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Far-left politics

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Far-left politics
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{{short description|political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left}}{{about|extra-governmental politics|states with a communist constitution|communist state}}{{Multiple issues|{{Additional citations|date=July 2017}}{{Lead too short|date=September 2017}}{{Rewrite|date=December 2017}}}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2015}}{{Party politics}}Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left. The term has been used to describe ideologies such as: communism, anarchism, anarcho-communism, left-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, Marxism–Leninism, Trotskyism and Maoism.Left Communism in Australia, by J.A. Dawson Thesis 11]Left Communism and Trotskyism, by Loren Goldner et al. Since 2016, the term alt-left has also been occasionally used as a pejorative in the United States to refer to political views at the extreme end of this spectrum, and to those who adhere to such views.WEB,weblink How the term ‘alt-left’ came to be, PBS News Hour, 16 August 2017, 9 March 2019, WEB,weblink Why the Alt-Left Is a Problem, Too, James Wolcott, Vanity Fair, March 2017, 9 March 2019,

Europe

{{see also|List of left and far-left parties in Europe}}File:2010-10-02 manifestation Paris 1.jpg|thumb|Far-left New Anticapitalist Party during a demonstration against pension reform in October 2010 in ParisParisLuke March of the School of Social and Political Science at the University of Edinburgh defines the far-left in Europe as those who position themselves to the left of social democracy, which they see as insufficiently left-wing. The two main sub-types are called the radical left, who desire fundamental changes to the capitalist system yet remain accepting of liberal democracy, and the extreme left, who are more hostile to liberal democracy and denounce any compromise with capitalism. March specifies four major subgroups within contemporary European far-left politics: communists, democratic socialists, populist socialists and social populists.BOOK, March, Luke, Contemporary Far Left Parties in Europe: From Marxism to the Mainstream?, 2008, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Berlin, 9783868720006, 3,weblink 3 June 2017, Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopeček add secondary characteristics to those identified by March and Mudde, such as anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, opposition to NATO and rejection of European integration.BOOK, Hloušek, Vít, Kopeček, Lubomír, Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared, 2010, Ashgate, Farnham, 9780754678403, 46, In France, the term extrême-gauche ("far-left") is a generally accepted term for political groups that position themselves to the left of the Socialist Party, such as Trotskyists, Maoists, anarcho-communists and New Leftists. Some, such as political scientist Serge Cosseron, limit the scope to the left of the French Communist Party,BOOK, Cosseron, Serge, Dictionnaire de l'extrême gauche, 2007, Larousse, Paris, 2035826209, 20, but there is no real consensus.

Far-left terrorism

{{see also|Operation Gladio}}File:RAF-Bombenanschlag in Ramstein, 1981.jpg|thumb|Aftermath of the bombing on American Ramstein Air Base in 1981 by left-wing terrorist group RAF ]]There were many far-left militant organizations formed from existing political parties in the 1960s and 1970s,BOOK, Weinberg, Leonard, Pedahzur, Ami, Perliger, Arie, Political Parties and Terrorist Groups, 2009, Routledge, London, 9781135973377, 53, 2nd, such as the Red Brigades and the Red Army Faction.BOOK, Chaliand, Gérard, The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda, 2010, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 9780520247093, These groups generally aimed to overthrow capitalism and the wealthy ruling classes.

See also

References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Political spectrum}}

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