Fogo, Cape Verde

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Fogo, Cape Verde
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{{Other uses|Fogo (disambiguation){{!}}Fogo}}

| archipelago =| total_islands =| major_islands =| area_km2 = 476| length_km = 26.3| width_km = 23.9| highest_mount = Pico do Fogo| elevation_m = 2829| country = Cape Verde| country_admin_divisions_title = Concelhos (Municipalities)Mosteiros, Cape Verde (municipality)>Mosteiros, Santa Catarina do Fogo, Cape Verde (municipality), São Filipe, Cape Verde (municipality)>São FilipeSão Filipe, Cape Verde>São FilipeSao Filipe, Cape Verde>Sao Filipe| population = 35,837| population_as_of = 2015| density_km2 = 75.3| ethnic_groups =| additional_info =}}Fogo (Portuguese for "fire") is an island in the Sotavento group of Cape Verde. Its population is 35,837 (2015),Cabo Verde, Statistical Yearbook 2015, Instituto Nacional de Estatística{{rp|36}} with an area of 476 km².{{rp|25}} It reaches the highest altitude of all the islands in Cape Verde, rising to {{convert|2829|m|ft|lk=out|abbr=off}} above sea level at the summit of its active volcano, Pico do Fogo.{{rp|25}}


The eastern side of Fogo collapsed into the ocean 73,000 years ago, creating a tsunami 170 meters high which struck the nearby island of Santiago.WEB, Island boulders reveal ancient mega-tsunami,weblink 2015-10-06, Fogo was discovered in 1460 by Genovese captain António de Noli on behalf of Henry the Navigator and the Portuguese Crown. It appeared in a 1598 map as I. de Fogo.WEB,weblink Insulae Capitis Viridis, 1598, la, Fogo was the second island of Cape Verde that was settled by the Portuguese, between 1470 and 1490, making São Filipe the second oldest town of Cape Verde after Cidade Velha.Centre historique de São Filipe, UNESCO The Fogo volcano erupted frequently, both from the summit and from flank fissures, notably in 1680, 1725, 1857, 1951, 1995, and 2014-15.JOURNAL,weblink Damage from lava flows: insights from the 2014–2015 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde, Journal of Applied Volcanology Society and Volcanoes, 20 March 2017, S. F. Jenkins et al., 6, The eruption of 1680 covered much of the island in ash, which forced many inhabitants to flee to the nearby island of Brava. Fogo has been very susceptible to drought and famine. In years that the rains during the summer months were insufficient, many inhabitants were menaced by starvation. This occurred several times in the 18th and 19th century, and also between 1941 and 1943, when 31% of the island population perished.Cape Verde History Timeline, WorldAtlasUntil January 1992 the island was one single municipality, subdivided into four parishes. The southwestern three parishes joined the new municipality of São Filipe and the northeastern parish Nossa Senhora da Ajuda became the municipality of Mosteiros.History of Mosteiros {{pt icon}}Lei nº 23/IV/91, p. 43 The parish of Santa Catarina do Fogo was separated from São Filipe in 2005, and became the Municipality of Santa Catarina do Fogo.Lei nº 66/VI/2005, p. 52


One of the southernmost islands in Cape Verde, Fogo is located between the islands of Santiago to the east and Brava to the west. It is 26.3 km long and 23.9 km wide; its area is 476 km2.{{rp|25}} Practically the whole island is a stratovolcano that has been periodically active: it last erupted in 2014. The largest volcanic feature is Bordeira, a {{convert|9|km|mi|spell=in|lk=out|adj=mid|-wide}} caldera, which has walls {{convert|1|km|spell=in|abbr=off}} high, and has a breach in its eastern rim. Two small villages, Portela and Bangaeira, exist in the floor of the caldera (Chã das Caldeiras); the residents were evacuated during eruptions.The island's main city is São Filipe, near which are an airport and a port. Fogo is largely an agricultural, fertile island. The north-eastern part receives the most precipitation.

Flora and fauna

File:FogoEndemicPlants.jpg|thumb|Endemic plants in the garden of the Museu Municipal in São Filipe ]]Key bird species of Fogo are Fea's petrel, Boyd's shearwater and Cape Verde swift.WEB,weblink Volcano area, Ilha do Fogo, 2018-08-07, Important Bird Areas factsheet, BirdLife International, 2018, The endemic plants Echium vulcanorum (endangered)JOURNAL, Echium vulcanorum, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 3.1, IUCN, 2017,weblink August 7, 2018, and Erysimum caboverdeanum (critically endangered)JOURNAL, Erysimum caboverdeanum, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 3.1, IUCN, 2017,weblink August 7, 2018, are only found on the outer crater rim of the volcano of Fogo.


Being very mountainous, this island has quite a number of climates. Along the coast Fogo has a moderate dry tropical climate according to the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system; higher on the slopes (~ {{convert|800|m|ft|disp=or|abbr=off}} A.S.L.) it has a semiarid mild tropical climate (Köppen–Geiger Bsh_ with very balanced temperatures year round; above {{convert|1,000|m|ft|abbr=off}} it has a cool highland subtropical steppe climate (Köppen–Geiger BskL). The average annual temperature on the coast is about {{convert|23|-|25|C|F}}, decreasing to some {{convert|12|-|14|C|F}} on the highest ground.There can be remarkably cool weather in the interior, with the warmer wet season starting in July and ending in November, with the colder dry season starting in December and ending in May. Drought, the major climate risk of Cape Verdean islands, is much less pronounced on Fogo, due to the mountain's ability to gain moisture from clouds. During the mid-nineteenth century, Fogo suffered from severe droughts. Death from starvation was common in the 1830s.{{Weather box|location = São Filipe, southwestern Fogo, {{convert|113|m|ft|abbr=off}} ASL|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan high C = 25.6|Feb high C = 25.6|Mar high C = 26.2|Apr high C = 26.7|May high C = 27.1|Jun high C = 27.8|Jul high C = 28.4|Aug high C = 28.7|Sep high C = 29.1|Oct high C = 29.0|Nov high C = 28.6|Dec high C = 26.4|year high C = 27.4|Jan mean C = 22.3|Feb mean C = 22.1|Mar mean C = 22.6|Apr mean C = 23.0|May mean C = 23.7|Jun mean C = 24.3|Jul mean C = 25.1|Aug mean C = 25.7|Sep mean C = 26.2|Oct mean C = 26.3|Nov mean C = 25.2|Dec mean C = 23.5|year mean C = 24.2|Jan low C = 19.1|Feb low C = 18.7|Mar low C = 19.0|Apr low C = 19.4|May low C = 20.3|Jun low C = 20.8|Jul low C = 21.8|Aug low C = 22.8|Sep low C = 23.3|Oct low C = 23.7|Nov low C = 21.9|Dec low C = 20.6|year low C = 21.0|Jan rain mm = 3|Feb rain mm = 2|Mar rain mm = 0|Apr rain mm = 0|May rain mm = 0|Jun rain mm = 0|Jul rain mm = 14|Aug rain mm = 81|Sep rain mm = 121|Oct rain mm = 35|Nov rain mm = 11|Dec rain mm = 5|year precipitation mm = 272|source = Climate-Data.ORGWEB,weblink Climate São Filipe, 7 October 2018, }}{{Weather box|location = Chã das Caldeiras, central Fogo, {{convert|1,764|m|ft|abbr=off}} ASL|metric first = yes|single line = yes|temperature colour=|Jan high C = 14.8|Feb high C = 14.9|Mar high C = 15.4|Apr high C = 15.9|May high C = 16.4|Jun high C = 17.1|Jul high C = 17.7|Aug high C = 18.3|Sep high C = 18.9|Oct high C = 18.4|Nov high C = 17.4|Dec high C = 15.4|year high C = 16.7|Jan mean C = 11.7|Feb mean C = 11.5|Mar mean C = 11.8|Apr mean C = 12.3|May mean C = 13.1|Jun mean C = 13.7|Jul mean C = 14.5|Aug mean C = 15.2|Sep mean C = 15.6|Oct mean C = 15.5|Nov mean C = 14.2|Dec mean C = 12.7|year mean C = 13.5|Jan low C = 8.7|Feb low C = 8.2|Mar low C = 8.3|Apr low C = 8.8|May low C = 9.8|Jun low C = 10.4|Jul low C = 11.3|Aug low C = 12.2|Sep low C = 12.3|Oct low C = 12.6|Nov low C = 11.1|Dec low C = 10.1|year low C = 10.3|rain colour=|Jan rain mm = 11|Feb rain mm = 6|Mar rain mm = 3|Apr rain mm = 0|May rain mm = 0|Jun rain mm = 2|Jul rain mm = 49|Aug rain mm = 151|Sep rain mm = 198|Oct rain mm = 67|Nov rain mm = 25|Dec rain mm = 12|precipitation colour=|year precipitation mm = 524|source = Climate-Data.ORGWEB
,weblink Climate Chã das Caldeiras
, 7 October 2018
, }}


In the 1830s, Fogo had an estimated human population of 10,000.BOOK, Roberts, Edmund, Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat, 1837, Harper & Brothers, New York, 14,weblink In 2015, Fogo had 35,837 inhabitants, making it the fourth most populous island in the Cape Verde archipelago after Santiago, São Vicente and Santo Antão.{{rp|36}} Since 2015, there are three cities (São Filipe, Mosteiros and Cova Figueira) and two towns (Ponta Verde and Patim) in the island.{{rp|32-33}}{| class="wikitable"! colspan="9" | Population of Fogo, Cape Verde (1940—2015) style="text-align:center;"| 1940Source: Statoids| 1950| 1960| 1970| 1980| 1990| 2000| 20102010 Census Summary2015{{rp>36}} style="text-align:center;"| 23,022| 17,582| 25,615| 29,412| 30,978| 33,902| 37,409| 37,071| 35,837The official language of Fogo is Portuguese; yet mostly Fogo Creole is spoken.{{cn|date=October 2018}}


The economy of the island is based on agriculture and fishing, with coffee and wine among the main products. In the 1830s, Fogo's wine was described as being "very superior." Due to its volcanic soil Fogo's coffee also has a good reputation.Fogo coffee The island has experienced a substantial diaspora. Many households live off remittances from emigrants in the U.S. and in European countries (Portugal, France, the Netherlands, Italy). Fogo fosters strong connections to Rhode Island and to Massachusetts (U.S.), where many people with Cape Verdean origin live.{{cn|date=October 2018}}Tourism is steadily becoming popular. The volcano (allowed only accompanied by a local guide) is the island's major attraction but many visitors also come to see relatives. The historic city of São Filipe and Chã das Caldeiras in the volcanic crater receive the bulk of visitors. No great tourism facilities exist, but there are small hotels and bed-and-breakfasts and local guides offer hiking tours.

Administrative divisions

The island is divided in three municipalities, which are subdivided into civil parishes:


The island has a domestic airport, São Filipe Airport, located in the southwest of the island. There is a port at Vale de Cavaleiros near São Filipe, with ferry connections to the islands of Brava (Furna) and Santiago (Praia).Cabo Verde Fast Ferry's website There are two first class national roads on Fogo: the Fogo Circular Road (EN1-FG01) and the road linking São Filipe and the island's port (EN1-FG02).Ilha do Fogo, Rede rodoviária, Instituto de Estradas


The main football teams are Académica do Fogo, Botafogo, Cutelinho, Spartak d'Aguadinha and Vulcânicos.

Notable people


File:Mount fogo.jpg|Main ash cone of Pico do FogoFile:Fogo-island-perspective.jpg|3-D image of the island of Fogo from NNEFile:Fogo, Cape Verde Islands.jpg|Natural colour satellite image of FogoFile:Fogo, 2009.jpg|Chã das Caldeiras and main ash cone, Fogo. NASA satellite image, 2009File:Ilha do Fogo aerial shot 1.jpg|Aerial shotFile:Ilha do Fogo aerial shot 2.jpg|Aerial shotFile:FogoLosma.jpg|Losma, an endemic medicinal plant



External links

{{Commons category|Fogo (Cape Verde)}}
  • weblink" title="">Informations and impressions from Fogo
  • weblink" title="">University of Massachusetts – information and images from Fogo
{{Islands of Cape Verde}}

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M.R.M. Parrott