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Federal Bureau of Investigation
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Symbols of the Federal Bureau of Investigation>Flag of the Federal Bureau of Investigation |logo = Badge of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.png |logo_width = 150|logo_caption = FBI special agent badgeUnited States |headquarters = J. Edgar Hoover BuildingWashington, D.C., U.S.ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 17, 2014 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 6, 2014, (October 31, 2014)US$8.7 billion (Fiscal year#Federal government>FY 2016)|minister2_name =|minister2_pfo =|chief1_name = Christopher A. WrayDirector of the Federal Bureau of Investigation>Director |chief2_name = David BowdichDeputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation>Deputy DirectorUnited States Department of Justice>Department of JusticeOffice of the Director of National Intelligence|chief3_name = Carl Ghattas|chief3_position = Executive Assistant Director, National Security Branchfbi.gov}}}}The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence.WEB,weblink Our Strength Lies in Who We Are, intelligence.gov, August 4, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140810180812weblink">weblink August 10, 2014, A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.WEB,weblink How does the FBI differ from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)?, Federal Bureau of Investigation, en-us, November 2, 2017, no,weblink September 4, 2017, WEB,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation – Quick Facts, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111017083929weblink">weblink October 17, 2011, Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is primarily a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, and more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation. At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence.Statement Before the House Appropriations Committee, Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160623212212weblink |date=June 23, 2016 }}, Federal Bureau of Investigation, March 26, 2014FBI gets a broader role in coordinating domestic intelligence activities {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170716094314weblink |date=July 16, 2017 }}, Washington Post, June 19, 2012Despite its domestic focus, the FBI also maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache (LEGAT) offices and 15 sub-offices in U.S. embassies and consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist primarily for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not usually conduct unilateral operations in the host countries.Overview of the Legal Attaché Program {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160313042943weblink |date=March 13, 2016 }}, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Retrieved: March 25, 2015 The FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas,Spies Clash as FBI Joins CIA Overseas: Sources Talk of Communication Problem in Terrorism Role {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150418233508weblink |date=April 18, 2015 }}, Associated Press via NBC News, February 15, 2005 just as the CIA has a limited domestic function; these activities generally require coordination across government agencies.The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of Investigation, the BOI or BI for short. Its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D.C.

Budget, mission, and priorities

(File:Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide.pdf|thumb|FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide)In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was approximately $8.7 billion.WEB,weblink Mission & Priorities, Federal Bureau of Investigation, en-us, November 2, 2017, no,weblink November 2, 2017, The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners.Currently, the FBI's top priorities are:WEB,weblink FBI- Quick Facts, Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 19, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150412223657weblink">weblink April 12, 2015,
  1. Protect the United States from terrorist attacks
  2. Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage
  3. Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes
  4. Combat public corruption at all levels
  5. Protect civil rights,
  6. Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises
  7. Combat major white-collar crime
  8. Combat significant violent crime
  9. Support federal, state, local and international partners
  10. Upgrade technology to enable, and further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above

History

Background

In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists. The Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.BOOK, Weiner, Tim, Tim Weiner, Enemies a history of the FBI, 2012, Random House, New York, 978-0-679-64389-0, 1, Revolution, The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General.WEB, Findlay, James G., Memorandum for the Director: Re: Early History of the Bureau of Investigation, United States Department of Justice,weblink Historical Documents from the Bureau's Founding, Federal Bureau of Investigation, August 14, 2012, Los Angeles, CA, November 19, 1943, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120703063000weblink">weblink July 3, 2012, Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U.S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department.WEB, Bonaparte, Charles Joseph, Annual Report of the Attorney General of the United States, 1908, p.7,weblink Historical Documents from the Bureau's Founding, Federal Bureau of Investigation, August 14, 2012, Charles Joseph Bonaparte, In my last annual report I called attention to the fact that this department was obliged to call upon the Treasury Department for detective service, and had, in fact, no permanent executive force directly under its orders. Through the prohibition of its further use of the Secret Service force, contained in the Sundry Civil Appropriation Act, approved May 27, 1908, it became necessary for the department to organize a small force of special agents of its own. Although such action was involuntary on the part of this department, the consequences of the innovation have been, on the whole, moderately satisfactory. The Special Agents, placed as they are under the direct orders of the Chief Examiner, who receives from them daily reports and summarizes these each day to the Attorney General, are directly controlled by this department, and the Attorney General knows or ought to know, at all times what they are doing and at what cost., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120510200311weblink">weblink May 10, 2012, Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would then have its own staff of special agents.

Creation

The Bureau of Investigation (BOI) was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service,BOOK, The Department of Justice of the United States, Langeluttig, Albert, Johns Hopkins Press, 1927, 9–14, to work for a new investigative agency. Its first "Chief" (the title is now known as "Director") was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908.The bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation. The following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation (DOI) before finally becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935.WEB,weblink Timeline of FBI History, Federal Bureau of Investigation, March 20, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150316145041weblink">weblink March 16, 2015, In the same year, its name was officially changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI.

J. Edgar Hoover as FBI Director

(File:Hoover-JEdgar-LOC.jpg|thumb|J. Edgar Hoover, FBI Director from 1924 to 1972)J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, and FBI. He was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which officially opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was substantially involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure. But as detailed below, his proved to be a highly controversial tenure as Bureau Director, especially in its later years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years.Early homicide investigations of the new agency included the Osage Indian murders. During the "War on Crime" of the 1930s, FBI agents apprehended or killed a number of notorious criminals who carried out kidnappings, robberies, and murders throughout the nation, including John Dillinger, "Baby Face" Nelson, Kate "Ma" Barker, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, and George "Machine Gun" Kelly.Other activities of its early decades included a decisive role in reducing the scope and influence of the white supremacist group Ku Klux Klan. Additionally, through the work of Edwin Atherton, the BOI claimed to have successfully apprehended an entire army of Mexican neo-revolutionaries under the leadership of General Enrique Estrada in the mid-1920s, east of San Diego, California.Hoover began using wiretapping in the 1920s during Prohibition to arrest bootleggers.NEWS, Civil Rights: Let 'Em Wiretap!, Greenberg, David, David Greenberg (historian), October 22, 2001, History News Network,weblink February 15, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110301212237weblink">weblink March 1, 2011, In the 1927 case Olmstead v. United States, in which a bootlegger was caught through telephone tapping, the United States Supreme Court ruled that FBI wiretaps did not violate the Fourth Amendment as unlawful search and seizure, as long as the FBI did not break into a person's home to complete the tapping. After Prohibition's repeal, Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934, which outlawed non-consensual phone tapping, but did allow bugging. In the 1939 case Nardone v. United States, the court ruled that due to the 1934 law, evidence the FBI obtained by phone tapping was inadmissible in court. After the 1967 case Katz v. United States overturned the 1927 case that had allowed bugging, Congress passed the Omnibus Crime Control Act, allowing public authorities to tap telephones during investigations, as long as they obtained warrants beforehand.

National security

Beginning in the 1940s and continuing into the 1970s, the bureau investigated cases of espionage against the United States and its allies. Eight Nazi agents who had planned sabotage operations against American targets were arrested, and six were executed (Ex parte Quirin) under their sentences. Also during this time, a joint US/UK code-breaking effort called "The Venona Project"—with which the FBI was heavily involved—broke Soviet diplomatic and intelligence communications codes, allowing the US and British governments to read Soviet communications. This effort confirmed the existence of Americans working in the United States for Soviet intelligence.WEB, Benson, Robert L.,weblink The Venona Story, National Security Agency, June 18, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060614231955weblink">weblink June 14, 2006, Hoover was administering this project, but he failed to notify the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of it until 1952. Another notable case was the arrest of Soviet spy Rudolf Abel in 1957.BOOK, Romerstein, Herbert, Eric Breindel, The Venona Secrets, Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors, Regnery Publishing, Inc., 2001, 0-89526-225-8, 209, The discovery of Soviet spies operating in the US allowed Hoover to pursue his longstanding obsession with the threat he perceived from the American Left, ranging from Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) union organizers to American liberals.

Japanese American internment

In 1939, the Bureau began compiling a custodial detention list with the names of those who would be taken into custody in the event of war with Axis nations. The majority of the names on the list belonged to Issei community leaders, as the FBI investigation built on an existing Naval Intelligence index that had focused on Japanese Americans in Hawaii and the West Coast, but many German and Italian nationals also found their way onto the secret list.WEB, Kashima, Tetsuden,weblink Custodial detention / A-B-C list, Densho Encyclopedia, August 21, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141020034626weblink">weblink October 20, 2014, Robert Shivers, head of the Honolulu office, obtained permission from Hoover to start detaining those on the list on December 7, 1941, while bombs were still falling over Pearl Harbor.WEB, Niiya, Brian,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation, Densho Encyclopledia, August 21, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141020035117weblink">weblink October 20, 2014, Mass arrests and searches of homes (in most cases conducted without warrants) began a few hours after the attack, and over the next several weeks more than 5,500 Issei men were taken into FBI custody.WEB,weblink About the Incarceration, Densho Encyclopedia, August 21, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140813044546weblink">weblink August 13, 2014, On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. FBI Director Hoover opposed the subsequent mass removal and confinement of Japanese Americans authorized under Executive Order 9066, but Roosevelt prevailed.WEB,weblink J. Edgar Hoover, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141106032500weblink">weblink November 6, 2014, The vast majority went along with the subsequent exclusion orders, but in a handful of cases where Japanese Americans refused to obey the new military regulations, FBI agents handled their arrests. The Bureau continued surveillance on Japanese Americans throughout the war, conducting background checks on applicants for resettlement outside camp, and entering the camps (usually without the permission of War Relocation Authority officials) and grooming informants to monitor dissidents and "troublemakers." After the war, the FBI was assigned to protect returning Japanese Americans from attacks by hostile white communities.

Sex deviates program

According to Douglas M. Charles, the FBI's "sex deviates" program began on April 10, 1950, when J. Edgar Hoover forwarded the White House, U.S. Civil Service Commission, and branches of the armed services a list of 393 alleged federal employees who were allegedly arrested in Washington, D.C., since 1947, on charges of "sexual irregularities". On June 20, 1951, Hoover expanded the program by issuing a memo establishing a "uniform policy for the handling of the increasing number of reports and allegations concerning present and past employees of the United State Government who assertedly [sic] are sex deviates." The program was expanded to include non-government jobs. According to Athan Theoharis, "In 1951 he [Hoover] had unilaterally instituted a Sex Deviates program to purge alleged homosexuals from any position in the federal government, from the lowliest clerk to the more powerful position of White house aide." On May 27, 1953, Executive Order 10450 went into effect. The program was expanded further by this executive order by making all federal employment of homosexuals illegal. On July 8, 1953, the FBI forwarded to the U.S. Civil Service Commission information from the sex deviates program. In 1977–1978, 300,000 pages, collected between 1930 to the mid-1970s, in the sex deviates program were destroyed by FBI officials.FBI and Homosexuality: 1950-1959 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171204172602weblink |date=December 4, 2017 }}FBI and Homosexuality: 1970-1979 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180605032719weblink |date=June 5, 2018 }}FBI and Homosexuality: 2010-2019 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171204171135weblink |date=December 4, 2017 }}

Civil rights movement

During the 1950s and 1960s, FBI officials became increasingly concerned about the influence of civil rights leaders, whom they believed either had communist ties or were unduly influenced by communists or "fellow travellers." In 1956, for example, Hoover sent an open letter denouncing Dr. T. R. M. Howard, a civil rights leader, surgeon, and wealthy entrepreneur in Mississippi who had criticized FBI inaction in solving recent murders of George W. Lee, Emmett Till, and other blacks in the South.David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009), 148, 154–59. The FBI carried out controversial domestic surveillance in an operation it called the COINTELPRO, from "COunter-INTELligence PROgram."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000118104808weblink">weblink yes, January 18, 2000, A Short History of FBI COINTELPRO, Monitor.net, June 6, 2006, Cassidy, Mike M., May 26, 1999, It was to investigate and disrupt the activities of dissident political organizations within the United States, including both militant and non-violent organizations. Among its targets was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a leading civil rights organization whose clergy leadership included the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who is addressed in more detail below.WEB,weblink A Break-In to End All Break-Ins, Los Angeles Times, June 6, 2006, Jalon, Allan M., April 8, 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060620040020weblink">weblink June 20, 2006, File:Mlk-uncovered-letter.png|thumb|The "suicide letter",NEWS, Gage, Beverly, November 11, 2014, What an Uncensored Letter to M.L.K. Reveals,weblink The New York TimesThe New York TimesThe FBI frequently investigated Martin Luther King, Jr. In the mid-1960s, King began publicly criticizing the Bureau for giving insufficient attention to the use of terrorism by white supremacists. Hoover responded by publicly calling King the most "notorious liar" in the United States.Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963-1965 (Simon and Shuster, 1999), p. 524-529 In his 1991 memoir, Washington Post journalist Carl Rowan asserted that the FBI had sent at least one anonymous letter to King encouraging him to commit suicide.WEB,weblink Was Martin Luther King, Jr. a plagiarist?, Washington Post, June 6, 2006, Cecil Adams, Adams, Cecil M., May 2, 2003, no,weblink July 18, 2011, Historian Taylor Branch documents an anonymous November 1964 "suicide package" sent by the Bureau that combined a letter to the civil rights leader telling him "You are done. There is only one way out for you..." with audio recordings of King's sexual indiscretions.BOOK,weblink Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963-1965 (Simon and Shuster, 1999) p. 527-529, In March 1971, the residential office of an FBI agent in Media, Pennsylvania was burgled by a group calling itself the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI. Numerous files were taken and distributed to a range of newspapers, including The Harvard Crimson.BOOK, How We Got Here: The '70s, Frum, David, David Frum, 2000, Basic Books, New York, New York, 0-465-04195-7, 40, The files detailed the FBI's extensive COINTELPRO program, which included investigations into lives of ordinary citizens—including a black student group at a Pennsylvania military college and the daughter of Congressman Henry Reuss of Wisconsin. The country was "jolted" by the revelations, which included assassinations of political activists, and the actions were denounced by members of the Congress, including House Majority Leader Hale Boggs. The phones of some members of the Congress, including Boggs, had allegedly been tapped.

Kennedy's assassination

When President John F. Kennedy was shot and killed, the jurisdiction fell to the local police departments until President Lyndon B. Johnson directed the FBI to take over the investigation.WEB,weblink Postwar America: 1945–1960s, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150106195659weblink">weblink January 6, 2015, To ensure clarity about the responsibility for investigation of homicides of federal officials, the Congress passed a law that included investigations of such deaths of federal officials, especially by homicide, within FBI jurisdiction. This new law was passed in 1965.NEWS,weblink 5 things you might not know about JFK's assassination, CNN.com, November 11, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151116120144weblink">weblink November 16, 2015, WEB, Public Law 89-141 - Chapter 84.– PRESIDENTIAL ASSASSINATION, KIDNAPPING, AND ASSAULT,weblink September 20, 2017, no,weblink September 22, 2017, WEB,weblink 18 U.S. Code Chapter 84 – PRESIDENTIAL AND PRESIDENTIAL STAFF ASSASSINATION, KIDNAPPING, AND ASSAULT, no,weblink March 3, 2016,

Organized crime

File:Donnie Brasco.jpg|thumb|An FBI surveillance photograph of Joseph D. Pistone (aka Donnie Brasco), Benjamin "Lefty" Ruggiero and Edgar RobbEdgar RobbIn response to organized crime, on August 25, 1953, the FBI created the Top Hoodlum Program. The national office directed field offices to gather information on mobsters in their territories and to report it regularly to Washington for a centralized collection of intelligence on racketeers."Using Intel to Stop the Mob, Part 2" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100616042610weblink |date=June 16, 2010 }}. Retrieved February 12, 2010. After the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, or RICO Act, took effect, the FBI began investigating the former Prohibition-organized groups, which had become fronts for crime in major cities and small towns. All of the FBI work was done undercover and from within these organizations, using the provisions provided in the RICO Act. Gradually the agency dismantled many of the groups. Although Hoover initially denied the existence of a National Crime Syndicate in the United States, the Bureau later conducted operations against known organized crime syndicates and families, including those headed by Sam Giancana and John Gotti. The RICO Act is still used today for all organized crime and any individuals who may fall under the Act's provisions.In 2003, a congressional committee called the FBI's organized crime informant program "one of the greatest failures in the history of federal law enforcement." The FBI allowed four innocent men to be convicted of the March 1965 gangland murder of Edward "Teddy" Deegan in order to protect Vincent Flemmi, an FBI informant. Three of the men were sentenced to death (which was later reduced to life in prison), and the fourth defendant was sentenced to life in prison.NEWS
,weblink
, Evidence Of Injustice
, Boston Globe
, Shelley Murphy
, July 27, 2007
, November 22, 2007
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080726051938weblink">weblink
, July 26, 2008
,
, Two of the four men died in prison after serving almost 30 years, and two others were released after serving 32 and 36 years. In July 2007, U.S. District Judge Nancy Gertner in Boston found that the Bureau had helped convict the four men using false witness accounts given by mobster Joseph Barboza. The U.S. Government was ordered to pay $100 million in damages to the four defendants.NEWS
,weblink
, U.S. Must Pay Out $100 Million for Wrongful FBI Conviction
, Reuters
, July 27, 2007
, November 22, 2007
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080705233705weblink">weblink
, July 5, 2008
,
,

Special FBI teams

File:FBI SWAT team Watervliet Arsenal.jpg|thumb|FBI SWAT officers|right| FBI SWATSWATIn 1982, the FBI formed an elite unitWEB,weblink Rise in International Crime, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150106201333weblink">weblink January 6, 2015, to help with problems that might arise at the 1984 Summer Olympics to be held in Los Angeles, particularly terrorism and major-crime. This was a result of the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany, when terrorists murdered the Israeli athletes. Named the Hostage Rescue Team, or HRT, it acts as the FBI lead for a national SWAT team in related procedures and all counter-terrorism cases. Also formed in 1984 was the Computer Analysis and Response Team, or CART.WEB,weblink End of the Cold War, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150106195651weblink">weblink January 6, 2015, From the end of the 1980s to the early 1990s, the FBI reassigned more than 300 agents from foreign counter-intelligence duties to violent crime, and made violent crime the sixth national priority. With reduced cuts to other well-established departments, and because terrorism was no longer considered a threat after the end of the Cold War, the FBI assisted local and state police forces in tracking fugitives who had crossed state lines, which is a federal offense. The FBI Laboratory helped develop DNA testing, continuing its pioneering role in identification that began with its fingerprinting system in 1924.

Notable efforts in the 1990s

File:Fbi egypt air 990.jpg|thumb|left|An FBI agent tags the cockpit voice recorder from EgyptAir Flight 990 on the deck of the USS Grapple (ARS 53) at the crash site on November 13, 1999.]]Between 1993 and 1996, the FBI increased its counter-terrorism role in the wake of the first 1993 World Trade Center bombing in New York City, New York; the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and the arrest of the Unabomber in 1996. Technological innovation and the skills of FBI Laboratory analysts helped ensure that the three cases were successfully prosecuted.WEB,weblink Rise of a Wired World, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150106195709weblink">weblink January 6, 2015, But Justice Department investigations into the FBI's roles in the Ruby Ridge and Waco incidents were found to have been obstructed by agents within the Bureau. During the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, the FBI was criticized for its investigation of the Centennial Olympic Park bombing. It has settled a dispute with Richard Jewell, who was a private security guard at the venue, along with some media organizations,WEB,weblink Richard Jewell v. NBC, and other Richard Jewell cases, Media Libel, June 6, 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060527200834weblink">weblink May 27, 2006, in regard to the leaking of his name during the investigation; this had briefly led to his being wrongly suspected of the bombing.After Congress passed the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA, 1994), the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA, 1996), and the Economic Espionage Act (EEA, 1996), the FBI followed suit and underwent a technological upgrade in 1998, just as it did with its CART team in 1991. Computer Investigations and Infrastructure Threat Assessment Center (CITAC) and the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) were created to deal with the increase in Internet-related problems, such as computer viruses, worms, and other malicious programs that threatened US operations. With these developments, the FBI increased its electronic surveillance in public safety and national security investigations, adapting to the telecommunications advancements that changed the nature of such problems.

September 11 attacks

(File:9-11 Pentagon Emergency Response 3.jpg|thumb|September 11 attacks at the Pentagon)During the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center, FBI agent Leonard W. Hatton Jr. was killed during the rescue effort while helping the rescue personnel evacuate the occupants of the South Tower, and he stayed when it collapsed. Within months after the attacks, FBI Director Robert Mueller, who had been sworn in a week before the attacks, called for a re-engineering of FBI structure and operations. He made countering every federal crime a top priority, including the prevention of terrorism, countering foreign intelligence operations, addressing cyber security threats, other high-tech crimes, protecting civil rights, combating public corruption, organized crime, white-collar crime, and major acts of violent crime.WEB,weblink Change of Mandate, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150106195636weblink">weblink January 6, 2015, In February 2001, Robert Hanssen was caught selling information to the Russian government. It was later learned that Hanssen, who had reached a high position within the FBI, had been selling intelligence since as early as 1979. He pleaded guilty to espionage and received a life sentence in 2002, but the incident led many to question the security practices employed by the FBI. There was also a claim that Hanssen might have contributed information that led to the September 11, 2001 attacks.WEB,weblink Osama access to state secrets helped 9/11, Computer Crime Research Center, June 6, 2006, Seper, Jerry, June 8, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060608124653weblink">weblink no, The 9/11 Commission's final report on July 22, 2004, stated that the FBI and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) were both partially to blame for not pursuing intelligence reports that could have prevented the September 11 attacks. In its most damning assessment, the report concluded that the country had "not been well served" by either agency and listed numerous recommendations for changes within the FBI.WEB,weblink 9/11 Commission finds 'deep institutional failings', ABC Au, Shovelan, John, June 23, 2004, June 6, 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060221224609weblink">weblink February 21, 2006, While the FBI did accede to most of the recommendations, including oversight by the new Director of National Intelligence, some former members of the 9/11 Commission publicly criticized the FBI in October 2005, claiming it was resisting any meaningful changes.NEWS,weblink Ex-FBI Chief On Clinton's Scandals, CBS News, October 6, 2004, June 6, 2006, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060614142823weblink">weblink June 14, 2006, On July 8, 2007, The Washington Post published excerpts from UCLA Professor Amy Zegart's book Spying Blind: The CIA, the FBI, and the Origins of 9/11.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013114822weblink">weblink yes, October 13, 2007, Spying Blind, Princeton University Press, July 8, 2007, Zegart, Amy, September 1, 2007, The Post reported, from Zegart's book, that government documents showed that both the CIA and the FBI had missed 23 potential chances to disrupt the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The primary reasons for the failures included: agency cultures resistant to change and new ideas; inappropriate incentives for promotion; and a lack of cooperation between the FBI, CIA and the rest of the United States Intelligence Community. The book blamed the FBI's decentralized structure, which prevented effective communication and cooperation among different FBI offices. The book suggested that the FBI had not evolved into an effective counter-terrorism or counter-intelligence agency, due in large part to deeply ingrained agency cultural resistance to change. For example, FBI personnel practices continued to treat all staff other than special agents as support staff, classifying intelligence analysts alongside the FBI's auto mechanics and janitors.NEWS,weblink Our Clueless Intelligence System, Washington Post, July 8, 2007, Zegart, Amy, July 8, 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070713075345weblink">weblink July 13, 2007,

Faulty bullet analysis

For over 40 years, the FBI crime lab in Quantico had believed that lead alloys used in bullets had unique chemical signatures. It was analyzing the bullets with the goal of matching them chemically, not only to a single batch of ammunition coming out of a factory, but also to a single box of bullets. The National Academy of Sciences conducted an 18-month independent review of comparative bullet-lead analysis. In 2003, its National Research Council published a report whose conclusions called into question 30 years of FBI testimony. It found the analytic model used by the FBI for interpreting results was deeply flawed, and the conclusion, that bullet fragments could be matched to a box of ammunition, was so overstated that it was misleading under the rules of evidence. One year later, the FBI decided to stop conducting bullet lead analyses.WEB, FBI Laboratory Announces Discontinuation of Bullet Lead Examinations,weblink fbi.gov, FBI National Press Office, December 6, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141208182140weblink">weblink December 8, 2014, After a 60 Minutes/Washington Post investigation in November 2007, two years later, the Bureau agreed to identify, review, and release all pertinent cases, and notify prosecutors about cases in which faulty testimony was given.NEWS
,weblink
, Evidence Of Injustice
, CBS News
, November 18, 2007
, November 22, 2007
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071120202358weblink">weblink
, November 20, 2007
,
,

Organization

Organizational structure

{{unreferenced section|date=July 2018}}(File:FBI Field Divisions map.png|thumb|FBI field divisions map)(File:FBI organizational chart - 2014.jpg|thumb|Organization chart for the FBI as of July 15, 2014)File:Counterterrorism Policy Directive and Policy Guide (redacted).pdf|thumb|Redacted policy guide for the Counterterrorism Division (part of the FBI National Security Branch)]]The FBI is organized into functional branches and the Office of the Director, which contains most administrative offices. An executive assistant director manages each branch. Each branch is then divided into offices and divisions, each headed by an assistant director. The various divisions are further divided into sub-branches, led by deputy assistant directors. Within these sub-branches there are various sections headed by section chiefs. Section chiefs are ranked analogous to special agents in charge.Four of the branches report to the deputy director while two report to the associate director. The functional branches of the FBI are: The Office of the Director serves as the central administrative organ of the FBI. The office provides staff support functions (such as finance and facilities management) to the five function branches and the various field divisions. The office is managed by the FBI associate director, who also oversees the operations of both the Information and Technology and Human Resources Branches.
  • Office of the Director
    • Immediate Office of the Director
    • Office of the Deputy Director
    • Office of the Associate Director
    • Office of Congressional Affairs
    • Office of Equal Employment Opportunity Affairs
    • Office of the General Counsel
    • Office of Integrity and Compliance
    • Office of the Ombudsman
    • Office of Professional Responsibility
    • Office of Public Affairs
    • Inspection Division
    • Facilities and Logistics Services Division
    • Finance Division
    • Records Management Division
    • Resource Planning Office
    • Security Division
(File:2008 San Diego federal Courthouse bombing.jpg|thumb|An FBI agent at a crime scene)

Rank structure

The following is a listing of the rank structure found within the FBI (in ascending order):WEB,weblink fbi.gov, fbi.gov, March 3, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110216215149weblink">weblink February 16, 2011,
  • Field Agents
    • New Agent Trainee
    • Special Agent
    • Senior Special Agent
    • Supervisory Special Agent
    • Assistant Special Agent-in-Charge (ASAC)
    • Special Agent-in-Charge (SAC)File:Mueller comey obama september 2013.jpg|thumb|James Comey speaks at the White House following his nomination by President Barack ObamaBarack Obama
  • FBI Management
    • Deputy Assistant Director
    • Assistant Director
    • Associate Executive Assistant Director
    • Executive Assistant Director
    • Associate Deputy Director
    • Deputy Chief of Staff
    • Chief of Staff and Special Counsel to the Director
    • Deputy Director
    • Director

Legal authority

File:FBI Badge & gun.jpg|thumb|FBI badge and service pistol, a GlockGlockThe FBI's mandate is established in Title 28 of the United States Code (U.S. Code), Section 533, which authorizes the Attorney General to "appoint officials to detect and prosecute crimes against the United States."WEB,weblink US CODE: Title 28,533. Investigative and other officials; appointment, Cornell Law School, February 15, 2011, Other federal statutes give the FBI the authority and responsibility to investigate specific crimes.The FBI's chief tool against organized crime is the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Act. The FBI is also charged with the responsibility of enforcing compliance of the United States Civil Rights Act of 1964 and investigating violations of the act in addition to prosecuting such violations with the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). The FBI also shares concurrent jurisdiction with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in the enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.The USA PATRIOT Act increased the powers allotted to the FBI, especially in wiretapping and monitoring of Internet activity. One of the most controversial provisions of the act is the so-called sneak and peek provision, granting the FBI powers to search a house while the residents are away, and not requiring them to notify the residents for several weeks afterwards. Under the PATRIOT Act's provisions, the FBI also resumed inquiring into the library recordsNEWS, Bob, Egelko, Maria Alicia Gaura,weblink Libraries post Patriot Act warnings: Santa Cruz branches tell patrons that FBI may spy on them, San Francisco Chronicle, March 10, 2003, February 15, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429204950weblink">weblink April 29, 2011, of those who are suspected of terrorism (something it had supposedly not done since the 1970s).In the early 1980s, Senate hearings were held to examine FBI undercover operations in the wake of the Abscam controversy, which had allegations of entrapment of elected officials. As a result, in following years a number of guidelines were issued to constrain FBI activities.A March 2007 report by the inspector general of the Justice Department described the FBI's "widespread and serious misuse" of national security letters, a form of administrative subpoena used to demand records and data pertaining to individuals. The report said that between 2003 and 2005, the FBI had issued more than 140,000 national security letters, many involving people with no obvious connections to terrorism.NEWS,weblink Who's Watching the F.B.I.?, Jeffrey Rosen, The New York Times Magazine, April 15, 2007, February 15, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110512180735weblink">weblink May 12, 2011, Information obtained through an FBI investigation is presented to the appropriate U.S. Attorney or Department of Justice official, who decides if prosecution or other action is warranted.The FBI often works in conjunction with other federal agencies, including the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in seaport and airport security,WEB,weblink The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Efforts to Protect the Nation's Seaports, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Inspector General, March 2006, PDF, February 15, 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091001020122weblink">weblink October 1, 2009, and the National Transportation Safety Board in investigating airplane crashes and other critical incidents. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Homeland Security Investigations (ICE-HSI) has nearly the same amount of investigative manpower as the FBI, and investigates the largest range of crimes. In the wake of the September 11 attacks, then–Attorney General Ashcroft assigned the FBI as the designated lead organization in terrorism investigations after the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ICE-HSI and the FBI are both integral members of the Joint Terrorism Task Force.

Indian reservations

File:FBI Director Visits North Dakota Indian Reservation (27474029651).jpg|thumb|FBI Director visits the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in North DakotaNorth DakotaThe federal government has the primary responsibility for investigating"Indian Country Crime" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100808010744weblink |date=August 8, 2010 }} FBI website, accessed August 10, 2010 and prosecuting serious crime on Indian reservations.WEB,weblink Native Americans in South Dakota: An Erosion of Confidence in the Justice System, Usccr.gov, March 3, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120306001408weblink">weblink March 6, 2012, }}The FBI does not specifically list crimes in Native American land as one of its priorities.FBI "Facts and Figures" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100922070926weblink |date=September 22, 2010 }} See prominently displayed list of priorities, accessed August 10, 2010 Often serious crimes have been either poorly investigated or prosecution has been declined. Tribal courts can impose sentences of up to three years, under certain restrictions.Michael Riley, "Expansion of tribal courts' authority passes Senate" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304043343weblink |date=March 4, 2016 }}, The Denver Post. Posted: 25 June 2010 01:00:00 am MDT Updated: 25 June 2010 02:13:47 am MDT. Accessed June 25, 2010.Michael Riley, "President Obama signs tribal-justice changes" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304082720weblink |date=March 4, 2016 }}, The Denver Post, Posted: 30 July 2010 01:00:00 am MDT, Updated: 30 July 2010 06:00:20 am MDT, accessed July 30, 2010.

Infrastructure

File:Fbi headquarters.jpg|thumb|The J. Edgar Hoover BuildingJ. Edgar Hoover BuildingFile:Fbi mobile command center 2.jpg|thumb|FBI Mobile Command Center, Washington Field Office ]]The FBI is headquartered at the J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington, D.C., with 56 field officesWEB,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation – Field Divisions, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090815093807weblink">weblink August 15, 2009, in major cities across the United States. The FBI also maintains over 400 resident agencies across the United States, as well as over 50 legal attachés at United States embassies and consulates. Many specialized FBI functions are located at facilities in Quantico, Virginia, as well as a "data campus" in Clarksburg, West Virginia, where 96 million sets of fingerprints "from across the United States are stored, along with others collected by American authorities from prisoners in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, Iraq and Afghanistan."Priest, Dana and Arkin, William (December 2010) Monitoring America {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101222220450weblink |date=December 22, 2010 }}, Washington Post The FBI is in process of moving its Records Management Division, which processes Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests, to Winchester, Virginia.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20070223124348weblink">weblink yes, February 23, 2007, One of the biggest things the FBI has ever done, The Winchester Star, July 26, 2006, Reid, Sarah A., According to The Washington Post, the FBI "is building a vast repository controlled by people who work in a top-secret vault on the fourth floor of the J. Edgar Hoover Building in Washington. This one stores the profiles of tens of thousands of Americans and legal residents who are not accused of any crime. What they have done is appear to be acting suspiciously to a town sheriff, a traffic cop or even a neighbor."The FBI Laboratory, established with the formation of the BOI,WEB,weblink FBI Laboratory History, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150103052300weblink">weblink January 3, 2015, did not appear in the J. Edgar Hoover Building until its completion in 1974. The lab serves as the primary lab for most DNA, biological, and physical work. Public tours of FBI headquarters ran through the FBI laboratory workspace before the move to the J. Edgar Hoover Building. The services the lab conducts include Chemistry, Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), Computer Analysis and Response, DNA Analysis, Evidence Response, Explosives, Firearms and Tool marks, Forensic Audio, Forensic Video, Image Analysis, Forensic Science Research, Forensic Science Training, Hazardous Materials Response, Investigative and Prospective Graphics, Latent Prints, Materials Analysis, Questioned Documents, Racketeering Records, Special Photographic Analysis, Structural Design, and Trace Evidence.WEB,weblink FBI Laboratory Services, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071016191555weblink">weblink October 16, 2007, The services of the FBI Laboratory are used by many state, local, and international agencies free of charge. The lab also maintains a second lab at the FBI Academy.The FBI Academy, located in Quantico, Virginia, is home to the communications and computer laboratory the FBI utilizes. It is also where new agents are sent for training to become FBI Special Agents. Going through the 21-week course is required for every Special Agent.WEB,weblink Special Agent Career Path Program, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070702114822weblink">weblink July 2, 2007, First opened for use in 1972, the facility located on 385 acres (1.6 km2) of woodland. The Academy trains state and local law enforcement agencies, which are invited to the law enforcement training center. The FBI units that reside at Quantico are the Field and Police Training Unit, Firearms Training Unit, Forensic Science Research and Training Center, Technology Services Unit (TSU), Investigative Training Unit, Law Enforcement Communication Unit, Leadership and Management Science Units (LSMU), Physical Training Unit, New Agents' Training Unit (NATU), Practical Applications Unit (PAU), the Investigative Computer Training Unit and the "College of Analytical Studies."File:FBI Academy.jpg|thumb|The FBI Academy, located in Quantico, VirginiaQuantico, VirginiaIn 2000, the FBI began the Trilogy project to upgrade its outdated information technology (IT) infrastructure. This project, originally scheduled to take three years and cost around $380 million, ended up over budget and behind schedule.WEB,weblink Lawmakers criticize FBI director's expensive project, Newszine, June 6, 2006, Sherman, Mark, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060830160336weblink">weblink August 30, 2006, Efforts to deploy modern computers and networking equipment were generally successful, but attempts to develop new investigation software, outsourced to Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), were not. Virtual Case File, or VCF, as the software was known, was plagued by poorly defined goals, and repeated changes in management.WEB,weblink SAIC rejects Trilogy criticism, Washington Technology, June 6, 2006, Gerin, Roseanne, January 14, 2005, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081202010045weblink">weblink December 2, 2008, In January 2005, more than two years after the software was originally planned for completion, the FBI officially abandoned the project. At least $100 million (and much more by some estimates) was spent on the project, which never became operational. The FBI has been forced to continue using its decade-old Automated Case Support system, which IT experts consider woefully inadequate. In March 2005, the FBI announced it was beginning a new, more ambitious software project, code-named Sentinel, which they expected to complete by 2009.WEB,weblink Senators seek to fast track FBI's Sentinel, FCW.Com, June 6, 2006, Arnone, Michael, June 25, 2005, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061025013430weblink">weblink October 25, 2006, File:FBI Field Office in Chelsea Massachusetts.jpg|thumb|left|The FBI Field Office in Chelsea, MassachusettsChelsea, MassachusettsCarnivore was an electronic eavesdropping software system implemented by the FBI during the Clinton administration; it was designed to monitor email and electronic communications. After prolonged negative coverage in the press, the FBI changed the name of its system from "Carnivore" to "DCS1000." DCS is reported to stand for "Digital Collection System"; the system has the same functions as before. The Associated Press reported in mid-January 2005 that the FBI essentially abandoned the use of Carnivore in 2001, in favor of commercially available software, such as NarusInsight.The Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) DivisionWEB,weblink The CJIS Mission, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080916145313weblink">weblink September 16, 2008, is located in Clarksburg, West Virginia. Organized beginning in 1991, the office opened in 1995 as the youngest agency division. The complex is the length of three football fields. It provides a main repository for information in various data systems. Under the roof of the CJIS are the programs for the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR), Fingerprint Identification, Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), NCIC 2000, and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). Many state and local agencies use these data systems as a source for their own investigations and contribute to the database using secure communications. FBI provides these tools of sophisticated identification and information services to local, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies.FBI is in charge of National Virtual Translation Center, which provides "timely and accurate translations of foreign intelligence for all elements of the Intelligence Community."WEB,weblink Lost in Translation? Not at the National Virtual Translation Center, Federal Bureau of Investigation, no,weblink March 13, 2016,

Personnel

(File:FBI Evidence Response Team.jpg|thumb|right|An FBI Evidence Response Team)File:Potential Agents on the FBI Fireing Range.jpg|thumb|right|Agents in training on the FBI AcademyFBI Academy{{as of|2009|December|31}}, the FBI had a total of 33,852 employees. That includes 13,412 special agents and 20,420 support professionals, such as intelligence analysts, language specialists, scientists, information technology specialists, and other professionals.WEB,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation – About Us – Quick Facts, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111017083929weblink">weblink October 17, 2011, The Officer Down Memorial Page provides the biographies of 69 FBI agents who have died in the line of duty from 1925 to July 2017.WEB,weblink United States Department of Justice – Federal Bureau of Investigation Washington, DC, The Officer Down Memorial Page, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100822004917weblink">weblink August 22, 2010,

Hiring process

To apply to become an FBI agent, one must be between the ages of 23 and 37. Due to the decision in Robert P. Isabella v. Department of State and Office of Personnel Management, 2008 M.S.P.B. 146, preference-eligible veterans may apply after age 37. In 2009, the Office of Personnel Management issued implementation guidance on the Isabella decision.CHCOC {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120808110540weblink |date=August 8, 2012 }}. Chcoc.gov. Retrieved on July 23, 2013. The applicant must also hold U.S. citizenship, be of high moral character, have a clean record, and hold at least a four-year bachelor's degree. At least three years of professional work experience prior to application is also required. All FBI employees require a Top Secret (TS) security clearance, and in many instances, employees need a TS/SCI (Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information) clearance.WEB,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation Jobs, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070702114028weblink">weblink July 2, 2007, To obtain a security clearance, all potential FBI personnel must pass a series of Single Scope Background Investigations (SSBI), which are conducted by the Office of Personnel Management.WEB,weblink Review of the Security and Emergency Planning Staff's Management of Background Investigations, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Inspector General, September 2005, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060816072405weblink">weblink August 16, 2006, Special agent candidates also have to pass a Physical Fitness Test (PFT), which includes a 300-meter run, one-minute sit-ups, maximum push-ups, and a {{convert|1.5|mi|km|1|adj=on}} run. Personnel must pass a polygraph test with questions including possible drug use.WEB,weblink FAQ-FBI Jobs, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink October 18, 2012, Applicants who fail polygraphs may not gain employment with the FBI.Taylor, Marisa. "FBI turns away many applicants who fail lie-detector tests {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130709164951weblink |date=2013-07-09 }}." The McClatchy Company. May 20, 2013. Retrieved on July 25, 2013. Up until 1975, the FBI had a minimum height requirement of {{convert|5|ft|7|in|cm}}.NEWS,weblink FBI to Allow Agents to Be Short, June 25, 1975, San Francisco Chronicle/Associated Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161020144123weblink">weblink October 20, 2016, no,

BOI and FBI directors

FBI Directors are appointed (nominated) by the President of the United States and must be confirmed by the United States Senate to serve a term of office of ten years, subject to resignation or removal by the President at his/her discretion before their term ends. Additional terms are allowed following the same procedureJ. Edgar Hoover, appointed by President Calvin Coolidge in 1924, was by far the longest-serving director, serving until his death in 1972. In 1968, Congress passed legislation, as part of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, requiring Senate confirmation of appointments of future Directors.Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act {{USPL|90|351}}, June 19, 1968, {{USStat|82|197}}, sec.1101 As the incumbent, this legislation did not apply to Hoover. The last FBI Director was James B. Comey, who was appointed in 2013 by President Barack Obama. In 2017, he was fired by President Donald Trump.Trump fires FBI director Comey, raising questions over Russia investigation | US news {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170509230108weblink |date=May 9, 2017 }}. The Guardian. Retrieved on May 26, 2017.The FBI director is responsible for the day-to-day operations at the FBI. Along with the Deputy Director, the director makes sure cases and operations are handled correctly. The director also is in charge of making sure the leadership in any one of the FBI field offices is manned with qualified agents. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was passed in the wake of the September 11 attacks, the FBI director would directly brief the President of the United States on any issues that arise from within the FBI. Since then, the director now reports to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who in turn reports to the President.

Firearms

(File:Glock22inOliveDrab.jpg|thumb|A Glock 22 pistol in .40 S&W caliber)Upon qualification, an FBI special agent is issued a full-size Glock 22 or compact Glock 23 semi-automatic pistol, both of which are chambered in the .40 S&W cartridge. In May 1997, the FBI officially adopted the Glock, in .40 S&W, for general agent use, and first issued it to New Agent Class 98-1 in October 1997. At present, the Glock 23 "FG&R" (finger groove and rail; either 3rd generation or "Gen4") is the issue sidearm.WEB,weblink A History of FBI Handguns, August 22, 2011, Bill, Vanderpool, National Rifle Association, American Rifleman, no,weblink February 1, 2017, New agents are issued firearms, on which they must qualify, on successful completion of their training at the FBI Academy. The Glock 26 (subcompact 9mm Parabellum), Glock 23 and Glock 27 (.40 S&W compact and subcompact, respectively) are authorized as secondary weapons. Special agents are also authorized to purchase and qualify with the Glock 21 in .45 ACP.WEB,weblink A History of FBI Handguns, August 22, 2011, Bill, Vanderpool, National Rifle Association, American Rifleman, The only personally owned handguns now on the approved list are the Glock 21 (full-size .45 ACP), the Glock 26 (sub-compact 9 mm) and the 27 (sub-compact .40 S&W)., no,weblink February 1, 2017, Special agents of the FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) and regional SWAT teams are issued the Springfield Armory Professional Model 1911 pistol in .45 ACP.WEB,weblink A History of FBI Handguns, August 22, 2011, Bill, Vanderpool, National Rifle Association, American Rifleman, Also in the ’80s, HRT adopted the Browning Hi-Power. The first Hi-Powers were customized by Wayne Novak and later ones by the FBI gunsmiths at Quantico. They were popular with the "super SWAT" guys, and several hesitated to give them up when they were replaced by .45 ACP single-action pistols, the first ones built by Les Baer, which used high-capacity Para Ordnance frames. Later, Springfield Armory’s "Bureau Model" replaced the Baer guns. Field SWAT teams were also issued .45s, and most still use them., no,weblink February 1, 2017, WEB,weblink OPERATOR®, TACTICAL GRAY CONFIGURATION ADDS NEW COLOR AND ADJUSTABLE COMBAT SIGHTS, Springfield Armory, January 19, 2017, Originally developed as a consumer-friendly option for the FBI contract Professional Model 1911, the TRP™ family provides high-end custom shop features in a production class pistol., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170924045035weblink">weblink September 24, 2017, WEB,weblink RO® ELITE SERIES, Springfield Armory, Every new RO Elite series pistol is clad in the same Black-T® treatment specified on Springfield Armory 1911s built for the FBI’s regional SWAT and Hostage Rescue Teams., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170923201851weblink">weblink September 23, 2017, In June 2016, the FBI awarded Glock a contract for new handguns. Unlike the currently issued .40 S&W chambered Glock pistols, the new Glocks will be chambered for 9mm Parabellum. The contract is for the full-size Glock 17M and the compact Glock 19M. The "M" means the Glocks have been modified to meet government standards specified by a 2015 government request for proposal.WEB,weblink Glock wins $85 million FBI contract, Aaron, Smith, June 30, 2016, CNN, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160910235104weblink">weblink September 10, 2016, WEB,weblink F.B.I. Awards Glock New Duty Pistol Contract!, June 30, 2016, Blue Sheepdog, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170306035028weblink">weblink March 6, 2017, WEB,weblink FBI goes back to 9mm with Glock, Daniel, Terrill, June 30, 2016, Guns.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170306035926weblink">weblink March 6, 2017, WEB,weblink FBI Chooses 9mm Glocks for New Service Pistols, Outdoor Hub, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170306041028weblink">weblink March 6, 2017,

Publications

The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the FBI Law Enforcement Communication Unit,WEB,weblink Law Enforcement Communication Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090417000819weblink">weblink April 17, 2009, with articles of interest to state and local law enforcement personnel. First published in 1932 as Fugitives Wanted by Police,WEB,weblink History of the FBI, The New Deal: 1933 – Late 1930s, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150106195646weblink">weblink January 6, 2015, the FBI Law Bulletin covers topics including law enforcement technology and issues, such as crime mapping and use of force, as well as recent criminal justice research, and ViCAP alerts, on wanted suspects and key cases.The FBI also publishes some reports for both law enforcement personnel as well as regular citizens covering topics including law enforcement, terrorism, cybercrime, white-collar crime, violent crime, and statistics.WEB,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation – Reports & Publications, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink March 26, 2016, However, the vast majority of federal government publications covering these topics are published by the Office of Justice Programs agencies of the United States Department of Justice, and disseminated through the National Criminal Justice Reference Service.

Crime statistics

In the 1920s, the FBI began issuing crime reports by gathering numbers from local police departments.BOOK, How We Got Here: The '70s, Frum, David, David Frum, 2000, Basic Books, New York, New York, 0-465-04195-7, 12, Due to limitations of this system found during the 1960s and 1970s—victims often simply did not report crimes to the police in the first place—the Department of Justice developed an alternative method of tallying crime, the victimization survey.

Uniform Crime Reports

The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) compile data from over 17,000 law enforcement agencies across the country. They provide detailed data regarding the volume of crimes to include arrest, clearance (or closing a case), and law enforcement officer information. The UCR focuses its data collection on violent crimes, hate crimes, and property crimes. Created in the 1920s, the UCR system has not proven to be as uniform as its name implies. The UCR data only reflect the most serious offense in the case of connected crimes and has a very restrictive definition of rape. Since about 93% of the data submitted to the FBI is in this format, the UCR stands out as the publication of choice as most states require law enforcement agencies to submit this data.Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report for 2006 was released on June 4, 2006. The report shows violent crime offenses rose 1.3%, but the number of property crime offenses decreased 2.9% compared to 2005.WEB,weblink Preliminary Crime Statistics for 2006, Federal Bureau of Investigation, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100411123900weblink">weblink April 11, 2010,

National Incident-Based Reporting System

The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) crime statistics system aims to address limitations inherent in UCR data. The system is used by law enforcement agencies in the United States for collecting and reporting data on crimes. Local, state, and federal agencies generate NIBRS data from their records management systems. Data is collected on every incident and arrest in the Group A offense category. The Group A offenses are 46 specific crimes grouped in 22 offense categories. Specific facts about these offenses are gathered and reported in the NIBRS system. In addition to the Group A offenses, eleven Group B offenses are reported with only the arrest information. The NIBRS system is in greater detail than the summary-based UCR system. {{as of|2004|df=US}}, 5,271 law enforcement agencies submitted NIBRS data. That amount represents 20% of the United States population and 16% of the crime statistics data collected by the FBI.

eGuardian

eGuardian is the name of an FBI system, launched in January 2009, to share tips about possible terror threats with local police agencies. The program aims to get law enforcement at all levels sharing data quickly about suspicious activity and people.WEB,weblink FBI Launches Tip-Sharing For Inauguration, CBS News, January 13, 2009, January 13, 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090125020820weblink">weblink January 25, 2009, eGuardian enables near real-time sharing and tracking of terror information and suspicious activities with local, state, tribal, and federal agencies. The eGuardian system is a spin-off of a similar but classified tool called Guardian that has been used inside the FBI, and shared with vetted partners since 2005.WEB,weblink eGuardian – FBI Shares Threat Info With Local Police Agencies, National Terror Alert Response Center, January 13, 2009, January 13, 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100114174943weblink">weblink January 14, 2010,

Controversies

{{summarize|from|List of FBI controversies|section=y|date=January 2019}}Throughout its history, the FBI has been the subject of a number of controversial cases, both at home and abroad.

Media portrayal

File:Gillian Anderson & David Duchovny (9344570889).jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|The popular TV series The X-Files depicts the fictional FBI Special Agents Dana Scully (Gillian Anderson) and Fox Mulder (David Duchovny) who investigate paranormalparanormalThe FBI has been frequently depicted in popular media since the 1930s. The bureau has participated to varying degrees, which has ranged from direct involvement in the creative process of film or TV series development, to providing consultation on operations and closed cases.BOOK, Powers, Richard Gid, G-Men: Hoover's FBI in American Popular Culture, Southern Illinois University Press, 1983, Carbondale, IL, 0-8093-1096-1, A few of the notable portrayals of the FBI on television are the series The X-Files, which started in 1993 and concluded its eleventh season in early 2018, and concerned investigations into paranormal phenomena by five fictional Special Agents, and the fictional Counter Terrorist Unit (CTU) agency in the TV drama 24, which is patterned after the FBI Counterterrorism Division. The 1991 movie Point Break depicts an undercover FBI agent who infiltrated a gang of bank robbers. The 1997 movie Donnie Brasco is based on the true story of undercover FBI agent Joseph D. Pistone infiltrating the Mafia. The 2015 TV series Quantico, titled after the location of the Bureau's training facility, deals with Probationary and Special Agents, not all of whom, within the show's format, may be fully reliable or even trustworthy.

Notable FBI personnel

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See also

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Additional links

{{div col end|2}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • HSI BOOK Government HSI Files
  • BOOK


, Charles
, Douglas M.
,
, 2007
, J. Edgar Hoover and the Anti-interventionists: FBI Political Surveillance and the Rise of the Domestic Security State, 1939–1945
, The Ohio State University Press
, Columbus, Ohio
, 978-0-8142-1061-1
,
  • Graves, Melissa. "FBI Historiography: From Leader to Organisation" in Christopher R. Moran, Christopher J. Murphy, eds. Intelligence Studies in Britain and the US: Historiography since 1945 (Edinburgh UP, 2013) pp. 129–145. online
  • BOOK


, Kessler
, Ronald
, Ronald Kessler
, 1993
, The FBI: Inside the World's Most Powerful Law Enforcement Agency
, Pocket Books Publications
,
, 978-0-671-78657-1
,
  • BOOK


, Powers
, Richard Gid
,
, 1983
, G-Men, Hoover's FBI in American Popular Culture
, Southern Illinois University Press
,
, 978-0-8093-1096-8
,
  • BOOK


, Sullivan
, William
,
, 1979
, The Bureau: My Thirty Years in Hoover's FBI
, Norton
,
, 978-0-393-01236-1
,
  • BOOK


, Theoharis
, Athan G.
, Athan Theoharis
, John Stuart Cox
, 1988
, The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition
, Temple University Press
,
, 978-0-87722-532-4
,
  • BOOK


, Theoharis
, Athan G.
,
, Tony G. Poveda, Susan Rosenfeld, Richard Gid Powers
, 2000
, The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide
, Checkmark Books
,
, 978-0-8160-4228-9
,
  • BOOK


, Theoharis
, Athan G.
,
, 2004
, The FBI and American Democracy: A Brief Critical History
, University Press
, Kansas
, 978-0-7006-1345-8
,
  • BOOK


, Thomas
, William H., Jr.
, 2008
, Unsafe for Democracy: World War I and the U.S. Justice Department's Covert Campaign to Suppress Dissent
, University of Wisconsin Press
, Madison
, 978-0-299-22890-3
,
  • BOOK


, Tonry
, Michael (ed.)
,
, 2000
, The Handbook of Crime & Punishment
, Oxford University Press
,
, 978-0-19-514060-6
,
  • BOOK


, Trahair
, Richard C. S.
,
, 2004
, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations
, Greenwood Press
, Ballentine
, 978-0-313-31955-6
,

, Weiner
, Tim
, Tim Weiner
, 2012
, Enemies. A History of the FBI
, Random House
, 978-1-4000-6748-0
,
  • JOURNAL


, Williams
, David
,
, 1981
, Journal of American History
, The Bureau of Investigation and its Critics, 1919–1921: the Origins of Federal Political Surveillance
, 68
, 560–579
, 10.2307/1901939
, 3
, Organization of American Historians
, 1901939
,
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131228203624weblink">FBI—The Year in Review, Part 1, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160306135959weblink">Part 2 (2013)
  • Church Committee Report, Vol. 6, "Federal Bureau of Investigation." 1975 congressional inquiry into American intelligence operations.

External links

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