appointed a part-time position at the University of New South Wales to establish his New Chemistry initiative at the UNSW School of Chemistry.WEB,weblink UNSW appoints 2016 Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry, Professor Sir Fraser Stoddart, December 15, 2017, UNSW Newsroom, March 11, 2019,


Stoddart is one of only a few chemists of the past quarter century to pioneer a new field in organic chemistry. By establishing a new field where the main feature is mechanical bonds he has paved the way for molecular recognition, self-assembly processes for template-directed mechanically interlocked syntheses, molecular switches, and motor-molecules. These advances have formed the basis of the fields of nanoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems, and molecular machines.WEB,weblink Fraser Stoddart – Stoddart Mechanostereochemistry Group,, en-US, 2018-11-19, One of his major contributions to the development of mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures such as rotaxanes and catenanes has been the establishment of efficient synthetic protocols based on the binding of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) with electron-rich aromatic guests.J. F. Stoddart, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2009, 38, 1802–1820 His group reported the synthesis of an advanced mechanically interlocked molecular architecture called molecular Borromean rings through the use of dynamic covalent chemistry.K. S. Chichak, S. J. Cantrill, A. R. Pease, S.-H. Chiu, G. W. V. Cave, J. L. Atwood, J. F. Stoddart, Science, 2004, 304, 1308–1312 The efficient procedures developed to synthesize these molecular architectures has been applied to the construction of molecular switches that operate based on the movement of the various components with respect to one another. These interlocked molecules have potential uses as molecular sensors, actuators, amplifiers, and molecular switches, and can be controlled chemically, electrically, and optically.JOURNAL, UCLA's J. Fraser Stoddart on Switching to Molecular Electronics, Science Watch, 2005, 16, 5,weblink 27 May 2016, Stoddart has pioneered the use of mechanically interlocked molecular architectures to create nanomechanical systems.BOOK, Madou, Marc J., From MEMS to bio-MEMS and bio-NEMS : manufacturing techniques and applications, 2009, CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 9781420055160, 131–133,weblink 27 May 2016, He has demonstrated that such devices can be fabricated using a combination of the bottom-up approach of molecular self-assembly and a top-down approach of lithography and microfabrication.JOURNAL, Stoddart, J. F., Tseng, H.-R., Chemical synthesis gets a fillip from molecular recognition and self-assembly processes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 12 March 2002, 99, 8, 4797–4800, 10.1073/pnas.052708999, 122671, 11891314, 2002PNAS...99.4797F,

Presentation style

{{external media | width = 180px | align = right | headerimage= (File:Molecular Solomon's knot AngewChemIntEd 2007 v46 p218.jpg | 170px) | video1 = "Fraser Stoddart: Mingling Art with Science", STE[+a]M Connect | video2 = "The Beauty and Promise of Molecular Nanotechnology", PSW Science | video3 = "Fraser Stoddart on Molecular Assembly", 1990, University of Birmingham }}Stoddart's papers and other material are instantly recognizable due to a distinctive "cartoon"-style of representation he has developed since the late 1980s. A solid circle is often placed in the middle of the aromatic rings of the molecular structures he has reported, and different colors to highlight different parts of the molecules. Indeed, he was one of the first researchers to make extensive use of color in chemistry publications. The different colors usually correspond to the different parts of a cartoon representation of the molecule, but are also used to represent specific molecular properties (blue, for example, is used to represent electron-poor recognition units while red is used to represent the corresponding electron-rich recognition units). The distinctive coloring has led to coining the term 'little blue box' for cyclophane, an important π-acceptor used to synthesize mechanically bonded structures. Stoddart maintains this standardized color scheme across all of his publications and presentations, and his style has been adopted by other researchers reporting mechanically interlocked molecules based on his syntheses.NEWS, Fraser Stoddart: Mingling Art with Science,weblink 27 May 2016, Ste(a)m Connect, JOURNAL, Brough, B., Northrop, B. H., Schmidt, J. J., Tseng, H.-R., Houk, K. N., Stoddart, J. F., Ho, C.-M., Evaluation of synthetic linear motor-molecule actuation energetics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 30 May 2006, 103, 23, 8583–8588, 10.1073/pnas.0509645103, 1482623, 16735470, 2006PNAS..103.8583B,

ISI ratings

{{As of | 2016}} Stoddart has an h-index of 130.WEB, 1040 Highly Cited Researchers (h>100) according to their Google Scholar Citations public profiles,weblink Ranking Web of Universities, 27 May 2016, He has published more than 1000 publications and holds at least ten patents.WEB, STODDART, James Fraser, List of Publications,weblink Northwestern University, 27 May 2016, For the period from January 1997 to 31 August 2007, he was ranked by the Institute for Scientific Information as the third most cited chemist with a total of 14,038 citations from 304 papers at a frequency of 46.2 citations per paper.The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) predicted that Fraser Stoddart was a likely laureate of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with George M. Whitesides and Seiji Shinkai for their contributions to molecular self-assembly.NEWS, Leading Information Solutions Provider Predicts Nobel Laureates; Thomson ISI Citation Laureates are Contenders for 2003 Nobel Prizes,weblink 27 May 2016, BusinessWire, 29 September 2003, However, the Prize eventually went to Peter Agre and Roderick MacKinnon.WEB, The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003 Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs, Richard R. Schrock,weblink The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 7 October 2016,

Awards and honours

Stoddart was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the New Year's Honours December 2006, by Queen Elizabeth II.WEB, Marcus, Jennifer, UCLA's J. Fraser Stoddart Adds Knight Bachelor to His List of Honors,weblink UCLA Newsroom, 4 January 2007, WEB,weblink Ma'am to the Rescue, 2009-01-19, Stoddart Mechanostereochemistry Group, 2007-06-13, In 2007, he received the Albert Einstein World Award of Science in recognition for his outstanding and pioneering work in molecular recognition and self-assembly, and the introduction of quick and efficient template-directed synthetic routes to mechanically interlocked molecular compounds, which have changed the way chemists think about molecular switches and machines.WEB, Prof. Sir Fraser Stoddart,weblink World Cultural Council, 6 October 2016,


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Other awards and honours

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Personal life

Stoddart is an American and British citizen. Stoddart married Norma Agnes Scholan, in 1968 until her death in 2004 from cancer and has two daughters. Norma Stoddart obtained a Ph.D. in biochemistry and helped support the research efforts of her husband at the Universities of Sheffield, Birmingham, and California, Los Angeles.WEB,weblink Obituary - Norma Agnes Stoddart, 14 January 2004, Los Angeles Times, 18 November 2018,


The Fraser and Norma Stoddart Prize for Ph.D. students has been established at their alma mater, the University of Edinburgh.WEB, Alumnus Presents New Prize for PhD Students,weblink 27 May 2016, University of Edinburgh, It was given for the first time in 2013.WEB, First Ever Fraser and Norma Stoddart Prize,weblink University of Edinburgh, 24 May 2013,


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