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Firth of Forth

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Firth of Forth
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{{short description|Estuary or firth of Scotland's River Forth}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2013}}







factoids
| type = | inflow = | ocean = | outflow = | catchment = | basin_countries = Scotland, United Kingdom| agency = | designation = | length = | width = | area = | depth = | max-depth = | volume = | residence_time = | salinity = | shore = | elevation = | frozen = | islands = | sections = | islands_category = | trenches = | benches = | cities = | website = | reference = | embedded = {{Designation list| embed = yes| designation1 = Ramsar| designation1_date = 30 October 2001RAMSAR CONVENTION>RAMSAR SITES INFORMATION SERVICEACCESSDATE=25 APRIL 2018, }}}}The Firth of Forth () is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth. It meets the North Sea with Fife on the north coast and Lothian on the south.WEB, Forth area management plan 2010 – 2015,weblink SEPA, 9 April 2017, It was known as Bodotria in Roman times. In the Norse sagas it was known as the Myrkvifiörd.WEB,weblink The Orkneyinga saga, Joseph, Anderson, 1840-1908, Jón A. Hjaltalín (Jón Andrésson Hjaltalín), Gilbert, Goudie, 3 January 1873, Edinburgh, Edmonston and Douglas, 3 January 2018, Internet Archive, An early Welsh name is Merin Iodeo, or the "Sea of Iudeu".BOOK, From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795, Fraser, James E., Edinburgh University Press, 2009, Edinburgh, 171,

Etymology

Firth is an anglicization of fjord. Forth is the name of the river; this is *Vo-rit-ia (slow running) in Proto-Celtic, yielding (:gd:Linne Foirthe|Foirthe) in Old Gaelic and (:cy:Aber Gweryd|Gweryd) in Welsh.Field, John:Place Names of Great Britain and Ireland, page 74. London, David & Charles, 1980

Geography and economy

Geologically, the Firth of Forth is a fjord, formed by the Forth Glacier in the last glacial period.WEB,weblink Firth of Forth, www.landforms.eu, 2019-09-20, The drainage basin for the Firth of Forth covers a wide geographic area including places as far from the shore as Ben Lomond, Cumbernauld, Harthill, Penicuik and the edges of Gleneagles Golf Course.WEB, No. 87 - The Firth of Forth,weblink Scottish Natural Heritage, 8 April 2017, Many towns line the shores, as well as the petrochemical complexes at Grangemouth, commercial docks at Leith, former oil rig construction yards at Methil, the ship-breaking facility at Inverkeithing and the naval dockyard at Rosyth, along with numerous other industrial areas, including the Forth Bridgehead area, encompassing Rosyth, Inverkeithing and the southern edge of Dunfermline, Burntisland, Kirkcaldy, Bo'ness and Leven.File:The Firth of Forth and its bridges (geograph 5831088).jpg|thumb|left|upright=1|From left to right The Queensferry Crossing, the Forth Road Bridge and the Forth Bridge from the South QueensferrySouth QueensferryThe firth is bridged in two places. The Kincardine Bridge and the Clackmannanshire Bridge cross it at Kincardine, while the Forth Bridge, the Forth Road Bridge and the Queensferry Crossing cross from North Queensferry to South Queensferry, further east. The Romans reportedly made a bridge of around 900 boats, probably at South Queensferry.NEWS, Harrison, Jody, Secrets of the Romans' forgotten war against Scotland revealed,weblink 22 May 2018, The Herald, 26 March 2018, From 1964 to 1982, a tunnel existed under the Firth of Forth, dug by coal miners to link the Kinneil colliery on the south side of the Forth with the Valleyfield colliery on the north side. This is shown in the 1968 educational film "Forth - Powerhouse for Industry".WEB, Cooper, Henry (director), Forth - Powerhouse for Industry,weblink Moving Image Archive, Campbell Harper Films Ltd., 15 May 2017, The shafts leading into the tunnel were filled and capped with concrete when the tunnel was closed, and it is believed to have filled with water or collapsed in places.Fraser MacDonald, "Scotland's secret tunnel under the Forth", The Guardian, 30 April 2014.(File:Portobello Solent Express1 2007-07-28-cropped.jpg|thumb|The Fife-Edinburgh hovercraft service)In July, 2007, a hovercraft passenger service completed a two-week trial between Portobello, Edinburgh and Kirkcaldy, Fife. The trial of the service (marketed as "Forthfast") was hailed as a major operational success, with an average passenger load of 85 percent.WEB,weblink Kirkcaldy-Edinburgh hovercraft trial, 13 July 2007, The Scottish Executive, 10 January 2010, It was estimated the service would decrease congestion for commuters on the Forth road and rail bridges by carrying about 870,000 passengers each year.NEWS,weblink Plans lodged for Forth hovercraft, 7 January 2010, Edinburgh Evening News, 10 January 2010, Despite its initial success, the project was cancelled in December, 2011.NEWS,weblink Council 'killed off' hovercraft, 2011-12-09, 2019-09-20, en-GB, The inner firth, located between the Kincardine and Forth bridges, has lost about half of its former intertidal area as a result of land reclamation, partly for agriculture, but mainly for industry and the large ash lagoons built to deposit spoil from the coal-fired Longannet Power Station near Kincardine. Historic villages line the Fife shoreline; Limekilns, Charlestown and Culross, established in the 6th century, where Saint Kentigern was born.File:Blue Star 1 Firth of Forth.JPG|thumb|left|The Ro-PaxRo-PaxThe firth is important for nature conservation and is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The Firth of Forth Islands SPA (Special Protection Area) is home to more than 90,000 breeding seabirds every year. There is a bird observatory on the Isle of May.WEB,weblink Birding the Isle of May by Darren Hemsley, Scottish Ornithologists' Club, en-gb, 2019-09-20, A series of sand and gravel banks in the approaches to the firth have since 2014 been designated as a Nature Conservation Marine Protected Area under the name Firth of Forth Banks Complex.WEB,weblink Firth of Forth Banks Complex Marine Protected Area (MPA), Joint Nature Conservation Committee, 22 October 2019, WEB,weblink SiteLink: Firth of Forth Banks Complex MPA(NC), Scottish Natural Heritage, 22 October 2019, The youngest person to swim across the Firth of Forth was 13-year-old Joseph Feeney, who accomplished the feat in 1933.WEB,weblink Emma, 10, aims to break 84-year-old Forth swimming record, www.scotsman.com, en, 2019-09-20, In 2008, a controversial bid to allow oil transfer between ships in the firth was refused by Forth Ports. SPT Marine Services had asked permission to transfer 7.8 million tonnes of crude oil per year between tankers, but the proposals were met with determined opposition from conservation groups.NEWS,weblink Forth oil transfer plan ruled out, 1 February 2008, 1 February 2008, BBC News Online, File:Theforthbridges fromdalmeny.jpg|thumb|500px|center|The Forth Bridges across the Firth, viewed from DalmenyDalmeny{{clear left}}

Islands

{{stack|(File:Wfm firth of forth.jpg|thumb|400px|Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area)}} {{clear}}

Settlements on the shoreline

North shore{{colbegin}} {{colend}}South shore{{colbegin}} {{colend}}(File:FirthofForthmap.png|thumb|974px|center|Map of the Firth)

Places of interest

{{colbegin}} {{colend}}

References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Wikisource1911Enc|Forth}}
  • Isle of May bird observatory
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091002094320weblink">Forthfast experimental hovercraft service, 16–28 July 2007
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070917171008weblink">Inchcolm Virtual Tour Take a virtual tour around some of the Inchcolm's military defences
{{Islands of the Forth}}{{Authority control}}

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