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{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Global online social networking service}}{{Use American English|date=June 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2019}}







factoids
(Class A)>NASDAQ-100 componentS&P 100 component>S&P 500 component}}Cambridge, MassachusettsWEB
, Our History
,weblink
, Facebook
,
, November 7, 2018, | location_city = 1 Hacker Way(aka 1601 Willow Road)Menlo Park, California| location_country = U.S.
Censorship of Facebook>blocking countries (2005–present)37.4848type:landmark_region:US-CA|display=inline,title}} {edih} {edih}Social mediaAdvertisingSHABAN TITLE=DIGITAL ADVERTISING TO SURPASS PRINT AND TV FOR THE FIRST TIME, REPORT SAYS WEBSITE=THE WASHINGTON POST DATE=FEBRUARY 20, 2019, }}United States dollar>US$ 55.838 billion (2018)FB INCOME STATEMENT >URL=HTTPS://WWW.NASDAQ.COM/SYMBOL/FB/FINANCIALS LANGUAGE=EN-US, | operating_income = {{increase}} US$ 24.913 billion (2018)| net_income = {{increase}} US$ 22.111 billion (2018)WEBSITE=NASDAQ.COM, en-us, | equity = {{increase}} US$ 84.127 billion (2018)PUBLISHER=FACEBOOK DATE=JUNE 30, 2018, Facebook Messenger>MessengerFacebook WatchFacebook Portal>PortalInstagramWhatsApp>Oculus VR>Calibra}}{{url{{url|fb.com}}}}201904WEBSITE=WWW.ALEXA.COM LANGUAGE=EN, | registration = Required2018alt=December 2018|post=)}} | current_status = ActiveC++, PHP (as HipHop Virtual Machine>HHVM),GAVIN >LAST=CLARKE URL=HTTPS://WWW.THEREGISTER.CO.UK/2010/02/02/FACEBOOK_HIPHOP_UNVEILED/ THE REGISTER >PUBLISHER=SITUATION PUBLISHING ACCESSDATE=MARCH 23, 2017, D (programming language)HTTP://WWW.DRDOBBS.COM/MOBILE/FACEBOOK-ADOPTS-D-LANGUAGE/240162694 LAST=BRIDGWATER WORK=DR DOBB'S DATE=OCTOBER 16, 2013, | type = Social networking service, publisher]weblink|logo_caption=The company wordmark}}(File:Facebook f logo (2019).svg|thumb|214x214px|The "f" logo for its online platform.)Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon, Apple, and Google.WEB,weblink Ranking The Big Four Tech Stocks: Google Is No. 1, Apple Comes In Last, Rivas, Teresa, www.barrons.com, en-US, December 27, 2018, WEB,weblink Bloomberg - Are you a robot?, www.bloomberg.com, December 27, 2018, The founders initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia, Stanford, and Yale students. Membership was eventually expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, and higher education institutions in the Boston area, then various other universities, and lastly high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though this may vary depending on local laws. The name comes from the face book directories often given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering (IPO) in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements that appear onscreen and in users' News Feeds.The Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. They can post text, photos and multimedia which is shared with any other users that have agreed to be their "friend". Users can also use various embedded apps, join common-interest groups, and receive notifications of their friends' activities. Facebook claimed that had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018.WEB,weblink In 15 years Facebook has amassed 2.3 billion users — more than followers of Christianity, Meira, Gebel, Business Insider, However, it faces a big problem of fake accounts. It caught 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem.WEB,weblink Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem, Mark, Sullivan, Fast Company, Many critics questioned whether Facebook knows how many actual users it has.WEB,weblink Does Facebook Really Know How Many Fake Accounts It Has?, Jack, Nicas, The New York Times, WEB,weblink Facebook Removed Over 2 Billion Fake Accounts, But The Problem Is Getting Worse, Craig, Silverman, BuzzFeed News, WEB,weblink Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem, Mark, Sullivan, Fast Company, Facebook is one of the world's most valuable companies.It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies. These often involve user privacy (as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal), political manipulation (as with the 2016 U.S. elections), psychological effects such as addiction and low self-esteem, and content that some users find objectionable, including fake news, conspiracy theories, and copyright infringement.NEWS,weblink Is 2019 the year you should finally quit Facebook? | Arwa Mahdawi, Arwa, Mahdawi, December 21, 2018, www.theguardian.com, The Guardian, Facebook also does not remove false information from its pages, which brings continuous controversies.WEB,weblink Facebook on fake Pelosi video: Being 'false' isn't enough for removal, NANCY, SCOLA, Politico, The commentators stated that Facebook helps to spread false information and fake news.WEB,weblink Facebook Spreads Viral Fake News Story About Vaccines, Kastalia, Medrano, Newsweek, WEB,weblink A shockingly large majority of health news shared on Facebook is fake or misleading, Rina, Raphael, Fast Company, WEB,weblink Facebook will not remove fake news - but will 'demote' it, BBC, WEB,weblink Forget fake news stories. False text posts are getting massive engagement on Facebook., Daniel, Funke, Poynter, Facebook offers other products and services. It acquired Instagram, WhatsApp, Oculus, and GrokStyleWEB,weblink Facebook Acquires Visual Shopping Startup to Bolster AI Work, Gurman, Mark, February 8, 2019, Bloomberg, April 16, 2019, and independently developed Facebook Messenger, Facebook Watch, and Facebook Portal.{{Toclimit|3}}

History

2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, and name change

Zuckerberg built a website called "Facemash" in 2003 while attending Harvard University. The site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".WEB, Katharine A., Kaplan, Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board,weblink The Harvard Crimson, November 19, 2003, June 24, 2017, Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours.WEB, Ellen, McGirt, Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg: Hacker. Dropout. CEO.,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures, May 1, 2007, July 4, 2017, The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days later by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded all art images to a website, each of which was accompanied by a comments section, then shared the site with his classmates.WEB, Jason, Kincaid, Startup School: An Interview With Mark Zuckerberg,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 24, 2009, June 24, 2017, (File:Thefacebook.png|thumb|Original layout and name of Thefacebook, 2004)A "face book" is a student directory featuring photos and personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper versionNEWS, Sarah, Phillips, A brief history of Facebook,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 25, 2007, July 4, 2017, along with private online directories.WEB, Alan T., Tabak, Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website,weblink The Harvard Crimson, February 9, 2004, July 4, 2017, Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. ... I think it's kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available ... the benefits are many." Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, and each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site.WEB, Claire, Hoffman, The Battle For Facebook,weblink Rolling Stone, Wenner Media, September 15, 2010, July 4, 2017, On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.NEWS, Lily, Rothman, Happy Birthday, Facebook,weblink Time (magazine), Time, February 4, 2015, July 4, 2017, Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product.WEB, Nicholas, Carlson, In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's Private Email Account,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, March 5, 2010, March 23, 2017, The three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They later sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008NEWS, New York Times blog,weblink June 28, 2008, Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU, Stone, Brad, for 1.2 million shares (worth $300 million at Facebook's IPO).NEWS, Dominic, Rushe, Facebook IPO sees Winklevoss twins heading for $300m fortune,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, February 2, 2012, March 23, 2017, Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered.NEWS, Sarah, Phillips, A brief history of Facebook,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 25, 2007, March 23, 2017, Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website.WEB, Matt, Weinberger, 33 photos of Facebook's rise from a Harvard dorm room to world domination,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, September 7, 2017, December 13, 2017, In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia, Stanford and Yale.NEWS, Facebook: a timeline of the social network,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, February 1, 2012, December 13, 2017, and then to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.NEWS, June 13, 2008,weblink Open Facebook, Forbes, New York, September 11, 2006, Rosmarin, Rachel, NEWS,weblink Online network created by Harvard students flourishes, The Tufts Daily, Lananh, Nguyen, April 12, 2004, Medford, MA, November 30, 2018, In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president.NEWS, Rosen, Ellen, Student's Start-Up Draws Attention and $13 Million,weblink The New York Times, May 26, 2005, May 18, 2009, In June 2004, the company moved to Palo Alto, California.PRESS RELEASE, March 5, 2008,weblink Company Timeline, Facebook, January 1, 2007, It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel.NEWS, April 30, 2008,weblink Why you should beware of Facebook, The Age, Melbourne, January 20, 2008, In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000.WEB, Christopher, Williams, Facebook wins Manx battle for face-book.com,weblink The Register, Situation Publishing, October 1, 2007, March 23, 2017, The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation.File:MarkZuckerberg-crop.jpg|thumb|left|Mark Zuckerberg, co-creator of Facebook, in his Harvard dorm room, 2005]]In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim BreyerNEWS,weblink Jim Breyer (via Accel Partners), CNBC, May 22, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141229120047weblink">weblink December 29, 2014, added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005.NEWS, Facebook is the go-to Web site for students looking to hook up, Dayton Daily News, Ohio, August 3, 2006, Dempsey, Laura, Eligibility expanded to include employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.NEWS, March 9, 2008,weblink Facebook: Opening the Doors Wider, BusinessWeek, New York, September 12, 2006, Lacy, Sarah,

2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft alliance, and rapid growth

On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address.WEB, Carolyn, Abram,weblink March 8, 2008, The Facebook Blog, Welcome to Facebook, everyone, September 26, 2006, WEB, March 5, 2008,weblink Terms of Use, Facebook, November 15, 2007, NEWS,weblink Facebook Expansion Enables More People to Connect with Friends in a Trusted Environment, September 26, 2006, Facebook Newsroom, February 4, 2016, By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages on which companies promoted themselves.NEWS, Enterprise: Facebook, a Marketer's Friend; Site Offers Platform To Tout Products, Interact With Users, Richmond, Riva, Wall Street Journal, New York, November 27, 2007, B4, Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009.WEB, Greenstein, Howard,weblink Facebook Pages vs Facebook Groups: What's the Difference?, Mashable.com, May 27, 2009, August 4, 2014, On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements.WEB, Microsoft gets a piece of Facebook,weblink CNNMoney, CNN, October 24, 2007, May 31, 2017, WEB, Doug, Sherrets, Microsoft invests $240M in Facebook, as Facebook develops ad product,weblink VentureBeat, October 24, 2007, May 31, 2017, In October 2008, Facebook announced that its international headquarters would locate in Dublin, Ireland.PRESS RELEASE, November 30, 2008,weblink Facebook to Establish International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland, Facebook, October 2, 2008, In September 2009, Facebook said that it had achieved positive cash flow for the first time.NEWS,weblink Facebook 'cash flow positive,' signs 300M users, CBC News, Toronto, September 16, 2009, March 23, 2010, A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users.NEWS, Kazeniac, Andy, Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs,weblink February 9, 2009, Compete Pulse blog, February 17, 2009, {{better source|date=May 2019}} The company announced 500 million users in July 2010. Half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site from mobile devices. A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution." In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. (an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion. The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and Amazon.com.NEWS, Sophie, Curtis, Facebook at 10: Zuckerberg hails 'incredible journey',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, February 3, 2014, May 31, 2017, WEB, Brian, Womack, Facebook Becomes Third Biggest US Web Company,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101203081529weblink">weblink Jakarta Globe, BeritaSatu Media Holdings, November 15, 2010, December 3, 2010, May 31, 2017, On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history.NEWS,weblink FB.com acquired by Facebook, January 11, 2011, NameMon News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110204210357weblink">weblink February 4, 2011, yes, In February 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California.WEB,weblink These Are Facebook's New Offices [PHOTOS], Parr, Ben, Mashable, en, February 6, 2019, WEB,weblink Facebook packs up for Menlo Park, www.almanacnews.com, en, February 6, 2019, Brundage, Sandy, In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing about 20,000 profiles daily for violations such as spam, graphic content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security.NEWS, Facebook deletes 20,000 underage profiles daily,weblink March 24, 2011, March 24, 2011, IBN Live, Press Trust of India, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, Statistics showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick.WEB, Emil, Protalinski, Facebook is first with 1 trillion page views, according to Google,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, August 24, 2011, July 13, 2017, WEB, Kate, Solomon, Facebook hit 1 trillion page views in June,weblink TechRadar, Future plc, August 25, 2011, July 13, 2017, According to a Nielsen study, Facebook had in 2011 become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google.NEWS, Google and Facebook top 2011's most visited sites in US,weblink March 8, 2012, July 13, 2017, BBC News, WEB, Ryan, Fleming, Google and Facebook top the most visited websites of 2011,weblink Digital Trends, December 29, 2011, July 13, 2017, China blocked Facebook in 2009.WEB,weblink China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots, Wauters, Robin, July 7, 2009, TechCrunch, AOL, June 15, 2017,

2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits, and one-billionth user

In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. The store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and mobile web users.NEWS,weblink Facebook app store launches amid mobile revenue worries, May 10, 2012, BBC News, In April 2012, Facebook acquired Instagram for approximately US$1 billion in cash and stock.Facebook's initial public offering came on May 17, 2012, at a share price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to that date.NEWS, Mark Milian and Marcus Chan, Facebook's Valuation: What $104 Billion Is Worth,weblink January 11, 2014, Bloomberg Technology, May 18, 2012, WEB, Kerr, Dara, Facebook stock hits a record high, since IPO,weblink C{{!, Net News|publisher=C{{!}}Net|accessdate=August 27, 2013}}NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120518023059weblink">weblink May 18, 2012, Stakes are high on Facebook's first day of trading, Andrew Tangel, Walter Hamilton, May 17, 2012, The Los Angeles Times, May 17, 2012, yes, The IPO raised $16 billion, the third-largest in U.S. history, after Visa Inc. in 2008 and AT&T Wireless in 2000.NEWS,weblink Facebook Raises $16 Billion in I.P.O., Evelyn M. Rusli, May 17, 2012, The New York Times, May 17, 2012, Peter Eavis, NEWS,weblink Questions and answers on blockbuster Facebook IPO, Bernard Condon, May 17, 2012, U.S. News, May 17, 2012, Associated Press, Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked 462.NEWS,weblink Facebook squeaks onto the Fortune 500, USA Today, May 6, 2013, May 19, 2013, Matt, Krantz, The shares set a first day record for trading volume of an IPO (460 million shares).NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120524053446weblink">weblink May 24, 2012, Facebook Sets Record For IPO Trading Volume, May 18, 2012, The Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2012, yes, The IPO was controversial given the immediate price declines that followed.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120528230445weblink">Facebook shares fall valuation doubts. Yahoo! FinanceTepid honeymoon of Facebook and NASDAQ does not deliver the big bang. forbes.comWEB,weblink Facebook Bankers Secretly Cut Facebook's Revenue Estimates In Middle Of IPO Roadshow, Henry Blodget, May 22, 2012, Yahoo! Finance, December 14, 2014, Facebook IPO underscores shutting out the masses. sfgate.com and was the subject of lawsuits,WEB, Listing of Recent Securities Lawsuits Filed Against Facebook,weblinkweblink yes, October 19, 2013, July 19, 2013, while SEC and FINRA both launched investigations.WEB,weblink Fury Over Facebook IPO Grows, Lawsuits Mount, Matt Nesto, May 23, 2012, Yahoo! Finance, December 14, 2014, File:Facebook on Nasdaq.jpeg|thumb|Billboard on the Thomson ReutersThomson ReutersZuckerberg announced at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had one billion monthly active users, including 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads and 140 billion friend connections.

2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI, and 10th anniversary

On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data present on its site.NEWS, Facebook introduces social search feature,weblink The Washington Post, Tsukayama, Hayley, January 15, 2013, Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware", returning results only from content already shared with the user.Claburn, Thomas (January 16, 2013). "Meet Facebook's Graph Search Tool". Information Week. On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC announced HTC First, a phone with Home pre-loaded.WEB, Dan, Seifert, HTC and Facebook announce the First smartphone with AT&T, arriving April 12th for $99.99,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 4, 2013, March 23, 2017, On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles.WEB, Ingrid, Lunden, Facebook Links Up With Attorneys General In 19 U.S. States For Teen Social Networking Safety Program,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 15, 2013, March 23, 2017, On April 19 Facebook modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.NEWS, Murphy, Samantha,weblink New Facebook Logo Made Official, Mashable, November 18, 2011, April 20, 2013, Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15 advertisers to withdrawal, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The company initially stated, "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies".NEWS, #FBrape: Will Facebook Heed Open Letter Protesting 'Endorsement Of Rape & Domestic Violence'?,weblink May 29, 2013, The Huffington Post UK, May 28, 2013, Nelson, Sara C., It took action on May 29.WEB, Rory, Carroll, Facebook gives way to campaign against hate speech on its pages,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, May 29, 2013, March 23, 2017, On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic.NEWS,weblink Facebook Introduces Hashtags to its Users, Dey, Aditya, TechStake-Technology News Blog, June 13, 2013, June 13, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130614152042weblink">weblink June 14, 2013, yes, San Mateo County, California, became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012 because of Facebook. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average salary was 107% higher than the previous year, at $168,000 a year, more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan), at roughly $110,000 a year.NEWS, How Facebook's IPO Created the Best-Paid County In America,weblink July 4, 2013, Corporate Intelligence blog, The Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2013, Thurm, Scott, Facebook joined Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) in October, as it launched. The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organizations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable to ease access in the developing world.WEB, Samuel, Gibbs, Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, October 7, 2013, March 23, 2017, On October 13, Facebook acquired Onavo, an Israeli mobile web analytics company.WEB,weblink Facebook Buys Mobile Data Analytics Company Onavo, Reportedly For Up To $200M… And (Finally?) Gets Its Office In Israel, Lunden, Ingrid, Oct 13, 2013, TechCrunch, WEB,weblink We are joining the Facebook team, Rosen, Guy, November 7, 2013, Onavo Blog,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131107004328weblink">weblink November 7, 2013, January 30, 2019, Standard & Poor's added Facebook to its S&P 500 index on December 21.WEB, Facebook to join S&P 500,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, December 11, 2013, December 13, 2017, In February 2014, Facebook announced that it would be buying mobile messaging company WhatsApp for US$19 billion in cash and stock.WEB,weblink Facebook buys WhatsApp for $19 billion, Covert, Adrian, February 19, 2014, CNNMoney, CNN, June 15, 2017, WEB,weblink Facebook Buys WhatsApp for $19 Billion, Stone, Brad, February 20, 2014, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, June 15, 2017, File:Oculus-Rift-CV1-Headset-Front.jpg|link=File:Oculus-Rift-CV1-Headset-Front.jpg|thumb|right|In 2014, Facebook bought Oculus VROculus VRThe company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014.WEB, Dominic, Rushe, Facebook posts record quarterly results and reports $1.5bn profit for 2013,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, January 29, 2014, March 23, 2017, In January 2014, over one billion users connected via a mobile device.WEB, McDuling, John,weblink Facebook's mobile user base has crossed the 1 billion threshold – Quartz, Qz.com, April 24, 2014, As of June, mobile accounted for 62% of advertising revenue, an increase of 21% from the previous year.NEWS, Lewis DVorkin, Inside Forbes: Mobile Part II, Or 4 More Charts That Offer a Peek Into the Future of Journalism,weblink Forbes, Forbes LLC, August 13, 2014, July 29, 2014, By September Facebook's market capitalization had exceeded $200 billion.NEWS, Victor, Luckerson, Facebook Is Now Worth $200 Billion,weblink Time (magazine), Time, September 8, 2014, May 31, 2017, WEB, Paul R., La Monica, A lot to 'like': Facebook now worth $200 billion,weblink CNNMoney, CNN, September 9, 2014, May 31, 2017, WEB, Facebook Valuation Tops $200 Billion,weblink Bloomberg L.P., September 8, 2014, May 31, 2017, Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin. Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in China's online policy, in December 8.

2015–present: Fake news, vaccine hesitancy, and Christchurch shooting

{{as of|2015|January|21|df=US}}, Facebook's algorithm was revised in an attempt to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes. It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook maintained that satirical content should not be intercepted.NEWS, Alexei, Oreskovic, Facebook clamps down on fake news stories,weblink February 4, 2015, Reuters, January 20, 2015, The algorithm was accused of maintaining a "filter bubble", where material the user disagrees withJOURNAL, Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook, Science, June 5, 2015, 25953820, 1130–1132, 348, 6239, 10.1126/science.aaa1160, Eytan, Bakshy, Solomon, Messing, Lada A., Adamic, 2015Sci...348.1130B, and posts with few likes would be deprioritized.WEB, Facebook Is Hiding Your Friends' Updates From You {{!, Unicorn Booty|url =weblink|website = Unicorn Booty|accessdate = November 8, 2015|date = May 28, 2015}} In November, Facebook extended paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months.NEWS,weblink 페이스북, 전세계 'ì•„ë¹  출산휴가' 4주→4개월로 확대, gong, November 28, 2015, On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg outlined his 10 year vision, which rested on three main pillars: artificial intelligence, increased global connectivity and virtual/augmented reality.NEWS,weblink Zuckerberg unveils 10-year plan to expand Facebook empire, with political tones, USA TODAY, April 12, 2016, In June, Facebook announced Deep Text, a natural language processing AI that learns user intent and context in 20 languages.NEWS, Pandey, Avaneesh, June 2, 2016, With 'Near-Human' Level Of Language And Context Comprehension,weblink IB Times, June 2, 2016, In July, a {{USD|1 billion}} suit was filed against the company alleging that it permitted Hamas to use it to perform assaults that cost the lives of four people.WEB,weblink Facebook Sued for $1B for Alleged Use of Medium for Terror, Gwen, Ackerman, Bloomberg L.P., July 11, 2016, September 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160819093935weblink">weblink August 19, 2016, yes, Facebook released its blueprints of Surround 360 camera on GitHub under an open-source license.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook open sources Surround 360 camera with Ikea-style instructions,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 26, 2016, March 23, 2017, In September, it won an Emmy for its animated short "Henry".WEB,weblink Facebook wins first Emmy for Visual animated short "Henry", September 20, 2016, September 21, 2016, In October, Facebook announced a fee-based communications tool called Workplace that aims to "connect everyone" at work. Users can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream live video and participate in secure group chats.NEWS, Hu, Howard,weblink Facebook's Workplace Could Replace All Emails Within Your Company, Forbes, October 11, 2016, October 11, 2016, Following the 2016 presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat fake news by using fact checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press (AP), making reporting hoaxes easier through crowdsourcing, and disrupting financial incentives for abusers.NEWS,weblink Facebook's Cracking Down on Fake News Starting Today, Alba, Davey, Wired (magazine), WIRED, en-US, December 15, 2016, On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planned to open Station F, a startup incubator campus in Paris, France.WEB, Sam, Shead, Facebook is planning to open a startup incubator in Paris,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, January 17, 2017, March 23, 2017, On a six-month cycle, Facebook committed to work with ten to 15 data-driven startups there.NEWS,weblink More than 100 entrepreneurs sign up to help Facebook and Station F find the best startups, WIRED, Matt Burgess, February 1, 2017, February 8, 2017, On April 18, Facebook announced the beta launch of {{visible anchor|Facebook Spaces}} at its annual F8 developer conference.NEWS,weblink Facebook's bold and bizarre VR hangout app is now available for the Oculus Rift, THE VERGE, Nick Statt, April 18, 2017, April 19, 2017, Facebook Spaces is a virtual reality version of Facebook for Oculus VR goggles. In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated selection of 360-degree photos and videos using their avatar, with the support of the controller. Users can access their own photos and videos, along with media shared on their newsfeed.NEWS,weblink A Closer Look at Facebook Spaces, the Company's First Social VR App, Variety, Janko Roettgers, April 18, 2017, April 19, 2017, In September, Facebook announced it would spend up to US$1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform.NEWS,weblink Facebook plans to spend up to $1B on original shows in 2018, Etherington, Darrell, TechCrunch, January 29, 2018, en, On October 16, it acquired the anonymous compliment app tbh, announcing its intention to leave the app independent.NEWS,weblink Facebook acquires anonymous teen compliment app tbh, will let it run, Constine, Josh, TechCrunch, October 17, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink Facebook has bought tbh, the anonymous app loved by teens, Business Insider, October 17, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink Facebook Buys TBH App Popular With Teens for Anonymous Messaging, October 16, 2017, Bloomberg.com, October 17, 2017, WEB,weblink tbh has a new home!, tbh, October 17, 2017,weblink October 17, 2017, yes, In May 2018 at F8, the company announced it would offer its own dating service. Shares in competitor Match Group fell by 22%.NEWS,weblink Facebook F8: Zuckerberg's dating service takes on Tinder, BBC News, May 2, 2018, May 2, 2018, Facebook Dating includes privacy features and friends will be unable to view their friends' dating profile.NEWS,weblink Facebook wants to get you a date – CBC News, In July, Facebook was charged £500,000 by UK watchdogs for failing to respond to data erasure requests.NEWS,weblink Facebook faces maximum fine for data misuse, July 11, 2018, BBC News, July 11, 2018, en-GB, On July 18, Facebook established a subsidiary named Lianshu Science & Technology in Hangzhou City, China, with $30 million of capital. All its shares are held by Facebook Hong.WEB,weblink Facebook sets up China subsidiary, Channel News Asia, July 24, 2018, Approval of the registration of the subsidiary was then withdrawn, due to a disagreement between officials in Zhejiang province and the Cyberspace Administration of China.NEWS,weblink China Said to Quickly Withdraw Approval for New Facebook Venture, New York Times, July 25, 2018, Paul, Mozur, On July 26, Facebook became the first company to lose over $100 billion worth of market capitalization in one day, dropping from nearly $630 billion to $510 billion after disappointing sales reports.NEWS,weblink Facebook's $100 billion-plus rout is the biggest loss in stock market history, Imbert, Fred, July 26, 2018, CNBC, July 26, 2018, Francolla, Gina, NEWS,weblink Facebook's stock market decline is the largest one-day drop in US history, Newton, Casey, July 26, 2018, The Verge, July 26, 2018, On July 31, Facebook said that the company had deleted 17 accounts related to the 2018 American elections. On September 19, Facebook announced that, for news distribution outside the United States, it would work with U.S. funded democracy promotion organizations, International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute, which are loosely affiliated with the Republican and Democratic parties.NEWS, Joseph Menn, Facebook expands fake election news fight, but falsehoods still rampant,weblink September 28, 2018, Reuters, Reuters, September 19, 2018, Through the Digital Forensic Research Lab Facebook partners with the Atlantic Council, a NATO-affiliated think tank. In November, Facebook launched smart displays branded Portal and Portal Plus (Portal+). They support Amazon's Alexa (intelligent personal assistant service). The devices include video chat function with Facebook Messenger.NEWS,weblink Facebook Portal brings Alexa and Messenger video chats to one device, October 8, 2018, CNET, November 10, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink You can buy Facebook's Portal smart displays starting today, November 7, 2018, CNET, November 10, 2018, en, In January 2019, the 10 year challenge was startedWEB,weblink Why everybody's doing the 10 year challenge (with the best so far), January 15, 2019, asking users to post a photograph of themselves from 10 years ago (2009) and a more recent photo.WEB,weblink Facebook '10 year challenge' could be used for good and evil thanks to AI, January 16, 2019, Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines.NEWS, Facebook announces anti-vaxx crackdown, will block ads with vaccine misinformation, Graham, Jefferson, March 7, 2019, March 8, 2019,weblink USA Today (Gannett), On March 14, Huffington Post reported that Facebook’s PR agency had paid someone to tweak Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg’s Wikipedia page, as well as adding a page for the global head of PR, Caryn Marooney.NEWS, Facebook, Axios And NBC Paid This Guy To Whitewash Wikipedia Pages, Feinberg, Askley, March 14, 2019, March 15, 2019,weblink Huffington Post, In March 2019, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand used Facebook to stream live footage of the attack as it unfolded. Facebook took 29 minutes to detect the livestreamed video, which was eight minutes longer than it took police to arrest the gunman. About 1.3m copies of the video were blocked from Facebook but 300,000 copies were published and shared. Facebook has promised changes to its platform; spokesman Simon Dilner told Radio New Zealand that it could have done a better job. Several companies, including the ANZ and ASB banks, have stopped advertising on Facebook after the company was widely condemned by the public.WEB,weblink Censor bans 'manifesto' of Christchurch mosque shooter, Charles, Anderson, March 24, 2019, www.theguardian.com, Following the attack, Facebook began blocking white nationalist, white supremacist, and white separatist content, saying that they could not be meaningfully separated. Previously, Facebook had only blocked overtly supremacist content. The older policy had been condemned by civil rights groups, who described these movements as functionally indistinct.NEWS, Romm, Tony, Dwoskin, Elizabeth, Facebook says it will now block white-nationalist, white-separatist posts,weblink March 28, 2019, Washington Post, March 27, 2019, en, NEWS, O'Sullivan, Donie, Facebook bans white nationalism two weeks after New Zealand attack,weblink March 28, 2019, CNN, March 27, 2019, Further bans were made in mid-April 2019, banning several British far-right organizations and associated individuals from Facebook, and also banning praise or support for them.NEWS,weblink Facebook bans far right groups and leaders, April 18, 2019, April 18, 2019, en-GB, BBC News, WEB,weblink Facebook bans UK’s biggest far-right organizations, including EDL, BNP, and Britain First, Vincent, James, April 18, 2019, The Verge, April 18, 2019, In early-April 2019, Facebook announced that it would be pulling its apps from Windows Phone on April 30, 2019, including Facebook, Messenger and Instagram.WEB,weblink Facebook will pull its apps from Windows Phone on April 30th, Khalid, Amrita, April 3, 2019, Engadget, en, April 4, 2019, NTJ's member Moulavi Zahran Hashim, a radical Islamist imam believed to be the mastermind behind the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, preached on a pro-ISIL Facebook account, known as "Al-Ghuraba" media.NEWS, Sri Lanka bombings 'retaliation' for Christchurch mosque attacks, minister says,weblink NZ Herald, April 23, 2019, NEWS, Sri Lanka 'bombing mastermind' named as Moulvi Zahran Hashim,weblink The Daily Telegraph, April 23, 2019, In May 2019, Facebook founded Libra Networks, reportedly in order to develop their own stablecoin cryptocurrency.NEWS, Bitcoin Above $8,000; Facebook Opens Crypto Company in Switzerland,weblink Investing.com, May 20, 2019, In recent developments it has been reported that Libra is being supported by financial companies like Visa, Mastercard, Paypal and Uber. The consortium of companies is expected to pool in $10 million each to fund the launch of the cryptocurrency coin named LibraWEB,weblink Facebook Gathers Companies to Back Cryptocurrency Launch, Reiff, Nathan, Investopedia, en, 2019-06-18, .On May 2, 2019 at F8, the company announced its new vision with the tagline "the future is private".WEB,weblink Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg says the "future is private", Statt, Nick, 2019-04-30, The Verge, 2019-05-04, A redesign of the website and mobile app was introduced, dubbed as "FB5".WEB,weblink Facebook pivots to what it wishes it was, TechCrunch, en-US, 2019-05-04, The event also featured plans for improving groups,WEB,weblink Analysis {{!, The Technology 202: Facebook's new emphasis on groups could leave it more vulnerable to disinformation|website=Washington Post|language=en|access-date=2019-05-04}} a dating platform,NEWS,weblink Will Facebook's Secret Crush end the unbearable pain of unrequited love?, Hunt, Elle, 2019-05-01, The Guardian, 2019-05-04, en-GB, 0261-3077, end-to-end encryption on its platforms,NEWS,weblink Facebook Unveils Redesign as It Tries to Move Past Privacy Scandals, Isaac, Mike, 2019-04-30, The New York Times, 2019-05-04, en-US, 0362-4331, and allowing users on Messenger to communicate directly with WhatsApp and Instagram users.WEB,weblink All the important stuff from Facebook’s F8 keynote, Engadget, en, 2019-05-04, WEB,weblink Takeaways from F8 and Facebook’s next phase, TechCrunch, en-US, 2019-05-04,

Corporate affairs

Management

Facebook's key management personnel consists of;WEB, Facebook Management,weblink Facebook Investor Relations, Facebook, March 29, 2019, {{As of|2018|12|31|df=US}}, Facebook had 35,587 employees.WEB, Company Info,weblink Facebook Newsroom, Facebook, December 31, 2018, March 29, 2019,

Board of directors

In April 2019, Facebook nominated Peggy Alford to be added as a board member during the May 2019 AGM. If this happens, she will become the first African-American woman to serve in this board, and the second African-American ever to do so.WEB,weblink Peggy Alford Nominated to Facebook’s Board of Directors {{!, Facebook Newsroom|language=en|access-date=April 16, 2019}} As of April 2019, Facebook's board consists of the following directors;

Revenue{| class"wikitable sortable" style"float: right; margin-left: 10px;"

|+ Revenues(in millions US$)! Year !! Revenue !! Growth0.4}}MAY 21, 2015 >URL=HTTPS://TECHCRUNCH.COM/2012/02/01/FACEBOOK-IPO-FACEBOOK-IPO-FACEBOOK-IPO/ WORK= TECHCRUNCH AUTHOR=TSOTSIS, ALEXIA, style="text-align:center;"|—9}} {{#expr:(9/0.4*100 round 0)-100}}%48}} {{#expr:(48/9*100 round 0)-100}}%153}} {{#expr:(153/48*100 round 0)-100}}%280}}JULY 13, 2010 >URL=HTTPS://TECHCRUNCH.COM/2009/05/19/FACEBOOK-TURNS-DOWN-8-BILLION-VALUATION-TERM-SHEET-CLAIMS-2009-REVENUES-TO-BE-550-MILLION/ WORK= TECHCRUNCH AUTHOR=ARRINGTON, MICHAEL, {{#expr:(280/153*100 round 0)-100}}%775}}JANUARY 5, 2011 >URL=HTTPS://TECHCRUNCH.COM/2011/01/05/REPORT-FACEBOOK-REVENUE-WAS-777-MILLION-IN-2009-NET-INCOME-200-MILLION/ WORK= TECHCRUNCH AUTHOR=TSOTSIS, ALEXIA, {{#expr:(775/280*100 round 0)-100}}%2000}}JANUARY 5, 2011 >URL=HTTPS://WWW.BLOOMBERG.COM/NEWS/2010-12-16/FACEBOOK-SALES-SAID-LIKELY-TO-REACH-2-BILLION-THIS-YEAR-BEATING-TARGET.HTML WORK= BLOOMBERG DATE=DECEMBER 16, 2010 | {{#expr:(2000/775*100 round 0)-100}}%3711}}HTTP://INVESTOR.FB.COM/RELEASEDETAIL.CFM?RELEASEID=736911> TITLE=FACEBOOK REPORTS FOURTH QUARTER AND FULL YEAR 2012 RESULTS DATE=JANUARY 30, 2013 | {{#expr:(3711/2000*100 round 0)-100}}%5089}}HTTP://INVESTOR.FB.COM/RELEASEDETAIL.CFM?RELEASEID=821954> TITLE=FACEBOOK REPORTS FOURTH QUARTER AND FULL YEAR 2013 RESULTS DATE=JANUARY 29, 2014 | {{#expr:(5089/3711*100 round 0)-100}}%7872}} {{#expr:(7872/5089*100 round 0)-100}}%12466}}MAY 27, 2015 >URL=HTTP://INVESTOR.FB.COM/RELEASEDETAIL.CFM?RELEASEID=893395 PUBLISHER=FACEBOOK, {{#expr:(12466/7872*100 round 0)-100}}%17928}}MARCH 13, 2016 >URL=HTTP://INVESTOR.FB.COM/RELEASEDETAIL.CFM?RELEASEID=952040 PUBLISHER=FACEBOOK, {{#expr:(17928/12466*100 round 0)-100}}%27638}}APRIL 14, 2018 >URL=HTTPS://S21.Q4CDN.COM/399680738/FILES/DOC_FINANCIALS/ANNUAL_REPORTS/FB_AR_2016_FINAL.PDF PUBLISHER=FACEBOOK, {{#expr:(27638/17928*100 round 0)-100}}%40653}}APRIL 14, 2018 >URL=HTTPS://INVESTOR.FB.COM/INVESTOR-NEWS/PRESS-RELEASE-DETAILS/2018/FACEBOOK-REPORTS-FOURTH-QUARTER-AND-FULL-YEAR-2017-RESULTS/DEFAULT.ASPX PUBLISHER=FACEBOOK, {{#expr:(40653/27638*100 round 0)-100}}%|2018WEBSITE=INVESTOR.FB.COMACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 4, 2019, |38%Facebook ranked No. 76 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by revenue.WEB,weblink Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List, Fortune, en-US, November 10, 2018, Most comes from advertising.WEB, Jolie O'Dell 203,weblink Facebook's Ad Revenue Hit $1.86B for 2010, Mashable.com, January 17, 2011, December 21, 2011, NEWS, Womack, Brian,weblink Facebook Revenue Will Reach $4.27 Billion, EMarketer Says, Bloomberg, September 20, 2011, December 21, 2011, Significant revenue comes from bulk data access sold to the third parties.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Finally Lets Its Firehose Be Tapped For Marketing Insights Thanks To DataSift,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 10, 2015, March 23, 2017, NEWS, January 30, 2017,weblink ACLU exposes Facebook, Twitter for feeding surveillance company user data, ArsTechnica, October 11, 2016, (File:Chart of Facebook, inc. Stock.png|thumb|Chart of Facebook's stock)

Number of advertisers

In February 2015, Facebook announced that it had reached two million active advertisers with most of the gain coming from small businesses. An active advertiser is an advertiser that has advertised on the Facebook platform in the last 28 days.NEWS, Meola, Andrew,weblink Active, in this case, means the advertiser has advertised on the site in the last 28 days., TheStreet, TheStreet, Inc., February 24, 2015, February 25, 2015, In March 2016, Facebook announced that it reached three million active advertisers with more than 70% from outside the US.WEB,weblink 3 Million Advertisers on Facebook, Facebook for Business, Prices for advertising follow a variable pricing model based on ad auction bids, potential engagement levels of the advertisement itself. Similar to other onlien advertising platforms like google and twitter, targeting of advertisements is one of the chief merits of advertising visa a vis traditional mass advertising modes like television and print. Marketing on facebook is employed through two methods based on the surfing habits, likes and shares, and purchasing data of the audience, namely targeted audiences and "look alike" audiences.NEWS, Complete interview with Brad Parscale and the Trump marketign strategy, PBS Frontline,

Mergers and acquisitions

Facebook's major acquisitions include Instagram, WhatsApp and Oculus Rift.

Offices

Users outside of the US and Canada contract with Facebook's Irish subsidiary "Facebook Ireland Limited". This allows Facebook to avoid US taxes for all users in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. Facebook is making use of the Double Irish arrangement which allows it to pay just about 2–3% corporation tax on all international revenue.NEWS,weblink Google 2.4% Rate Shows How $60 Billion Lost to Tax Loopholes, Bloomberg, Bloomberg.com, Jesse, Drucker, October 21, 2010, In 2010, Facebook opened its fourth office, in HyderabadNEWS, PTI,weblink Facebook opens office in India, The Hindu, September 30, 2010, May 5, 2012, Chennai, India, WEB,weblink Kirthiga Reddy: The face behind Facebook, Businesstoday.intoday.in, May 15, 2011, May 5, 2012, WEB, Nikhil Pahwa,weblink Facebook Appoints Kirthiga Reddy As Head Of Indian Operations, Medianama.com, July 16, 2010, May 5, 2012, and the first in Asia.NEWS, Facebook's India face-Meet Kirthiga Reddy, Head and Director Online Operations, Facebook India.,weblink November 14, 2011, MSN India, Facebook's Hyderabad center houses online advertising and developer support teams and provide support to users and advertisers.WEB,weblink Facebook's Hyderabad Office Inaugurated – Google vs Facebook Battle Comes To India, Watblog.com, May 5, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120101131508weblink">weblink January 1, 2012, In India Facebook is registered as 'Facebook India Online Services Pvt Ltd'.NEWS,weblink Not responsible for user-generated content hosted on website: Facebook India, Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com, February 29, 2012, May 5, 2012, WEB,weblink Facebook India to court: Not responsible for user-generated content – Gadgets Now, Gadget Now, February 29, 2012, WEB,weblink Facebook India to court: Not responsible for user-generated content, M.timesofindia.com, February 29, 2012, May 5, 2012, It also has support centers in Dublin, California, Ireland and Austin, Texas.NEWS, April 16, 2011, April 16, 2011, Zuckerberg at Ore. Facebook data center, Associated Press,weblink The Boston Globe, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130619084508weblink">weblink June 19, 2013, Facebook opened its London headquarters in 2017 in Fitzrovia in central London. Facebook opened an office in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2018. The offices were initially home to Facebook's "Connectivity Lab", a group focused on bringing Internet access those who do not have access to the Internet.NEWS, Nanos, Janelle,weblink Facebook to open new office in Kendall Square, adding hundreds of jobs, The Boston Globe, August 30, 2017, August 30, 2017, 1601californiaavelobby.jpg|Entrance to Facebook's previous headquarters in the Stanford Research Park, Palo Alto, CaliforniaFacebook Headquarters 1 Hacker Way Menlo Park.jpg|Entrance to Facebook headquarters complex in Menlo Park, CaliforniaInside the Facebook campus.jpg|Inside the Facebook headquarters in 2014{{Clear}}

Data centers

As of 2019 the company operated 15 data center locations. Facebook committed to purchase 100 percent renewable energy and reduce our greenhouse gas emissions by 75 percent by 2020. Data center technologies include Fabric Aggregator, a distributed network system that accommodates larger regions and varied traffic patterns.WEB,weblink Data centers: 2018 year in review, January 1, 2019, Facebook Code, en-US, February 5, 2019, The StatePoint Liquid Cooling (SPLC) system is an evaporative cooling system that uses water to drive cooling.

Tax affairs

{{see also|Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland#Multinational tax schemes|Double Irish arrangement#Effect of Tax Cuts and Jobs Act}}The US IRS challenged the valuation Facebook used when it transferred IP from the US to Facebook Ireland in 2010 (which Facebook Ireland then revalued higher before charging out), as it was building its double Irish tax structure.NEWS,weblink Facebook must give judge documents for U.S. tax probe of Irish unit, Reuters, March 28, 2018, WEB,weblink Facebook's Dublin HQ central to $5bn US tax probe, Sunday Business Post, April 1, 2018, The case is ongoing and Facebook faces a potential fine of $3–5bn.WEB,weblink Facebook Ordered to Comply With U.S. Tax Probe of Irish Unit, Bloomberg News, March 28, 2018, The US Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 changed Facebook's global tax calculations. Facebook Ireland is subject to the US GILTI tax of 10.5% on global intangible profits (i.e. Irish profits). On the basis that Facebook Ireland is paying some tax, the effective minimum US tax for Facebook Ireland will be circa 11%. In contrast, Facebook Inc. would incur a special IP tax rate of 13.125% (the FDII rate) if its Irish business relocated to the US. Tax relief in the US (21% vs. Irish at the GILTI rate) and accelerated capital expensing, would make this effective US rate around 12%.WEB,weblink KPMG Report on TCJA, KPMG, February 2018, MAGAZINE,weblink Breaking Down the New U.S. Corporate Tax Law, Harvard Business Review, December 26, 2017, NEWS, US corporations could be saying goodbye to Ireland,weblink Irish Times, January 17, 2018, The insignificance of the US/Irish tax difference was demonstrated when Facebook moved 1.5bn non-EU accounts to the US to limit exposure to GDPR.WEB,weblink Exclusive: Facebook to put 1.5 billion users out of reach of new EU privacy law, April 19, 2018, Reuters News, NEWS,weblink Facebook moves 1.5bn users out of reach of new European privacy law, The Guardian, London, April 19, 2018,

Website{{anchor|Features}}

(File:Original-facebook.jpg|thumb|Profile shown on Thefacebook in 2005)(File:Facebook.svg|thumb|Previous Facebook logo in use from August 23, 2005 until July 1, 2015)

Technical aspects

The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red–green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007JOURNAL, Generation Why?,weblink The New York Review of Books, February 15, 2014, Zadie Smith, November 25, 2010, WEB, LETTER FROM PALO ALTO: THE FACE OF FACEBOOK,weblink The New Yorker, Condé Nast, February 15, 2014, Jose Antonio Vargas, September 20, 2010, Facebook is built in PHP, compiled with HipHop for PHP, a "source code transformer" built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++.WEB, Developer Blog – HipHop for PHP: Move Fast,weblink Facebook Developers, Facebook, November 11, 2013, Haiping Zhao, February 2, 2010, The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%.WEB, Ryan, Paul, Exclusive: a behind-the-scenes look at Facebook release engineering,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, April 5, 2012, June 14, 2017,

2012 architecture

Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Chuck Rossi, a build engineer at Facebook, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release system. Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process has zero downtime. Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily.Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The system rolls these events up and writes them to storage. The user interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file using Scribe (developed by Facebook).WEB,weblink Facebook's New Real-time Analytics System: HBase To Process 20 Billion Events Per Day, Highscalability.com, March 22, 2011, December 26, 2012, Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out. Ptail data are separated into three streams and sent to clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article generates many impressions and news feed impressions that cause huge data skews). Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table.Data is then output in PHP format. The backend is written in Java. Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions display pages more quickly. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers where it is queried via Hive. This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from Hive.

Hack

On March 20, 2014, Facebook announced a new open-source programming language called Hack. Before public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new language.NEWS,weblink Facebook Introduces 'Hack', the Programming Language of the Future, March 20, 2014, Wired, Cade, Metz, Facebook uses the Momentum platform from Message Systems to deliver the enormous volume of emails it sends to its users every day.NEWS,weblink The biggest email provider you've never heard of, October 6, 2014, Fortune, Heather, Clancy,

History

On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a cleaner look.NEWS,weblink Facebook Facelift Targets Aging Users and New Competitors, The New York Times, Havenstein, Heather, July 21, 2008, Facebook began migrating users to the new version in September 2008.WEB,weblink Moving to the new Facebook, The Facebook Blog, September 12, 2008, Slee, Mark, September 10, 2008,

User profile/personal timeline

(File:Facebook (login, signup page).jpg|thumb|Facebook login/signup screen)Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content.WEB, Kate, Knibbs, How Facebook's design has changed over the last 10 years,weblink The Daily Dot, December 11, 2015, June 14, 2017, The format of individual user pages was revamped in September 2011 and became known as "Timeline", a chronological feed of a user's stories,WEB, Jacob, Schulman, Facebook introduces Timeline: 'a new way to express who you are',weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 22, 2011, June 14, 2017, JOURNAL, Chris, Gayomali, Facebook Introduces 'Timeline': The 'Story' of Your Life,weblink Time (magazine), Time, September 22, 2011, June 14, 2017, including status updates, photos, interactions with apps and events.WEB, Matthew, Panzarino, Facebook introduces radical new profile design called Timeline: The story of your life [Video],weblink The Next Web, September 22, 2011, June 14, 2017, The layout let users add a "cover photo". Users were given more privacy settings. In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbase.WEB, Jason, Weaver, The Evolution of Facebook for Brands,weblink Mashable, March 30, 2012, June 14, 2017, WEB, Before Graph Search: Facebook's Biggest Changes,weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, June 14, 2017, January 15, 2013, 100,000 Pages launched in November.WEB, Rob, Hof, Facebook Declares New Era for Advertising,weblink Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, November 6, 2007, June 14, 2017, In June 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, allowing users to choose a unique nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier sharing.WEB, Ben, Parr, Facebook to Launch Vanity URLs for All,weblink Mashable, June 9, 2009, June 14, 2017, WEB, Nick, O'Neill, Facebook Begins Rolling Out Free Profile Usernames For Vanity URLs,weblink Adweek, Beringer Capital, June 9, 2009, June 14, 2017, In February 2014, Facebook expanded the gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the site.WEB, Jordan, Crook, Josh, Constine, Facebook Opens Up LGBTQ-Friendly Gender Identity And Pronoun Options,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 13, 2014, March 23, 2017, WEB, Facebook expands gender options: transgender activists hail 'big advance',weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, February 14, 2014, June 14, 2017, WEB, Alexei, Oreskovic, In new profile feature, Facebook offers choices for gender identity,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, February 13, 2014, June 14, 2017, In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click.WEB, Sam, Machkovech, Facebook adds naggy "ask" button to profile pages,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, May 16, 2014, June 14, 2017, NEWS, Laura, Stampler, Facebook's New 'Ask' Button Gives You a Whole New Way to Badger Friends About Their Relationship Status,weblink Time (magazine), Time, May 19, 2014, June 14, 2017,

News Feed

News Feed appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events and friends' birthdays.WEB,weblink Facebook Gets a Facelift, February 11, 2008, Sanghvi, Ruchi, September 6, 2006, The Facebook Blog, This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause.WEB,weblink Facebook: Celebrate Your Birthday Every Day, Colnect blog, March 9, 2010, Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users).NEWS, June 28, 2008,weblink Facebook Learns from Its Fumble, BusinessWeek, New York, September 8, 2006, Lacy, Sarah, Sarah Lacy, Zuckerberg apologized for the site's failure to include appropriate privacy features. Users then gained control over what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts and newly added friends.NEWS, June 28, 2008,weblink Facebook Founder Apologizes In Privacy Flap; Users Given More Control, InformationWeek, New York, September 8, 2006, Gonsalves, Antone, On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patentPATENT, US, 7669123, patent, on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the activity of another user.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515155132weblink">weblink May 15, 2011, US Patent No. 7669123, March 9, 2010, Social Media, March 1, 2010, The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank algorithm.WEB,weblink EdgeRank, October 29, 2007, EdgeRank, February 16, 2013, The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos.WEB, Michael, Arrington, Michael Arrington, Facebook Launches Facebook Platform; They are the Anti-MySpace,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 24, 2007, March 23, 2017, Each album can contain 200 photos.WEB,weblink Share More Memories with Larger Photo Albums, January 4, 2010, Privacy settings apply to individual albums. Users can "tag", or label, friends in a photo. The friend receives a notification about the tag with a link to the photo.WEB, March 15, 2008,weblink Photos, Facebook, yes,weblink July 31, 2008, On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications.NEWS,weblink Facebook to launch App Center, June 8, 2012, The Times Of India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120608112718weblink">weblink June 8, 2012, On May 13, 2015, Facebook in association with major news portals launched "Instant Articles" to provide news on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site.WEB,weblink Introducing Instant Articles – Facebook Media, fb.com, WEB,weblink Facebook launches "Instant Articles", Preview Tech, May 14, 2015, In January 2017, Facebook launched Facebook Stories for iOS and Android in Ireland. The feature, following the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Stories puts a Snapchat clone above the News Feed,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 25, 2017, March 23, 2017, On October 11, 2017, Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading interactive 3D assets.WEB, Rachel, Franklin, Building Connections Through Creativity and Opening VR to Everyone,weblink Oculus, October 11, 2017, February 28, 2018, On January 11, 2018, Facebook announced that it would change News Feed to prioritize friends/family content and de-emphasize content from media companies.NEWS,weblink Facebook Overhauls News Feed to Focus on What Friends and Family Share, Isaac, Mike, 2018, The New York Times, January 17, 2018, en-US, 0362-4331,

Like button

The "like" button, stylized as a "thumbs up" icon, was first enabled on February 9, 2009,WEB, Jason, Kincaid, Facebook Activates "Like" Button; FriendFeed Tires Of Sincere Flattery,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 9, 2009, May 31, 2017, and enables users to easily interact with status updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content is more likely to appear in friends' News Feeds.WEB, JP, Mangalindan, Facebook Likes don't go as far as they used to in News Feed update,weblink Mashable, April 21, 2015, May 31, 2017, WEB, Josh, Constine, How Facebook News Feed Works,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 6, 2016, May 31, 2017, The button displays the number of other users who have liked the content.WEB, Like and React to Posts,weblink Facebook Help Center, Facebook, May 31, 2017, The like button was extended to comments in June 2010.WEB, Chloe, Albanesius, Facebook Adds Ability to 'Like' Comments,weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, June 17, 2010, May 31, 2017, Facebook expanded Like into "Reactions", choosing among five pre-defined emotions, including "Love", "Haha", "Wow", "Sad", or "Angry".WEB, Casey, Newton, Facebook rolls out expanded Like button reactions around the world,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, February 24, 2016, May 31, 2017, JOURNAL, Liz, Stinson, Facebook Reactions, the Totally Redesigned Like Button, Is Here,weblink Wired (website), Wired, February 24, 2016, May 31, 2017, WEB, Natt, Garun, Facebook reactions have now infiltrated comments,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 3, 2017, May 31, 2017, WEB, David, Cohen, Facebook Just Extended Reactions to Comments,weblink Adweek, Beringer Capital, May 3, 2017, May 31, 2017,

Instant messaging

Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. It began as Facebook Chat in 2008,WEB, Mark, Hendrickson, Facebook Chat Launches, For Some,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 6, 2008, June 2, 2017, was revamped in 2010WEB, MG, Siegler, Facebook's Modern Messaging System: Seamless, History, And A Social Inbox,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 15, 2010, June 2, 2017, and eventually became a standalone mobile app in August 2011, while remaining part of the user page on browsers.WEB, Jason, Kincaid, Facebook Launches Standalone iPhone/Android Messenger App (And It's Beluga),weblink TechCrunch, AOL, August 9, 2011, June 2, 2017, Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-oneWEB, Hope, King, Facebook Messenger now lets you make video calls,weblink CNN, April 27, 2015, June 2, 2017, and groupWEB, Nick, Statt, Facebook Messenger now lets you video chat with up to 50 people,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 19, 2016, June 2, 2017, voiceWEB, Ellis, Hamburger, Facebook launches free calling for all iPhone users in the US,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, January 16, 2013, June 2, 2017, and video calls.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Messenger Launches Free VOIP Video Calls Over Cellular And Wi-Fi,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 27, 2015, June 2, 2017, Its Android app has integrated support for SMSWEB, Charles, Arthur, Facebook turns Messenger into a text message killer,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, December 4, 2012, June 2, 2017, and "Chat Heads", which are round profile photo icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open,WEB, Chat Heads come to Facebook Messenger for Android,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 12, 2013, June 2, 2017, while both apps support multiple accounts,WEB, Sarah, Perez, Facebook Tests SMS Integration In Messenger, Launches Support For Multiple Accounts,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 11, 2016, June 2, 2017, conversations with optional end-to-end encryptionJOURNAL, Andy, Greenberg, You Can All Finally Encrypt Facebook Messenger, So Do It,weblink Wired (website), Wired, October 4, 2016, June 2, 2017, and "Instant Games".WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Messenger launches Instant Games,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 29, 2016, June 2, 2017, Some features, including sending moneyWEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Introduces Free Friend-To-Friend Payments Through Messages,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 17, 2015, June 2, 2017, and requesting transportation,WEB, Andrew J., Hawkins, Facebook Messenger now lets you hail an Uber car,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 16, 2015, June 2, 2017, are limited to the United States. In 2017, Facebook added "Messenger Day", a feature that lets users share photos and videos in a story-format with all their friends with the content disappearing after 24 hours;WEB, James, Vincent, Facebook's Snapchat stories clone, Messenger Day, is now rolling out globally,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 9, 2017, June 2, 2017, Reactions, which lets users tap and hold a message to add a reaction through an emoji;WEB, James, Vincent, Facebook Messenger gets reactions for individual messages and @ notifications,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 23, 2017, June 2, 2017, and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a particular user a notification.Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Third-party developers can integrate apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a chat.WEB, Hope, King, 7 big changes coming to Facebook,weblink CNN, March 25, 2015, June 2, 2017, Developers can build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots to distribute news.WEB, Casey, Newton, Facebook launches a bot platform for Messenger,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 12, 2016, June 2, 2017, The M virtual assistant (U.S.) scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions, such as its payments system for users mentioning money.WEB, Nick, Statt, Facebook's AI assistant will now offer suggestions inside Messenger,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 6, 2017, June 2, 2017, WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Messenger's AI 'M' suggests features to use based on your convos,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 6, 2017, June 2, 2017, Group chatbots appear in Messenger as "Chat Extensions". A "Discovery" tab allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the user to a specific bot.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Messenger launches group bots and bot discovery tab,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 18, 2017, June 2, 2017,

Following

Users can "Follow" content posted by other users without needing to friend them.WEB,weblink Facebook snubs 'Subscribe' button in favor of Twitter-esque 'Follow' on all profile pages, Hamburger, Ellis, December 5, 2012, The Verge, Vox Media, March 23, 2017, Accounts can be "verified", confirming a user's identity.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Launches Verified Accounts and Pseudonyms,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 15, 2012, March 23, 2017,

Privacy controls

{{See also|#Privacy}}File:Prism-slide-8.jpg|thumb|PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA collects user data from companies like Facebook and Yahoo!.NEWS,weblink Edward Snowden: Leaks that exposed US spy programme, BBC NewsBBC NewsFacebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their profileWEB, June 13, 2009,weblink Search Privacy, Facebook, through privacy settings.WEB,weblink Choose Your Privacy Settings, Facebook, September 10, 2009, The user's name and profile picture (if applicable) are public. Facebook's revenue depends on targeted advertising, which involves analyzing user data (from the site and the broader internet) to inform the targeting. These facilities have changed repeatedly since the service's debut, amid a series of controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data, to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of access given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and governments. These facilities vary according to country, as some nations require the company to make data available (and limit access to services), while the European Union's GDPR regulation mandates additional privacy protections.NEWS,weblink Facebook’s Timeline: 15 Years In, Wilberding, Kurt, February 4, 2019, Wall Street Journal, February 6, 2019, Wells, Georgia, en-US, 0099-9660,

Facebook Bug Bounty Program

File:Facebook t-shirt with whitehat debit card for Hackers.jpg|thumb|A Facebook "White Hat" debit card, given to researchers who report security bugsecurity bugOn July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program that paid security researchers a minimum of $500 for reporting security holes. The company promised not to pursue "white hat" hackers who identified such problems.WEB,weblink Facebook, Facebook, August 4, 2014, MAGAZINE,weblink Facebook Offers $500 Bounty for Reporting Bugs: Why So Cheap, PC Magazine, January 18, 2015, This led researchers in many countries to participate, particularly in India and Russia.WEB, Bug Bounty, Facebook, Facebook Bug Bounty,weblink Facebook Security, April 3, 2014,

Reception

File:Most popular social networking sites by country.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|{{legend-table|lang=en|title=Most popular social networking sites by country in 2015FacebookTwitterVKontakteQZoneOdnoklassnikiOdnoklassniki

User growth

Facebook's rapid growth began as soon as it became available and has continued through 2018.Facebook passed 100 million registered users in 2008,WEB, Stan, Schroeder, Facebook's 100 Million Users: How Much are They Worth?,weblink Mashable, August 26, 2008, June 4, 2017, and 500 million in July 2010.WEB, Robin, Wauters, Zuckerberg Makes It Official: Facebook Hits 500 Million Members,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 21, 2010, June 4, 2017, According to the company's data at the July 2010 announcement, half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile.WEB, Charles, Arthur, Jemima, Kiss, Facebook reaches 500 million users,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 21, 2010, March 23, 2017, In October 2012 Facebook's monthly active users passed one billion,WEB, Aaron, Smith, Laurie, Segal, Stacy, Cowley, Facebook reaches one billion users,weblink CNN, October 4, 2012, June 4, 2017, WEB, Jemima, Kiss, Facebook hits 1 billion users a month,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, October 4, 2012, June 4, 2017, with 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections.WEB, Daniel, Ionescu, Facebook rules the social networking world with 1 billion users,weblink PC World, International Data Group, October 4, 2012, June 4, 2017, The 2 billion user mark was crossed in June 2017.WEB, Chris, Welch, Facebook crosses 2 billion monthly users,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 27, 2017, June 27, 2017, WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook now has 2 billion monthly users ... and responsibility,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 27, 2017, July 1, 2017, In November 2015, after skepticism about the accuracy of its "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook changed its definition to a logged-in member who visits the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the 30 day period prior to the measurement. This excluded the use of third-party services with Facebook integration, which was previously counted.WEB, David, Cohen, Facebook Changes Definition of Monthly Active Users,weblink Adweek, Beringer Capital, November 6, 2015, June 4, 2017, File:Facebook popularity.PNG|Facebook popularity. Active users of Facebook increased from just a million in 2004 to over 2.3 billion in 2018.Population pyramid of Facebook users by age.png|Population pyramid of Facebook users by age {{as of|2010|January|1|lc=y|df=US}}WEB,weblink December Data on Facebook's US Growth by Age and Gender: Beyond 100 Million – Inside Facebook, Inside Facebook, October 7, 2014,

Demographics

The highest number of Facebook users as of October 2018 are from India and the United States, followed by Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico.WEB,weblink Facebook users by country {{!, Statistic|website=Statista|language=en|access-date=February 4, 2019}} Region-wise, the highest number of users are from Asia-Pacific (947 million) followed by Europe (381 million) and US&Canada (242 million). The rest of the world have 750 million users.WEB,weblink Number of Facebook Monthly Active Users Worldwide, By Region - DGraph, Khan, Aarzu, August 19, 2018, Dazeinfo, en-GB, February 4, 2019, Over the 2008-2018 period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the total.

Awards

The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007,NEWS, May 9, 2008,weblink Social Networking, PC Magazine, August 13, 2007, and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008.WEB, May 6, 2008,weblink 12th Annual Webby Awards Nominees, International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100926024111weblink">weblink September 26, 2010, In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" awardWEB, Anthony, Ha, Congratulations to Facebook, Bing, and the other Crunchies winners,weblink VentureBeat, January 11, 2010, July 13, 2017, for the third year in a row.WEB, Jason, Kincaid, Congratulations Crunchies Winners! Facebook Takes Best Overall For The Hat Trick,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 8, 2010, March 23, 2017,

Censorship

{{Further|Censorship of Facebook}}In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China,WEB, Robin, Wauters, China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 7, 2009, June 3, 2017, Iran,WEB, Iranian government blocks Facebook access,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, May 24, 2009, June 3, 2017, Syria,WEB, Khaled Yacoub, Oweis, Syria blocks Facebook in Internet crackdown,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, November 23, 2007, June 3, 2017, and North Korea. In May 2018, the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on the country, though no ban has since occurred.WEB, Facebook to be banned in Papua New Guinea for a month,weblink BBC News, BBC, May 29, 2018, May 30, 2018,

Criticisms and controversies

File:Mark Zuckerberg 1984 Berlin Graffiti.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.75|Graffiti in Berlin of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. The caption is a reference to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-FourNineteen Eighty-FourFacebook's importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Notable issues include Internet privacy, excessive retention of user information,NEWS, Maria, Aspen, How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free,weblink The New York Times, February 11, 2008, June 3, 2017, its facial recognition software,WEB, Sebastian, Anthony, Facebook's facial recognition software is now as accurate as the human brain, but what now?,weblink ExtremeTech, Ziff Davis, March 19, 2014, June 3, 2017, WEB, Liz, Gannes, Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, June 8, 2011, June 3, 2017, its addictive qualityWEB,weblink Facebook: The World's Biggest Waste of Time?, Robinson, Bill, February 10, 2014, www.huffingtonpost.com, Huffington Post, March 3, 2018, and its role in the workplace, including employer access to employee accounts.WEB, Matt, Friedman, Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates' Facebook accounts is headed to governor,weblink NJ.com, Advance Digital, March 21, 2013, June 3, 2017, Facebook is alleged to have psychological effects, including feelings of jealousyWEB, How Facebook Breeds Jealousy,weblink Seeker (media company), Seeker, Group Nine Media, February 10, 2010, June 3, 2017, WEB, Chris, Matyszczyk, Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, August 11, 2009, June 3, 2017, and stress,WEB, Chenda, Ngak, Facebook may cause stress, study says,weblink CBS News, CBS, November 27, 2012, June 3, 2017, WEB, Dave, Smith, Quitting Facebook will make you happier and less stressed, study says,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, November 13, 2015, June 3, 2017, a lack of attentionWEB, Michael J., Bugeja, Facing the Facebook,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080220193743weblink">weblink The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 23, 2006, February 20, 2008, June 3, 2017, and social media addiction.NEWS, Andrew, Hough, Student 'addiction' to technology 'similar to drug cravings', study finds,weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, April 8, 2011, June 3, 2017, NEWS, Facebook and Twitter 'more addictive than tobacco and alcohol',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, February 1, 2012, June 3, 2017, European antitrust regulator Margrethe Vestager stated that Facebook's terms of service relating to private data were "unbalanced".WEB, Evan Osnos,weblink Can Mark Zuckerberg Fix Facebook Before It Breaks Democracy?, The New Yorker, September 17, 2018 Issue, September 15, 2018, Facebook has been criticized for electricity usage,WEB, Robin, Wauters, Greenpeace Slams Zuckerberg For Making Facebook A "So Coal Network" (Video),weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 16, 2010, June 3, 2017, tax avoidance,WEB, Rupert, Neate, Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits made outside US, figures show,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, December 23, 2012, June 3, 2017, real-name user requirement policies,WEB, Emanuella, Grinberg, Facebook 'real name' policy stirs questions around identity,weblink CNN, September 18, 2014, June 3, 2017, censorshipWEB, Vidhi, Doshi, Facebook under fire for 'censoring' Kashmir-related posts and accounts,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 19, 2016, June 3, 2017, WEB, Michael, Arrington, Michael Arrington, Is Facebook Really Censoring Search When It Suits Them?,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 22, 2007, June 3, 2017, and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program.WEB, Glenn, Greenwald, Ewen, MacAskill, NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, June 7, 2013, June 3, 2017, Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal and/or offensive material. Specifics include copyright and intellectual property infringement,WEB, Ariha, Setalvad, Why Facebook's video theft problem can't last,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, August 7, 2015, June 3, 2017, hate speech,WEB, Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech,weblink BBC News, BBC, March 14, 2017, June 3, 2017, WEB, Amar, Toor, Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee hate speech,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 15, 2015, June 3, 2017, incitement of rapeNEWS, Philip, Sherwell, Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of Facebook 'rape pages',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, October 16, 2011, June 3, 2017, and terrorism,WEB, 20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement,weblink The Times of Israel, October 27, 2015, June 3, 2017, WEB, Israel: Facebook's Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands,weblink The Times of Israel, July 2, 2016, June 3, 2017, fake news,WEB, Samuel, Burke, Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake news,weblink CNN, November 19, 2016, June 3, 2017, NEWS, Hillary Clinton says Facebook 'must prevent fake news from creating a new reality',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, June 1, 2017, June 3, 2017, Staff, Our Foreign, WEB, Seth, Fiegerman, Facebook's global fight against fake news,weblink CNN, May 9, 2017, June 3, 2017, and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent incidents.WEB, Emanuella, Grinberg, Samira, Said, Police: At least 40 people watched teen's sexual assault on Facebook Live,weblink CNN, March 22, 2017, June 3, 2017, WEB, Emanuella, Grinberg, Chicago torture: Facebook Live video leads to 4 arrests,weblink CNN, January 5, 2017, June 3, 2017, NEWS, Aatif, Sulleyman, Facebook Live killings: Why the criticism has been harsh,weblink The Independent, April 27, 2017, June 3, 2017, According to The Express Tribune, Facebook "avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore companies".NEWS,weblink Paradise Papers reveal hidden wealth of global elite, November 6, 2017, The Express Tribune, Sri Lanka blocks social media Facebook & Whatsapp after worst anti-Muslim violence since Easter Sunday attacks. Social media blocked again as a temporary measure to maintain peace in Sri Lanka. WEB,weblink Sri Lanka Riots: Sri Lanka imposes nationwide curfew after anti-Muslim riots - Times of India, May 13, Reuters {{!, Updated:|last2=2019|website=The Times of India|language=en|access-date=2019-05-14|last3=Ist|first3=21:29}} WEB,weblink Sri Lanka blocks social media after worst anti-Muslim violence since Easter Sunday attacks, The National, en, 2019-05-14, Facebook removed 3 billion fake accounts only during the last quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019.WEB,weblink Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem, Mark, Sullivan, Fast Company, This is a wildly high number given that the social network reports only 2.39 billion monthly active users.WEB,weblink Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem, Mark, Sullivan, Fast Company,

Privacy

{{see also|Privacy concerns with social networking services#Facebook}}Facebook has faced a steady stream of controversies over how it protects user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its privacy settings and policies.NEWS,weblink Facebook cuts ties to data brokers in blow to targeted ads, Ingram, David, March 29, 2018, Reuters, February 5, 2019, Fioretti, Julia, en, In 2010, the US National Security Agency began taking publicly posted profile information from Facebook, among other social media services.NEWS,weblink NSA mines Facebook, including Americans' profiles, Simpson, David, September 30, 2013, cnn.com, September 30, 2013, Brown, Pamela, On November 29, 2011, Facebook settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises.WEB,weblink Facebook Settles FTC Charges That It Deceived Consumers By Failing To Keep Privacy Promises, November 29, 2011, Federal Trade Commission, FTC, November 29, 2011, In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links included in Facebook messaging service messages were being accessed by Facebook.WEB,weblink Social networks: can robots violate user privacy?, August 27, 2013,weblink January 3, 2014, yes, January 5, 2014, In January 2014 two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this practice.WEB,weblink Facebook sued for allegedly intercepting private messages, Van Grove, Jennifer, January 2, 2014, CNet, CBS Interactive, March 16, 2015, On June 7, 2018 Facebook announced that a bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public".NEWS,weblink Facebook bug set 14 million users' sharing settings to public, June 7, 2018, June 7, 2018, On 4th April 2019, half a billion records of Facebook users were found exposed on Amazon cloud servers, containing information about users’ friends, likes, groups, and checked-in locations, as well as “names, passwords and email addresses. WEB,weblink Millions of Facebook Records Found On Amazon Servers, 2019-04-04, Hack Hex, en-GB, 2019-06-04,

Shadow profiles

A "shadow profile" is data about a user other than the official profile or explicitly shared content. For example the "like" button that appears on third-party websites allows the company to collect information about the user's internet browsing.WEB,weblink Open letter urges Facebook to strengthen privacy, Duncan, Geoff, June 17, 2010, Digital Trends, June 3, 2017, WEB,weblink Advocacy Groups Ask Facebook for More Privacy Changes, Paul, Ian, June 17, 2010, PC World, International Data Group, June 3, 2017, Such data includes information about non-users and location data from a user's phone.WEB, How Facebook can have your data even if you're not on Facebook, USA TODAY, April 13, 2018,weblink

Cambridge Analytica

Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to Cambridge Analytica, a political data analysis firm.WEB, Lewis, Paul, Wong, Julia Carrie, Facebook employs psychologist whose firm sold data to Cambridge Analytica, the Guardian, March 20, 2018, March 18, 2018,weblink While approximately 270,000 people used the app, Facebook's API permitted data collection from their friends without their knowledge.WEB, Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo, Why We're Not Calling the Cambridge Analytica Story a 'Data Breach', Motherboard, March 20, 2018, March 19, 2018,weblink At first Facebook downplayed the significance of the breach, and suggested that Cambridge Analytica no longer had access. Facebook then issued a statement expressing alarm and suspended Cambridge Analytica. Review of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica still possessed the data.NEWS,weblink How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions, Matthew, Rosenberg, Nicholas, Confessore, Carole, Cadwalladr, March 17, 2018, NYTimes.com, This was a violation of Facebook's consent decree with the Federal Trade Commission. This violation potentially carried a penalty of $40,000 per occurrence, totaling trillions of dollars.NEWS,weblink Facebook may have violated FTC privacy deal, say former federal officials, triggering risk of massive fines, Timberg, Craig, March 18, 2018, Washington Post, March 25, 2018, Romm, Tony, en-US, 0190-8286, According to The Guardian both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the story. After publication, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". On March 23, 2018, The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica's London offices, ending a standoff between Facebook and the Information Commissioner over responsibility.NEWS,weblink UK High Court grants Cambridge Analytica search warrant to ICO, CNBC, March 23, 2018, CNBC, March 23, 2018, On March 25, Facebook published a statement by Zuckerberg in major UK and US newspapers apologizing over a "breach of trust".NEWS,weblink Facebook boss apologises in newspaper ads, March 25, 2018, BBC News, March 25, 2018, en-GB, On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter.NEWS,weblink Facebook stock rebounds after FTC investigation news, Ivanova, Irina, March 26, 2018, CBS News, March 26, 2018, en, The controversy led Facebook to end its partnerships with data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting users.On April 24, 2019, Facebook said it could face a fine between $3 billion to $5 billion as the result of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible privacy violations, but has not announced any findings yet.WEB,weblink Facebook estimates up to $5 billion loss in FTC privacy inquiry, Feiner, Lauren, April 24, 2019, www.cnbc.com, April 25, 2019, Facebook also implemented additional privacy controls and settingsNEWS,weblink Fact-checking Mark Zuckerberg's testimony about Facebook privacy, Solon, Olivia, April 12, 2018, June 29, 2018, The Guardian, in part to comply with the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect in May.WEB,weblink Zuckerberg says Facebook will offer GDPR privacy controls everywhere, TechCrunch, en-US, April 4, 2018, Facebook also ended its active opposition to the California Consumer Privacy Act.WEB,weblink Facebook exits anti-privacy alliance it formed with Comcast and Google, Brodkin, Jon, April 12, 2018, Ars Technica, April 13, 2018, . Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equivalence between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica and the Barack Obama's 2012 campaign, which, according to Investor's Business Daily, "encouraged supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends.""weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190220020940weblink">Funny, When Obama Harvested Facebook Data On Millions Of Users To Win In 2012, Everyone Cheered". Investor's Business Daily. March 19, 2018."Why Are We Only Now Talking About Facebook And Elections?". Forbes. March 19, 2018."Former Facebook staffer, Obama campaign boss reveal concerns about Facebook data". News.com.au. March 21, 2018. Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America (OFA) former director of integration and media analytics, wrote that "Facebook was surprised we were able to suck out the whole social graph, but they didn't stop us once they realised that was what we were doing.""Why Are We Only Now Talking About Facebook And Elections?". Forbes. March 19, 2018."Former Facebook staffer, Obama campaign boss reveal concerns about Facebook data". News.com.au. March 21, 2018. PolitiFact has rated McCain's statements "Half-True", on the basis that "in Obama’s case, direct users knew they were handing over their data to a political campaign" whereas with Cambridge Analytica, users thought they were only taking a personality quiz for academic purposes, and while the Obama campaign only used the data "to have their supporters contact their most persuadable friends", Cambridge Analytica "targeted users, friends and lookalikes directly with digital ads."WEB, Comparing Facebook data use by Obama, Cambridge Analytica,weblink PolitiFact, 24 May 2019, en,

Breaches

On September 28, 2018, Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million users. The data breach started in July 2017 and was discovered on September 16.NEWS,weblink Everything you need to know about Facebook's data breach affecting 50M users, TechCrunch, October 2, 2018, en-US, Facebook notified users affected by the exploit and logged them out of their accounts.NEWS,weblink Facebook Security Breach Exposes Accounts of 50 Million Users, Isaac, Mike, September 28, 2018, The New York Times, September 29, 2018, Frenkel, Sheera, en, NEWS,weblink Facebook says nearly 50m users compromised in huge security breach, Wong, Julia Carrie, September 28, 2018, The Guardian, September 29, 2018, In March 2019, Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook lite application users, however in April the company further stated that it was not just limited to Facebook but had also affected millions of Instagram users. The reason cited was the storage of password as plain text instead of encryption which could be read by its employees.WEB,weblink Not Tens of Thousands, But Millions of Instagram Passwords Exposed, Admits Facebook, News18, April 19, 2019,

Phone data and activity

Facebook used the Onavo Protect virtual private network (VPN) app to collect information on users' web traffic and app usage. This allowed Facebook to monitor its competitors' performance.NEWS,weblink The New Copycats: How Facebook Squashes Competition From Startups, Morris, Betsy, August 9, 2017, Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2017, Seetharaman, Deepa, en-US, 0099-9660, NEWS,weblink The New Copycats: How Facebook Squashes -2-, August 9, 2017, Fox Business, August 15, 2017, en-US, WEB,weblink Facebook knew about Snap's struggles months before the public, Engadget, August 15, 2017, Media outlets classified Onavo Protect as spyware.NEWS, September 3, 2018, Apple makes Facebook pull its spyware(ish) VPN from the App Store,weblink Fast Company, August 23, 2018, NEWS, Tom, McKay, August 22, 2018, September 3, 2018, Facebook Pulls Its Data-Harvesting Onavo VPN From App Store After Apple Says It Violates Rules,weblink Gizmodo, NEWS, Jack, Morse, August 22, 2018, September 3, 2018, Facebook to pull its creepy VPN Onavo from App Store after Apple pushback,weblink Mashable, In August 2018, Facebook removed the app in response to pressure from Apple, who asserted that it violated their guidelines.NEWS,weblink Apple removed Facebook’s Onavo from the App Store for gathering app data, TechCrunch, August 23, 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink Facebook will pull its data-collecting VPN app from the App Store over privacy concerns, The Verge, August 23, 2018, In 2016, Facebook Research launched Project Atlas, offering some users between the ages of 13 and 35 up to $20 per month in exchange for their personal data, including their app usage, web browsing history, web search history, location history, personal messages, photos, videos, emails and Amazon order history.WEB, January 30, 2019, Facebook pays teens to install VPN that spies on them,weblink John, Constine, TechCrunch, January 29, 2019, WEB,weblink Apple says it's banning Facebook's research app that collects users' personal information, Wagner, Kurt, January 30, 2019, Recode, January 30, 2019, In January 2019, TechCrunch reported on the project. This led Apple to temporarily revoke Facebook's Enterprise Developer Program certificates for one day, preventing Facebook Research from operating on iOS devices and disabling Facebook's internal iOS apps.WEB, Tom, Warren, January 30, 2019, Apple blocks Facebook from running its internal iOS apps,weblink January 30, 2019, The Verge, NEWS, Mike, Isaac, February 2, 2019, Apple Shows Facebook Who Has the Power in an App Dispute,weblink The New York Times, January 31, 2019, 0362-4331, NYTimes.com, Ars Technica reported in April 2018 that the Facebook Android app had been harvesting user data, including phone calls and text messages, since 2015.WEB, Sean, Gallagher, January 31, 2019, Facebook scraped call, text message data for years from Android phones [Updated],weblink March 24, 2018, Ars Technica, WEB,weblink Facebook's app has been collecting Android phone data for years on some devices, Rosenberg, Adam, Mashable, en, February 6, 2019, Facebook has been collecting call history and SMS data from Android devices The Verge In May 2018, several Android users filed a class action lawsuit against Facebook for invading their privacy.WEB,weblink Android users file lawsuit against Facebook for invasion of privacy, jurist.org, WEB, Buckner, Gabriella,weblink Facebook faces class action lawsuit for Android call and message data scraping, itpro.co.uk, May 14, 2018, February 7, 2019,

Public apologies

The company first apologized for its privacy abuses in 2009.BOOK, {{google books, y, SzxDTGGr80EC, 119, |title=Business Ethics For Dummies|last=Bowie|first=Norman E.|last2=Schnieder|first2=Meg|date=February 9, 2011|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9781118020623|language=en}}Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook. On March 25, 2018, leading US and UK newspapers published full-page ads with a personal apology from Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN.WEB,weblink Mark Zuckerberg apologizes for Facebook's data privacy scandal in full-page newspaper ads, Statt, Nick, March 25, 2018, The Verge, February 6, 2019, In May 2010, he apologized for discrepancies in privacy settings.NEWS,weblink A Short History of Facebook's Privacy Gaffes, Hempel, Jessi, March 30, 2018, Wired, February 6, 2019, 1059-1028, Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it harder for third-party apps to access the user's personal information. In addition to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing thousands of apps that display "suspicious activities" in an effort to ensure that this breach of privacy does not happen again.WEB, Social Media/polls Show Low Trust In Facebook,weblink www.digitaltrends.com, February 6, 2019, In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a lot of information is available regarding the consequences of what people disclose online so often what is available are just reports made available through popular media.WEB,weblink Privacy and Disclosure on Facebook: Youth & Adults' Information Disclosure and Perceptions of Privacy Risks - Contributions Program 2009-2010, Office of the Privacy Commissioner of, March 31, 2010, www.priv.gc.ca, February 6, 2019, Christofides, E., Muise, A., Desmarais, S., In 2017, a former Facebook executive went on the record to discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unraveling of the "fabric of society".NEWS,weblink Former Facebook executive: social media is ripping society apart, Wong, Julia Carrie, December 12, 2017, The Guardian, February 6, 2019, en-GB, 0261-3077,

Content{{anchor|Violence, conspiracy theories and fringe discourse}}

Facebook relies on its users to generate the content that bonds its users to the service. The company has come under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe discourse,NEWS, Roose, Kevin,weblink Facebook and YouTube Give Alex Jones a Wrist Slap, August 4, 2018, en, and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate.It has been criticised a vector for 'fake news', and has been accused of bearing responsibility for the conspiracy theory that the United States created ISIS,NEWS,weblink Borne by Facebook, Conspiracy Theory That U.S. Created ISIS Spreads Across Middle East, August 4, 2018, en, false anti-Rohingya posts being used by Myanmar's military to fuel genocide and ethnic cleansing,NEWS, Gowen, Annie, Bearak, Max,weblink Fake news on Facebook fans the flames of hate against the Rohingya in Burma, The Washington Post, en, August 4, 2018, NEWS,weblink Myanmar's Military Said to Be Behind Facebook Campaign That Fueled Genocide, October 15, 2018, en, enabling Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theorists,WEB,weblink An open letter to Mark Zuckerberg from the parents of a Sandy Hook victim, Pozner, Leonard, Rosa, Veronique De La, July 25, 2018, the Guardian, en, August 4, 2018, Pozner, parents of Noah, and anti-refugee attacks in Germany.NEWS,weblink Facebook Fueled Anti-Refugee Attacks in Germany, New Research Suggests, August 21, 2018, en, JOURNAL, MMller, Karsten, Schwarz, Carlo, 2017, Fanning the Flames of Hate: Social Media and Hate Crime, en, 10.2139/ssrn.3082972, 1556-5068, 3082972, WEB,weblink Social media is rotting democracy from within, Beauchamp, Zack, Vox, January 22, 2019,weblink January 25, 2019, The government of the Philippines has also used Facebook as a tool to attack its critics.WEB,weblink What Happens When the Government Uses Facebook as a Weapon?, Etter, Lauren, Bloomberg, December 7, 2017,weblink January 24, 2019, Professor Ilya Somin reported that he had been the subject of death threats on Facebook in April 2018 from Cesar Sayoc, who threatened to kill Somin and his family and "feed the bodies to Florida alligators". Somin's Facebook friends reported the comments to Facebook, which did nothing except dispatch automated messages.WEB,weblink Mail Bomber Cesar Sayoc Threatened Me on Facebook - Volokh Conspiracy, October 27, 2018, Sayoc was later arrested for the October United States mail bombing attempts directed at Democratic politicians.Facebook has repeatedly amended its content policies. In July 2018, it stated that it would "downrank" articles that its fact-checkers determined to be false, and remove misinformation that incited violence.NEWS, Frenkel, Sheera, Facebook to Remove Misinformation That Leads to Violence,weblink August 9, 2018, The New York Times, July 18, 2018, en, Zuckerberg once stated that it was unclear whether Holocaust deniers on Facebook intended to deceive others,NEWS,weblink Facebook's rhetoric on misinformation doesn't match its actions, Darcy, Oliver, CNNMoney, August 4, 2018, for which he later apologized.NEWS,weblink Mark Zuckerberg clarifies his Holocaust comments, Kelly, Heather, CNNMoney, August 4, 2018, Facebook stated that content that receives "false" ratings from its fact-checkers can be demonetized and suffer dramatically reduced distribution. Specific posts and videos that violate community standards can be removed on Facebook. In May 2019, Facebook banned a number of "dangerous" commentators from its platform, including Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Paul Nehlen, David Duke, and Laura Loomer, for allegedly engaging in "violence and hate".WEB,weblink CNN, Facebook bans Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, InfoWars and others from its platforms as 'dangerous', Oliver Darcy, 2019-05-02, WEB,weblink NBC News, Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, others banned from Facebook and Instagram, 2019-05-02, Michael Cappetta and Ben Collins,

Infowars

Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy theories.NEWS,weblink Media — both on the left and right — are pressing Facebook to define what journalism is, Recode, August 4, 2018, NEWS,weblink Why Facebook Won't Actually Ban Fake News, Kosoff, Maya, The Hive, August 4, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink Facebook Said Alex Jones' Threatening Rant Against Robert Mueller Doesn't Violate Its Rules, BuzzFeed News, August 4, 2018, en, Facebook defended its actions in regards to InfoWars, saying "we just don't think banning Pages for sharing conspiracy theories or false news is the right way to go." Facebook provided only six cases in which it fact-checked content on the InfoWars page over the period September 2017 to July 2018. In 2018 InfoWars falsely claimed that the survivors of the Parkland shooting were "actors". Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars content making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the videos. Facebook stated that the videos never explicitly called them actors. Facebook also allowed InfoWars videos that shared the Pizzagate conspiracy theory to survive, despite specific assertions that it would purge Pizzagate content. In late July 2018 Facebook suspended the personal profile of InfoWars head Alex Jones for 30 days.NEWS,weblink Facebook suspends personal profile of InfoWars founder Alex Jones, Darcy, Oliver, CNNMoney, August 4, 2018, In early August 2018, Facebook banned the four most active Infowars-related pages for hate speech.NEWS,weblink Facebook and Apple iTunes Ban Alex Jones as Internet Giants Silence Infowars, Ross, Jamie, August 6, 2018, The Daily Beast, August 6, 2018, en,

Political manipulation

{{Globalize/US|section|date=June 2019}}{{Seealso|State-sponsored Internet propaganda|CIA influence on public opinion}}In 2018, Facebook stated that, that year, they had identified "coordinated inauthentic behavior" in "many Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US, the Middle East, Russia and the UK."WEB, Gleicher, Nathaniel, Rodriguez, Oscar, Removing Additional Inauthentic Activity from Facebook,weblink Facebook Newsroom, 27 May 2019, en, 11 October 2018, Campaigns operated by the British intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group, have broadly fallen into two categories; cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. The propaganda efforts utilize "mass messaging" and the "pushing [of] stories" via social media sites like Facebook.WEB, Snowden Docs: British Spies Used Sex and 'Dirty Tricks',weblink NBC News, 7 February 2014, WEB, Snowden leaks: GCHQ 'attacked Anonymous' hackers,weblink BBC, 5 February 2014, Israel's Jewish Internet Defense Force, China's 50 Cent Party and Turkey's AK Trolls also focus their attention on social media platforms like Facebook.NEWS, China's 'troll factory' targeting Taiwan with disinformation prior to election,weblink Taiwan News, 11 May 2018, NEWS, Trolls, bots and shutdowns: This is how Turkey manipulates public opinion,weblink Ahval, 17 November 2017, NEWS, Jewish Internet Defense Force 'seizes control' of anti-Israel Facebook group,weblink The Jerusalem Post, 29 July 2008, WEB, Morrison, Sarah, Jewish Activist Battles For Israel on Facebook, Israel National News, 2008-03-04,weblink In July 2018, Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the Oxford Internet Institute (OII) at Oxford University, said that "The number of countries where formally organised social media manipulation occurs has greatly increased, from 28 to 48 countries globally. The majority of growth comes from political parties who spread disinformation and junk news around election periods."NEWS, Social media manipulation rising globally, new report warns,weblink University of Oxford, 20 July 2018, In October 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook "banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content – although they came from the US instead of being associated with Russia."NEWS, Facebook: Most political trolls are American, not Russian,weblink The Daily Telegraph, October 12, 2018, In January 2019, Facebook said it has removed 783 Iran-linked accounts, pages and groups for engaging in what it called "coordinated inauthentic behaviour".NEWS, Facebook Says It Removed 783 Accounts Tied to an Iranian Manipulation Campaign,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, January 31, 2019, Archimedes Group is a Tel Aviv-based private intelligence agency that has operates political campaigns using social media since 2017.WEB,weblink Facebook busts Israel-based campaign to disrupt elections, Debre, Isabel, Satter, Raphael, 2019-05-16, AP NEWS, 2019-06-08, WEB,weblink Facebook bans Israel-based firm that ran campaigns to disrupt elections, Solomon, Shoshanna, AP, www.timesofisrael.com, en-US, 2019-06-08, WEB,weblink Israeli Tech’s Dirty Ops, jacobinmag.com, en-US, 2019-06-08, WEB,weblink Archimedes Group, outed by Facebook for election fakery, works from Holon office, Weinglass, Simona, www.timesofisrael.com, en-US, 2019-06-08, In 2019 it was banned from Facebook for “coordinated inauthentic behavior” after Facebook found fake users in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia.NEWS,weblink Is Facebook undermining democracy in Africa?, Madowo, Larry, 2019-05-24, 2019-06-08, en-GB, Facebook investigations revealed that Archimedes had spent some $1.1 million on fake ads, paid for in Brazilian reais, Israeli shekels and US dollars.WEB,weblink 'Change reality': Facebook busts Israel-based campaign to disrupt elections, Satter, Isabel Debre and Raphael, 2019-05-16, The Sydney Morning Herald, en, 2019-06-08, Facebook gave examples of Archimedes Group political interference.WEB,weblink Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior From Israel {{!, Facebook Newsroom|language=en|access-date=2019-06-08}} The Atlantic Council's Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report that "The tactics employed by Archimedes Group, a private company, closely resemble the types of information warfare tactics often used by governments, and the Kremlin in particular."WEB,weblink Facebook says Israeli company used fake accounts to target African elections, Business, Donie O'Sullivan and Hadas Gold, CNN, CNN, 2019-06-08, NEWS,weblink Facebook Bans Israeli Firm Over Fake Political Activity, Needleman, Sarah E., 2019-05-16, Wall Street Journal, 2019-06-08, en-US, 0099-9660,

Russian interference

{{Overly detailed|section|date=May 2019}}{{see also|Internet Research Agency|Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections}}In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russian nationals and three Russian organizations for "engaging in operations to interfere with U.S. political and electoral processes, including the 2016 presidential election."NEWS, Internet Research Agency indicted: Who is the Russian company behind the fake Facebook ads?,weblink Fox News, 16 February 2018, NEWS, 13 Russians Indicted as Mueller Reveals Effort to Aid Trump Campaign,weblink The New York Times, 16 February 2018, WEB, Exposing Russia’s Effort to Sow Discord Online: The Internet Research Agency and Advertisements,weblink intelligence.house.gov, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, 27 May 2019, Mueller contacted Facebook subsequently to the company's disclosure that it had sold more than $100,000 worth of ads to a company (Internet Research Agency) with links to the Russian intelligence community before the 2016 U.S. presidential election.NEWS,weblink Facebook Gave Special Counsel Robert Mueller More Details on Russian Ad Buys Than Congress, Seetharaman, Deepa, September 15, 2017, Wall Street Journal, September 15, 2017, Tau, Byron, en-US, 0099-9660, Harris, Shane, NEWS, Facebook sold $100,000 of political ads to fake Russian accounts during 2016 US election,weblink 24 May 2019, The Independent, 6 September 2017, en, In September 2017, Facebook's chief security officer Alex Stamos wrote the company "found approximately $100,000 in ad spending from June of 2015 to May of 2017 — associated with roughly 3,000 ads — that was connected to about 470 inauthentic accounts and Pages in violation of our policies. Our analysis suggests these accounts and Pages were affiliated with one another and likely operated out of Russia."NEWS, Facebook Says Russian Accounts Bought $100,000 in Ads During the 2016 Election,weblink Time, 6 September 2017, Clinton and Trump campaigns spent $81 million on Facebook ads.NEWS, New Studies Show Pundits Are Wrong About Russian Social-Media Involvement in US Politics,weblink The Nation, December 28, 2018, The company pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation, and provided all information about the Russian advertisements, including the identities of the individuals and companies who made the purchases.WEB,weblink Facebook gave special counsel Robert Mueller data on Russian ads, report says, Castillo, Michelle, September 6, 2017, September 7, 2017, Members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees have claimed that Facebook had withheld information that could illuminate the Russian propaganda campaign.NEWS,weblink Facebook's openness on Russia questioned by congressional investigators, Leonnig, Carol D., September 18, 2017, Washington Post, September 19, 2017, Dwoskin, Elizabeth, en-US, 0190-8286, Timberg, Craig, Russian operatives have used Facebook to organize Black Lives Matter ralliesNEWS, Russians trolls organized a protest in the US,weblink CNN, June 25, 2018, NEWS, Did Russian hackers organize Philando Castile protest? Activists say no,weblink Star Tribune, November 1, 2017, and anti-immigrant rallies on U.S. soil,NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Russia Used Facebook Events to Organize Anti-Immigrant Rallies on U.S. Soil, Ackerman, Ben Collins{{!, Kevin Poulsen{{!}}Spencer|date=September 12, 2017|work=The Daily Beast|access-date=September 12, 2017}} as well as anti-Clinton ralliesNEWS,weblink Shuttered Facebook group that organized anti-Clinton, anti-immigrant rallies across Texas was linked to Russia, Business Insider, September 14, 2017, en-US, and rallies both for and against Donald Trump."Russians Staged Rallies For and Against Trump to Promote Discord, Indictment Says". Fortune. February 17, 2018.NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Russians Appear to Use Facebook to Push Trump Rallies in 17 U.S. Cities, Ackerman, Ben Collins{{!, Gideon Resnick{{!}}Kevin Poulsen{{!}}Spencer|date=September 20, 2017|work=The Daily Beast|access-date=September 20, 2017}} Facebook ads have also been used to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims by simultaneously sending contrary messages to different users based on their political and demographic characteristics in order to sow discord.NEWS,weblink Russian operatives used Facebook ads to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims, Dwoskin, Adam Entous, Craig Timberg and Elizabeth, September 25, 2017, Washington Post, September 25, 2017, en-US, 0190-8286, "Exclusive: Russian-bought Black Lives Matter ad on Facebook targeted Baltimore and Ferguson". CNN. September 28, 2017. In some cases, real people have been impersonated to these ends.NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Russians Impersonated Real American Muslims to Stir Chaos on Facebook and Instagram, Ackerman, Ben Collins{{!, Kevin Poulsen{{!}}Spencer|date=September 27, 2017|work=The Daily Beast|access-date=September 28, 2017}} Zuckerberg has stated that he regrets having dismissed concerns over Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.NEWS,weblink Mark Zuckerberg responds to Trump, regrets he dismissed election concerns, Shinal, John, September 27, 2017, CNBC, September 27, 2017, Russian-American Billionaire Yuri Milner, who befriended Zuckerberg"Kremlin-owned Firms Linked to Major Investments in Twitter and Facebook". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists – ICIJ. November 5, 2017. between 2009 and 2011 had Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.NEWS,weblink Kremlin Cash Behind Billionaire's Twitter and Facebook Investments, Drucker, Jesse, November 5, 2017, The New York Times, November 6, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, In January 2019, Facebook removed 289 Pages and 75 coordinated accounts linked to the Russian state-owned news agency Sputnik which had misrepresented themselves as independent news or general interest Pages.WEB, Disinformation and 'fake news': Final Report,weblink publications.parliament.uk, Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee – House of Commons, 24 May 2019, WEB, Gleicher, Nathaniel, Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior from Russia,weblink Facebook Newsroom, 24 May 2019, en, 17 January 2019, In total, these accounts had around 790,000 followers and had spent around $135,000 on advertising between October 2013 and January 2019. Facebook later identified and removed an additional 1,907 accounts linked to Russia found to be engaging in "coordinated inauthentic behaviour".NEWS, Cuthbertson, Antony, Facebook removes thousands more Russian accounts,weblink 24 May 2019, The Independent, 26 March 2019, en, In 2018, a UK DCMS select committee report had criticised Facebook for its reluctance to investigate abuse of its platform by the Russian government, and for downplaying the extent of the problem.WEB, Disinformation and ‘fake news’: Interim Report,weblink publications.parliament.uk, Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee – House of Commons, NEWS, Cadwalladr, Carole, Carole Cadwalladr, A withering verdict: MPs report on Zuckerberg, Russia and Cambridge Analytica,weblink 24 May 2019, The Observer, 28 July 2018, In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge, which is behind one of the Senate reports on Russian social media election interference, "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama. The New York Times, when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications: “We orchestrated an elaborate ‘false flag’ operation that planted the idea that the [Roy] Moore campaign was amplified on social media by a Russian botnet.'"NEWS, NBC News, to Claim Russia Supports Tulsi Gabbard, Relies on Firm Just Caught Fabricating Russia Data for the Democratic Party,weblink The Intercept, February 3, 2019, NEWS, Secret Experiment in Alabama Senate Race Imitated Russian Tactics,weblink The New York Times, 19 December 2018,

Anti-Rohingya propaganda

{{Seealso|Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar}}In 2018, Facebook took down 536, Facebook Pages, 17 Facebook Groups, 175 Facebook accounts and 16 Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military. Collectively these were followed by over 10 million people.WEB, Removing Myanmar Military Officials From Facebook,weblink Facebook Newsroom, 27 May 2019, en, The New York Times reported that:NEWS, Mozur, Paul, A Genocide Incited on Facebook, With Posts From Myanmar’s Military,weblink 27 May 2019, The New York Times, 15 October 2018, {{blockquote|after months of reports about anti-Rohingya propaganda on Facebook, the company acknowledged that it had been too slow to act in Myanmar. By then, more than 700,000 Rohingya had fled the country in a year, in what United Nations officials called “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.”}}

Facebook's Complicit in Modi's Rise in India

In 2019 a book titled The Real Face of Facebook in Indiweblink co-authored by the journalists Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Cyril Sam alleges that Facebook was both directly complicit in, and benefited from, the rise of Modi’s BJP in India.

Company governance

Early Facebook investor and former Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having "the most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company."NEWS,weblink An Anti-Facebook Manifesto, by an Early Facebook Investor, Tom, Bissell, January 29, 2019, NYTimes.com, Nathan Schneider, a professor of media studies at the University of Colorado Boulder argued for transforming Facebook into a platform cooperative owned and governed by the users.WEB,weblink It's Time for Mark Zuckerberg to Give Up Control of Facebook, Nathan, Schneider, Harry, Cheadle, March 27, 2018, Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has too much power, that the company is now a monopoly, and that, as a result, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Hughes called for the breakup of Facebook in an op-ed on The New York Times. Hughes says he's concerned that Zuckerberg has surrounded himself with a team that doesn't challenge him and that as a result, it's the U.S. government's job to hold him accountable and curb his "unchecked power." WEB,weblink Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes calls for company's breakup, Shelby, Brown, CNET, Hughes also said that "Mark's power is unprecedented and un-American."WEB,weblink Opinion | It’s Time to Break Up Facebook, Chris, Hughes, May 9, 2019, NYTimes.com, Several U.S. politicians agree with Hughes.WEB,weblink More politicians side with Facebook co-founder on breaking up company, Shelby, Brown, CNET, EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager has stated that splitting Facebook should only be done as "a remedy of the very last resort", and that splitting Facebook would not solve Facebook's underlying problems. WEB,weblink EU competition commissioner: Facebook breakup would be 'last resort', Katie, Collins, CNET,

Litigation

The company has been subject to repeated litigation.WEB,weblink Appeals court upholds deal allowing kids' images in Facebook ads, Farivar, Cyrus, January 7, 2016, Ars Technica, Condé Nast, June 3, 2017, WEB,weblink Yahoo sues Facebook for infringing 10 patents, Levine, Dan, Oreskovic, Alexei, March 12, 2012, Reuters, Thomson Reuters, June 3, 2017, WEB,weblink Facebook lost its Oculus lawsuit and has to pay $500 million, Wagner, Kurt, February 1, 2017, Recode, Vox Media, June 3, 2017, WEB,weblink Lawsuit claims Facebook illegally scanned private messages, Brandom, Rusell, May 19, 2016, The Verge, Vox Media, June 3, 2017, Its most prominent case addressed allegations that Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004.WEB,weblink Facebook in court over ownership, Tryhorn, Chris, July 25, 2007, The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, June 3, 2017, WEB,weblink Facebook Founder Accused of Stealing Idea for Site, Michels, Scott, July 20, 2007, ABC News, American Broadcasting Company, ABC, June 3, 2017, WEB,weblink How Mark Zuckerberg Hacked Into Rival ConnectU In 2004, Carlson, Nicholas, March 5, 2010, Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, June 3, 2017, On March 6, 2018 BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subdivision for ripping off key features of its messaging app.NEWS,weblink BlackBerry to Facebook: You stole our messaging technology, March 7, 2018, Fox News, March 8, 2018, en-US, In 2019 British solicitors representing a bullied Syrian schoolboy, sued Facebook over false claims. They claimed that Facebook protected prominent figures from scrutiny instead of removing content that violates its rules and that the special treatment was financially driven.NEWS,weblink Refugee 'waterboarded' by bullies to sue Facebook over Tommy Robinson claims, Jolly, Bradley, January 21, 2019, Mirror, NEWS,weblink Bullied Syrian schoolboy to sue Facebook over Tommy Robinson claims, Halliday, Josh, January 21, 2019, The Guardian, In October 2018 a Texas woman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex trade at the age of 15 by a man who "friended" her on the social media network. Facebook responded that it works both internally and externally to ban sex traffickers.NEWS,weblink Woman sues Facebook, claims site enabled sex trafficking, Whitcomb, Dan, U.S., October 4, 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink Facebook, responding to lawsuit, says sex trafficking banned on site, Whitcomb, Dan, U.S., October 4, 2018, en-US,

Definers Public Affairs

In October 2017, Facebook expanded its work with Definers Public Affairs, a PR firm that had originally been hired to monitor press coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding Russian meddling, then mishandling of user data by Cambridge Analytica, hate speech on Facebook, and calls for regulation.NEWS,weblink Delay, Deny and Deflect: How Facebook's Leaders Fought Through Crisis, November 15, 2018, en, Company spokesman Tim Miller stated that a goal for tech firms should be to "have positive content pushed out about your company and negative content that's being pushed out about your competitor". Definers claimed that George Soros was the force behind what appeared to be a broad anti-Facebook movement, and created other negative media, along with America Rising, that was picked up by larger media organisations like Breitbart.WEB,weblink Facebook reportedly discredited critics by linking them to George Soros, Wong, Julia Carrie, November 15, 2018, the Guardian, en, November 15, 2018, Facebook cut ties with the agency in late 2018, following public outcry over their association.NEWS,weblink Facebook Cuts Ties With Definers Public Affairs Following Outcry, November 15, 2018, en,

Impact{{anchor|Social impact}}

File:Ad-tech London 2010 (5).JPG|thumb|Facebook on the 2010]]

Economy

Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are interested without forcing users to compete with each other. By contrast, most goods are available to a limited number of users. E.g., if one user buys a phone, no other user can by that phone. Three areas add the most economic impact: platform competition, the market place and user behavior data.BOOK, 10.1017/CBO9781139060011.003, The Economics of Internet Markets, Advances in Economics and Econometrics, 48–75, 2013, Levin, Jonathan, 978-1-139-06001-1, Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-term reliance on coal and resulting carbon footprint.JOURNAL,weblink Greenpeace Declares Victory Over Facebook Data Centers, Wired, December 15, 2011, August 14, 2018, Facebook provides a development platform for many social gaming, communication, feedback, review, and other applications related to online activities. This platform spawned many businesses and added thousands of jobs to the global economy. Zynga Inc., a leader in social gaming, is an example of such a businesses. An econometric analysis found that Facebook's app development platform added more than 182,000 jobs in the U.S. economy in 2011. The total economic value of the added employment was about $12 billion.WEB, The Facebook App Economy, September 19, 2011, University of Maryland,weblink

Society

Facebook was the first social network to connect billions of people. Social networking allows people to stay in touch with friends, relatives and acquaintances wherever they are in the world. It can reunite lost family members and friends.NEWS,weblink Father finds daughter on Facebook after 20 years apart, WABC, New York, October 23, 2010, May 15, 2011, NEWS,weblink Facebook reunites father, daughter after 48 years, MSN India, Delhi, January 27, 2010, It allows users to trade ideas and stay informed. It unites people with common interests and/or beliefs.Half of the World's Online Population Uses Facebook, GlobalWebIndex. May 2013.WEB,weblink What Impact Has Social Media Truly Had on Society, Business 2 Community, Facebook has changed how people communicate. It is a publishing platform that allows users to share content with others, possibly at a global scale.WEB,weblink How Facebook changed our lives, February 2, 2014, USA Today, One study found that informational uses were more correlated to civic and political action than to recreation.Park, N., Kee, K. F., Valenzuela, S. (2009). immersed in social networking environment Facebook Groups, uses and gratifications and social outcomes.pdf Being immersed in social networking environment: Facebook groups, uses and gratifications, and social outcomes. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(6), 729-733.{{Better source|reason=Not verified from the citation.|date=February 2019}}In The Facebook Effect David Kirkpatrick stated that Facebook's structure makes it difficult to replace, because of its "network effects". He notes how difficult it would be to move all of a user's relationships and photos to an alternative. Facebook lets people participate in an atmosphere with the "over the backyard fence" of a neighborhood, despite the actual distance involved.WEB,weblink Facebook Effect: How the Social Network Changed the World, May 18, 2012, Yahoo Finance, As of 2016, 44 percent of the US population gets news through Facebook.NEWS,weblink Facebook extends lead as news gateway: Study – The Economic Times, The Economic Times, May 27, 2016, May 26, 2016,

Emotional health

Studies have associated social networks with positiveJOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00367.x, The Benefits of Facebook "Friends:" Social Capital and College Students' Use of Online Social Network Sites, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 4, 1143–1168, 2007, Ellison, Nicole B., Steinfield, Charles, Lampe, Cliff, and negative impactsWEB, Stephen, Marche, Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?,weblink The Atlantic, Emerson Collective, December 15, 2017, April 2, 2012, WEB, Maria, Konnikova, How Facebook Makes Us Unhappy,weblink The New Yorker, Condé Nast, September 10, 2013, December 15, 2017, NEWS, Grace, Dent, Social media is full of sad, lonely people pretending they're OK and perfectly fine attention-seekers pretending to be sad,weblink The Independent, March 6, 2017, December 15, 2017, JOURNAL, Alexandra, Sifferlin, Why Facebook Makes You Feel Bad About Yourself,weblink Time (magazine), Time, January 24, 2013, December 15, 2017, WEB, Katherine, Hobson, Feeling Lonely? Too Much Time On Social Media May Be Why,weblink NPR, March 6, 2017, December 15, 2017, on emotional health. Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy, often triggered by vacation and holiday photos. Other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook,WEB, Belinda, Goldsmith, RPT-Is Facebook envy making you miserable?,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, January 22, 2013, July 13, 2017, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following an increase in time on Facebook.WEB, Heather, Kelly, Study: Using Facebook can make you sad,weblink CNN, August 15, 2013, July 13, 2017, WEB, Mike, Flacy, Study: Why Facebook is making people sad,weblink Digital Trends, January 22, 2012, July 13, 2017, WEB, Wendy, Sachs, Facebook Envy: How Cruising Can Kill Self Esteem,weblink HuffPost, AOL, February 8, 2012, July 13, 2017, Professor Larry D. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggressiveness. Positive effects included signs of "virtual empathy" towards online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills.WEB, Ysolt, Usigan, Facebook makes teens narcissistic, anxious and depressed – but also nice, social and engaged,weblink CBS News, CBS, August 29, 2011, December 15, 2017, In a blog post in December 2017, the company highlighted research that has shown "passively consuming" the News Feed, as in reading but not interacting, left users with negative feelings afterwards, whereas interacting with messages pointed to improvements in well-being.WEB, Casey, Newton, Facebook says 'passively consuming' the News Feed will make you feel worse about yourself,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 15, 2017, December 15, 2017,

Politics{{anchor|Political_impact}}

{{broader|Social media in politics}}{{further|Social media and political communication in the United States|Social media in the 2016 U.S. Presidential campaign}}{{see also|WhatsApp#Hoaxes and fake news}}(File:2011 Egyptian protests Facebook & jan25 card.jpg|thumb|A man during the 2011 Egyptian protests carrying a card saying "Facebook,#jan25, The Egyptian Social Network")In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).NEWS, August 1, 2010,weblink Facebook used to target Colombia's FARC with global rally, The Christian Science Monitor, Boston, February 4, 2008, Brodzinsky, Sibylla, In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the country's official news agency, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook.NEWS, Laura, Roberts, North Korea joins Facebook, August 21, 2010,weblink The Daily Telegraph, August 22, 2010, London, During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major role in the 2011 Egyptian revolution.NEWS, Sutter, John D.,weblink The faces of Egypt's 'Revolution 2.0', CNN, February 21, 2011, June 7, 2013, NEWS, Hauslohner, Abigail,weblink Is Egypt About to Have a Facebook Revolution?, Time, New York, January 24, 2011, June 7, 2013, On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all Khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. According to Mashable,{{unreliable source?|date=November 2014}} in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the primary tool for connecting protesters and led the Egyptian government to ban Facebook, Twitter and other websites on January 26NEWS, Kessler, Sarah,weblink Facebook & Twitter Both Blocked in Egypt, Mashable, January 26, 2011, June 7, 2013, then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt on January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Hosni Mubarak to resign.In Bahrain an uprising that started on February 14, 2011, Facebook was utilized by the Bahraini regime and regime loyalists to identify, capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A 20-year-old woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using Facebook and imprisoned.NEWS, Facebook 'used to hunt down Bahrain dissidents',weblink September 24, 2015, August 4, 2011, Agencies, Suzi Dixon and, In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC.NEWS,weblink Facebook forms its own Political Action Committee, September 26, 2011, Huffington Post, September 27, 2011, Luke, Johnson, In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said "Facebook Political Action Committee will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected."NEWS,weblink Facebook to form its own PAC to back political candidates, Gautham, Nagesh, September 26, 2011, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, September 27, 2011, Washington DC, During the Syrian civil war, the YPG, a libertarian army for Rojava recruited westerners through Facebook in its fight against ISIL.WEB,weblink Former Israeli Female Soldier Joins Kurds to Fight ISIS, YouTube, {{Better source|reason=YouTube is not an ideal source.|date=February 2019}} Dozens joined its ranks. The Facebook page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the organization's feminist ideology.WEB,weblink Frontline Isis: The Real Story of Narin Afrini and the Kurdish Female 'Lions' Terrorising Islamic State, International Business Times UK, October 15, 2014, In recent years, Facebook's News Feed algorithms have been identified as a cause of political polarization, for which it has been criticized.JOURNAL, Quattrociocchi, Walter, Uzzi, Brian, Caldarelli, Guido, Scala, Antonio, Puliga, Michelangelo, Vicario, Michela Del, Zollo, Fabiana, Bessi, Alessandro, Users Polarization on Facebook and Youtube, PLOS ONE, 23 August 2016, 11, 8, e0159641, 10.1371/journal.pone.0159641,weblink en, 1932-6203, NEWS, Solon, Olivia, Facebook’s failure: did fake news and polarized politics get Trump elected?,weblink 24 May 2019, The Guardian, 10 November 2016, It has likewise been accused of amplifying the reach of 'fake news' and extreme viewpoints, as when it may have enabled conditions which led to the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis.NEWS, The country where Facebook posts whipped up hate,weblink BBC News, 24 May 2019, 12 September 2018, NEWS, Mozur, Paul, A Genocide Incited on Facebook, With Posts From Myanmar’s Military,weblink 24 May 2019, The New York Times, 15 October 2018, Facebook first played role in the American political process in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary. Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates.NEWS,weblink ABC News Joins Forces With Facebook, ABC News, December 18, 2007, March 23, 2010, WEB, Doug, Minor,weblink Saint Anselm to Host ABC Debates Jan. 5, Saint Anselm College blog, November 29, 2007, July 18, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171009210810weblink">weblink October 9, 2017, NEWS, Tahman, Bradley,weblink Republicans Lead off ABC News, WMUR-TV and Facebook Back-To-Back Debates in New Hampshire, ABC News, Political Radar blog, December 12, 2007, March 23, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511122929weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, Facebook users took part in debate groups on specific topics, voter registration and message questions.WEB, Ezra, Callahan,weblink Tune in to the ABC News/Facebook Debates, Tonight 7 pm/6c on ABC, Facebook Blog, January 5, 2008, March 23, 2010, Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part which measured responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates.NEWS, Russell, Goldman,weblink Facebook Gives Snapshot of Voter Sentiment, ABC News, January 5, 2007, March 23, 2010, A poll by CBS News, UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the "Facebook effect" had affected youthful voters, increasing voting rates, support of political candidates, and general involvement.NEWS, Michelle, Sullivan,weblink Facebook Effect Mobilizes Youth Vote, CBS News, November 3, 2008, March 23, 2010, The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message.JOURNAL, Carlisle, Juliet E., Patton, Robert C., January 1, 2013, Is Social Media Changing How We Understand Political Engagement? An Analysis of Facebook and the 2008 Presidential Election, 23612065, Political Research Quarterly, 66, 4, 883–895, 10.1177/1065912913482758, JOURNAL, Skogerbø, Eli, Krumsvik, Arne H., May 4, 2015, Newspapers, Facebook and Twitter, Journalism Practice, 9, 3, 350–366, 10.1080/17512786.2014.950471, 10852/41249, By the 2016 election, political advertising to specific groups had become normalized. Facebook offered the most sophisticated targeting and analytics platform.JOURNAL, Bossetta, Michael, March 2018, The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S. Election, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 95, 2, 471–496, 10.1177/1077699018763307,weblink ProPublica noted that their system enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to almost 2,300 people who expressed interest in the topics of "Jew hater," "How to burn jews," or, "History of 'why Jews ruin the world".WEB,weblink Facebook Enabled Advertisers to Reach 'Jew Haters' — ProPublica, September 14, 2017, ProPublica, en-us, Julia Angwin, Madeleine Varner, Ariana Tobin, September 14, 2017, The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another example of the perceived attempt to influence elections.NEWS,weblink How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions, Rosenberg, Matthew, March 17, 2018, The New York Times, March 17, 2018, Confessore, Nicholas, en-US, 0362-4331, Cadwalladr, Carole, NEWS,weblink Facebook bans Trump-affiliated data firm Cambridge Analytica, newsobserver, March 17, 2018, en, yes,weblink March 17, 2018, The Guardian claimed that Facebook knew about the security breach for two years, but did nothing to stop it until it became public.NEWS,weblink 'I made Steve Bannon's psychological warfare tool': meet the data war whistleblower, Cadwalladr, Carole, March 18, 2018, The Guardian, March 18, 2018, en-GB, 0261-3077,

India

Ahead of the 2019 general elections in India, Facebook has removed 103 pages, groups and accounts on Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani military link, along with a mix of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of fake accounts created by them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting content about Indian politics while trying to conceal their identityNEWS,weblink Facebook takes down Pakistan military backed pages targeting India ahead of LS polls, Ananth, Venkat, April 1, 2019, The Economic Times, April 1, 2019, . Owing to the same reasons, Facebook also removed 687 pages and accounts of Congress because of coordinated inauthentic behavior on the platform.WEB,weblink Facebook Removes Nearly 700 Pages Linked to Congress Ahead of Polls, News18, April 1, 2019,

Science

Data from Facebook is used for different scientific investigations. One study examined how Facebook users interact with socially shared news and show that individuals’ choices played a stronger role in limiting exposure to cross-cutting content.Bakshy, E., Messing, S., & Adamic, L. A. (2015). Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook. Science, 348(6239), 1130-1132. Another study found that most of health science students acquied academic materials from others through Facebook.JOURNAL, 10.1186/s13104-016-2186-0, 27485717, Facebook use and its effects on the life of health science students in a private medical college of Nepal, BMC Research Notes, 9, 2016, Jha, Rajesh Kumar, Shah, Dev Kumar, Basnet, Sangharshila, Paudel, Keshab Raj, Sah, Phoolgen, Sah, Ajit Kumar, Adhikari, Kishor, 4970301, File:SF Pride 2014 - Stierch 7.jpg|thumb|Facebook parade float in San Francisco PrideSan Francisco PrideSignals from Facebook are also used in quality assessment of scientific works.JOURNAL, Haustein, Stefanie, July 1, 2016, Grand challenges in altmetrics: heterogeneity, data quality and dependencies, Scientometrics, en, 108, 1, 413–423, 10.1007/s11192-016-1910-9, 1588-2861, Facebook data can be used to assess the quality of Pseudopedia articles.BOOK, Lewoniewski, Włodzimierz, January 3, 2019, Measures for Quality Assessment of Articles and Infoboxes in Multilingual Wikipedia,weblink Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 339, 619–633, 10.1007/978-3-030-04849-5_53, 978-3-030-04848-8,

Culture

Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film and television. The 2010 film The Social Network, directed by David Fincher and written by Aaron Sorkin, stars Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg and went on to win three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes.In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year.WEB, Nicole, Kristen,weblink I Can So "Facebook" You Now (and be {{sic, y, gramatically, grammatically, correct) |work= Mashable |date=December 21, 2007 |accessdate=March 23, 2010}} In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook".NEWS,weblink Unfriend is New Oxford dictionary's Word of the Year, USA Today, Washington DC, July 12, 2010, November 17, 2009, In July 2014, Shakira became the first celebrity to reach 100 million likes.WEB, Mark Zuckerberg Congratulates Shakira, Singer Attains "Most Liked Page on Facebook",weblink OnoBello.com, July 22, 2014, August 13, 2014, Cristiano Ronaldo was the second to reach that milestone.WEB, Shakira reaches 100 million 'likes': Do Facebook fans and Twitter followers matter?,weblink Metro (British newspaper), Metro UK, July 25, 2014, August 13, 2014, NEWS, Shakira is Facebook's most popular celebrity with 100million likes – enough to fill 1,359 Maracana stadiums,weblink Ella Alexander, Independent (newspaper), Independent UK, July 21, 2014, August 13, 2014, London, On March 15, 2015, Ronaldo surpassed Shakira to become the most liked person on Facebook.WEB,weblink Sorry, Shakira, Cristiano Ronaldo is the most liked person on Facebook, Washington Post,

Internet.org

In August 2013, Facebook founded Internet.org in collaboration with 6 other technology companies to plan and help build affordable internet access for under developed and developing countries. Its goal was to bring internet access and the benefits of connectivity to the portion of the world that doesn‘t have them.WEB,weblink Internet.org, August 25, 2015, English, en-US, February 14, 2019, The service, called Free Basics, includes various low-bandwidth applications such as AccuWeather, BabyCenter, BBC News, ESPN and the search engine Bing.WEB,weblink Facebook’s Internet.org has connected almost 100M to the ‘internet’, TechCrunch, en-US, 2019-05-13, NEWS,weblink 'It's digital colonialism': how Facebook's free internet service has failed its users, Solon, Olivia, 2017-07-27, The Guardian, 2019-05-13, en-GB, 0261-3077, There was severe opposition to internet.org especially in India where the service started in partnership with Reliance communications in 2015 was banned a year later by TRAI.{{Citation|title=Internet.org|date=January 29, 2019|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Internet.org&oldid=880781568|work=Wikipedia|language=en|access-date=February 14, 2019}}By 2018, Mark Zuckerberg said, “our Internet.org efforts have helped almost 100 million people get access to the internet who may not have had it otherwise.” Free Basics is available in dozens of countries.WEB,weblink Where we’ve launched, 2015-10-23, English, en-US, 2019-05-13, {{Clear}}

See also

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References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Further reading

  • WEB, Arrington, Michael, Michael Arrington, The Age of Facebook,weblink TechCrunch, April 25, 2010, March 23, 2017,
  • MAGAZINE, Kirkpatrick, David, October 6, 2006, Why Facebook matters: It's not just for arranging dates. And it's not just another social network. Facebook offers sophisticated tools for maintaining social relationships,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, April 9, 2017,
  • BOOK, {{google books, y, Sh0zgX2bj7QC, |title=Facebook Nation: Total Information Awareness|last=Lee|first=Newton|date=September 15, 2012|publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=9781461453086|language=en}}
  • BOOK, McNamee, Roger, Zucked: Waking up to the Facebook Catastrophe, 2019, HarperCollins, 978-0-0083-1899-4, Roger McNamee,
  • BOOK, Miller, Daniel, Daniel Miller (anthropologist), 2011, Tales from Facebook, {{google books, y, FSRt8xhLF6cC, |publisher=Polity |isbn=978-0-7456-5209-2}}
  • WEB, Muffett, Alec, October 31, 2014, Making Connections to Facebook More Secure,weblink Facebook, December 13, 2016,
  • WEB, Schroeder, Stan, February 7, 2011, Facebook Privacy: 10 Settings Every User Needs to Know,weblink Mashable, February 1, 2015,

External links

{{Sister project links |wikt=Facebook |commons category=Facebook |b=no |n=Facebook |q=Facebook |s=no |v=no |species=no| voy=no |d=P2013 |display=Facebook}}
  • {{Official websiteweblink|mobile=https://m.facebook.com}}
  • {{OpenCorp|Facebook}}
{{Finance links| name = Facebook Inc| symbol = FB| sec_cik = 1326801| yahoo = FB| google = FB}}{{Z148}}
  • WEB,weblink www.sec.gov, February 6, 2019, Facebook Inc's 10-K filed in 2017, listing business "risk factors,
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