Frank J. Tipler

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Frank J. Tipler
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| birth_place = Andalusia, Alabama|death_date = |death_place =|body_discovered =|death_cause =|resting_place =|resting_place_coordinates = |residence =|nationality = American|other_names =|known_for = Omega Point Theory|education = Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Bachelor of Science>BS)University of Maryland, College Park (PhD)|employer = Tulane Universitymathematical physics>Mathematical physicist|years_active =|home_town =|title =|term =|predecessor =|successor =|opponents =|boards =|religion = |parents =|relations =|signature =| website =weblink|footnotes =}}Frank Jennings Tipler (born February 1, 1947) is an American mathematical physicist and cosmologist, holding a joint appointment in the Departments of Mathematics and Physics at Tulane University.WEB, Frank J, Tipler, 2007,weblink Biography, Tulane University, Tipler has written books and papers on the Omega Point based on Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's religious ideas, which he claims is a mechanism for the resurrection of the dead. He is also known for his theories on the Tipler cylinder time machine. George Ellis has argued that his theories are largely pseudoscience.JOURNAL, George Francis Rayner Ellis, George Francis Rayner, Ellis, 1994, Piety in the Sky,weblink Nature (journal), Nature, 115, 6493, 371, 1994Natur.371..115E, 10.1038/371115a0,


Tipler was born in Andalusia, Alabama, to Frank Jennings Tipler Jr., a lawyer, and Anne Tipler, a homemaker.BOOK, Terrie M, Rooney, 1997, Contemporary Authors, 157, Thomson Gale, Farmington Hills, MI, 978-0-7876-1183-5, 407, From 1965 through 1969, Tipler attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he completed a bachelor of science degree in physics. In 1976 he completed his PhD with the University of Maryland.{{Sfn | Tipler | 1976}}JOURNAL, Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 6, B2923, Tipler was next hired in a series of postdoctoral researcher positions in physics at three universities, with the final one being at the University of Texas, working under John Archibald Wheeler, Abraham Taub, Rainer K. Sachs, and Dennis W. Sciama. Tipler became an Associate Professor in mathematical physics in 1981, and a full Professor in 1987 at Tulane University, where he has been a faculty member ever since.

The Omega Point cosmology

The Omega Point is a term Tipler uses to describe a cosmological state in the distant proper-time future of the universe that he maintains is required by the known physical laws. According to this cosmology, it is required for the known laws of physics to be mutually consistent that intelligent life take over all matter in the universe and eventually force its collapse. During that collapse, the computational capacity of the universe diverges to infinity and environments emulated with that computational capacity last for an infinite duration as the universe attains a solitary-point cosmological singularity. This singularity is Tipler's Omega Point.{{Harvnb | Tipler | Graber | McGinley | Nichols-Barrer | 2007}}. With computational resources diverging to infinity, Tipler states that a society far in the future would be able to resurrect the dead by emulating all alternative universes of our universe from its start at the Big Bang.{{Sfn | Tipler | 1989}} Tipler identifies the Omega Point with God, since, in his view, the Omega Point has all the properties of God, claimed by most of the traditional religions.{{Sfn | Tipler | 1989}}{{Harvnb | Tipler | 1997 | p = 560}}Tipler's argument that the omega point cosmology is required by the known physical laws is a more recent development that arose after the publication of his 1994 book The Physics of Immortality. In that book (and in papers he had published up to that time), Tipler had offered the Omega Point cosmology as a hypothesis, while still claiming to confine the analysis to the known laws of physics.{{Citation | first = Frank J | last = Tipler | url =weblink | title = Cosmological Limits on Computation | journal = International Journal of Theoretical Physics | volume = 25 | number = 6 | date = June 1986 | pages = 617–61 | doi = 10.1007/BF00670475 | bibcode = 1986IJTP...25..617T}} (first paper on the Omega Point Theory).Tipler defined the "final anthropic principle" (FAP) along with co-author physicist John D. Barrow in their 1986 book The Anthropic Cosmological Principle as a generalization of the anthropic principle thus:}}One paraphrasing of Tipler's argument for FAP runs as follows. For the universe to logically exist, it must contain observers; otherwise it would be logically meaningless to state whether the universe does or doesn't exist. Our universe obviously exists. If the last observer in our universe died and there were no more observers, then the universe would no longer exist. It is inconsistent with the laws of physics for the universe to stop existing; therefore, there must be an "Omega Point" that sustains life forever.NEWS, Johnson, George, The Odds on God,weblink 9 April 2018, 1994, en,


Tipler's Omega Point ideas have received vigorous criticism by physicists and skeptics.WEB,weblink The Strange Case of Frank Jennings Tipler, Gardner, Martin, March–April 2008, Book Review, "The Physics of Christianity", The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, 29 June 2010, JOURNAL, John, Polkinghorne, I am the Alpha and the Omega Point,weblink New Scientist, 1995, 1963, 41, JOURNAL, Fossils Worth Studying, Richard G, Baker,weblink Science (journal), Science, 1995, 267, 5200, 1043–44, 10.1126/science.267.5200.1043, 17811443, 1995Sci...267.1043E, Some critics say its arguments violate the Copernican principle, that it incorrectly applies the laws of probability, and that it is really a theology or metaphysics principle made to sound plausible to laypeople by using the esoteric language of physics. Martin Gardner dubbed the Final Anthropic Principle, (FAP), the "completely ridiculous anthropic principle" (CRAP).Gardner, M., "WAP, SAP, PAP, and FAP," The New York Review of Books 23, No. 8 (May 8, 1986): 22–25. Oxford-based philosopher Nick Bostrom writes that the final anthropic principle is "pure speculation" with no claim on any special methodological status, despite attempts to elevate it by calling it a "principle", but considers the Omega Point hypothesis to be an interesting philosophical hypothesis in its own right.BOOK,weblink Anthropic bias: observation selection effects in science and philosophy, March 16, 2011, Bostrom, Nick, 2002, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-93858-7, Philosopher Rem B. Edwards called it "futuristic, pseudoscientific eschatology" that is "highly conjectural, unverified, and improbable".BOOK,weblink What caused the big bang?, March 17, 2011, Edwards, Rem Blanchard, 2001, Rodopi, 978-90-420-1407-7, A review in the New York Times described Tipler's "final anthropic principle" argument as "rather circular".Physicist David Deutsch defends the physics of the Omega Point cosmology, and incorporates it as a central feature of the fourth strand of his "four strands" concept of fundamental reality;BOOK, David, Deutsch, 1997, The Fabric of Reality: The Science of Parallel Universes—and Its Implications, London, Penguin Press, 978-0-7139-9061-4, The Ends of the Universe, The Fabric of Reality, although he is highly critical of Tipler's theological conclusionsBOOK, Mackey, James Patrick, 2000, The critique of theological reason,weblink Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-77293-8, and what Deutsch states are exaggerated claims that have caused other scientists and philosophers to reject his theory out of hand. While much of the physics in Tipler's Omega Point work is correct, scientists resoundingly reject{{Citation needed|date=June 2018}} Tipler's claim that the laws of physics require a conscious observer in the future light-cone of every spacetime point. Scholars are also skeptical of Tipler's argument{{Citation needed|date=June 2018}} that if an immortal entity with advanced technology exists in the future, such a being would necessarily resemble the Judeo-Christian God.BOOK, Shermer, Michael, How we believe: science, skepticism, and the search for God,weblink 2003, Macmillan, 978-0-8050-7479-6, Researcher Anders Sandberg pointed out that he believes the Omega Point Theory has many flaws, including missing proofs.{{Citation | first = Anders | last = Sandberg | publisher = Aleph | place = SE | url =weblink | title = My Thoughts and Comments on the Omega Point Theory of Frank J. Tipler}}.George Ellis, writing in the journal Nature, described Tipler's book on the Omega Point as "a masterpiece of pseudoscience… the product of a fertile and creative imagination unhampered by the normal constraints of scientific and philosophical discipline",JOURNAL, George Francis Rayner Ellis, George, Ellis, Review of The Physics of Immortality, Nature (journal), Nature, 1994, 115, 371, 6493,weblink 10.1038/371115a0, 1994Natur.371..115E, and Michael Shermer devoted a chapter of Why People Believe Weird Things to enumerating what he thought to be flaws in Tipler's thesis.BOOK, Shermer, Michael, Why People Believe Weird Things, 1997, W.H. Freeman, 978-0-7167-3090-3, Physicist Sean M. Carroll thought Tipler's early work was constructive but that now he has become a "crackpot".{{Citation | contribution-url =weblink | contribution = The Varieties of Crackpot Experience | first = Sean | last = Carroll | date = Jan 5, 2009 | publisher = Discover Magazine | title = Cosmic Variance | type = blog}}. In a review of Tipler's The Physics of Christianity, Lawrence Krauss described the book as the most "extreme example of uncritical and unsubstantiated arguments put into print by an intelligent professional scientist".{{Citation | first = Lawrence | last = Krauss | title = More Dangerous Than Nonsense | journal = New Scientist | date = May 12, 2007 | page = 53 | url =weblink | deadurl = yes | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate = November 1, 2011 | df = }}.

Selected writings


  • BOOK

, Frank J, Tipler
, John D. Barrow
, 1986
, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle
, Oxford University Press
, 978-0-19-851949-2,
  • BOOK

, 3, Frank J, Tipler, 1994
, The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the Dead
, New York, Doubleday (publisher), Doubleday
, 978-0-19-851949-2,
  • BOOK

, 3, Frank J, Tipler, 2007
, The Physics of Christianity
, New York, Doubleday (publisher), Doubleday
, 978-0-385-51424-8,


  • {{Citation

|last = Tipler
|first = Frank J.
|year = 2003
|title = Refereed Journals: Do They Insure Quality or Enforce Orthodoxy?
|work = ISCID Archives
|url =weblink
|accessdate = 2015-11-04
|deadurl = yes
|archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink
|archivedate = 2012-02-04
|df =

, Frank J. Tipler, 2003
, Intelligent life in cosmology
, International Journal of Astrobiology
, 2, 2, 141–48
, 0704.0058
, 2003IJAsB...2..141T
, 10.1017/S1473550403001526,

, Frank J. Tipler, 2005
, The Star of Bethlehem: A Type Ia/Ic Supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy?
, The Observatory (journal), The Observatory
, 125, 168–74
, 2005Obs...125..168T,

, Frank J. Tipler, 3, 2007
, Feynman-Weinberg Quantum Gravity and the Extended Standard Model as a Theory of Everything
, Reports on Progress in Physics
, 68, 4, 897–64
, 0704.3276
, 2005RPPh...68..897T
, 10.1088/0034-4885/68/4/R04

See also


{{reflist |32em}}


  • {{Citation | first = Frank J | last = Tipler | date=1976 |title= Causality Violation in General Relativity | author-link = Frank J. Tipler | type = PhD thesis | publisher = University of Maryland | bibcode = 1976PhDT........61T}}.
  • {{Citation | first = Frank J | last = Tipler | author-mask = 3 | title = The Omega Point as Eschaton: Answers to Pannenberg's Questions for Scientists | journal = Zygon | volume = 24 | issue = 2 | date = June 1989 | pages = 217–53 | doi = 10.1111/j.1467-9744.1989.tb01112.x}}.
  • {{Citation | first = Frank J | last = Tipler | title = The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the Dead | author-mask = 3 | date = 1997 | origyear = 1994 | publisher = Doubleday | location = New York | isbn = 978-0-385-46798-8}}.
  • {{Citation | author1-mask = 3 | first1 = Frank J | last1 = Tipler | first2 = Jessica | last2 = Graber | first3 = Matthew | last3 = McGinley | first4 = Joshua | last4 = Nichols-Barrer | first5 = Christopher | last5 = Staecker | title = Closed Universes With Black Holes But No Event Horizons As a Solution to the Black Hole Information Problem | origyear = March 20, 2000 | journal = Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | volume = 379 | issue = 2 | date = August 2007 | pages = 629–40 | doi = 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11895.x | bibcode = 2007MNRAS.379..629T|arxiv = gr-qc/0003082 }}.

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