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FLOPS
[ temporary import ]
please note:
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{{Other uses|Flop (disambiguation){{!}}Flop}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2015}}{{Refimprove|date=February 2015|reason=introduction is argued, but not sourced}}{| class="infobox"|+ Computer performance! Name! Unit! Value
Kilo->kiloFLOPS| kFLOPS| 103
Mega->megaFLOPS| MFLOPS| 106
Giga->gigaFLOPS| GFLOPS| 109
Tera->teraFLOPS| TFLOPS| 1012
Peta->petaFLOPS| PFLOPS| 1015
Exa->exaFLOPS| EFLOPS| 1018
Zetta->zettaFLOPS| ZFLOPS| 1021
Yotta->yottaFLOPS| YFLOPS| 1024
In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations. For such cases it is a more accurate measure than measuring instructions per second.The similar term FLOP is often used for floating-point operation, for example as a unit of counting floating-point operations carried out by an algorithm or computer hardware.

Floating-point arithmetic

Floating-point arithmetic is needed for very large or very small real numbers, or computations that require a large dynamic range. Floating-point representation is similar to scientific notation, except everything is carried out in base two, rather than base ten. The encoding scheme stores the sign, the exponent (in base two for Cray and VAX, base two or ten for IEEE floating point formats, and base 16 for IBM Floating Point Architecture) and the Significand (number after the radix point). While several similar formats are in use, the most common is ANSI/IEEE Std. 754-1985. This standard defines the format for 32-bit numbers called single precision, as well as 64-bit numbers called double precision and longer numbers called extended precision (used for intermediate results). Floating-point representations can support a much wider range of values than fixed-point, with the ability to represent very small numbers and very large numbers.Floating Point Retrieved on December 25, 2009.

Dynamic range and precision

The exponentiation inherent in floating-point computation assures a much larger dynamic range – the largest and smallest numbers that can be represented – which is especially important when processing data sets which are extremely large or where the range may be unpredictable. As such, floating-point processors are ideally suited for computationally intensive applications.Summary: Fixed-point (integer) vs floating-point Retrieved on December 25, 2009.

Computational performance

FLOPS and MIPS are units of measure for the numerical computing performance of a computer. Floating-point operations are typically used in fields such as scientific computational research. The unit MIPS measures integer performance of a computer. Examples of integer operation include data movement (A to B) or value testing (If A = B, then C). MIPS as a performance benchmark is adequate when a computer is used in database queries, word processing, spreadsheets, or to run multiple virtual operating systems.Fixed versus floating point. Retrieved on December 25, 2009.Data manipulation and math calculation. Retrieved on December 25, 2009. Frank H. McMahon, of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, invented the terms FLOPS and MFLOPS (megaFLOPS) so that he could compare the supercomputers of the day by the number of floating-point calculations they performed per second. This was much better than using the prevalent MIPS to compare computers as this statistic usually had little bearing on the arithmetic capability of the machine.FLOPS can be calculated using this equation:"Nodes, Sockets, Cores and FLOPS, Oh, My" by Dr. Mark R. Fernandez, Ph.D.
text{FLOPS} = text{sockets} times frac{text{cores}}{text{socket}} times frac{text{cycles}}{ text{second}} times frac{text{FLOPs}}{text{cycle}}

FLOPs per cycle for various processors

{{Refimprove section|date=November 2017}}{| class="wikitable sortable"! scope="col" | CPU Family! scope="col" | Double precision! scope="col" | Single precision
Nehalem (microarchitecture)>NehalemTHEORETICAL PEAK FLOPS PER INSTRUCTION SET: A TUTORIAL > FIRST1 = ROMAIN YEAR = 2017 VOLUME=74 PAGES=1341–1377 | 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide SSE addition + 4-wide SSE multiplication
Sandy Bridge and Intel Ivy Bridge (microarchitecture)>Ivy Bridge 8 DP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide AVX addition + 4-wide AVX multiplication 16 SP FLOPs/cycle: 8-wide AVX addition + 8-wide AVX multiplication
Haswell (microarchitecture)>Haswell, Intel Broadwell (microarchitecture) and Intel Skylake (microarchitecture)>Skylake 16 DP FLOPs/cycle: two 4-wide FMA instruction set >| 32 SP FLOPs/cycle: two 8-wide FMA instructions
Skylake_(microarchitecture)#%22Skylake-SP%22_(14_nm)_Scalable_Performance>Intel Xeon Skylake (AVX-512) 16 or 32 DP FLOPs/cycle: one or two 8-wide FMA instructions (depends on SKU) 32 or 64 SP FLOPs/cycle: one or two 16-wide FMA instructions (depends on SKU)
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide SSE addition + 4-wide SSE multiplication
| 16 SP FLOPs/cycle: 8-wide FMA
weblink "each core now has a pair of 128-bit FMA units of its own"HTTPS://WWW.HOTCHIPS.ORG/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/HC_ARCHIVES/HC28/HC28.23-TUESDAY-EPUB/HC28.23.90-HIGH-PERFORM-EPUB/HC28.23.930-X86-CORE-MIKECLARK-AMD-FINAL_V2-28.PDF#PAGE=7 AUTHOR=MIKE CLARK PUBLISHER=AMD page 7 >| 16 SP FLOPs/cycle: pair 4-wide FMA instructions
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide SSE addition + 4-wide SSE multiplication every other cycle
| 4 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide SSE addition every other cycle + 4-wide SSE multiplication every other cycle
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 8-wide AVX addition every other cycle + 8-wide AVX multiplication every other cycle
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEON addition every other cycle + 4-wide NEON multiplication every other cycle
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEON addition every other cycle + 4-wide NEON multiplication every other cycle
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
ARM Cortex-A53 >| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
ARM Cortex-A57 >| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
| 8 SP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide NEONv2 FMA or 4-wide NEON multiply-add
8 DP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide QPX FMA every cycle (SP elements are extended to DP and processed on the same units)
4 DP FLOPs/cycle: 4-wide QPX FMA every other cycle (SP elements are extended to DP and processed on the same units)
Xeon Phi (Knights Corner), per core >| 32 SP FLOPs/cycle: 16-wide FMA every cycle
| 16 SP FLOPs/cycle: 16-wide FMA every other cycle
| 64 SP FLOPs/cycle: two 16-wide FMA instructions
graphics processing unit>GPU Different 2 SP FLOPs/cycle

Performance records

Single computer records

In June 1997, Intel's ASCI Red was the world's first computer to achieve one teraFLOPS and beyond. Sandia director Bill Camp said that ASCI Red had the best reliability of any supercomputer ever built, and "was supercomputing's high-water mark in longevity, price, and performance".WEB, Sandia's ASCI Red, world's first teraflop supercomputer, is decommissioned,weblink November 17, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101105131112weblink">weblink November 5, 2010, NEC's SX-9 supercomputer was the world's first vector processor to exceed 100 gigaFLOPS per single core.For comparison, a handheld calculator performs relatively few FLOPS. A computer response time below 0.1 second in a calculation context is usually perceived as instantaneous by a human operator,WEB,weblink Response Times: The Three Important Limits, June 11, 2008, Jakob Nielsen, so a simple calculator needs only about 10 FLOPS to be considered functional.In June 2006, a new computer was announced by Japanese research institute RIKEN, the MDGRAPE-3. The computer's performance tops out at one petaFLOPS, almost two times faster than the Blue Gene/L, but MDGRAPE-3 is not a general purpose computer, which is why it does not appear in the Top500.org list. It has special-purpose pipelines for simulating molecular dynamics.By 2007, Intel Corporation unveiled the experimental multi-core POLARIS chip, which achieves 1 teraFLOPS at 3.13 GHz. The 80-core chip can raise this result to 2 teraFLOPS at 6.26 GHz, although the thermal dissipation at this frequency exceeds 190 watts.WEB, Richard Swinburne,weblink The Arrival of TeraFLOP Computing, bit-tech.net, April 30, 2007, February 9, 2012, On June 26, 2007, IBM announced the second generation of its top supercomputer, dubbed Blue Gene/P and designed to continuously operate at speeds exceeding one petaFLOPS. When configured to do so, it can reach speeds in excess of three petaFLOPS.NEWS,weblink June 2008, TOP500, July 8, 2008, In June 2007, Top500.org reported the fastest computer in the world to be the IBM Blue Gene/L supercomputer, measuring a peak of 596 teraFLOPS.NEWS,weblink 29th TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released, June 23, 2007, Top500.org, July 8, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080509064814weblink">weblink May 9, 2008, mdy, The Cray XT4 hit second place with 101.7 teraFLOPS.On October 25, 2007, NEC Corporation of Japan issued a press release announcing its SX series model SX-9,NEWS,weblink NEC Launches World's Fastest Vector Supercomputer, SX-9, October 25, 2007, NEC, July 8, 2008, claiming it to be the world's fastest vector supercomputer. The SX-9 features the first CPU capable of a peak vector performance of 102.4 gigaFLOPS per single core.On February 4, 2008, the NSF and the University of Texas at Austin opened full scale research runs on an AMD, Sun supercomputer named Ranger,WEB
,weblink
, University of Texas at Austin, Texas Advanced Computing Center
, September 13, 2010
, Any researcher at a U.S. institution can submit a proposal to request an allocation of cycles on the system.
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090801102108weblink">weblink
, August 1, 2009
, mdy
, the most powerful supercomputing system in the world for open science research, which operates at sustained speed of 0.5 petaFLOPS.On May 25, 2008, an American supercomputer built by IBM, named 'Roadrunner', reached the computing milestone of one petaFLOPS. It headed the June 2008 and November 2008 TOP500 list of the most powerful supercomputers (excluding grid computers).WEB,weblink IBM's Roadrunner smashes 4-minute mile of supercomputing, June 10, 2008, Sharon Gaudin, June 9, 2008, Computerworld, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081224001155weblink">weblink December 24, 2008, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Austin ISC08, Top500.org, November 14, 2008, February 9, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120222023827weblink">weblink February 22, 2012, mdy, The computer is located at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. The computer's name refers to the New Mexico state bird, the greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus).NEWS,weblink Supercomputer sets petaflop pace, Fildes, Jonathan, June 9, 2008, BBC News, July 8, 2008, In June 2008, AMD released ATI Radeon HD 4800 series, which are reported to be the first GPUs to achieve one teraFLOPS. On August 12, 2008, AMD released the ATI Radeon HD 4870X2 graphics card with two Radeon R770 GPUs totaling 2.4 teraFLOPS.In November 2008, an upgrade to the Cray XT Jaguar supercomputer at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) raised the system's computing power to a peak 1.64 petaFLOPS, making Jaguar the world's first petaFLOPS system dedicated to open research. In early 2009 the supercomputer was named after a mythical creature, Kraken. Kraken was declared the world's fastest university-managed supercomputer and sixth fastest overall in the 2009 TOP500 list. In 2010 Kraken was upgraded and can operate faster and is more powerful.In 2009, the Cray Jaguar performed at 1.75 petaFLOPS, beating the IBM Roadrunner for the number one spot on the TOP500 list.NEWS,weblink Forbes, Andy, Greenberg, Cray Dethrones IBM In Supercomputing, November 16, 2009, In October 2010, China unveiled the Tianhe-1, a supercomputer that operates at a peak computing rate of 2.5 petaFLOPS.NEWS,weblink BBC News, China claims supercomputer crown, October 28, 2010, WEB, Dillow, Clay,weblink China Unveils 2507 Petaflop Supercomputer, the World's Fastest, Popsci.com, October 28, 2010, February 9, 2012, {{As of|2010}} the fastest six-core PC processor reaches 109 gigaFLOPS (Intel Core i7 980 XE)WEB,weblink Intel's Core i7-980X Extreme Edition – Ready for Sick Scores?: Mathematics: Sandra Arithmetic, Crypto, Microsoft Excel, Techgage, March 10, 2010, February 9, 2012, in double precision calculations. GPUs are considerably more powerful. For example, Nvidia Tesla C2050 GPU computing processors perform around 515 gigaFLOPSWEB,weblink NVIDIA Tesla Personal Supercomputer, Nvidia.com, February 9, 2012, in double precision calculations, and the AMD FireStream 9270 peaks at 240 gigaFLOPS.WEB,weblink AMD FireStream 9270 GPU Compute Accelerator, Amd.com, February 9, 2012, In single precision performance, Nvidia Tesla C2050 computing processors perform around 1.03 teraFLOPS and the AMD FireStream 9270 cards peak at 1.2 teraFLOPS. Both Nvidia and AMD's consumer gaming GPUs may reach higher FLOPS. For example, AMD's HemlockXT 5970WEB,weblink Welcome to AMD | Processors | Graphics and Technology | AMD, reaches 928 gigaFLOPS in double precision calculations with two GPUs on board and the Nvidia GTX 480 reaches 672 gigaFLOPSWEB,weblink GeForce GTX 480, Nvidia.com, July 20, 2010, February 9, 2012, with one GPU on board.On December 2, 2010, the US Air Force unveiled a defense supercomputer made up of 1,760 PlayStation 3 consoles that can run 500 teraFLOPS.WEB, Dillow, Clay,weblink Air Force Unveils Fastest Defense Supercomputer, Made of 1760 PlayStation 3, Popsci.com, February 9, 2012, In November 2011, it was announced that Japan had achieved 10.51 petaFLOPS with its K computer.WEB,weblink 'K computer' Achieves Goal of 10 Petaflops, Fujitsu.com, February 9, 2012, It is still under development and software performance tuning is currently underway. It has 88,128 SPARC64 VIIIfx processors in 864 racks, with theoretical performance of 11.28 petaFLOPS. It is named after the Japanese word "(wikt:?#Japanese|kei)", which stands for 10 quadrillion,See Japanese numbers corresponding to the target speed of 10 petaFLOPS.On November 15, 2011, Intel demonstrated a single x86-based processor, code-named "Knights Corner", sustaining more than a teraFLOPS on a wide range of DGEMM operations. Intel emphasized during the demonstration that this was a sustained teraFLOPS (not "raw teraFLOPS" used by others to get higher but less meaningful numbers), and that it was the first general purpose processor to ever cross a teraFLOPS.WEB,weblink Intel's Knights Corner: 50+ Core 22nm Co-processor, November 16, 2011, 2011-11-16, WEB,weblink Intel unveils 1 TFLOP/s Knight's Corner, November 16, 2011, On June 18, 2012, IBM's Sequoia supercomputer system, based at the U.S. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), reached 16 petaFLOPS, setting the world record and claiming first place in the latest TOP500 list.NEWS, Clark, Don, IBM Computer Sets Speed Record,weblink June 18, 2012, The Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2012, On November 12, 2012, the TOP500 list certified Titan as the world's fastest supercomputer per the LINPACK benchmark, at 17.59 petaFLOPS.NEWS,weblink BBC News – US Titan supercomputer clocked as world's fastest, Bbc.co.uk, November 12, 2012, February 28, 2013, BBC News, WEB,weblink Oak Ridge Claims No. 1 Position on Latest TOP500 List with Titan | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites, Top500.org, November 12, 2012, February 28, 2013, It was developed by Cray Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and combines AMD Opteron processors with "Kepler" NVIDIA Tesla graphic processing unit (GPU) technologies.WEB, Montalbano, Elizabeth,weblink Oak Ridge Labs Builds Fastest Supercomputer, Informationweek, October 11, 2011, February 9, 2012, WEB, Tibken, Shara,weblink Titan supercomputer debuts for open scientific research | Cutting Edge – CNET News, News.cnet.com, October 29, 2012, February 28, 2013, On June 10, 2013, China's Tianhe-2 was ranked the world's fastest with 33.86 petaFLOPS.WEB,weblink Chinese Supercomputer Is Now The World's Fastest – By A Lot, Forbes Magazine, June 17, 2013, June 17, 2013, On June 20, 2016, China's Sunway TaihuLight was ranked the world's fastest with 93 petaFLOPS on the LINPACK benchmark (out of 125 peak petaFLOPS). The system, which is almost exclusively based on technology developed in China, is installed at the National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, and represents more performance than the next five most powerful systems on the TOP500 list combined.WEB, Feldman, Michael, China Races Ahead in TOP500 Supercomputer List, Ending US Supremacy,weblink TOP500.org, 31 December 2016, In June 2018, Summit, an IBM-built supercomputer now running at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), captured the number one spot with a performance of 122.3 petaflops on High Performance Linpack (HPL), the benchmark used to rank the TOP500 list. Summit has 4,356 nodes, each one equipped with two 22-core Power9 CPUs, and six NVIDIA Tesla V100 GPUs.WEB,weblink June 2018 {{!, TOP500 Supercomputer Sites|website=www.top500.org|language=en|access-date=2018-07-17}}

Distributed computing records

Distributed computing uses the Internet to link personal computers to achieve more FLOPS:
  • {{As of|2016|10}}, the Folding@home network has over 100 petaFLOPS of total computing power.WEB,weblink Closing in on 100 Petaflops, May 11, 2016, Folding@Home, July 17, 2016, WEB,weblink Folding@home team stats pages, Folding@Home, October 14, 2016, It was the first computing project of any kind to cross the 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 native petaFLOPS milestones. This level of performance is primarily enabled by the cumulative effort of a vast array of powerful GPU and CPU units.PRESS RELEASE


, Sony Computer Entertainment's Support for Folding@home Project on PlayStationâ„¢3 Receives This Year's "Good Design Gold Award"
,weblink
, Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.
, November 6, 2008
, December 11, 2008
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090131082202weblink">weblink
, January 31, 2009
, mdy
,
  • {{As of|2018|06}}, the entire BOINC network averages about 20 petaFLOPS.WEB,weblink Computering Power, BOINC, June 15, 2018,
  • {{As of|2018|06}}, SETI@Home, employing the BOINC software platform, averages 896 teraFLOPS.WEB,weblink SETI@Home Credit overview, BOINC, June 15, 2018,
  • {{As of|2018|06}}, Einstein@Home, a project using the BOINC network, is crunching at 3 petaFLOPS.WEB,weblink Einstein@Home Credit overview, BOINC, June 15, 2018,
  • {{As of|2018|06}}, MilkyWay@Home, using the BOINC infrastructure, computes at 847 teraFLOPS.WEB,weblink MilkyWay@Home Credit overview, BOINC, June 15, 2018,
  • {{As of|2018|06}}, GIMPS, searching for Mersenne primes, is sustaining 306 teraFLOPS.WEB,weblink Internet PrimeNet Server Distributed Computing Technology for the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, GIMPS, June 15, 2018,

Future developments

{{Further information|Exascale computing}}In 2008, James Bamford's book The Shadow Factory reported that NSA told the Pentagon it would need an exaflop computer by 2018.BOOK, The Shadow Factory, James Bamford, James Bamford, Doubleday (publisher), Doubleday, 2008, 339, 978-0-385-52132-1, The Shadow Factory, Given the current speed of progress, supercomputers are projected to reach 1 exaFLOPS (EFLOPS) in 2018.WEB,weblink The Race to a Billion Billion Operations per Second: An Exaflop by 2018?, November 2012, Cray, Inc. announced in December 2009 a plan to build a 1 EFLOPS supercomputer before 2020.WEB,weblink Cray studies exascale computing in Europe, Eetimes.com, February 9, 2012, Erik P. DeBenedictis of Sandia National Laboratories theorizes that a zettaFLOPS (ZFLOPS) computer is required to accomplish full weather modeling of two week time span.BOOK, Reversible logic for supercomputing, Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Computing frontiers, DeBenedictis, Erik P., 2005, ACM Press, New York, NY, 978-1-59593-019-4, 391–402,weblink Such systems might be built around 2030.NEWS, IDF: Intel says Moore's Law holds until 2029,weblink Heise Online, April 4, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131208075357weblink">weblink December 8, 2013, mdy-all,

Cost of computing

">

Hardware costs{| class"wikitable"

! Date! Approximate cost per GFLOPS! Approximate cost per GFLOPS ({{Inflation-year|US}} US dollars){{Inflation-fn|US}}!Approximate cost per TFLOPS (2017 US dollars)! Platform providing the lowest cost per GFLOPS ! Comments
| 1961| $18.7 billion
US1961fmt=c}} billionUS1961fmt=c}} trillion| About 2400 IBM 7030 Stretch supercomputers costing $7.78 million eachIBM 7030 Stretch performs one floating-point multiply every 2.4 microseconds.HTTP://COMPUTER-HISTORY.INFO/PAGE4.DIR/PAGES/IBM.7030.STRETCH.DIR/ PUBLISHER=NORMAN HARDY, February 24, 2017,
| 1984| $18,750,000
US1984fmt=c}}|$44.2 billion| Cray X-MP/48| $15,000,000 / 0.8 GFLOPS
| 1997| $30,000
US1997fmt=c}}|$46,000,000Beowulf (computing)>Beowulf clusters with Pentium Pro microprocessorsHTTP://LOKI-WWW.LANL.GOV/PAPERS/SC97/ >TITLE=LOKI AND HYGLAC DATE=JULY 13, 1997, February 9, 2012, |
US2000fmt=c}} |$1,440,000Beowulf cluster>Bunyip Beowulf cluster | Bunyip was the first sub-US$1/MFLOPS computing technology. It won the Gordon Bell Prize in 2000.
US2000|fmt=c}} |$922,000Kentucky Linux Athlon Testbed>KLAT2WEBSITE=THE AGGREGATE ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 9, 2012,
US2003|fmt=c}}|$109,000| KASY0WEBSITE=THE AGGREGATE ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 9, 2012,
US2007|fmt=c}}|$57,000| MicrowulfACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 9, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070912061302/HTTP://WWW.CALVIN.EDU/~ADAMS/RESEARCH/MICROWULF/, September 12, 2007,
US2011fmt=c}} |$1,980| HPU4Science| This $30,000 cluster was built using only commercially available "gamer" grade hardware.Adam Stevenson, Yann Le Du, and Mariem El Afrit. "High-performance computing on gamer PCs." Ars Technica. March 31, 2011.
US2012fmt=c}}|$800| Quad AMD Radeon 7970 GHz SystemAMD Radeon HD 7000 Series>Radeon 7970 desktop computer reaching 16 TFLOPS of single-precision, 4 TFLOPS of double-precision computing performance. Total system cost was $3000; Built using only commercially available hardware.HTTP://WWW.OVERCLOCK3D.NET/REVIEWS/GPU_DISPLAYS/HD7970_QUADFIRE_EYEFINITY_REVIEW/12 >TITLE=HD7970 QUADFIRE EYEFINITY REVIEW WEBSITE=OC3D.NET, Tom Logan,
US2013fmt=c}}|$230| Sony PlayStation 4| The Sony PlayStation 4 is listed as having a peak performance of 1.84 TFLOPS, at a price of $400"Sony Sparks Price War With PS4 Priced at $399." CNBC. June 11, 2013.
US2013fmt=c}}|$170| AMD Sempron 145 & GeForce GTX 760 SystemSempron 145 and three Nvidia GeForce 700 series>GeForce GTX 760 reaches a total of 6.771 TFLOPS for a total cost of $1090.66.HTTP://WWW.FREEZEPAGE.COM/1384601420XCIGYKCBKJ > TITLE=FREEZEPAGE,
US2013fmt=c}}|$130| Pentium G550 & Radeon R9 290 SystemIntel Sandy Bridge>Pentium G550 and AMD AMD Radeon Rx 200 series tops out at 4.848 TFLOPS grand total of US$681.84.HTTP://WWW.FREEZEPAGE.COM/1387480124PSLSILVCMJ, FreezePage,
US2015fmt=c}}|$80| Celeron G1830 & Radeon R9 295X2 SystemHaswell (microarchitecture)>Celeron G1830 and AMD AMD Radeon Rx 200 series tops out at over 11.5 TFLOPS at a grand total of US$902.57.HTTP://WWW.FREEZEPAGE.COM/1420850340WGSMHXRBLE DATE=2014-04-08,
US2017fmt=c}}|$60| AMD Ryzen 7 1700 & AMD Radeon Vega Frontier Edition3,000}} for the complete system.HTTPS://MEDIUM.COM/INTUITIONMACHINE/BUILDING-A-50-TERAFLOPS-AMD-VEGA-DEEP-LEARNING-BOX-FOR-UNDER-3K-EBDD60D4A93C>TITLE=BUILDING A 50 TERAFLOPS AMD VEGA DEEP LEARNING BOX FOR UNDER $3KFIRST=CAROL E.WORK=INTUITION MACHINE, July 26, 2017,
|October 2017|$0.03
US2017fmt=c}}|$30|Intel Celeron G3930 & AMD RX Vega 64AMD RX Vega series>AMD RX Vega 64 graphics cards provide just over 75 TFLOPS half precision (38 TFLOPS SP or 2.6 TFLOPS DP when combined with the CPU) at ~$2,050 for the complete system.HTTPS://PCPARTPICKER.COM/USER/MATTEBAUGHMAN/SAVED/8DQZ8D>TITLE=LOWEST_$/FP16 - MATTEBAUGHMAN'S SAVED PART LIST - CELERON G3930 2.9GHZ DUAL-CORE, RADEON RX VEGA 64 8GB (3-WAY CROSSFIRE), XON-350_BK ATX MID TOWER - PCPARTPICKERACCESS-DATE=2017-09-13,

See also

{{div col|colwidth=24em}} {{div col end}}{{clear}}

References

{{Reflist|30em|refs=}}{{Graphics Processing Unit}}{{CPU technologies}}{{Authority control}}

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