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Fission (biology)

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Fission (biology)
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Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts to separate entities resembling the original. The object experiencing fission is usually a cell, but the term may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations, or species split into discrete parts.BOOK, Carlson, B. M., Principals of regenerative biology., 2007, Elsevier Academic Press, 379, 978-0-12-369439-3, JOURNAL, Boulay, R. L., Galarza, J. A., Che, B., Hefetz, A., Lenoir, A., van Oudenhove, L., Cerda, X., Intrafotmobcompetition affects population size and resource allocation in an ant dispersing by colony fission., Ecology, 91, 11, 3312–3321, 2010, 10.1890/09-1520.1, 21141192,weblink JOURNAL, Hubbell, S., Modes of speciation and the lifespans of species under neutrality: a response to the comment of Robert E. Ricklefs., Oikos, 100, 1, 193–199, 2003, 10.1034/j.1600-0706.2003.12450.x, The fission may be binary fission, in which a single organism produces two parts, or multiple fission, in which a single entity produces multiple parts.

Binary fission

File:Bacilli division diagram.svg|thumb|left|Schematic diagram of cellular growth (elongation) and binary fission of bacilli. Blue and red lines indicate old and newly generated bacterial cell wall, respectively. (1) growth at the centre of the bacterial body. e.g. Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and others. (2) apical growth. e.g. Corynebacterium diphtheriaeCorynebacterium diphtheriaeOrganisms in the domains of Archaea and Bacteria reproduce with binary fission. This form of asexual reproduction and cell division is also used by some organelles within eukaryotic organisms (e.g., mitochondria). Binary fission results in the reproduction of a living prokaryotic cell (or organelle) by dividing the cell into two parts, each with the potential to grow to the size of the original.

Fission of prokaryotes

The single DNA molecule first replicates, then attaches each copy to a different part of the cell membrane. When the cell begins to pull apart, the replicated and original chromosomes are separated. The consequence of this asexual method of reproduction is that all the cells are genetically identical, meaning that they have the same genetic material (barring random mutations). Unlike the processes of mitosis and meiosis used by eukaryotic cells, binary fission takes place without the formation of a spindle apparatus on the cell. Like in mitosis (and unlike in meiosis), the parental identity is preserved .

Process of FtsZ-dependent fission

(File:Binary_Fission_2.svg|right|thumb|upright=2.0|Binary fission in a prokaryote)The process of binary fission in bacteria involves the following steps. First, the cell's DNA is replicated. The replicated DNA copies then move to opposite poles of the cell in an energy-dependent process.JOURNAL, Rokney, Assaf, Shagan, Merav, Kessel, Martin, Smith, Yoav, Rosenshine, Ilan, Oppenheim, Amos B., E. coli Transports Aggregated Proteins to the Poles by a Specific and Energy-Dependent Process, Journal of Molecular Biology, September 2009, 392, 3, 589–601, 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.07.009, 19596340, The cell lengthens. Then, the equatorial plane of the cell constricts and separates the plasma membrane such that each new cell has exactly the same genetic material.More specifically, the following steps occur:
  1. The bacterium before binary fission is when the DNA is tightly coiled.
  2. The DNA of the bacterium has uncoiled and duplicated.
  3. The DNA is pulled to the separate poles of the bacterium as it increases the size to prepare for splitting.
  4. The growth of a new cell wall begins to separate the bacterium, often with a "Z-ring" form by the cytoskeleton FtsZ
  5. The new cell wall fully develops, resulting in the complete split of the bacterium.
  6. The new daughter cells have tightly coiled DNA rods, ribosomes, and plasmids; these are now brand-new organisms.
Studies of bacteria made to not produce a cell wall, called L-form bacteria, shows that FtsZ requires a cell wall to work. Little is known about how bacteria that naturally don't grow a cell wall divides, but it is thought to resemble the L-form's budding-like division process of extrusion and separation.JOURNAL, Leaver M, Domínguez-Cuevas P, Coxhead JM, Daniel RA, Errington J, Life without a wall or division machine in Bacillus subtilis, Nature, 457, 7231, 849–53, February 2009, 19212404, 10.1038/nature07742, 2009Natur.457..849L, JOURNAL, Bernander, R, Ettema, TJ, FtsZ-less cell division in archaea and bacteria., Current Opinion in Microbiology, December 2010, 13, 6, 747–52, 10.1016/j.mib.2010.10.005, 21050804,

Speed of FtsZ-dependent fission

Binary fission is generally rapid though its speed varies between species. For E. coli, cells typically divide about every 20 minutes at 37 Â°C.JOURNAL, Sezonov, G., Joseleau-Petit, D., D'Ari, R., Escherichia coli (E coli) Physiology in Luria-Bertani Broth, Journal of Bacteriology, 28 September 2007, 189, 23, 8746–8749, 10.1128/JB.01368-07, 17905994, 2168924, Because the new cells will, in turn, undergo binary fission on their own, the time binary fission requires is also the time the bacterial culture requires to double in the number of cells it contains. This time period can, therefore, be referred to as the doubling time. Some species other than E. coli may have faster or slower doubling times: some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may have doubling times of nearly 100 hours.JOURNAL, North, R. J., Mycobacterial virulence. Virulent strains of Mycobacteria tuberculosis have faster in vivo doubling times and are better equipped to resist growth-inhibiting functions of macrophages in the presence and absence of specific immunity, Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1 June 1993, 177, 6, 1723–1733, 10.1084/jem.177.6.1723, 8496688, 2191059, Bacterial growth is limited by factors including nutrient availability and available space, so binary fission occurs at much lower rates in bacterial cultures once they enter the stationary phase of growth.

In archaea

Crenarchaeota possess neither a cell wall nor the FtsZ mechanism. They use a primitive version of the eukaryotic ESCRT-III system (also known as Cdv) to manipulate the membrane into separating, specifically by coming into the middle of the two soon-to-be daughter cells.JOURNAL, Samson, RY, Bell, SD, Ancient ESCRTs and the evolution of binary fission., Trends in Microbiology, November 2009, 17, 11, 507–13, 10.1016/j.tim.2009.08.003, 19783442, Euryarchaeota use FtsZ like bacteria do.JOURNAL, Makarova, KS, Yutin, N, Bell, SD, Koonin, EV, Evolution of diverse cell division and vesicle formation systems in Archaea., Nature Reviews. Microbiology, October 2010, 8, 10, 731–41, 10.1038/nrmicro2406, 20818414, 3293450,

Fission of organelles

Some organelles in eukaryotic cells reproduce using binary fission. Mitochondrial fission occurs frequently within the cell, even when the cell is not actively undergoing mitosis, and is necessary to regulate the cell's metabolism.JOURNAL, van der Bliek, A. M., Shen, Q., Kawajiri, S., Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Fission and Fusion, Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 3 June 2013, 5, 6, a011072, 10.1101/cshperspect.a011072, 23732471, 3660830, All chloroplasts and some mitochrondria (not in animals), both organelles derived from endosymbiosis of bacteria, also use FtsZ in a bacteria-like fashion.JOURNAL, Margolin W, FtsZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles, Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology, 6, 11, 862–71, November 2005, 16227976, 4757588, 10.1038/nrm1745, JOURNAL, Leger MM, Petrů M, Žárský V, Eme L, Vlček Č, Harding T, Lang BF, Eliáš M, Doležal P, Roger AJ, 6, An ancestral bacterial division system is widespread in eukaryotic mitochondria, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 33, 10239–46, August 2015, 25831547, 10.1073/pnas.1421392112, 4547283, 2015PNAS..11210239L,

Types of binary fission

Binary fission in organisms can occur in four ways, irregular,longitudinal, transverse, oblique.i.e.left oblique & right oblique
  1. Irregular: In this fission, cytokinesis may take place along any plane but it is always perpendicular to the plane of karyokinesis. e.g. amoeba
  2. Longitudinal: Here cytokinesis takes place along the longitudinal axis. e.g. in flagellates like Euglena.
  3. Transverse: Here cytokinesis takes place along the transverse axis. e.g. in ciliate protozoans like Paramecium.
  4. Oblique: In this type of binary fission cytokinesis occurs obliquely. Example Ceratium

Multiple fission

Fission of protists

Multiple fission at the cellular level occurs in many protists, e.g. sporozoans and algae. The nucleus of the parent cell divides several times by amitosis, producing several nuclei. The cytoplasm then separates, creating multiple daughter cells.WEB,weblink Reproduction - Binary fission: Multiple fission, Encyclopædia Britannica, BOOK, Britannica Educational Publishing, Fungi, Algae, and Protists, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2011, 978-1-61530-463-9,weblink 2016-12-21, BOOK, P.Puranik, Asha Bhate, Animal Forms And Functions: Invertebrata, Sarup & Sons, 2007, 978-81-7625-791-6,weblink 2016-12-21, Some parasitic, single-celled organisms undergo a multiple fission-like process to produce numerous daughter cells from a single parent cell. Isolates of the human parasite Blastocystis hominis were observed to begin such a process within 4 to 6 days.JOURNAL, Suresh, K., Howe, J., Ng, G. C., Ho, L. C., Ramachandran, N. P., Loh, A. K., Yap, E. H., Singh, M., A multiple fission-like mode of asexual reproduction inBlastocystis hominis, Parasitology Research, 1994, 80, 6, 523–527, 10.1007/BF00932701, Cells of the fish parasite Trypanosoma borreli have also been observed participating in both binary and multiple fission.JOURNAL, Pecková, H., Lom, J., Growth, morphology and division of flagellates of the genusTrypanoplasma (Protozoa, Kinetoplastida) in vitro, Parasitology Research, 1990, 76, 7, 553–558, 10.1007/BF00932559,

Fission of apicomplexans

In the apicomplexans, a phylum of parasitic protists, multiple fission, or schizogony, is manifested either as merogony, sporogony or gametogony. Merogony results in merozoites, which are multiple daughter cells, that originate within the same cell membrane,BOOK, Lynn Margulis, Heather I. McKhann, Lorraine Olendzenski, Illustrated glossary of protoctista: vocabulary of the algae, apicomplexa, ciliates, foraminifera, microspora, water molds, slime molds, and the other protoctists, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 1993, 978-0-86720-081-2,weblink 2016-12-21, BOOK, Yoshinori Tanada, Harry K. Kaya, Insect pathology, Gulf Professional Publishing, 1993, 978-0-12-683255-6,weblink 2016-12-21, sporogony results in sporozoites, and gametogony results in microgametes.

Fission of green algae

Green algae can divide into more than two daughter cells. The exact number of daughter cells depends on the species of algae and is an effect of temperature and light.JOURNAL, Bišová, K., Zachleder, V., Cell-cycle regulation in green algae dividing by multiple fission, Journal of Experimental Botany, 17 January 2014, 65, 10, 2585–2602, 10.1093/jxb/ert466, 24441762,

Multiple fission of bacteria

Most species of bacteria primarily undergo binary reproduction. Some species and groups of bacteria may undergo multiple fission as well, sometimes beginning or ending with the production of spores.JOURNAL, Angert, Esther R., Alternatives to binary fission in bacteria, Nature Reviews Microbiology, March 2005, 3, 3, 214–224, 10.1038/nrmicro1096, 15738949,weblink 23 August 2016, The species Metabacterium polyspora, a symbiont of guinea pigs, has been found to produce multiple endospores in each division.JOURNAL, Angert, E. R., Losick, R. M., Propagation by sporulation in the guinea pig symbiont Metabacterium polyspora, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 18 August 1998, 95, 17, 10218–10223, 10.1073/pnas.95.17.10218, 9707627, 1998PNAS...9510218A, 21488, Some species of cyanobacteria have also been found to reproduce through multiple fission.JOURNAL, Stanier, Roger Y., Deruelles, Josette, Rippka, Rosmarie, Herdman, Michael, Waterbury, John B., Generic Assignments, Strain Histories and Properties of Pure Cultures of Cyanobacteria, Microbiology, 1 March 1979, 111, 1, 1–61, 10.1099/00221287-111-1-1,

Plasmotomy

Some protozoans reproduce by yet another mechanism of fission called as plasmotomy. In this type of fission, a multinucleate adult parent undergoes cytokinesis to form two multinucleate (or coenocytic) daughter cells. The daughter cells so produced undergo karyokinesis, further.Opalina and Pelomyxa reproduce in this way.

Clonal fragmentation

Fragmentation in multicellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning where an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism. In echinoderms, this method of reproduction is usually known as fissiparity.BOOK, Helen Nilsson Sköld, Matthias Obst, Mattias Sköld, Bertil Åkesson, Baruch Rinkevich, Valeria Matranga, Stem Cells in Marine Organisms, Stem Cells in Asexual Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Springer, 2009, 125, 978-90-481-2766-5,weblink 2016-12-21,

Population fission

Any splitting of a single population of individuals into discrete parts may be considered fission. A population may undergo fission for a variety of reasons, including migration or geographic isolation. Because the fission leads to genetic variance in the newly isolated, smaller populations, population fission is a precursor to speciation.JOURNAL, Whitlock, Michael C., Fission and the Genetic Variance Among Populations: The Changing Demorgraphy of Forked Fungus Beetle Populations, The American Naturalist, May 1994, 143, 5, 820–829, 10.1086/285634, 2462878, JOURNAL, Thompson, EA, Fission models of population variability., Genetics, October 1979, 93, 2, 479–95, 535728, 1214094,

See also

References

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