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{{about|the social networking service|the type of directory|Face book}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Global online social networking service}}{{Use American English|date=June 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2018}}







factoids
(Class A)>NASDAQ-100>S&P 100>S&P 500 Component}}Menlo Park, California>Menlo Park, California| location_country = United States of AmericaCensorship of Facebook>blocking countries (2005–present)37.4848type:landmark_region:US-CA|display=inline,title}}Mark ZuckerbergEduardo Saverin>Andrew McCollumDustin Moskovitz>Chris Hughes}}Mark Zuckerberg(Chairman and Chief executive officer>CEO)Sheryl Sandberg(COO)| industry = Internet40.653 billionWORK=SEC FILINGS ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 3, 2017, January 28, 2017, 20.203 billion}} (2017)15.934 billion}} (2017)84.524 billion}} (2017)74.347 billion}} (2017)PUBLISHER=FACEBOOK DATE=FEBRUARY 2, 2018, Facebook Messenger>Messengertbh (app)Facebook Watch>Watch| subsid = InstagramWhatsAppOculus VRweblink}} or{{URLweblink}}201820post=)}}HTTP://WWW.ALEXA.COM/SITEINFO/FACEBOOK.COM >TITLE=FACEBOOK.COM SITE INFO ALEXA INTERNET >ACCESSDATE=JULY 20, 2018, | registration = Required2018alt=January 2018|post=)}}| current_status = ActiveC++, PHP (as HipHop Virtual Machine>HHVM),GAVIN >LAST=CLARKE URL=HTTPS://WWW.THEREGISTER.CO.UK/2010/02/02/FACEBOOK_HIPHOP_UNVEILED/ THE REGISTER >PUBLISHER=SITUATION PUBLISHING ACCESSDATE=MARCH 23, 2017, D (programming language)HTTP://WWW.DRDOBBS.COM/MOBILE/FACEBOOK-ADOPTS-D-LANGUAGE/240162694 LAST=BRIDGWATER WORK=DR DOBB'S DATE=OCTOBER 16, 2013, |type=Social networking service}}Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes.The founders initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students. Later they expanded it to higher education institutions in the Boston area, the Ivy League schools, and Stanford University. Facebook gradually added support for students at various other universities, and eventually to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws. The name comes from the face book directories often given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering (IPO) in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company. It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements that appear onscreen.Facebook can be accessed from a large range of devices with Internet connectivity, such as desktop computers, laptops and tablet computers, and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile indicating their name, occupation, schools attended and so on. Users can add other users as "friends", exchange messages, post status updates, share photos, videos and links, use various software applications ("apps"), and receive notifications of other users' activity. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, school, hobbies or other topics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People From Work" or "Close Friends". Additionally, users can report or block unpleasant people.Facebook has more than 2.2 billion monthly active users {{as of|2018|01|lc=y|post=.}} Its popularity has led to prominent media coverage for the company, including significant scrutiny over privacy and the psychological effects it has on users. In recent years, the company has faced intense pressure over the amount of fake news, hate speech and depictions of violence prevalent on its services, all of which it is attempting to counteract.

History

2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, and name change

Zuckerberg wrote a program called "Facemash" in 2003 while attending Harvard University as a sophomore (second year student). According to The Harvard Crimson, the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".WEB, Katharine A., Kaplan, Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board,weblink The Harvard Crimson, November 19, 2003, June 24, 2017, Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online.WEB, Ellen, McGirt, Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg: Hacker. Dropout. CEO.,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures, May 1, 2007, July 4, 2017, The Facemash site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, and violating individual privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded all art images to a website, each of which was featured with a corresponding comments section, then shared the site with his classmates, and people started sharing notes.WEB, Jason, Kincaid, Startup School: An Interview With Mark Zuckerberg,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 24, 2009, June 24, 2017, (File:Thefacebook.png|thumb|Original layout and name of Thefacebook, 2004)A "face book" is a student directory featuring photos and basic information. In 2003, there were no universal online facebooks at Harvard, with only paper sheets distributedWEB, Sarah, Phillips, A brief history of Facebook,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 25, 2007, July 4, 2017, and private online directories.WEB, Alan T., Tabak, Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website,weblink The Harvard Crimson, February 9, 2004, July 4, 2017, Zuckerberg told the Crimson that "Everyone’s been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. [...] I think it’s kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website, known as "TheFacebook", with the inspiration coming from an editorial in the Crimson about Facemash, stating that "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available ... the benefits are many."WEB, Claire, Hoffman, The Battle For Facebook,weblink Rolling Stone, Wenner Media, September 15, 2010, July 4, 2017, On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.WEB, Lily, Rothman, Happy Birthday, Facebook,weblink Time (magazine), Time, February 4, 2015, July 4, 2017, Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product.WEB, Nicholas, Carlson, In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's Private Email Account,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, March 5, 2010, March 23, 2017, The three complained to The Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008NEWS, New York Times blog,weblink June 28, 2008, Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU, Stone, Brad, for 1.2 million shares (worth $300 million at Facebook's IPO).WEB, Dominic, Rushe, Facebook IPO sees Winklevoss twins heading for $300m fortune,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, February 2, 2012, March 23, 2017, Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College; within the first month, more than half the undergraduates at Harvard were registered on the service.WEB, Sarah, Phillips, A brief history of Facebook,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 25, 2007, March 23, 2017, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website.WEB, Matt, Weinberger, 33 photos of Facebook's rise from a Harvard dorm room to world domination,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, September 7, 2017, December 13, 2017, In March 2004, Facebook expanded to the universities of Columbia, Stanford, and Yale.WEB, Facebook: a timeline of the social network,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, February 1, 2012, December 13, 2017, It later opened to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and gradually most universities in the United States and Canada.NEWS, June 13, 2008,weblink Open Facebook, Forbes, New York, September 11, 2006, Rosmarin, Rachel, NEWS,weblink Online network created by Harvard students flourishes, The Tufts Daily, Lananh, Nguyen, April 12, 2004, Medford, MA, August 21, 2009,weblink October 15, 2013, yes, mdy, In mid-2004, entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became the company's president.NEWS, Rosen, Ellen, Student's Start-Up Draws Attention and $13 Million,weblink The New York Times, May 26, 2005, May 18, 2009, In June 2004, Facebook moved its operations base to Palo Alto, California.PRESS RELEASE, March 5, 2008,weblink Company Timeline, Facebook, January 1, 2007, It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel.NEWS, April 30, 2008,weblink Why you should beware of Facebook, The Age, Melbourne, January 20, 2008, In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000.WEB, Christopher, Williams, Facebook wins Manx battle for face-book.com,weblink The Register, Situation Publishing, October 1, 2007, March 23, 2017, The domain facebook.com belonged to AboutFace Corporation before the purchase. This website last appeared on April 8, 2005;WEB,weblink AboutFace Home Page, April 8, 2005, yes,weblink April 8, 2005, from April 10, 2005, to August 4, 2005, this domain gave a 403 error.WEB,weblink error!, April 10, 2005, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050408055255weblink">weblink April 8, 2005, File:MarkZuckerberg-crop.jpg|thumb|left|Mark Zuckerberg, co-creator of Facebook, in his Harvard dorm room, 2005]]In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim BreyerNEWS,weblink Jim Breyer (via Accel Partners), CNBC, May 22, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141229120047weblink">weblink December 29, 2014, mdy-all, added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site was launched in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step.NEWS, Facebook is the go-to Web site for students looking to hook up, Dayton Daily News, Ohio, August 3, 2006, Dempsey, Laura, (At the time, high-school networks required an invitation to join.)NEWS, May 13, 2011,weblink Why MySpace Doesn't Card, Forbes, New York, January 25, 2007, Lerer, Lisa, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080602081817weblink">weblink June 2, 2008, Facebook also expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.NEWS, March 9, 2008,weblink Facebook: Opening the Doors Wider, BusinessWeek, New York, September 12, 2006, Lacy, Sarah,

2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft alliance and rapid growth

On September 26, 2006, Facebook was opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address.WEB, Carolyn, Abram,weblink March 8, 2008, The Facebook Blog, Welcome to Facebook, everyone, September 26, 2006, WEB, March 5, 2008,weblink Terms of Use, Facebook, November 15, 2007, NEWS,weblink Facebook Expansion Enables More People to Connect with Friends in a Trusted Environment, September 26, 2006, Facebook Newsroom, February 4, 2016, In late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 business pages (pages which allowed companies to promote themselves and attract customers). These started as group pages, but a new concept called company pages was planned.NEWS, Enterprise: Facebook, a Marketer's Friend; Site Offers Platform To Tout Products, Interact With Users, Richmond, Riva, Wall Street Journal, New York, November 27, 2007, B4, Pages began rolling out for businesses in May 2009.WEB, Greenstein, Howard,weblink Facebook Pages vs Facebook Groups: What's the Difference?, Mashable.com, May 27, 2009, August 4, 2014, On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements on the social networking site.WEB, Microsoft gets a piece of Facebook,weblink CNNMoney, CNN, October 24, 2007, May 31, 2017, WEB, Doug, Sherrets, Microsoft invests $240M in Facebook, as Facebook develops ad product,weblink VentureBeat, October 24, 2007, May 31, 2017, In October 2008, Facebook announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.PRESS RELEASE, November 30, 2008,weblink Facebook to Establish International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland, Facebook, October 2, 2008, Almost a year later, in September 2009, Facebook said that it had turned cash flow positive for the first time.NEWS,weblink Facebook 'cash flow positive,' signs 300M users, CBC News, Toronto, September 16, 2009, March 23, 2010, A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users.NEWS, Kazeniac, Andy, Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs,weblink February 9, 2009, Compete Pulse blog, February 17, 2009, Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers' birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?"NEWS, Geier, Thom, Jensen, Jeff, Jordan, Tina, Lyons, Margaret, Markovitz, Adam, December 11, 2009, The 100 Greatest Movies, TV Shows, Albums, Books, Characters, Scenes, Episodes, Songs, Dresses, Music Videos, and Trends that entertained us over the 10 Years, Entertainment Weekly, New York, 1079/1080, 74–84, Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. The company announced 500 million users in July 2010, and according to its data, half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile. A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution." In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. (an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion. The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and Amazon.com.WEB, Sophie, Curtis, Facebook at 10: Zuckerberg hails 'incredible journey',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, February 3, 2014, May 31, 2017, WEB, Brian, Womack, Facebook Becomes Third Biggest US Web Company,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101203081529weblink">weblink Jakarta Globe, BeritaSatu Media Holdings, November 15, 2010, December 3, 2010, May 31, 2017, In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California.Parr, Ben (February 7, 2011). "These Are Facebook's New Offices [PHOTOS]". Mashable (New York). Retrieved April 6, 2011.Brundage, Sandy (February 8, 2011). "Facebook moving headquarters to Menlo Park: Social-networking giant to move into former Sun/Oracle campus". The Almanac (Menlo Park, CA). In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing about 20,000 profiles every day for violations such as spam, graphic content, and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security.NEWS, Facebook deletes 20,000 underage profiles daily,weblink March 24, 2011, March 24, 2011, IBN Live, Press Trust of India, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, Statistics by DoubleClick showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick.WEB, Emil, Protalinski, Facebook is first with 1 trillion page views, according to Google,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, August 24, 2011, July 13, 2017, WEB, Kate, Solomon, Facebook hit 1 trillion page views in June,weblink TechRadar, Future plc, August 25, 2011, July 13, 2017, According to a Nielsen study, Facebook had in 2011 become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google.WEB, Google and Facebook top 2011's most visited sites in US,weblink BBC News, BBC, March 8, 2012, July 13, 2017, WEB, Ryan, Fleming, Google and Facebook top the most visited websites of 2011,weblink Digital Trends, December 29, 2011, July 13, 2017,

2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits and one-billionth user

Facebook eventually filed for an initial public offering on February 1, 2012.WEB,weblink Facebook, Inc. Financial Statements, Securities and Exchange Commission, February 1, 2013, February 1, 2013, Facebook held an initial public offering on May 17, 2012, negotiating a share price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.NEWS, Mark Milian and Marcus Chan, Facebook's Valuation: What $104 Billion Is Worth,weblink January 11, 2014, Bloomberg Technology, May 18, 2012, WEB, Kerr, Dara, Facebook stock hits a record high, since IPO,weblink C{{!, Net News|publisher=C{{!}}Net|accessdate=August 27, 2013}}NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120518023059weblink">weblink May 18, 2012, Stakes are high on Facebook's first day of trading, Andrew Tangel, Walter Hamilton, May 17, 2012, The Los Angeles Times, May 17, 2012, yes, Facebook began selling stock to the public and trading on the NASDAQ on May 18, 2012.NEWS, Birthday boy Mark Zuckerberg to get $100bn gift,weblink May 14, 2012, Associated Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120514180811weblink">weblink May 14, 2012, The Times of India, Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked in position 462.NEWS,weblink Facebook squeaks onto the Fortune 500, USA Today, May 6, 2013, May 19, 2013, Matt, Krantz, Facebook filed their S1 document with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 1, 2012. The company applied for a $5 billion IPO, one of the biggest offerings in the history of technology.NEWS, February 1, 2012, February 1, 2012, Facebook Officially Files for $5 Billion IPO, KeyNoodle,weblinkweblink October 18, 2013, yes, mdy, The IPO raised $16 billion, making it the third-largest in U.S. history.NEWS,weblink Facebook Raises $16 Billion in I.P.O., Evelyn M. Rusli, Peter Eavis, May 17, 2012, The New York Times, May 17, 2012, NEWS,weblink Questions and answers on blockbuster Facebook IPO, Bernard Condon, May 17, 2012, U.S. News, Associated Press, May 17, 2012, The shares began trading on May 18; the stock struggled to stay above the IPO price for most of the day, but set a record for the trading volume of an IPO (460 million shares).NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120524053446weblink">weblink May 24, 2012, Facebook Sets Record For IPO Trading Volume, May 18, 2012, The Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2012, yes, The first day of trading was marred by technical glitches that prevented orders from going through;Tepid honeymoon of Facebook and NASDAQ does not deliver the big bang. forbes.comNEWS, Shawn Baldwin,weblink Facebook IPO: Capital Market Transaction vs Social Offering, Forbes, May 18, 2012, only the technical problems and artificial support from underwriters prevented the stock price from falling below the IPO price on the day.WEB, MARCY GORDON,weblink Regulators probe banks role Facebook IPO, News.yahoo.com, May 23, 2012, January 18, 2014, In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. The store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and mobile web users.NEWS, May 10, 2012,weblink Facebook app store launches amid mobile revenue worries, BBC News, File:Facebook on Nasdaq.jpeg|thumb|Billboard on the Thomson ReutersThomson ReutersOn May 22, 2012, the Yahoo! Finance website reported that Facebook's lead underwriters, Morgan Stanley (MS), JP Morgan (JPM), and Goldman Sachs (GS), cut their earnings forecasts for the company in the middle of the IPO process.WEB, Henry Blodget, Facebook Bankers Secretly Cut Facebook's Revenue Estimates In Middle Of IPO Roadshow,weblink Yahoo! Finance, December 14, 2014, May 22, 2012, The stock had begun its freefall by this time, closing at 34.03 on May 21 and 31.00 on May 22. A "circuit breaker" trading curb was used in an attempt to slow down the stock price's decline.Another Facebook First: Tripping a Circuit-Breake. WSJ Online Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Mary Schapiro, and Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) Chairman Rick Ketchum, called for a review of the circumstances surrounding the IPO.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120528230445weblink">Facebook shares fall valuation doubts. Yahoo! FinanceFacebook's IPO was consequently investigated, and was compared to a "pump and dump" scheme.Facebook IPO underscores shutting out the masses. sfgate.com A class-action lawsuit was filed in May 2012 because of the trading glitches, which led to botched orders.Regulators, investors turn up heat over Facebook IPO {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151001131347weblink |date=October 1, 2015 }}. finance.yahoo.comMorgan Stanley sued firm. yahoo.com Lawsuits were filed, alleging that an underwriter for Morgan Stanley selectively revealed adjusted earnings estimates to preferred clients.WEB, Listing of Recent Securities Lawsuits Filed Against Facebook,weblinkweblink yes, October 19, 2013, July 19, 2013, The other underwriters (MS, JPM, GS), Facebook's CEO and board, and NASDAQ also faced litigation after numerous lawsuits were filed, while SEC and FINRA both launched investigations.WEB, Matt Nesto, Fury Over Facebook IPO Grows, Lawsuits Mount,weblink Yahoo! Finance, December 14, 2014, May 23, 2012, It was believed that adjustments to earnings estimates were communicated to the underwriters by a Facebook financial officer, who used the information to cash out on their positions while leaving the general public with overpriced shares.WEB, Henry, Blodget, EXCLUSIVE: Here's The Inside Story Of What Happened On The Facebook IPO,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, May 22, 2012, March 23, 2017, By the end of May 2012, Facebook's stock lost over a quarter of its starting value, which led The Wall Street Journal to label the IPO a "fiasco".NEWS,weblink Facebook IPO Facts, Fiction and Flops, The Wall Street Journal, David, Weidner, May 30, 2012, Zuckerberg announced to the media at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had passed the monthly active users mark of one billion. The company's data also revealed 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections.

2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI and 10th anniversary

On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging the data present on its site.NEWS, Facebook introduces social search feature,weblink The Washington Post, Tsukayama, Hayley, January 15, 2013, Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware", returning results only from content already shared with the user.Claburn, Thomas (January 16, 2013). "Meet Facebook's Graph Search Tool". Information Week. On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC announced the HTC First, a smartphone with Home pre-loaded.WEB, Dan, Seifert, HTC and Facebook announce the First smartphone with AT&T, arriving April 12th for $99.99,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 4, 2013, March 23, 2017, On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles.WEB, Ingrid, Lunden, Facebook Links Up With Attorneys General In 19 U.S. States For Teen Social Networking Safety Program,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 15, 2013, March 23, 2017, On April 19, 2013, Facebook officially modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.NEWS, Murphy, Samantha,weblink New Facebook Logo Made Official, Mashable, November 18, 2011, April 20, 2013, Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic and sexual violence against women, and used over 57,000 tweets and more than 4,900 emails that caused withdrawal of advertising from the site by 15 companies, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The social media website initially responded by stating that "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies".NEWS, #FBrape: Will Facebook Heed Open Letter Protesting 'Endorsement Of Rape & Domestic Violence'?,weblink May 29, 2013, The Huffington Post UK, May 28, 2013, Nelson, Sara C., It decided to take action on May 29, 2013, after it "become clear that our systems to identify and remove hate speech have failed to work as effectively as we would like, particularly around issues of gender-based hate".WEB, Rory, Carroll, Facebook gives way to campaign against hate speech on its pages,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, May 29, 2013, March 23, 2017, On June 12, 2013, Facebook announced on its newsroom that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic.NEWS,weblink Facebook Introduces Hashtags to its Users, Dey, Aditya, TechStake-Technology News Blog, June 13, 2013, A July 2013 Wall Street Journal article identified the Facebook IPO as the cause of a change in the U.S.' national economic statistics, as the local government area of the company's headquarters, San Mateo County, California, became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average weekly wage in the county was US$3,240, 107% higher than the previous year. It noted the wages were "the equivalent of $168,000 a year, and more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan), at $2,107 a week, or roughly $110,000 a year."NEWS, How Facebook's IPO Created the Best-Paid County In America,weblink July 4, 2013, Corporate Intelligence blog, The Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2013, Thurm, Scott, Facebook was blocked by the Chinese government in 2009.WEB, Robin, Wauters, China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 7, 2009, June 15, 2017, In September 2013, the South China Morning Post announced that the block would lifted in the Shanghai Free Trade Zone "to welcome foreign companies to invest and to let foreigners live and work happily in the free-trade zone".WEB, Heather, Timmons, China will unblock Facebook, Twitter and The New York Times to boost its new free trade zone,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, September 23, 2013, June 15, 2017, WEB, Facebook, other banned sites to be open in China free trade zone: report,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, September 24, 2013, June 15, 2017, However, a few days later, the People's Daily, the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, dismissed the earlier report, reiterating the block on Facebook.WEB, Clifford, Coonan, China Won't Allow Twitter, Facebook Access in Shanghai Free Trade Zone After All,weblink The Hollywood Reporter, Eldridge Industries, September 26, 2013, June 15, 2017, Facebook was announced as a member of The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) in October 2013, when the A4AI was launched. The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organizations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google will help to decrease Internet access prices so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.WEB, Samuel, Gibbs, Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, October 7, 2013, March 23, 2017, A Reuters report, published on December 11, 2013, stated that Standard & Poor's announced the placement of Facebook on its S&P 500 index "after the close of trading on December 20".WEB, Facebook to join S&P 500,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, December 11, 2013, December 13, 2017, Facebook announced Q4 2013 earnings of $523 million (20 cents per share), an increase of $64 million from the previous year,NEWS, Facebook 4Q Earnings, Revenue Grow Sharply,weblink Associated Press, January 29, 2014, as well as 945 million mobile users.File:Oculus-Rift-CV1-Headset-Front.jpg|link=File:Oculus-Rift-CV1-Headset-Front.jpg|thumb|right|In 2014, Facebook bought Oculus VROculus VRThe company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014.WEB, Dominic, Rushe, Facebook posts record quarterly results and reports $1.5bn profit for 2013,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, January 29, 2014, March 23, 2017, In each of the first three months of 2014, over one billion users logged into their Facebook account on a mobile device.WEB, McDuling, John,weblink Facebook's mobile user base has crossed the 1 billion threshold – Quartz, Qz.com, April 24, 2014, As part of the company's second quarter results, Facebook announced in late July 2014 that mobile accounted for 62% of its advertising revenue, which is an increase of 21% from the previous year.NEWS, Lewis DVorkin, Inside Forbes: Mobile Part II, Or 4 More Charts That Offer a Peek Into the Future of Journalism,weblink Forbes, Forbes LLC, August 13, 2014, July 29, 2014, By September 2014, Facebook's market capitalization had risen to over $200 billion.WEB, Victor, Luckerson, Facebook Is Now Worth $200 Billion,weblink Time (magazine), Time, September 8, 2014, May 31, 2017, WEB, Paul R., La Monica, A lot to 'like': Facebook now worth $200 billion,weblink CNNMoney, CNN, September 9, 2014, May 31, 2017, WEB, Facebook Valuation Tops $200 Billion,weblink Bloomberg L.P., September 8, 2014, May 31, 2017, Alongside other American technology figures like Jeff Bezos and Tim Cook, Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in the enforcement of China's online policy, at Facebook's headquarters on December 8, 2014. The meeting occurred after Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, 2014, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin—although Facebook is banned in China, Zuckerberg is highly regarded among the people and was at the university to help fuel the nation's burgeoning entrepreneur sector.WEB, Alex, Hern, Jonathan, Kaiman, Mark Zuckerberg addresses Chinese university in Mandarin,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, October 23, 2014, March 23, 2017, A book of Chinese president Xi Jinping found on Zuckerberg's office desk attracted a great deal of attention in the media, after the Facebook founder explained to Lu, "I want them [Facebook staff] to understand socialism with Chinese characteristics."NEWS, Adam Taylor, Why would Mark Zuckerberg want Facebook employees to read the Chinese president's book?,weblink December 14, 2014, The Washington Post, December 8, 2014,

2015–present: Combating fake news and other ventures

As of January 21, 2015, Facebook's algorithm is programmed to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes, and will be supported by users who select the option to flag a story as "purposefully fake or deceitful news". According to Reuters, such content is "being spread like a wildfire" on the social media platform. Facebook maintained that "satirical" content, "intended to be humorous, or content that is clearly labeled as satire", will be taken into account and should not be intercepted.NEWS, Alexei, Oreskovic, Facebook clamps down on fake news stories,weblink February 4, 2015, Reuters, January 20, 2015, The algorithm, however, has been accused of maintaining a "filter bubble", where both material the user disagrees withJOURNAL, Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook, Science, June 5, 2015, 25953820, 1130–1132, 348, 6239, 10.1126/science.aaa1160, Eytan, Bakshy, Solomon, Messing, Lada A., Adamic, 2015Sci...348.1130B, and posts with a low level of likes, will also not be seen.WEB, Facebook Is Hiding Your Friends' Updates From You {{!, Unicorn Booty|url =weblink|website = Unicorn Booty|accessdate = November 8, 2015}} In November 2015, Zuckerberg prolonged period of paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months.NEWS,weblink 페이스북, 전세계 'ì•„ë¹  출산휴가' 4주→4개월로 확대, gong, November 28, 2015, On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg revealed a decade-long plan for Facebook in a keynote address. His speech outlined his vision, which rested on three main pillars: artificial intelligence, increased connectivity around the world and virtual and augmented reality.NEWS,weblink Zuckerberg unveils 10-year plan to expand Facebook empire, with political tones, USA TODAY, April 12, 2016, In June 2016 Facebook announced Deep Text, a natural language processing AI which will learn user intent and context in 20 languages.NEWS, Pandey, Avaneesh, June 2, 2016, With 'Near-Human' Level Of Language And Context Comprehension,weblink IB Times, June 2, 2016, In July 2016, a {{USD|1 billion}} lawsuit was filed against the company alleging that it permitted the Hamas group to use it to perform assaults that ended the lives of four people.WEB,weblink Facebook Sued for $1B for Alleged Use of Medium for Terror, Gwen, Ackerman, Bloomberg L.P., July 11, 2016, September 23, 2016, Facebook released the blueprints of Surround 360 camera on GitHub under open-source license.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook open sources Surround 360 camera with Ikea-style instructions,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 26, 2016, March 23, 2017, In September 2016, it won an Emmy for its Visual animated short "Henry".WEB,weblink Facebook wins first Emmy for Visual animated short "Henry", September 20, 2016, September 21, 2016, In October 2016, Facebook announced a fee-based communications tool called Workplace that aims to "connect everyone" while at work. Users can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream live video and participate in secure group chats.NEWS, Hu, Howard,weblink Facebook's Workplace Could Replace All Emails Within Your Company, Forbes, October 11, 2016, October 11, 2016, Facebook annually has an Oculus Connect conference.WEB,weblink Facebook holds Oculus Connect Conference, Howley, Daniel, October 7, 2016, October 7, 2016, Following the 2016 presidential election, Facebook announced that it would further combat the spread of fake news by using fact checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press (AP), making reporting hoaxes easier through crowdsourcing, and disrupting financial incentives for spammers.NEWS,weblink Facebook’s Cracking Down on Fake News Starting Today, Alba, Davey, Wired (magazine), WIRED, en-US, December 15, 2016, On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planning to open Station F, a startup incubator campus in Paris, France.WEB, Sam, Shead, Facebook is planning to open a startup incubator in Paris,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, January 17, 2017, March 23, 2017, On a six-monthly cycle, Facebook will work with ten to 15 data-driven startups in the location to help them develop their businesses.NEWS,weblink More than 100 entrepreneurs sign up to help Facebook and Station F find the best startups, WIRED, Matt Burgess, February 1, 2017, February 8, 2017, On April 18, 2017, Facebook announced the beta launch of Facebook Spaces at Facebook's annual F8 developer conference in San Francisco.NEWS,weblink Facebook’s bold and bizarre VR hangout app is now available for the Oculus Rift, THE VERGE, Nick Statt, April 18, 2017, April 19, 2017, Facebook Spaces, a virtual reality app version of Facebook for the Facebook-owned Oculus VR goggles. In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated selection of 360-degree photos and videos using their avatar, with the support of the controller. Users can also access their own photos and videos, and any media shared on their Facebook newsfeed.NEWS,weblink A Closer Look at Facebook Spaces, the Company’s First Social VR App, Variety, Janko Roettgers, April 18, 2017, April 19, 2017, The beta app is currently available in the Oculus Store.WEB, Facebook Doubles Down on Social VR with Spaces - Now in Beta,weblink Oculus VR Blog, April 19, 2017, In September 2017, Facebook announced it would be spending up to US$1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform.NEWS,weblink Facebook plans to spend up to $1B on original shows in 2018, Etherington, Darrell, TechCrunch, January 29, 2018, en, On October 16, 2017, Facebook acquired the anonymous compliment social media app tbh for an undisclosed amount, announcing intentions to leave the app independent, similar to Instagram and WhatsApp.NEWS,weblink Facebook acquires anonymous teen compliment app tbh, will let it run, Constine, Josh, TechCrunch, October 17, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink Facebook has bought tbh, the anonymous app loved by teens, Business Insider, October 17, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink Facebook Buys TBH App Popular With Teens for Anonymous Messaging, October 16, 2017, Bloomberg.com, October 17, 2017, WEB,weblink tbh has a new home!, tbh, October 17, 2017, In May 2018, at its annual F8 developers conference in San Jose, California, Facebook announced it would make its own dating service. Shares in the dating business Match Group fell by 22% following the announcement.NEWS,weblink Facebook F8: Zuckerberg's dating service takes on Tinder, BBC News, May 2, 2018, May 2, 2018, In July 2018, Facebook was charged £500,000 by UK watchdogs for failing to respond to data erasure requests.NEWS,weblink Facebook faces maximum fine for data misuse, 2018-07-11, BBC News, 2018-07-11, en-GB,

Corporate affairs

Management

Facebook's key management personnel consists of Mark Zuckerberg (Chairman and Chief Executive Officer), Sheryl Sandberg (Chief Operating Officer), David Wehner (Chief Financial Officer), Mike Schroepfer (Chief Technology Officer), and Chris Cox (Chief Product Officer).WEB, Facebook Management,weblink Facebook Investor Relations, Facebook, July 28, 2017, {{As of|2017|6|30|df=US}}, Facebook has 20,658 employees.WEB, Company Info,weblink Facebook Newsroom, Facebook, June 30, 2017, July 28, 2017,

Revenue

{{Facebook revenue}}Most of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising.WEB, Jolie O'Dell 203,weblink Facebook's Ad Revenue Hit $1.86B for 2010, Mashable.com, January 17, 2011, December 21, 2011, NEWS, Womack, Brian,weblink Facebook Revenue Will Reach $4.27 Billion, EMarketer Says, Bloomberg, September 20, 2011, December 21, 2011, Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate (CTR) for advertisements than most major websites. According to BusinessWeek.com, banner advertisements on Facebook have generally received one-fifth the number of clicks compared to those on the Web as a whole,WEB, July 18, 2010,weblink Facebook May Revamp Beacon, BusinessWeek, New York, November 28, 2007, although specific comparisons can reveal a much larger disparity. For example, while Google users click on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the time (80,000 clicks for every one million searches),WEB, July 18, 2010,weblink Google AdWords Click Through Rates Per Position, AccuraCast, October 9, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100718064957weblink">weblink July 18, 2010, Facebook's users click on advertisements an average of 0.04% of the time (400 clicks for every one million pages).NEWS, July 18, 2010,weblink Facebook 'consistently the worst performing site', Gawker, March 7, 2007, Denton, Nick, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100701223257weblink">weblink July 1, 2010, mdy, Successful advertising campaigns on the site can have clickthrough rates as low as 0.05% to 0.04%, and CTR for ads tend to fall within two weeks.NEWS, July 18, 2010,weblink Facebook Says Click Through Rates Do Not Match Those At Google, TechPulse 360, August 12, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100822055844weblink">weblink August 22, 2010, The cause of Facebook's low CTR has been attributed to younger users enabling ad blocking software and their adeptness at ignoring advertising messages, as well as the site's primary purpose being social communication rather than content viewing.NEWS, July 18, 2010,weblink Advertisers disappointed with Facebook's CTR, BizReport, July 16, 2007, Leggatt, Helen, According to digital consultancy iStrategy Labs in mid-January 2014, three million fewer users aged between 13 and 17 years were present on Facebook's Social Advertising platform compared to 2011.WEB, 3 Million Teens Leave Facebook In 3 Years: The 2014 Facebook Demographic Report,weblink iStrategy Labs, iStrategy Labs, January 30, 2014, DJ Saul, January 15, 2014, However, Time writer and reporter Christopher Matthews stated in the wake of the iStrategy Labs results:A big part of Facebook's pitch is that it has so much information about its users that it can more effectively target ads to those who will be responsive to the content. If Facebook can prove that theory to be true, then it may not worry so much about losing its cool cachet.NEWS, Matthews, Christopher,weblink More Than 11 Million Young People Have Fled Facebook Since 2011, Business.time.com, January 15, 2014, April 22, 2014, NEWS, Matthews, Christopher,weblink More Than 11 Million Young People Have Fled Facebook Since 2011, Business.time.com, January 15, 2014, April 22, 2014, A portion of Facebook revenue comes from the "firehose" access, bulk access to the social media data sold to the third parties.WEB, Josh, Constine, Facebook Finally Lets Its Firehose Be Tapped For Marketing Insights Thanks To DataSift,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 10, 2015, March 23, 2017, NEWS, January 30, 2017,weblink ACLU exposes Facebook, Twitter for feeding surveillance company user data, ArsTechnica, October 11, 2016, In December 2014, a report from Frank N. Magid and Associates found that the percentage of teens aged 13 to 17 who used Facebook fell to 88% in 2014, down from 94% in 2013 and 95% in 2012.NEWS,weblink Survey Says: Teens Hate Facebook, PC Magazine, December 22, 2014, Zuckerberg, alongside other Facebook executives, have questioned the data in such reports; although, a former Facebook senior employee has commented: "Mark [Zuckerberg] is very willing to recognize the strengths in other products and the flaws in Facebook."WEB, Facebook Turns 10: The Mark Zuckerberg Interview,weblink Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg L.P, January 30, 2014, Brad Stone, Sarah Frier, January 30, 2014, On pages for brands and products, however, some companies have reported CTR as high as 6.49% for Wall posts.NEWS, July 18, 2010,weblink Facebook's Click-Through Rates Flourish … for Wall Posts, Advertising Age, New York, August 13, 2009, Klaassen, Abbey, A study found that, for video advertisements on Facebook, over 40% of users who viewed the videos viewed the entire video, while the industry average was 25% for in-banner video ads.NEWS, July 18, 2010,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110916061802weblink">weblink September 16, 2011, Study: Video Ads On Facebook More Engaging Than Outside Sites, MediaPost, New York, June 15, 2010, Walsh, Mark, (File:Chart of Facebook, inc. Stock.png|thumb|Chart of Facebook's stock)The company released its own set of revenue data at the end of January 2014 and claimed: Revenues of US$2.59 billion were generated for the three months ending December 31, 2013; earnings per share were 31 cents; revenues of US$7.87 billion were made for the entirety of 2013; and Facebook's annual profit for 2013 was US$1.5 billion. During the same time, independent market research firm eMarketer released data in which Facebook accounted for 5.7 per cent of all global digital ad revenues in 2013 (Google's share was 32.4 per cent). Revenue for the June 2014 quarter rose to $2.68 billion, an increase of 67 per cent over the second quarter of 2013. Mobile advertising revenue accounted for around 62 per cent of advertising revenue, an increase of approximately 41 per cent over the comparable quarter of the previous year. In December 2017, the company announced that it would no longer route all of its revenues through its Ireland headquarters, but rather record revenue locally in each of the countries where it is generated.WEB, Matthew, Lynley, Facebook will no longer always divert international advertising revenue to Ireland,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., December 12, 2017, December 15, 2017, WEB, Facebook to stop routing ad revenue via Ireland amid pressure over taxes,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, December 12, 2017, December 15, 2017,

Number of advertisers

In February 2015, Facebook announced that it had reached two million active advertisers with most of the gain coming from small businesses. An active advertiser is an advertiser that has advertised on the Facebook platform in the last 28 days.NEWS, Meola, Andrew,weblink Active, in this case, means the advertiser has advertised on the site in the last 28 days., TheStreet, TheStreet, Inc., February 24, 2015, February 25, 2015, In March 2016, Facebook announced that it reached three million active advertisers with more than 70% from outside the US.WEB,weblink 3 Million Advertisers on Facebook, Facebook for Business,

Mergers and acquisitions

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history.NEWS, FB.com acquired by Facebook,weblink January 11, 2011, NameMon News, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110204210357weblink">weblink February 4, 2011, In April 2012, Facebook acquired Instagram for approximately US$1 billion in cash and stock.In February 2014, Facebook announced that it would be buying mobile messaging company WhatsApp for US$19 billion in cash and stock.WEB, Adrian, Covert, Facebook buys WhatsApp for $19 billion,weblink CNNMoney, CNN, February 19, 2014, June 15, 2017, WEB, Brad, Stone, Facebook Buys WhatsApp for $19 Billion,weblink Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, February 20, 2014, June 15, 2017, In November 2016 Facebook acquired CrowdTangle, a social analytics company that tracks how content spreads online. CrowdTangle confirmed the acquisition in a message on their website, but the company has not disclosed the financial terms of the deal.WEB, Casey, Newton, Facebook buys CrowdTangle, the tool publishers use to win the internet,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, November 11, 2016, March 23, 2017,

Offices

In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park.WEB, Laird, Sam,weblink Facebook Completes Move Into New Menlo Park Headquarters, Mashable.com, December 19, 2011, August 4, 2014, All users outside of the US and Canada have a contract with Facebook's Irish subsidiary "Facebook Ireland Limited". This allows Facebook to avoid US taxes for all users in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. Facebook is making use of the Double Irish arrangement which allows it to pay just about 2–3% corporation tax on all international revenue.NEWS,weblink Google 2.4% Rate Shows How $60 Billion Lost to Tax Loopholes, Bloomberg, Bloomberg.com, Jesse, Drucker, October 21, 2010, In 2010, Facebook opened its fourth office, in HyderabadNEWS, PTI,weblink Facebook opens office in India, The Hindu, September 30, 2010, May 5, 2012, Chennai, India, WEB,weblink Kirthiga Reddy: The face behind Facebook, Businesstoday.intoday.in, May 15, 2011, May 5, 2012, WEB, Nikhil Pahwa,weblink Facebook Appoints Kirthiga Reddy As Head Of Indian Operations, Medianama.com, July 16, 2010, May 5, 2012, and the first in Asia.NEWS, Facebook's India face-Meet Kirthiga Reddy, Head and Director Online Operations, Facebook India.,weblink November 14, 2011, MSN India, Facebook, which in 2010 had more than 750 million active users globally including over 23 million in India, announced that its Hyderabad center would house online advertising and developer support teams and provide round-the-clock, multilingual support to the social networking site's users and advertisers globally.WEB,weblink Facebook's Hyderabad Office Inaugurated – Google vs Facebook Battle Comes To India, Watblog.com, May 5, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120101131508weblink">weblink January 1, 2012, With this, Facebook joins other giants like Google, Microsoft, Oracle, Dell, IBM and Computer Associates that have already set up shop.NEWS,weblink City back as investors' top pick, Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com, February 19, 2012, May 5, 2012, In Hyderabad, it is registered as 'Facebook India Online Services Pvt Ltd'.NEWS,weblink Not responsible for user-generated content hosted on website: Facebook India, Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com, February 29, 2012, May 5, 2012, WEB,weblink Facebook India to court: Not responsible for user-generated content - Gadgets Now, Gadget Now, WEB,weblink Facebook India to court: Not responsible for user-generated content, M.timesofindia.com, February 29, 2012, May 5, 2012, Though Facebook did not specify its India investment or hiring figures, it said recruitment had already begun for a director of operations and other key positions at Hyderabad,Hyderabad, India: "At the tech epicenter of India, our Hyderabad office is where we help support the region's growing users base, advertisers, and developers." {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120107121640weblink |date=January 7, 2012 }} which would supplement its operations in California, Dublin in Ireland as well as at Austin, Texas. A custom-built data center with substantially reduced ("38% less") power consumption compared to existing Facebook data centers opened in April 2011 in Prineville, Oregon.NEWS, April 16, 2011, April 16, 2011, Zuckerberg at Ore. Facebook data center, Associated Press,weblink The Boston Globe, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130619084508weblink">weblink June 19, 2013, In April 2012, Facebook opened a second data center in Forest City, North Carolina, US.NEWS, Facebook Building $450M North Carolina Data Center,weblink PC Mag, Ziff Davis, September 8, 2013, Chloe Albanesius, November 11, 2010, In June 2013, Facebook opened a third data center in Luleå, Sweden. In November 2014, Facebook opened a fourth data center in Altoona, Iowa, US.NEWS, Altoona data center is 'where Facebook lives',weblink The Des Moines Register, Gannett Company, November 14, 2014, Matthew Patane, November 14, 2014, In September 2016, Facebook announced a coming datacenter in Los Lunas, New Mexico in 2018 powered by renewable energy.WEB,weblink Facebook in Los Lunas: Our newest data center, Facebook Code, October 6, 2016, WEB,weblink Los Luna Data Center, Facebook, October 6, 2016, On October 1, 2012, CEO Zuckerberg visited Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market.WEB, Zuckerberg in Moscow to boost Facebook's presence,weblink France24.com, October 1, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121003232618weblink">weblink October 3, 2012, Russia's communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant's founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. Facebook has roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic analogue VK has around 34 million.NEWS, Russia pushes Facebook to open research center,weblink FoxNews, October 1, 2012, The establishment of a woodworking facility on the Menlo Park campus was announced at the end of August 2013. The facility, opened in June 2013, provides equipment, safety courses and a woodworking learning course. Employees are required to purchase materials at the in-house store. A Facebook spokesperson explained that the intention of setting up the facility is to encourage employees to think in an innovative manner because of the different environment; it also serves as an attractive perk for prospective employees.WEB, Facebook tells employees, 'build something' – with a table saw,weblink TechHive, IDG Consumer & SMB, September 8, 2013, Zach Miners, August 30, 2013, On November 21, 2016 Facebook announced that it will open its new London headquarters next year and create another 500 jobs in the UK. New headquarters will be in Fitzrovia in central London at a site that is currently undergoing redevelopment. Facebook's London-based executive, Nicola Mendelsohn said "The UK remains one of the best places to be a tech company".WEB,weblink Facebook to open new London HQ, create 500 new jobs by 2017, November 21, 2016, November 21, 2016, In August 2017, Facebook announced the opening of a new office in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2018. Facebook will occupy the top three floors of 100 Binney St in Kendall Square and share the building with the pharmaceutical employees from Bristol-Myers Squibb. The offices will be home to Facebook's "Connectivity Lab", a group focused on bringing Internet access and technology to 4 billion people who do not have access to the Internet.NEWS, Nanos, Janelle,weblink Facebook to open new office in Kendall Square, adding hundreds of jobs, The Boston Globe, August 30, 2017, August 30, 2017, 1601californiaavelobby.jpg|Entrance to Facebook's previous headquarters in the Stanford Research Park, Palo Alto, CaliforniaFacebook Headquarters 1 Hacker Way Menlo Park.jpg|Entrance to Facebook headquarters complex in Menlo Park, CaliforniaInside the Facebook campus.jpg|Inside the Facebook headquarters in 2014{{Clear}}

Tax affairs

{{see also|Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland#Multinational tax schemes|Double Irish arrangement#Effect of Tax Cuts and Jobs Act}}Like Apple, Google and Microsoft (and other US technology multinationals), Facebook has an office in Ireland (Facebook Ireland), with circa 2,000 employees,WEB,weblink ‘No loss of Irish jobs’ at Facebook on tax shift, Irish Examiner, December 13, 2017, through which it manages 1.9bn global Facebook accounts (86% of all Facebook accounts), representing all of its non-US accounts (i.e. not just European).NEWS,weblink Facebook to put 1.5bn users out of reach of new EU GDPR privacy law, Irish Times, April 19, 2018, WEB,weblink Exclusive: Facebook to put 1.5 billion users out of reach of new EU privacy law, Reuters News, April 19, 2018, Facebook Ireland is the 9th largest Irish company (by 2017 revenues, see here).Facebook Ireland uses a basic double Irish tax structureNEWS,weblink ‘Double Irish’ limits Facebook’s tax bill to €1.9m in Ireland, Financial Times, December 5, 2013, to pay effective tax rates of Social Network |publisher=SimilarWeb |accessdate=June 29, 2015}} SimilarWeb, Quantcast, and Compete.com all rank the website 2nd in the U.S. in traffic.WEB, September 9, 2010,weblink Facebook.com Web Site Audience Profile, Quantcast, WEB, September 9, 2010,weblink We're Number Two! Facebook moves up one big spot in the charts, Compete.com, The website is the most popular for uploading photos, cumulatively with 50 billion uploaded.NEWS, September 9, 2010,weblink Status update: Facebook logs 500 million members, USA Today, Washington DC, July 22, 2010, McGrath, Kristin, In 2010, Sophos's "Security Threat Report 2010" polled over 500 firms, 60% of which responded that they believed Facebook was the social network that "posed the biggest threat to security", well ahead of MySpace, Twitter, and LinkedIn.Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries, including Canada,WEB,weblink Most Internet users in Canada dedicated to using Facebook daily, Emarketer, June 22, 2016, September 23, 2016, the United Kingdom,NEWS, April 30, 2008,weblink Facebook is UK's biggest networking site, The Daily Telegraph, September 26, 2007, Malkin, Bonnie, London, and the United States.NEWS, Doug, Caverly, comScore: Facebook Catches MySpace in U.S,weblink WebProNews, iEntry Network, June 16, 2009, September 24, 2009, NEWS, Facebook grows as MySpace cuts back,weblink Atlanta Business Chronicle, June 17, 2009, The Conference Board report on first quarter online users in the U.S. showed Facebook with an even larger lead, with 78 percent of social network participants, followed by MySpace (42 percent), LinkedIn (17 percent) and Twitter (10 percent)., September 24, 2009, Steven E.F., Brown, NEWS, Cara, Wood, Keeping pace with mainstream social media,weblink Direct Marketing News, New York, August 31, 2009, The giant in the space remains Facebook, which gets 87.7 million unique viewers per month, according to ComScore. MySpace, with nearly 70 million unique monthly visitors, has seen growth stagnate over the past year., September 24, 2009, However, Facebook still receives limited adoption in countries such as Japan, where domestically created social networks are still largely preferred.NEWS, Looking at 2013's Japanese social-media scene,weblink December 27, 2013, The Japan Times, December 17, 2013, AKKY AKIMOTO, In regional Internet markets, penetration on Facebook is highest in North America (69 percent), followed by Middle East-Africa (67 percent), Latin America (58 percent), Europe (57 percent), and Asia-Pacific (17 percent).NEWS, September 23, 2008,weblink Who will be Facebook's next 500 million?, CNET, July 21, 2010, McCarthy, Caroline, New York, Some of the top competitors were listed in 2007 by Mashable.WEB, Ostrow, Adam, Copycats: Top 10 International Facebook Clones, Mashable,weblink July 11, 2007, November 14, 2012,

Awards and recognition

The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007,NEWS, May 9, 2008,weblink Social Networking, PC Magazine, August 13, 2007, and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008.WEB, May 6, 2008,weblink 12th Annual Webby Awards Nominees, International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100926024111weblink">weblink September 26, 2010, In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor, a company specializing in research concerning the college student market, Facebook was named the "second most popular thing among undergraduates," tied with beer and only ranked lower than the iPod.NEWS, March 10, 2008,weblink Survey: College Kids Like IPods Better Than Beer, Fox News, June 8, 2006, In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" awardWEB, Anthony, Ha, Congratulations to Facebook, Bing, and the other Crunchies winners,weblink VentureBeat, January 11, 2010, July 13, 2017, for the third year in a row.WEB, Jason, Kincaid, Congratulations Crunchies Winners! Facebook Takes Best Overall For The Hat Trick,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 8, 2010, March 23, 2017, However, in a July 2010 survey performed by the American Customer Satisfaction Index, Facebook received a score of 64 out of 100, placing it in the bottom 5% of all private-sector companies in terms of customer satisfaction, alongside industries such as the IRS e-file system, airlines, and cable companies. The reasons why Facebook scored so poorly include privacy problems, frequent changes to the website's interface, the results returned by the News Feed, and spam.WEB, Geoffrey A., Fowler, Users Rate Facebook Slightly Above the Tax Man,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, July 20, 2010, July 13, 2017, In December 2008, the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory ruled that Facebook is a valid protocol to serve court notices to defendants. It is believed to be the world's first legal judgement that defines a summons posted on Facebook as legally binding.NEWS,weblink Lawyers to serve notices on Facebook, The Age, Melbourne, December 16, 2008, March 23, 2010, Noel, Towell, In March 2009, the New Zealand High Court associate justice David Gendall allowed for the serving of legal papers on Craig Axe by the company Axe Market Garden via Facebook.NEWS,weblink Kiwi judge follows Australian Facebook precedent, The Age, Melbourne, Agence France-Presse, March 16, 2009, NEWS,weblink Facebook trap criminals in its web, Peters, Melanie, Independent Online, Cape Town, April 5, 2009, Employers have also used Facebook as a means to keep tabs on their employees and have even been known to fire them over posts they have made.NEWS, Watch out! Bosses are saving money by firing employees over Facebook posts, Cochran, Jason, November 6, 2008, May 6, 2010,weblink WalletPop.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100211040256weblink">weblink February 11, 2010, By 2005, the use of Facebook had already become so ubiquitous that the generic verb "facebooking" had come into use to describe the process of browsing others' profiles or updating one's own.NEWS, Facebooking, the rage on college campuses, McDonald, Soraya Nadia, The Seattle Times, July 4, 2005, September 14, 2009,weblink In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year.WEB, Nicole, Kristen,weblink I Can So "Facebook" You Now (and be {{sic, y, gramatically, grammatically, correct) |work= Mashable |date=December 21, 2007 |accessdate=March 23, 2010}} In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook".NEWS,weblink Unfriend is New Oxford dictionary's Word of the Year, USA Today, Washington DC, July 12, 2010, November 17, 2009,

Criticisms and controversies

File:Mark Zuckerberg 1984 Berlin Graffiti.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.75|Graffiti in Berlin of Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. The caption is a reference to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-FourNineteen Eighty-FourFacebook's market dominance has led to international media coverage and significant reporting of its shortcomings. Notable issues include Internet privacy, such as its widespread use of a "like" button on third-party websites tracking users,WEB, Geoff, Duncan, Open letter urges Facebook to strengthen privacy,weblink Digital Trends, June 17, 2010, June 3, 2017, WEB, Ian, Paul, Advocacy Groups Ask Facebook for More Privacy Changes,weblink PC World, International Data Group, June 17, 2010, June 3, 2017, possible indefinite records of user information,WEB, Maria, Aspen, How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free,weblink The New York Times, February 11, 2008, June 3, 2017, automatic facial recognition software,WEB, Sebastian, Anthony, Facebook’s facial recognition software is now as accurate as the human brain, but what now?,weblink ExtremeTech, Ziff Davis, March 19, 2014, June 3, 2017, WEB, Liz, Gannes, Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, June 8, 2011, June 3, 2017, and its role in the workplace, including employer-employee account disclosure.WEB, Matt, Friedman, Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates' Facebook accounts is headed to governor,weblink NJ.com, Advance Digital, March 21, 2013, June 3, 2017, In a 2014 Huffington Post blog article entitled "Facebook: The World's Biggest Waste of Time?", Bill Robinson stated that going on Facebook was not a productive use of time and he raised concerns about its addictive qualities.WEB,weblink Facebook: The World’s Biggest Waste of Time?, Robinson, Bill, February 10, 2014, www.huffingtonpost.com, Huffington Post, March 3, 2018, Timothy A Pychyl wrote in Psychology Today about his concerns that Facebook is leading to "technological time wasting" and procrastination.WEB,weblink Facebook—a Whole New World of Wasting Time If you're serious about procrastination—Facebook!, Pychyl, Timothy, April 3, 2008, www.psychologytoday.com, Psychology Today, March 3, 2018, The use of Facebook can have psychological effects, including feelings of jealousyWEB, How Facebook Breeds Jealousy,weblink Seeker (media company), Seeker, Group Nine Media, February 10, 2010, June 3, 2017, WEB, Chris, Matyszczyk, Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, August 11, 2009, June 3, 2017, and stress,WEB, Chenda, Ngak, Facebook may cause stress, study says,weblink CBS News, CBS, November 27, 2012, June 3, 2017, WEB, Dave, Smith, Quitting Facebook will make you happier and less stressed, study says,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, November 13, 2015, June 3, 2017, a lack of attention,WEB, Michael J., Bugeja, Facing the Facebook,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080220193743weblink">weblink The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 23, 2006, February 20, 2008, June 3, 2017, and social media addiction, in some cases comparable to drug addiction.WEB, Andrew, Hough, Student 'addiction' to technology 'similar to drug cravings', study finds,weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, April 8, 2011, June 3, 2017, WEB, Facebook and Twitter 'more addictive than tobacco and alcohol',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, February 1, 2012, June 3, 2017, Facebook's company tactics have also received prominent coverage, including electricity usage,WEB, Robin, Wauters, Greenpeace Slams Zuckerberg For Making Facebook A "So Coal Network" (Video),weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 16, 2010, June 3, 2017, tax avoidance,WEB, Rupert, Neate, Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits made outside US, figures show,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, December 23, 2012, June 3, 2017, real-name user requirement policies,WEB, Emanuella, Grinberg, Facebook 'real name' policy stirs questions around identity,weblink CNN, September 18, 2014, June 3, 2017, censorship,WEB, Vidhi, Doshi, Facebook under fire for 'censoring' Kashmir-related posts and accounts,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 19, 2016, June 3, 2017, WEB, Michael, Arrington, Michael Arrington, Is Facebook Really Censoring Search When It Suits Them?,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 22, 2007, June 3, 2017, and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program.WEB, Glenn, Greenwald, Ewen, MacAskill, NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, June 7, 2013, June 3, 2017, Due to allowing users to publish material by themselves, Facebook has come under scrutiny for the amount of freedom it gives users, including copyright and intellectual property infringement,WEB, Ariha, Setalvad, Why Facebook’s video theft problem can’t last,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, August 7, 2015, June 3, 2017, hate speech,WEB, Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech,weblink BBC News, BBC, March 14, 2017, June 3, 2017, WEB, Amar, Toor, Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee hate speech,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 15, 2015, June 3, 2017, incitement of rapeWEB, Philip, Sherwell, Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of Facebook 'rape pages',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, October 16, 2011, June 3, 2017, and terrorism,WEB, 20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement,weblink The Times of Israel, October 27, 2015, June 3, 2017, WEB, Israel: Facebook’s Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands,weblink The Times of Israel, July 2, 2016, June 3, 2017, fake news,WEB, Samuel, Burke, Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake news,weblink CNN, November 19, 2016, June 3, 2017, WEB, Hillary Clinton says Facebook 'must prevent fake news from creating a new reality',weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, June 1, 2017, June 3, 2017, WEB, Seth, Fiegerman, Facebook's global fight against fake news,weblink CNN, May 9, 2017, June 3, 2017, and crimes, murders and violent incidents live-streamed through its Facebook Live functionality.WEB, Emanuella, Grinberg, Samira, Said, Police: At least 40 people watched teen's sexual assault on Facebook Live,weblink CNN, March 22, 2017, June 3, 2017, WEB, Emanuella, Grinberg, Chicago torture: Facebook Live video leads to 4 arrests,weblink CNN, January 5, 2017, June 3, 2017, WEB, Aatif, Sulleyman, Facebook Live killings: Why the criticism has been harsh,weblink The Independent, April 27, 2017, June 3, 2017, Facebook worked on special censorship software so it could potentially accommodate censorship demands in Communist-controlled China."Facebook Said to Create Censorship Tool to Get Back Into China". The New York Times. November 23, 2016.The company has also been subject to multiple litigation cases over the years,WEB, Cyrus, Farivar, Appeals court upholds deal allowing kids’ images in Facebook ads,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, January 7, 2016, June 3, 2017, WEB, Dan, Levine, Alexei, Oreskovic, Yahoo sues Facebook for infringing 10 patents,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, March 12, 2012, June 3, 2017, WEB, Kurt, Wagner, Facebook lost its Oculus lawsuit and has to pay $500 million,weblink Recode, Vox Media, February 1, 2017, June 3, 2017, WEB, Rusell, Brandom, Lawsuit claims Facebook illegally scanned private messages,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 19, 2016, June 3, 2017, with its most prominent case concerning allegations that CEO Mark Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004, instead allegedly opting to steal the idea and code to launch Facebook months before HarvardConnection began.WEB, Chris, Tryhorn, Facebook in court over ownership,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, July 25, 2007, June 3, 2017, WEB, Scott, Michels, Facebook Founder Accused of Stealing Idea for Site,weblink ABC News, American Broadcasting Company, ABC, July 20, 2007, June 3, 2017, WEB, Nicholas, Carlson, How Mark Zuckerberg Hacked Into Rival ConnectU In 2004,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, March 5, 2010, June 3, 2017, The original lawsuit was eventually settled in 2009, with Facebook paying approximately $20 million in cash and 1.25 million shares.WEB, Charles, Arthur, Facebook paid up to $65m to founder Mark Zuckerberg's ex-classmates,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, February 12, 2009, June 3, 2017, WEB, Ryan, Singel, Court Tells Winklevoss Twins to Quit Their Facebook Whining,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, April 11, 2011, June 3, 2017, A new lawsuit in 2011 was dismissed.WEB, Jonathan, Stempel, Facebook wins dismissal of second Winklevoss case,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, July 22, 2011, June 3, 2017, On November 5, 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Russian state organizations with ties to Vladimir Putin pursued between 2009 and 2011 large investments in Facebook and Twitter via an intermediary—Russian-American entrepreneur Yuri Milner, who befriended Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg"Kremlin-owned Firms Linked to Major Investments in Twitter and Facebook". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists – ICIJ. November 5, 2017. and was a business associate of Jared Kushner, President Donald Trump's son-in-law.WEB, Swaine, Jon, Harding, Luke, Russia funded Facebook and Twitter investments through Kushner associate,weblink The Guardian, November 5, 2017, November 5, 2017, According to The Express Tribune, Facebook is among the corporations that "avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore companies".NEWS,weblink Paradise Papers reveal hidden wealth of global elite, The Express Tribune, November 6, 2017, A subsidiary of the Kremlin-controlled Gazprom funded an investment company that partnered with DST Global, an investment firm part of Mail.ru, to buy shares in Facebook, reaping millions when the social media giant went public in 2012. Four days after the Facebook IPO, a DST Global subsidiary sold more than 27 million shares of Facebook for roughly $1 billion.WEB,weblink Kremlin-Owned Firms Linked To Major Investments In Twitter And Facebook: The Russian government quietly held a financial interest in U.S. social media, Spencer Woodman, November 5, 2017, November 6, 2017, ICIJ, On March 6, 2018, BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subdivision for ripping off key features of its messaging app.NEWS,weblink BlackBerry to Facebook: You stole our messaging technology, March 7, 2018, Fox News, March 8, 2018, en-US, According to BlackBerry, it invented the core concepts in mobile messaging app which were copied by Facebook and its subsidiaries.NEWS,weblink BlackBerry sues Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram over messaging patents, The Verge, March 8, 2018, According to the Facebook Deputy General Counsel, Paul Grewal, BlackBerry abandoned its effort to innovate and it is now looking to tax the innovation of others.NEWS,weblink BlackBerry sues Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram over patent infringement, March 7, 2018, Reuters, March 8, 2018, On June 7, 2018, chief privacy officer Erin Egan noted that a software bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public". Facebook issued a notification to users which were exposed to this issue. A Facebook spokesperson said the notification is the start of new proactive and transparent way for the company to handle issues going forward.NEWS,weblink Facebook bug set 14 million users' sharing settings to public, June 7, 2018, June 7, 2018,

Shadow profiles

"Shadow profile" has become a catch all term for data that is outside the scope of a user's official profile or voluntarily shared content. This includes data that Facebook collects on non-users that may be collected by the Facebook analytics Pixel or location data from a mobile phone. During his 2018 Congressional testimony, CEO Mark Zuckerberg said that while users have control over data collection for advertising purposes, "On security, there may be specific things about how you use Facebook, even if you’re not logged in, that we keep track of to make sure you’re not abusing the systems."WEB, Brandom, Russell, Even if you’re not signed up, Facebook has a shadow profile for you, The Verge, April 13, 2018, April 11, 2018,weblink Zuckerberg also stated that he was not familiar with the term "shadow profile", though he did confirm that Facebook gathers data on individuals who have not signed up for Facebook accounts.WEB, How Facebook can have your data even if you're not on Facebook, USA TODAY, April 13, 2018,weblink

Cambridge Analytica

In March 2018, whistleblowers revealed that personal information from over 87 million Facebook users was sold to Cambridge Analytica, a political data analysis firm that had worked for Donald Trump's presidential campaign. The data was collected using an app created by Global Science Research.WEB, Lewis, Paul, Wong, Julia Carrie, Facebook employs psychologist whose firm sold data to Cambridge Analytica, the Guardian, March 20, 2018, March 18, 2018,weblink While approximately 270,000 people volunteered to use the app, Facebook's API also permitted data collection from the friends of app users.WEB, Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo, Why We're Not Calling the Cambridge Analytica Story a 'Data Breach', Motherboard, March 20, 2018, March 19, 2018,weblink When the information was first reported Facebook tried to downplay the significance of the breach, and attempted to suggest that the stolen data was no longer available to Cambridge Analytica. However, with increasing scrutiny, Facebook issued a statement expressing alarm and suspended Cambridge Analytica, while review of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica was still in possession of the data.WEB,weblink How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions, Matthew, Rosenberg, Nicholas, Confessore, Carole, Cadwalladr, March 17, 2018, NYTimes.com, This is a violation of the consent decree entered into law by Facebook with the Federal Trade Commission, and violations of the consent decree could carry a penalty of $40,000 per violation, meaning that if news reports that the data of 50 million people were shared proves true, the company’s possible exposure runs into the trillions of dollars.NEWS,weblink Facebook may have violated FTC privacy deal, say former federal officials, triggering risk of massive fines, Timberg, Craig, March 18, 2018, Washington Post, March 25, 2018, Romm, Tony, en-US, 0190-8286, According to The Guardian reporter Carole Cadwalladr who broke the story, both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the story and continually tried to prevent its publication. After the story was published anyway, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". Cadwalladr said that Facebook was trying to shift the blame onto a third party. Nick Thompson of Wired and CBS News pointed out that Cambridge Analytica obtained all the personal data without having to "breach" Facebook, and that "It didn't work because somebody hacked in and broke stuff, it worked because Facebook has built the craziest most invasive advertising model in the history of the world and someone took advantage of it."WEB,weblink Facebook knew of illicit user profile harvesting for 2 years, never acted, On March 23, 2018, The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica's London offices ending a standoff between Facebook's data team and the Information Commissioner over who is responsible for the forensic searching of the company's servers.NEWS,weblink UK High Court grants Cambridge Analytica search warrant to ICO, CNBC, March 23, 2018, CNBC, March 23, 2018, On March 25, Zuckerberg placed a newspaper ad in UK and US newspapers apologising over a "breach of trust"; newspapers included Sunday Telegraph, Sunday Times, Mail on Sunday, Observer, Sunday Mirror and Sunday Express.NEWS,weblink Facebook boss apologises in newspaper ads, March 25, 2018, BBC News, March 25, 2018, en-GB, You may have heard about a quiz app built by a university researcher that leaked Facebook data of millions of people in 2014. This was a breach of trust, and I'm sorry we didn't do more at the time. We're now taking steps to make sure this doesn't happen again.We've already stopped apps like this from getting so much information. Now we're limiting the data apps get when you sign in using Facebook.We're also investigating every single app that had access to large amounts of data before we fixed this. We expect there are others. And when we find them, we will ban them and tell everyone affected.Finally, we'll remind you which apps you've give access to your information - so you can shut off the ones you don't want anymore.Thank you for believing in this community. I promise to do better for you.On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into Facebook regarding the use of its data by Cambridge Analytica, causing stocks to temporarily drop by more than 5 percent.NEWS,weblink Facebook stock rebounds after FTC investigation news, Ivanova, Irina, March 26, 2018, CBS News, March 26, 2018, en,

Android data scraping

In Android platform, It was reported that Facebook app has been gathering Android users data for years.Facebook's app has been collecting Android phone data for years on some devices MashableAsia The data included phone calls and text messages history that were stored to Facebook database. Unlike Android, Apple limited the privilege of the apps who try to gather personal information from the iOS devices.Facebook has been collecting call history and SMS data from Android devices The VergeIn May 2018, several Android users in California filed a class action lawsuit against Facebook for invading their privacy by unauthorized access in storing personal contact data (especially call and text message history) without users' consent.Android users file lawsuit against Facebook for invasion of privacy JuristFacebook faces class action lawsuit for Android call and message data scraping ITPro

Public apologies

In early March 2018, a U.K.-based newspaper called The Observer reported that a "political consultancy" known as Cambridge Analytica had been provided access to the personal data of about 50 million Americans by Facebook. On March 21, 2018, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg issued the company’s first public statement since this information was publicly disclosed. However, another article was published on April 4 by Wired that reports a statement made by Facebook regarding the number of people affected. Mike Schroepfer - Facebook’s chief technology officer - disclosed that the amount is closer to 87 million via a blog post.Lapowsky, Issie. (April 4, 2018).weblink Wired. Retrieved from April 4, 2018 The earlier announcement discussed modification to the way that "third-party applications" could access data from Facebook.Wong, Julia Carrie (March 22, 2018)."https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/mar/21/mark-zuckerberg-response-facebook-cambridge-analytica. The Guardian. Retrieved from March 22, 2018. An app downloaded by 270,000 people has been claimed to have led to the crisis. When users downloaded this app – called "thisisyourdigitallife" – information regarding the users' preferred Facebook content as well as their "home town" could then be accessed by the app. This was than used to acquire similar information of the user's contacts and continued to affect approximately 50 million people in total.Brackett, Eric (March 25, 2018).weblink Digital Trends. Retrieved from March 25, 2018 It has also been claimed that pre-existing policies around access to personal information of Facebook users by "third-party app developers" are foundational to the "crisis".Wong, Julia Carrie (March 22, 2018). "https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/mar/21/mark-zuckerberg-response-facebook-cambridge-analytica. The Guardian. Retrieved from March 22, 2018. The company has received significant backlash following the disclosure of the use of private data by other entities. This backlash has also taken the form of demands for legal accountability, including the opening of an investigation into the company by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.Fioretti, Julia & Ingram, David (March 28, 2018).weblink Reuters. Retrieved from March 28, 2018 Others such as Elon Musk, who has deleted his Facebook pages for SpaceX and Tesla, have publicly expressed their decision to terminate their use of the media platform for their purposesweblink CNBC. Retrieved from March 25, 2018According to a study done by Jeffery Child and Shawn Starcher in 2015, Facebook is a social media platform where "both known and unknown audiences can gain access to posted context, increasing the possibility for privacy breakdowns".JOURNAL, 10.1016/j.chb.2015.08.035, Fuzzy Facebook privacy boundaries: Exploring mediated lurking, vague-booking, and Facebook privacy management, Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 483–90, 2016, Child, Jeffrey T, Starcher, Shawn C, The company has a history of making efforts of rapprochement for such privacy crises. Past apologies of Facebook started in 2009, when Facebook first launched their site worldwide. In the hopes of making it easier for users to share or keep their information private, the company ended up modifying the entire site and publicizing a subsequent apology for the situation.Bowie, Norman E & Schneider, Meg. (2011). Facebook: Our changes protect your privacy - really!. Business Ethics for Dummies (Chapter 8) Retrieved fromweblink For years, Facebook has been giving advertisers the option of having targeted ads based on data collecting companies like Acxiom Corp and Experian PLC. In March 2016, Facebook first acknowledged that user data had been mishandled back in 2014 when a third-party app was linked back to Cambridge Analytica. This was the same company that was hired by the 2016 presidential campaign of Donald Trump. The media platform has also been accessed by individuals in addition to corporate entities for varying purposes. The site has been used to determine the eligibility for students to be employed or charged with a form of retribution in some cases, based on what they share or post.Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2011). Privacy and Disclosure on Facebook : Youth and Adult's Information Disclosure and Perceptions of Privacy Risks. (p.g 15) [Guelph, Ont.] : University of Guelph, [2010]. (Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Electronic Library, 2011). Retrieved fromweblink response to criticism and outrage, different media outlets were used by the company to issue a public apology. On March 25, 2018, U.K. newspapers The Observer, The Sunday Times, Mail on Sunday, Sunday Mirror, Sunday Express and Sunday Telegraph contained full-page ads depicting a personal apology from Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg. In the United States, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal also contained the same page-length ads. In addition to the use of newspaper outlets, Mark Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN.Statt, Nick. (March 25, 2018).weblink TheVerge. Retrieved from March 25, 2018 and took part in interviews with other news organizations such as Recode.Swisher, Kara & Wagner, Kurt. (March 22, 2018).weblink Recode. Retrieved from March 22, 2018 Zuckerberg has also made multiple other apologies over the course of the years regarding Facebook. In May 2010, Zuckerberg issued a public apology over discrepancies in the privacy settings in The Washington Post via an Op-Ed article.Hempel, Jessi. (March 30, 2018).weblink Wired. Retrieved from March 30, 2018 Similarly, the CEO has also made apologies via blog posts as well as through the Facebook platform itself.In an effort to earn back public trust, Facebook ended its partnerships with several data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting people on the social network. The company has also adjusted the privacy settings again for its user base as well. Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it harder for third-party apps to access the user’s personal information. In addition to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing thousands of apps that display "suspicious activities" in an effort to ensure that this breach of privacy doesn't happen again. In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a lot of information is available regarding the consequences of what people disclose online so often what is available are just reports made available through popular media.Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2011). Privacy and Disclosure on Facebook : Youth and Adult's Information Disclosure and Perceptions of Privacy Risks. p.g 15 [Guelph, Ont.]: University of Guelph, [2010]. (Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Electronic Library, 2011). Retrieved fromweblink In 2017, a former Facebook executive went on the record to discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unraveling of the "fabric of society".Wong, Julia Carrie. (December 12, 2017).weblink TheGuardian. Retrieved from March 30, 2018

Impact

File:Ad-tech London 2010 (5).JPG|thumb|Facebook on the 2010]]

Media impact

In April 2011, Facebook launched a new portal for marketers and creative agencies to help them develop brand promotions on Facebook.WEB,weblink Facebook Marketing Solutions, Facebook, January 30, 2011, The company began its push by inviting a select group of British advertising leaders to meet Facebook's top executives at an "influencers' summit" in February 2010. Facebook has now been involved in campaigns for True Blood, American Idol, and Top Gear.NEWS,weblink Move Over Twitter: Facebook Wants a Piece of Social TV, Too, tvgenius: TV Trends Blog, Wells, Emma K., April 19, 2011, May 15, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110426131045weblink">weblink April 26, 2011, News and media outlets such as The Washington Post,NEWS, The Washington Post, January 6, 2012, Facebook data reveal what GOP presidential candidates' supporters 'like',weblink Financial TimesNEWS,weblink Romney tags Facebook to build momentum, January 16, 2012, Dembosky, April, and ABC NewsNEWS, ABCNews.com,weblink Social Media Opens Trove of Voter Info to Campaigns, January 10, 2012, Bingham, Amy, have used aggregated Facebook fan data to create various infographics and charts to accompany their articles. In 2012, beauty pageant Miss Sri Lanka Online was run exclusively using Facebook.WEB, Seri Miss Sri Lanka Online Unveiled,weblink FT.lk, January 9, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117012604weblink">weblink January 17, 2013, mdy-all,

Economic impact

Facebook, Inc. has utilized growing internet markets using a social media platform to expand its user base while generating billions of dollars in revenue from Facebook's companies. Through empirical findings, economists have been able to identify key areas where Facebook has been able to stimulate economic activity by offering a free public good in that one user will not reduce the amount available to another, while also generating positive externalities. Thus, mobile phone manufactures and carriers have been beneficiaries of Facebook's spillover effect. Three distinct areas have been found to add the most economic impact: platform competition, the marketing place, and user behavior data.BOOK, 10.1017/CBO9781139060011.003, The Economics of Internet Markets, Advances in Economics and Econometrics, 48–75, 2013, Levin, Jonathan, 978-1-139-06001-1, Facebook's daily active users have increased 18% year-over-yearWEB,weblink SEC Quarterly Report, March 31, 2017, Facebook, Inc., June 15, 2017, and burgeoning from 1 million users in 2004, to over 1.9 billion in 2017. Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after being publicly criticised by Greenpeace for its long-term reliance on coal power and consequently high carbon footprintweblink the end of 2016, Facebook's total revenue earnings were $27.638 billion, gross profit was $23.849 billion and a net income for the year was $10.188 billion.WEB,weblink (FB) Income Statement, December 31, 2016, Yahoo Finance,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160802231028weblink">weblink August 2, 2016, yes, June 15, 2017, Facebook provides a development platform for many social gaming, communication, feedback, review, and other applications related to online activities. This open platform of Facebook has spawned many new businesses and added thousands of jobs to the economy. Zynga Inc., a leading company in social gaming app development, is an example of those businesses. An econometric analysis studied the impact of Facebook on the economy in terms of the number of jobs created and the economic value of those jobs. The conservative estimate was that the app development platform of Facebook added more than 182,000 jobs in the U.S. economy in 2011. The total economic value of the added employment was about $12 billion.WEB, The Facebook App Economy, September 19, 2011, University of Maryland,weblink

Social impact

Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. Facebook allows people using computers or mobile phones to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and other acquaintances wherever they are in the world, as long as there is access to the Internet. It has reunited lost family members and friends.NEWS,weblink Father finds daughter on Facebook after 20 years apart, WABC, New York, October 23, 2010, May 15, 2011, NEWS,weblink Facebook reunites father, daughter after 48 years, MSN India, Delhi, January 27, 2010, It allows users to trade ideas, stay informed with local or global developments, and unite people with common interests and/or beliefs through open, closed and private groups and other pages.Half of the World's Online Population Uses Facebook, GlobalWebIndex. May 2013.WEB,weblink What Impact Has Social Media Truly Had on Society, Business 2 Community, Facebook's social impact has also changed how people communicate. Rather than having to reply to others through email, Facebook allows users to broadcast or share content to others, and thereby to engage others or be engaged with others' posts.WEB,weblink How Facebook changed our lives, February 2, 2014, USA Today, Facebook has been successful and more socially impactful than many other social media sites. David Kirkpatrick, technology journalist and author of The Facebook Effect, believes that Facebook is structured in a way that is not easily replaceable. He challenges users to consider how difficult it would be to move all the relationships and photos to an alternative. Facebook has let people participate in an atmosphere with the "over the backyard fence quality" of a small town, despite the move to larger cities.WEB,weblink Facebook Effect: How the Social Network Changed the World, May 18, 2012, Yahoo Finance, As per Pew Research Center survey, 44 percent of the overall US population gets news through Facebook.WEB,weblink Facebook extends lead as news gateway: Study - The Economic Times, The Economic Times, May 27, 2016,

Emotional health impact

Facebook, and social media in general, has received significant media coverage for negative emotional health impacts.WEB, Stephen, Marche, Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?,weblink The Atlantic, Emerson Collective, December 15, 2017, WEB, Maria, Konnikova, How Facebook Makes Us Unhappy,weblink The New Yorker, Condé Nast, September 10, 2013, December 15, 2017, WEB, Grace, Dent, Social media is full of sad, lonely people pretending they're OK and perfectly fine attention-seekers pretending to be sad,weblink The Independent, March 6, 2017, December 15, 2017, WEB, Alexandra, Sifferlin, Why Facebook Makes You Feel Bad About Yourself,weblink Time (magazine), Time, January 24, 2013, December 15, 2017, WEB, Katherine, Hobson, Feeling Lonely? Too Much Time On Social Media May Be Why,weblink NPR, March 6, 2017, December 15, 2017, Studies have shown that Facebook causes negative effects on self-esteem by triggering feelings of envy, with vacation and holiday photos proving to be the largest resentment triggers. Other prevalent causes of envy include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such envious feelings leave people lonely and dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook,WEB, Belinda, Goldsmith, RPT-Is Facebook envy making you miserable?,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, January 22, 2013, July 13, 2017, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about their own lives following an increase in the amount of time spent on Facebook.WEB, Heather, Kelly, Study: Using Facebook can make you sad,weblink CNN, August 15, 2013, July 13, 2017, WEB, Mike, Flacy, Study: Why Facebook is making people sad,weblink Digital Trends, January 22, 2012, July 13, 2017, WEB, Wendy, Sachs, Facebook Envy: How Cruising Can Kill Self Esteem,weblink HuffPost, AOL, February 8, 2012, July 13, 2017, In a presentation by California State University psychology professor Larry D. Rosen, he notes that teenagers using Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania, and aggressiveness. However, he also found positive effects from Facebook use, including signs of "virtual empathy" towards online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills.WEB, Ysolt, Usigan, Facebook makes teens narcissistic, anxious and depressed - but also nice, social and engaged,weblink CBS News, CBS, August 29, 2011, December 15, 2017, He said that "While nobody can deny that Facebook has altered the landscape of social interaction, particularly among young people, we are just now starting to see solid psychological research demonstrating both the positives and the negatives".WEB, Kevin, Parrish, Facebook May Lead to Psychological Disorders in Teens,weblink Tom's Hardware, Tom's Guide, Purch Group, August 8, 2011, December 15, 2017, In a blog post in December 2017, the company pointed to research that has shown "passively consuming" the News Feed, as in reading but not interacting, does indeed leave users with negative feelings afterwards, whereas interacting with messages points to improvements in well-being.WEB, Casey, Newton, Facebook says ‘passively consuming’ the News Feed will make you feel worse about yourself,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 15, 2017, December 15, 2017, TechCrunch noted that CEO Mark Zuckerberg had said in a recent earnings call that "Time spent is not a goal by itself. We want the time people spend on Facebook to encourage meaningful social interactions".WEB, Josh, Constine, The difference between good and bad Facebooking,weblink TechCrunch, Oath Inc., December 14, 2017, December 15, 2017,

Political impact

{{further|Social media and political communication in the United States|Social media in the 2016 U.S. Presidential campaign}}(File:2011 Egyptian protests Facebook & jan25 card.jpg|thumb|A man during the 2011 Egyptian protests carrying a card saying "Facebook,#jan25, The Egyptian Social Network")In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, better known as the FARC (from the group's Spanish name).NEWS, August 1, 2010,weblink Facebook used to target Colombia's FARC with global rally, The Christian Science Monitor, Boston, February 4, 2008, Brodzinsky, Sibylla, In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the official news agency of the country, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook.NEWS, Laura, Roberts, North Korea joins Facebook, August 21, 2010,weblink The Daily Telegraph, August 22, 2010, London, During the Arab Spring many journalists made claims that Facebook played a major role in generating the 2011 Egyptian revolution.NEWS, Sutter, John D.,weblink The faces of Egypt's 'Revolution 2.0', CNN, February 21, 2011, June 7, 2013, NEWS, Hauslohner, Abigail,weblink Is Egypt About to Have a Facebook Revolution?, Time, New York, January 24, 2011, June 7, 2013, On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem Create Event to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. According to Mashable,{{unreliable source?|date=November 2014}} in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the primary tool for connecting all protesters and led the Egyptian government of Prime Minister Nazif to ban Facebook, Twitter and another websites on January 26NEWS, Kessler, Sarah,weblink Facebook & Twitter Both Blocked in Egypt, Mashable, January 26, 2011, June 7, 2013, then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt at midnight January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Mubarak to resign.In Bahrain uprising which started on February 14, 2011, Facebook was utilized by the Bahraini regime as well as regime loyalists to identify, capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A 20-year-old woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using Facebook, taken from her home by masked commandos and put in prison.WEB, Facebook 'used to hunt down Bahrain dissidents',weblink September 24, 2015, In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC.NEWS,weblink Facebook forms its own Political Action Committee, September 26, 2011, Huffington Post, September 27, 2011, Luke, Johnson, In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said "Facebook Political Action Committee will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected."NEWS,weblink Facebook to form its own PAC to back political candidates, Gautham, Nagesh, September 26, 2011, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, September 27, 2011, Washington DC, During the Syrian civil war, the YPG, a libertarian army for Rojava has recruited westerners through Facebook in its fight against ISIL.WEB,weblink Former Israeli Female Soldier Joins Kurds to Fight ISIS, YouTube, WEB,weblink The Lions Of Rojava, Facebook, Dozens have joined its ranks for various reasons from religious to ideological. The Facebook page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the organization's feminist ideology.WEB,weblink Frontline Isis: The Real Story of Narin Afrini and the Kurdish Female 'Lions' Terrorising Islamic State, International Business Times UK,

United States

{{update|section|date=February 2017|part=result of 2016 presidential election and Facebook's effect on it}}Facebook's role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary, when Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates.NEWS,weblink ABC News Joins Forces With Facebook, ABC News, December 18, 2007, March 23, 2010, WEB, Doug, Minor,weblink Saint Anselm to Host ABC Debates Jan. 5, Saint Anselm College blog, November 29, 2007, July 18, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171009210810weblink">weblink October 9, 2017, mdy-all, NEWS, Tahman, Bradley,weblink Republicans Lead off ABC News, WMUR-TV and Facebook Back-To-Back Debates in New Hampshire, ABC News, Political Radar blog, December 12, 2007, March 23, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511122929weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, Facebook users took part in debate groups on specific topics, voter registration, and message questions.WEB, Ezra, Callahan,weblink Tune in to the ABC News/Facebook Debates, Tonight 7 pm/6c on ABC, Facebook Blog, January 5, 2008, March 23, 2010, Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part, and the application measured users' responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates.NEWS, Russell, Goldman,weblink Facebook Gives Snapshot of Voter Sentiment, ABC News, January 5, 2007, March 23, 2010, This debate showed the broader community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook as a popular and powerful new way to interact and voice opinions. A poll by CBS News, UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the "Facebook effect" has affected youth voting rates, support by youth of political candidates, and general involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election.NEWS, Michelle, Sullivan,weblink Facebook Effect Mobilizes Youth Vote, CBS News, November 3, 2008, March 23, 2010, The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, made use first of the personal computer and the Internet, and after 2010 of the smart phones to connect hundreds of millions of people, especially those under age 35. By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message among much larger audiences than they had previously reached.JOURNAL, Carlisle, Juliet E., Patton, Robert C., January 1, 2013, Is Social Media Changing How We Understand Political Engagement? An Analysis of Facebook and the 2008 Presidential Election, 23612065, Political Research Quarterly, 66, 4, 883–895, 10.1177/1065912913482758, JOURNAL, Skogerbø, Eli, Krumsvik, Arne H., May 4, 2015, Newspapers, Facebook and Twitter, Journalism Practice, 9, 3, 350–366, 10.1080/17512786.2014.950471, Facebook is having an impact on local government as well. Justin Smith, a Colorado sheriff uses Facebook to disseminate his ideas on matters relating to local, state, and national concerns. He also publicizes crimes, particularly those that his department solves. He has seven thousand followers on the social medium, considered a large number. Smith said that he rarely goes out in public "when I don't get feedback from folks. ... Facebook is an interesting tool because I think it holds candidates and elected officials more accountable. Voters know where someone stands."WEB,weblink Is Justin Smith Colorado's most social sheriff?, Fort Collins Coloradoan, July 6, 2014, Jason Pohl, February 7, 2015, According to the Investor's Business Daily, "In 2012, the Obama campaign encouraged supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends.""Funny, When Obama Harvested Facebook Data On Millions Of Users To Win In 2012, Everyone Cheered". Investor's Business Daily. March 19, 2018. Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America (OFA) former director of integration and media analytics, wrote that "Facebook was surprised we were able to suck out the whole social graph, but they didn’t stop us once they realised that was what we were doing.""Why Are We Only Now Talking About Facebook And Elections?". Forbes. March 19, 2018."Former Facebook staffer, Obama campaign boss reveal concerns about Facebook data". News.com.au. March 21, 2018.As American political strategists turn their attention to the 2016 presidential contest, they identify Facebook as an increasingly important advertising tool. Recent technical innovations have made possible more advanced divisions and subdivisions of the electorate. Most important, Facebook can now deliver video ads to small, highly targeted subsets. Television, by contrast, shows the same commercials to all viewers, and so cannot be precisely tailored.Shane Goldmacher, "Facebook the Vote: The social network at the center of American digital life could become the epicenter of the presidential race," National Journal Magazine June 13, 2015

2016 United States elections

A Russian company bought more than $100,000 worth of Facebook ads during the 2016 presidential election."Facebook sold $100,000 of political ads to fake Russian accounts during 2016 US election". The Independent. September 6, 2017. Special Council Robert Mueller, contacted Facebook subsequently to the company's disclosure that it sold ads to a Russian Spy Agency-linked company (Internet Research Agency), and the Menlo Park-based company has pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation, and began with providing all information about the advertisement buys by the Russian government, including the identities of the individuals and companies who made the purchases.WEB,weblink Facebook gave special counsel Robert Mueller data on Russian ads, report says, Castillo, Michelle, September 6, 2017, September 7, 2017, The Daily Beast reports that Russia Used Facebook Events to Organize Anti-Immigrant Rallies on U.S. Soil.NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Russia Used Facebook Events to Organize Anti-Immigrant Rallies on U.S. Soil, Ackerman, Ben Collins{{!, Kevin Poulsen{{!}}Spencer|date=September 12, 2017|work=The Daily Beast|access-date=September 12, 2017}} Facebook has concluded that a 225,000-member anti-immigrant group that attempted to organize anti-Clinton rallies in Texas during the 2016 presidential campaign was "likely operated out of Russia", Business Insider reports.NEWS,weblink Shuttered Facebook group that organized anti-Clinton, anti-immigrant rallies across Texas was linked to Russia, Business Insider, September 14, 2017, en-US, Russians also staged anti-Trump rallies in November 2016"Russians Staged Rallies For and Against Trump to Promote Discord, Indictment Says". Fortune. February 17, 2018. and bought a Black Lives Matter Facebook ad during the 2016 campaign."Exclusive: Russian-bought Black Lives Matter ad on Facebook targeted Baltimore and Ferguson". CNN. September 28, 2017. Pro-Publica also reported on how Facebook Enabled Advertisers to Reach ‘Jew Haters.’ Facebook enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to the news feeds of almost 2,300 people who expressed interest in the topics of “Jew hater,” “How to burn jews,” or, “History of ‘why jews ruin the world.’”WEB,weblink Facebook Enabled Advertisers to Reach ‘Jew Haters’ — ProPublica, September 14, 2017, ProPublica, en-us, Julia Angwin, Madeleine Varner, Ariana Tobin, September 14, 2017, As of mid-September 2017 Facebook still does not know the extent of Russia's advertisement purchases during the 2016 election — or whether these unidentified ad buys are still on the site. A Facebook spokesman told CNN that there was "no sales support". A company representative would not elaborate when asked by Business Insider if it plans to change its ad sales policy.NEWS,weblink Facebook doesn't know the full extent of Russia's ad purchases during the 2016 election, September 14, 2017, en-US, The Wall Street Journal reports that Facebook shared copies of ads and account information related to the Russian ad purchases on its platform with Robert Mueller that go beyond what it shared with Congress last week. Facebook's unusual compliance was in response to Search Warrants issued by Mueller's Federal Grand Jury.NEWS,weblink Facebook Gave Special Counsel Robert Mueller More Details on Russian Ad Buys Than Congress, Seetharaman, Deepa, September 15, 2017, Wall Street Journal, September 15, 2017, Tau, Byron, en-US, 0099-9660, Harris, Shane, The Financial Times reports that United States Senate Intelligence committee seeks further information about Russia links with Facebook, and are stepping up the pressure on Facebook as concerns rise about the role the social media network played in Russia’s interference in the 2016 presidential election.WEB,weblink Subscribe to read, Financial Times, September 18, 2017, CNN reports that Facebook handed Russia-linked ads over to Mueller under search warrant.NEWS,weblink Facebook handed Russia-linked ads over to Mueller under search warrant, Byers, Dylan, CNNMoney, September 19, 2017, Congressional Committees have said Facebook is withholding key information that could illuminate the shape and extent of a Russian propaganda campaign aimed at tilting the U.S. presidential election.NEWS,weblink Facebook’s openness on Russia questioned by congressional investigators, Leonnig, Carol D., September 18, 2017, Washington Post, September 19, 2017, Dwoskin, Elizabeth, en-US, 0190-8286, Timberg, Craig, The Financial Times reports US lawmakers with access to sensitive intelligence have expressed fears that Russia’s campaign to influence US politics via Facebook is continuing today even as American investigators probe Moscow’s use of social media in the 2016 election.WEB,weblink Subscribe to read, Financial Times, September 20, 2017, "Being Patriotic", a Facebook group uncovered by The Daily Beast, is the first evidence of suspected Russian provocateurs explicitly mobilizing Trump supporters in real life.NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Russians Appear to Use Facebook to Push Trump Rallies in 17 U.S. Cities, Ackerman, Ben Collins{{!, Gideon Resnick{{!}}Kevin Poulsen{{!}}Spencer|date=September 20, 2017|work=The Daily Beast|access-date=September 20, 2017}} The Washington Post reports Russian operatives used Facebook ads to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims. The Russians took advantage of Facebook's ability to simultaneously send contrary messages to different groups of users based on their political and demographic characteristics and also sought to sow discord among religious groups. Other ads highlighted support for Democrat Hillary Clinton among Muslim women. The ads suggest that Russian operatives worked off of evolving lists of racial, religious, political and economic themes. They used these to create pages, write posts and craft ads that would appear in users' news feeds—with the apparent goal of appealing to one audience and alienating another.NEWS,weblink Russian operatives used Facebook ads to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims, Dwoskin, Adam Entous, Craig Timberg and Elizabeth, September 25, 2017, Washington Post, September 25, 2017, en-US, 0190-8286, Mark Zuckerberg responds to Trump, regrets he dismissed election concerns.NEWS,weblink Mark Zuckerberg responds to Trump, regrets he dismissed election concerns, Shinal, John, September 27, 2017, CNBC, September 27, 2017, The Daily Beast reported that Russians impersonated real American Muslims to stir chaos on Facebook and Instagram,NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Russians Impersonated Real American Muslims to Stir Chaos on Facebook and Instagram, Ackerman, Ben Collins{{!, Kevin Poulsen{{!}}Spencer|date=September 27, 2017|work=The Daily Beast|access-date=September 28, 2017}} and also that Mark Zuckerberg blew off Russian troll warnings before the attack on America.NEWS,weblink Zuckerberg Blew Off Russian Troll Warnings Before the Attack on America, Collins, Katie Zavadski{{!, Ben|date=September 27, 2017|work=The Daily Beast|access-date=September 28, 2017}}On November 5, 2017, The New York Times reported that Russian-American Billionaire Yuri Milner, who befriended Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg had between 2009 and 2011 strong Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.NEWS,weblink Kremlin Cash Behind Billionaire’s Twitter and Facebook Investments, Drucker, Jesse, November 5, 2017, The New York Times, November 6, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, On March 17, 2018, The New York Times and The Observer of London reported the Facebook and Cambridge Analytica data breach in which Cambridge Analytica collected personal information from Facebook users as a basis of crafting political campaigns for whomever purchased their services. As a result, Facebook banned Cambridge Analytica from advertising on its platform.NEWS,weblink How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions, Rosenberg, Matthew, March 17, 2018, The New York Times, March 17, 2018, Confessore, Nicholas, en-US, 0362-4331, Cadwalladr, Carole, NEWS,weblink Facebook bans Trump-affiliated data firm Cambridge Analytica, newsobserver, March 17, 2018, en, yes,weblink March 17, 2018, mdy-all, The Guardian reported further that Facebook has known about this security breach for two years, but has done nothing to protect its users.NEWS,weblink 'I made Steve Bannon's psychological warfare tool': meet the data war whistleblower, Cadwalladr, Carole, March 18, 2018, The Guardian, March 18, 2018, en-GB, 0261-3077,

Bans and censorship

In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China,WEB, Robin, Wauters, China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 7, 2009, June 3, 2017, Iran,WEB, Iranian government blocks Facebook access,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, May 24, 2009, June 3, 2017, Syria,WEB, Khaled Yacoub, Oweis, Syria blocks Facebook in Internet crackdown,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, November 23, 2007, June 3, 2017, and North Korea. In May 2018, the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on the country.WEB, Facebook to be banned in Papua New Guinea for a month,weblink BBC News, BBC, May 29, 2018, May 30, 2018,

Scientific impact

In January 2018, Facebook launched a new unit of time, the flick, equivalent to 1/705600000 of a second, exactly.WEB,weblink Facebook invents new unit of time, March 20, 2018, www.bbc.co.uk, WEB,weblink OculusVR/Flicks, GitHub,

Potential dating service

On May 1, 2018, Facebook announced its plans to launch a new dating service. According to Mark Zuckerberg: "There are 200 million people on Facebook that list themselves as single, so clearly there's something to do here". In the wake of the Cambridge Analytica data mining scandal, the service is being developed with privacy features, and friends will be unable to view one's dating profile.WEB,weblink Facebook wants to get you a date - CBC News,

In popular culture

File:SF Pride 2014 - Stierch 7.jpg|thumb|Facebook parade float in San Francisco PrideSan Francisco Pride
  • Author Ben Mezrich published a book in July 2009 about Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook, titled (The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook, A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius, and Betrayal).NEWS, Hempel, Jessi, The book that Facebook doesn't want you to read,weblink CNN, July 3, 2010, June 25, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100914024405weblink">weblink September 14, 2010,
  • In 2009, "My Facebook" song from Gigi was released in Indonesia. The song is in Indonesian, telling about a guy that met his ex-girlfriend via Facebook. This song soon became popular in Indonesia, having high airplay on radio stations.NEWS, Ivvaty, Susi, Kematangan Gigi Pada Usia Ke-15 (Indonesian),weblink April 10, 2018, Kompas.com, April 5, 2009,
  • The Social Network, a drama film directed by David Fincher and adapted from Mezrich's book, was released October 1, 2010.WEB, The Social Network (2010),weblink Internet Movie DataBase, July 3, 2010, The film is a fictional re-telling of the creation of Facebook, and the legal battles associated with it. People portrayed in the movie, including Zuckerberg, criticized its accuracy.NEWS, Mark Zuckerberg Calls The Social Network Inaccurate,weblink October 20, 2010, Jeffery, Racheff, Limelife,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140627054352weblink">weblink June 27, 2014, August 25, 2015,
  • In response to the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day controversy and the banning of the website in Pakistan, an Islamic version of the website was created, called MillatFacebook.NEWS, Hussain, Waqar,weblink Pakistanis create rival Muslim Facebook, Agence France-Presse, May 27, 2010, June 9, 2010,
  • The site was parodied in "You Have 0 Friends", an April 2010 episode of the American animated comedy series South Park.WEB, South Park parodies Facebook,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, April 8, 2010, March 23, 2017,
  • In July 2014, after Shakira became the first celebrity to cross over 100 million likes, Mark Zuckerberg posted a congratulatory message on the artist's wall.WEB, Mark Zuckerberg Congratulates Shakira, Singer Attains "Most Liked Page on Facebook",weblink OnoBello.com, July 22, 2014, August 13, 2014, Cristiano Ronaldo is the second to reach 100 million likes, ahead of Rihanna and Eminem, who had 98 million and 89 million likes respectively.WEB, Shakira reaches 100 million 'likes': Do Facebook fans and Twitter followers matter?,weblink Metro (British newspaper), Metro UK, July 25, 2014, August 13, 2014, NEWS, Shakira is Facebook's most popular celebrity with 100million likes – enough to fill 1,359 Maracana stadiums,weblink Ella Alexander, Independent (newspaper), Independent UK, July 21, 2014, August 13, 2014, London, On March 15, 2015, Cristiano Ronaldo surpassed Shakira to become the most liked person on Facebook.NEWS, Sorry, Shakira, Cristiano Ronaldo is the most liked person on Facebook,weblink

See also

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References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • WEB, Arrington, Michael, Michael Arrington, The Age of Facebook,weblink TechCrunch, April 25, 2010, March 23, 2017,
  • MAGAZINE, Kirkpatrick, David, October 6, 2006, Why Facebook matters: It's not just for arranging dates. And it's not just another social network. Facebook offers sophisticated tools for maintaining social relationships,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, April 9, 2017,
  • BOOK, Lee, Newton, 2014, Facebook Nation: Total Information Awareness, 2nd, 1493917390, Springer Science+Business Media, 978-1-4939-1739-6,
  • BOOK, Miller, Daniel, Daniel Miller (anthropologist), 2011, Tales from Facebook,weblink Polity, 978-0-7456-5209-2,
  • WEB, Muffett, Alec, October 31, 2014, Making Connections to Facebook More Secure,weblink Facebook, December 13, 2016,
  • WEB, Schroeder, Stan, February 7, 2011, Facebook Privacy: 10 Settings Every User Needs to Know,weblink Mashable, February 1, 2015,

External links

{{Spoken Wikipedia|Facebook.ogg|August 15, 2009}}{{Sister project links |wikt=Facebook |commons category=Facebook |b=no |n=Facebook |q=Facebook |s=no |v=no |species=no| voy=no |d=P2013 |display=Facebook}}
  • {{Official websiteweblink|mobile=https://m.facebook.com}}
  • {{OpenCorp|Facebook}}
{{Finance links| name = Facebook Inc| symbol = FB| sec_cik = 1326801| yahoo = FB| google = FB}}{{Z148}} {{Facebook navbox}}{{NASDAQ-100}}{{Navboxes|list1={{Microblogging}}{{Social network}}{{Social networking}}{{Tor hidden services}}{{Major Internet companies}}}}{{Andreessen Horowitz}}{{Authority control}}

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