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FIM-92 Stinger
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factoids
|max_range=|feed=|sights=Optical sight|filling=High explosive annular blast fragmentation|filling_weight=3 kg (6.6 lb)|Detonation mechanism=Penetration, impact, self destruct|yield=|armour=|primary_armament=|secondary_armament=|engine=Solid-fuel rocket motor|engine_power=|transmission=|payload_capacity=|fuel_capacity=|pw_ratio=|suspension=|clearance=|vehicle_range=|speed=|guidance=Infrared homingMANPADS, M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle#M6 Linebacker>M6 Linebacker, Multi-Mission Launcher, Eurocopter Tiger, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, MQ-1 Predator, AH-64 Apache, T-129 ATAK|developed into=AIM-92 Stinger}}The FIM-92 Stinger is a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) that operates as an infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). It can be adapted to fire from a wide variety of ground vehicles and helicopters (as an AAM). Developed in the United States, it entered service in 1981 and is used by the militaries of the United States and 29 other countries. It is principally manufactured by Raytheon Missile Systems and is produced under license by EADS in Germany and by Roketsan in Turkey, with 70,000 missiles produced.

Description

{{Refimprove|date=March 2013}}Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive surface-to-air missile that can be shoulder-fired by a single operator (although standard military procedure calls for two operators, team chief and gunner). The FIM-92B missile can also be fired from the M-1097 Avenger and the M6 Linebacker. The missile is also capable of being deployed from a Humvee Stinger rack, and can be used by airborne troops. A helicopter launched version exists called Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS).The missile is {{convert|1.52|m|ft|abbr=on|order=flip}} long and {{convert|70|mm|in|abbr=on|order=flip}} in diameter with {{convert|100|mm|in|abbr=on|order=flip}} fins. The missile itself weighs {{convert|10.1|kg|lb|abbr=on|order=flip}}, while the missile with its launch tube and integral sight, fitted with a gripstock and IFF antenna, weighs approximately {{convert|15.2|kg|lb|abbr=on|order=flip}}. It has an outward targeting range of up to 4,800 m and can engage low altitude enemy threats at up to 3,800 m.The Stinger is launched by a small ejection motor that pushes it a safe distance from the operator before engaging the main two-stage solid-fuel sustainer, which accelerates it to a maximum speed of Mach 2.54 (750 m/s). The warhead is a {{convert|3|kg|lb|abbr=on|order=flip}} penetrating hit-to-kill annular blast fragmentation type with an impact fuze and a self-destruct timer.(File:Staff Sgt. Warren Jackson points out a target to Stinger anti-aircraft guided missile gunner Sgt. Gary Cross during the air base ground defense Exercise Foal Eagle '89 DF-ST-90-12024.jpg|thumb|M134 Stinger Tracking Trainer with IFF antenna unfolded)(File:1-7 repels enemy assault at Lava Training Area 140203-M-OM885-094.jpg|thumb|Launcher with IFF antenna folded)To fire the missile, a BCU (Battery Coolant Unit) is inserted into the gripstock. This device consists of a supply of liquid argon which is injected into the seeker to cool it to operating temperature, and a thermal battery which provides power for target acquisition: a single BCU provides power and coolant for roughly 45 seconds, after which another must be inserted if the missile has not been fired. The BCUs are somewhat sensitive to abuse, and have a limited shelf life due to the pressurised liquid argon leaking. The IFF system receives power from a rechargeable battery which is part of the IFF interrogator box which plugs into the base of the gripstock's pistol grip. Guidance to the target is initially through proportional navigation, then switches to another mode that directs the missile towards the target airframe instead of its exhaust plume.There are three main variants in use: the Stinger basic, STINGER-Passive Optical Seeker Technique (POST), and STINGER-Reprogrammable Microprocessor (RMP). These correspond to the FIM-92A, FIM-92B, and FIM-92C and later variants respectively.The POST has a dual-detector seeker: IR and UV. This allows it to distinguish targets from countermeasures much better than the Redeye and FIM-92A, which have IR-only. While modern flares can have an IR signature that is closely matched to the launching aircraft's engine exhaust, there is a readily distinguishable difference in UV signature between flares and jet engines.WEB,weblink FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic, John Pike, globalsecurity.org, 2010-08-16,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100709220154weblink">weblink 2010-07-09, live, The Stinger-RMP is so-called because of its ability to load a new set of software via ROM chip inserted in the grip at the depot. If this download to the missile fails during power-up, basic functionality runs off the on-board ROM. The four-processor RMP has 4 KB of RAM for each processor. Since the downloaded code runs from RAM, there is little space to spare, particularly for processors dedicated to seeker input processing and target analysis.

History

{{Unreferenced section|date=October 2009}}(File:Launched FIM-92A Stinger missile.jpg|thumb|A U.S. Marine fires an FIM-92 Stinger missile during a July 2009 training exercise in California.)Initial work on the missile was begun by General Dynamics in 1967 as the FIM-43 Redeye. Production of the Redeye ran from 1969 to 1982 where some 85,000 were in circulation.WEB,weblink General Dynamics / Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger - Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery, 2016-08-26,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160914062700weblink">weblink 2016-09-14, live, It was accepted for further development by the U.S. Army in 1971 and designated FIM-92; the Stinger appellation was chosen in 1972. Because of technical difficulties that dogged testing, the first shoulder launch was not until mid-1975. Production of the FIM-92A began in 1978 to replace the FIM-43 Redeye. An improved Stinger with a new seeker, the FIM-92B, was produced from 1983 alongside the FIM-92A. Production of both the A and B types ended in 1987 with around 16,000 missiles produced.The replacement FIM-92C had been developed from 1984 and production began in 1987. The first examples were delivered to front-line units in 1989. C-type missiles were fitted with a reprogrammable electronics system to allow for upgrades. The missiles which received a counter-measures upgrade were designated D and later upgrades to the D were designated G.The FIM-92E or Block I was developed from 1992 and delivered from 1995 (certain sources state that the FIM-92D is also part of the Block I development). The main changes were again in the sensor and the software, improving the missile's performance against smaller and low-signature targets. A software upgrade in 2001 was designated F. Block II development began in 1996 using a new focal plane array sensor to improve the missile's effectiveness in "high clutter" environments and increase the engagement range to about 25,000 feet (7,600 m). Production was scheduled for 2004, but Jane's reports that this may be on hold.{{when?|date=February 2018}}Since 1984 the Stinger has been issued to many U.S. Navy warships for point defense, particularly in Middle Eastern waters, with a three-man team that can perform other duties when not conducting Stinger training or maintenance. Until it was decommissioned in September 1993, the U.S. Navy had at least one Stinger Gunnery Detachment attached to Beachmaster Unit Two in Little Creek Virginia. The sailors of this detachment would deploy to carrier battlegroups in teams of two to four sailors per ship as requested by Battle Group Commanders.

Variants

  • FIM-92A, Stinger Basic: The basic model.WEB,weblink General Dynamics / Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger – Man-Portable, Air Defense Missile System – History, Specs and Pictures – Military, Security and Civilian Guns and Equipment, militaryfactory.com, 2014-01-26,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140202112508weblink">weblink 2014-02-02, live,
  • FIM-92B, Stinger POST: In this version, the infrared seeker head was replaced by a combined IR/UV seeker that utilized rosette scanning. This resulted in achieving significantly higher resistance to enemy countermeasures (flares) and natural disturbances. Production ran from 1981 to 1987; a total of 600 missiles were produced.
  • FIM-92C, Stinger RMP: The resistance to interference was increased again by adding more powerful digital computer components. Moreover, the software of the missile could now be reconfigured in a short time in order to respond quickly and efficiently to new types of countermeasures. Until 1991, some 20,000 units were produced for the U.S. Army alone.
  • FIM-92D: Various modifications were continued with this version in order to increase the resistance to interference.
  • FIM-92E: Stinger—RMP Block I: By adding a new rollover sensor and revised control software, the flight behavior was significantly improved. Additionally, the performance against small targets such as drones, cruise missiles and light reconnaissance helicopters was improved. The first deliveries began in 1995. Almost the entire stock of U.S. Stinger missiles was replaced by this version.
  • FIM-92F: A further improvement of the E version and the current production version.
  • FIM-92G: An unspecified upgrade for the D variant.
  • FIM-92H: Indicates a D variant that has been upgraded to the E standard.
  • Stinger—RMP Block II: This variant was a planned developed based on the E version. The improvements included an imaging infrared seeker head from the AIM-9X. With this modification, the detection distance and the resistance to jamming was to be greatly increased. Changes to the airframe would furthermore enable a significant increase in range. Although the missile reached the testing phase, the program was dropped in 2002 for budgetary reasons.
  • FIM-92J, Block 1 missile upgrade to replace aging components to extend service life an additional 10 years. Upgrades include a proximity fuse warhead section, equipped with a target detection device to increase effectiveness against unmanned aerial vehicles,WEB,weblink US Army starts upgrade of FIM-92E Stinger Block I missiles - Army Technology, 2 November 2014, 17 March 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170318084010weblink">weblink 18 March 2017, live, WEB,weblink Army Upgrades Stinger Missiles, Kitup.Military.com, 6 November 2014, 1 November 2015, Osborn, Kris,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925050137weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, live, a new flight motor and gas generator cartridge, as well as new designs for the o-rings and integral desiccant cartridge.Stinger upgrade to increase service life, capabilities {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171019215337weblink |date=2017-10-19 }} - Army.mil, 29 October 2014
  • FIM-92K, variant of FIM-92J designed to use a vehicle datalink rather than the missile's own seeker for targeting.This Stinger Missile Is Back {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180524222051weblink |date=2018-05-24 }}. The National Interest. 18 May 2018.

Service

File:Stinger Crew Operation Desert Shield.jpg|thumb|U.S. Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade stand next to a FIM-92 Stinger portable missile launcher during the Persian Gulf War.]]
missing image!
- Avenger Stinger Missile.JPEG -
A Stinger missile being launched from a U.S. Marine Corps AN/TWQ-1 Avenger in April 2000.

Falklands War

The Stinger's combat debut occurred during the Falklands War fought between the United Kingdom and Argentina. At the onset of the conflict soldiers of the British Army's Special Air Service had been clandestinely equipped with six missiles, although they had received little instruction in their use. The sole SAS trooper who had received training on the system, and was due to train other troops, was killed in a helicopter crash on 19 May.WEB,weblink Britain's Small Wars, Facebook, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091107231634weblink">weblink 2009-11-07, Nonetheless, on 21 May 1982 an SAS soldier engaged and shot down an Argentine Pucará ground attack aircraft with a Stinger.WEB,weblink San Carlos Air Battles - Falklands War 1982, naval-history.net, 2006-04-06,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110603234818weblink">weblink 2011-06-03, live, On 30 May, at about 11.00 a.m., an Aerospatiale SA-330 Puma helicopter was brought down by another missile, also fired by the SAS, in the vicinity of Mount Kent. Six National Gendarmerie Special Forces were killed and eight more wounded.WEB,weblink Argentine Puma shot down by american "Stinger" missile. — MercoPress, MercoPress, 2009-11-07,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120328101020weblink">weblink 2012-03-28, live, The main MANPADS used by both sides during the Falklands War was the Blowpipe missile.

Soviet War in Afghanistan

{{See also|List of Soviet aircraft losses during the Soviet–Afghan War}}The story of the Stingers in Afghanistan was popularly told in the media by western sources primarily, notably in (Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History|Charlie Wilson's War) by George Crile, and Ghost Wars by Steve Coll.In late 1985, several groups, such as Free the Eagle, began arguing the CIA was not doing enough to support the Mujahideen in the Soviet–Afghan War. Michael Pillsbury, Vincent Cannistraro, and others put enormous bureaucratic pressure on the CIA to provide the Stinger to the rebels. The idea was controversial because up to that point, the CIA had been operating with the pretense that the United States was not involved in the war directly, for various reasons. All weapons supplied up to that point were non-U.S. made weapons, like Type 56 rifles purchased from China, and AK-47 and AKM AK derivatives purchased from Egypt.The final say-so came down to President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan, through whom the CIA had to pass all of its funding and weapons to the Mujahideen. President Zia constantly had to gauge how much he could "make the pot boil" in Afghanistan without provoking a Soviet invasion of his own country. According to George Crile III, U.S. Representative Charlie Wilson's relationship with Zia was instrumental in the final go-ahead for the Stinger introduction.Wilson and his associates at first viewed the Stinger as "just adding another component to the lethal mix we were building." Their increasingly successful Afghanistan strategy, formed largely by Michael G. Vickers, was based on a broad mix of weapons, tactics, and logistics, not a 'silver bullet solution' of a single weapon. Furthermore, the previous attempts to provide MANPADs to the Mujahideen, namely the SA-7 and Blowpipe, hadn't worked very well.Engineer Ghaffar, of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-Islami, brought down the first Hind gunship with a Stinger on September 25, 1986 near Jalalabad.WEB,weblink Successful surface-to-air missile attack shows threat to airliners, HomeLand1, 2012-12-28,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130118094121weblink">weblink 2013-01-18, live, As part of Operation Cyclone, the CIA eventually supplied nearly 500 Stingers (some sources claim 1,500–2,000) to the Mujahideen in Afghanistan,Malley, William (2002) The Afghanistan wars. Palgrave Macmillan, p. 80. {{ISBN|0-333-80290-X}} and 250 launchers.Hilali, A. Z. (2005). US-Pakistan relationship: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. p. 169. {{ISBN|0-7546-4220-8}}The impact of the Stinger on the outcome of the war is contested, particularly in the translation between the impact on the tactical battlefield to the strategic level withdrawal, and the influence the first had on the second. Dr. Robert F. Baumann (of the Staff College at Fort Leavenworth) described its impact on "Soviet tactical operations" as "unmistakable".Robert F. Baumann "Compound War Case Study: The Soviets in Afghanistan". In Compound warfare: That fatal knot {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150923180949weblink |date=2015-09-23 }} Thomas M. Huber (ed.) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Press, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. pg 296WEB,weblink COMPOUND WAR CASE STUDY: THE SOVIETS IN AFGHANISTAN, John Pike, globalsecurity.org, 2011-11-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120119121856weblink">weblink 2012-01-19, live, This opinion was shared by Yossef Bodansky.Yossef Bodansky. "SAMs in Afghanistan: assessing the impact." {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161206212948weblink |date=2016-12-06 }} Jane's Defence Weekly, vol. 8, no. 03, 1987 PP. 153-154JOURNAL,weblink PDF, The Stinger missile and U.S. intervention in Afghanistan, Alan J. Kuperman, Political Science Quarterly, 114, Summer 1999, 219, 2014-10-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141021160520weblink">weblink 2014-10-21, live, Soviet, and later, Russian, accounts give little significance to the Stinger for strategically ending the war.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, John H., Cushman Jr, THE WORLD: The Stinger Missile; HELPING TO CHANGE THE COURSE OF A WAR, 17 January 1988, 7 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161228064608weblink">weblink 28 December 2016, live, Scott, Peter (2003). Drugs, oil, and war: the United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina. Rowman & Littlefield, p. 5. {{ISBN|0-7425-2522-8}}According to the 1993 US US Air Defense Artillery Yearbook, the Mujahideen gunners used the supplied Stingers to score approximately 269 total aircraft kills in about 340 engagements, a 79-percent kill ratio.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130425052021weblink">weblink dead, 2013-04-25, Air Defense Artillery Yearbook 1993, Blair Case, Lisa B. Henry, 20, PDF, US Army Air Defense Artillery Branch, If this report is accurate, Stingers would be responsible for over half of the 451 Soviet aircraft losses in Afghanistan. But these statistics are based on Mujahedin self-reporting, which is of unknown reliability. Selig Harrison rejects such figures, quoting a Russian general who claims the United States "greatly exaggerated" Soviet and Afghan aircraft losses during the war. According to Soviet figures, in 1987-1988, only 35 aircraft and 63 helicopters were destroyed by all causes.BOOK, Hammerich, Helmut, Die Grenzen des Militärischen, Hartmann, Miles-Verl, Berlin, 2010, 9783937885308,weblink 195, The Pakistan Army fired twenty-eight Stingers at enemy aircraft without a single kill.According to Crile, who includes information from Alexander Prokhanov, the Stinger was a "turning point". Milt Bearden saw it as a "force multiplier" and morale booster. Representative Charlie Wilson, the politician behind Operation Cyclone, described the first Stinger Mi-24 shootdowns in 1986 as one of the three crucial moments of his experience in the war, saying "we never really won a set-piece battle before September 26, and then we never lost one afterwards." He was given the first spent Stinger tube as a gift and kept it on his office wall. That launch tube is now on exhibit at the US Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, OK.Many Russian military analysts tend to be dismissive of the impact to the Stinger. According to Alan J. Kuperman, the stingers did make an impact at first but within a few months flares, beacons, and exhaust baffles were installed to disorient the missiles, along with night operation and terrain-hugging tactics to prevent the rebels from getting a clear shot. By 1988, Kuperman states, the mujahideen had all but stopped firing them.JOURNAL, Kuperman, Alan J., Stinging Rebukes, Foreign Affairs, January–February 2002,weblink 16 July 2015,weblink 20 July 2015, live, Another source (Jonathan Steele) states that Stingers forced Soviet helicopters and ground attack planes to bomb from higher altitudes with less accuracy, but did not bring down many more aircraft than Chinese heavy machine guns and other less sophisticated antiaircraft weaponry.JOURNAL, Steele, Jonathan, Afghan Ghosts: American Myths, World affairs journal, 2010,weblink 16 July 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150717215845weblink">weblink 17 July 2015, live, The last Stingers were supplied in 1988 after increasing reports of fighters selling them to Iran and thawing relations with Moscow.WEB,weblink Afghanistan PSYOP Leaflet, psywarrior.com, 2013-07-07,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130902091222weblink">weblink 2013-09-02, live, After the 1989 Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the U.S. attempted to buy back the Stinger missiles, with a $55 million program launched in 1990 to buy back around 300 missiles (US$183,300 each).NEWS, Tim, Weiner, U.S. Increases Fund To Outbid Terrorists For Afghan Missiles,weblink The New York Times, 24 July 1993, 2008-01-01,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104113232weblink">weblink 4 November 2012, live, The U.S. government collected most of the Stingers it had delivered, but by 1996 around 600 were unaccounted for and some found their way into Croatia, Iran, Sri Lanka, Qatar, and North Korea.Stinger missile system {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927211359weblink |date=2007-09-27 }}JOURNAL, Foreign Policy, Stop Panicking About the Stingers,weblink July 28, 2010, Matthew Schroeder, August 2, 2017,weblink August 2, 2017, live, According to the CIA, already in August 1988 the U.S. had demanded from Qatar the return of Stinger missiles.WEB, Middle East brief (deleted) for 2 August 1988: In brief: x—Qatar, Central Intelligence Agency,weblink pdf, 1988-08-02, 2010-11-14, 3, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120323061538weblink">weblink 23 March 2012, Wilson later told CBS he "lived in terror" that a civilian airliner would be shot down by a Stinger, but he did not have misgivings about having provided Stingers to defeat the Soviets.

Angolan Civil War

The Reagan administration provided 310 Stingers to Jonas Savimbi's UNITA movement in Angola between 1986 and 1989.WEB,weblink Trade Registers, Armstrade.sipri.org, 2013-06-20,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110513073842weblink">weblink 2011-05-13, live, As in Afghanistan, efforts to recover missiles after the end of hostilities proved incomplete. The battery of a Stinger lasts for four or five years, so any battery supplied in the 1980s would now be inoperativeWEB,weblink Stingers, Stingers, Who's Got the Stingers?, Slate, Silverstein, Ken, 3 October 2001, 1 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110131080741weblink">weblink 31 January 2011, live, but during the Syrian Civil War, insurgents showed how easily they switched to different batteries, including widespread car batteries, as power sources for several MANPADS models.WEB,weblink Improvised MANPADS batteries employed in Syria {{!, Armament Research Services|website=armamentresearch.com|access-date=2016-08-05|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160725102315weblink|archive-date=2016-07-25|url-status=live}}

Libyan invasion of Chad

The French army used 15 firing positions and 30 missiles purchased in 1983/83 for operations in Chad. The 35th Parachute Artillery Regiment made an unsuccessful fire during a Libyan bombardment on 10 September 1987 and shot down a Hercules transport aircraft on 7 July 1988.Arnaud Delalande, The Ghost Plane of Faya-Largeau {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180110180239weblink |date=2018-01-10 }}, 9 January 2018.The Chadian government received Stinger missiles from the United States, when Libya invaded the northern part of the African country.On 8 October 1987, a Libyan Su-22MK was shot down by a FIM-92A fired by Chadian forces. The pilot, Capt. Diya al-Din, ejected and was captured. He was later granted political asylum by the French government. During the recovery operation, a Libyan MiG-23MS was shot down by a FIM-92A.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-11-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130821000146weblink">weblink 2013-08-21, live,

Tajik civil war

Tajik Islamist opposition forces operating from Afghanistan during the 1992–97 Tajik civil war encountered a heavy air campaign launched by Russia and Uzbekistan to prop up the government in Dushanbe that included border and cross-border raids. During one of these operations, a Sukhoi Su-24M was shot down on 3 May 1993 with a Stinger fired by fundamentalists. Both Russian pilots were rescued.WEB,weblink Uzbekistan- Air Force, John Pike, globalsecurity.org, 2014-10-19,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141019094136weblink">weblink 2014-10-19, live, Human Rights in Tajikistan: In the Wake of Civil War By Escrito por Rachel Denber, Barnett R. Rubin, Jeri Laber. Google Books.

Chechen War

Russian officials claimed several times that the Chechen militia and insurgents possessed US-made Stinger missiles. They attributed a few of their aerial losses to the American MANPADS. The presence of such missiles was confirmed by photo evidence even though their actual number and origin were not clear.WEB,weblink Militaryphotos.net, www.militaryphotos.net, 2016-08-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170314140349weblink">weblink 2017-03-14, live, It is believed one Sukhoi Su-24 was shot down by a Stinger missile during the Second Chechen War.WEB, Pashin, Alexander, Russian Army Operations and Weaponry During Second Military Campaign in Chechnya,weblink Moscow Defense Brief, 8 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090129141108weblink">weblink January 29, 2009,

Sri Lankan Civil War

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam also managed to acquire one or several Stingers, possibly from former Mujahideen stocks, and used at least one to down a Sri Lanka Air Force Mi-24 on November 10, 1997.WEB,weblink ASN Aircraft accident 10-NOV-1997 Mil Mi-24 CH619, Harro Ranter, aviation-safety.net, 2013-07-07,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150507145238weblink">weblink 2015-05-07, live,

United States

As of 2000, the U.S. inventory contains 13,400 missiles. The total cost of the program is $7,281,000,000.WEB,weblink FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic, 2016-01-01,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160114140205weblink">weblink 2016-01-14, live, It is rumored that the United States Secret Service has Stinger missiles to defend the President, a notion that has never been dispelled; however, U.S. Secret Service plans favor moving the President to a safer place in the event of an attack rather than shooting down the plane, lest the missile (or the wreckage of the target aircraft) hit innocents.NEWS,weblink Crash at the White House: The defenses; Pilot's Exploit Rattles White House Officials, The New York Times, Stephen Labaton, September 13, 1994, 2008-09-08,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090713194415weblink">weblink July 13, 2009, live, During the 1980s, the Stinger was used to support different US-aligned guerrilla forces, notably the Afghan Mujahidins, the Chad government against the Libyan invasion and the Angolan UNITA. The Nicaraguan contras were not provided with Stingers due to the lack of fixed wing aircraft of the Sandinista government, as such the previous generation FIM-43 Redeye was considered adequate.

Syrian civil war

In the Syrian civil war, Turkey reportedly helped to transport to a limited amount of FIM-92 Stingers to the Free Syrian Army.NEWS,weblink Syrian Rebels Claim to Have Brought Down a Jet, The New York Times, 13 August 2012, 13 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120816054952weblink">weblink 16 August 2012, live,

Operators

(File:FIM-92 operators.png|thumb|400px|Map with FIM-92 operators in blue)
  • Afghan Mujahideen
  • {{BGD}}
  • {{flagcountry|Bosnia and Herzegovina}}
  • {{flagcountry|Chad}}
  • {{CHL}}
  • {{COL}}WEB,weblink Colombia adquiere 60 misiles antiaéreos Stinger y 100 TOW antitanques - Noticias Infodefensa América, Infodefensa.com, 2015-09-23, es, 2016-08-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160527025052weblink">weblink 2016-05-27, live,
  • {{EGY}}
  • {{FIN}}WEB,weblink HS: Finland to splurge 90 million on US Stinger missiles, Yle Uutiset, 2014-01-26,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140126151842weblink">weblink 2014-01-26, live,
  • {{GEO}}
  • {{GER}}: Stingers made under license by EADS.Tiger Attack Helicopter, Europe. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081024235419weblink |date=2008-10-24 }} Retrieved on October 24, 2008.{{Unreliable source?|reason=domain on WP:BLACKLIST|date=August 2016}}
  • {{GRE}}
  • {{IRN}}NEWS,weblink Iranians Captured Stinger Missiles From Afghan Guerrillas, U.S. Says, Times, Stephen Engelberg With Bernard E. Trainor, Special To The New York, 1987-10-17, The New York Times, 0362-4331, 2016-08-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161228070931weblink">weblink 2016-12-28, live, WEB,weblink Pak general says Iran stole Stinger missiles, iran-times.com, 2015-07-16,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150717161140weblink">weblink 2015-07-17, live, WEB,weblink Inside ISI: The Story and Involvement of the ISI, Afghan Jihad, Taliban, Al-Qaeda, 9/11, Osama Bin Laden, 26/11 and the Future of Al-Qaeda~, S. K., Datta, 12 June 2014, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd, Google Books, 5 December 2017,weblink 9 April 2018, live,
  • {{IRQ}}
  • {{ISR}}
  • {{IND}}
  • {{ITA}} 150 launchers, 450 FIM-92A missiles delivered in 1986–1988 for 51 million dollars, 50 missiles delivered in 2000–2002 for 10 million dollars to operate from A-129 Mangusta and 200 missiles delivered in 2003–2004 (SIPRI).
  • {{JPN}}
  • {{KOR}}WEB,weblink Stingers for South Korea AH-64E Apaches, 2016-08-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160812184444weblink">weblink 2016-08-12, live,
  • {{PRK}}BOOK, North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition, Stinger, A-70, US Department of Defense,weblink 2018-09-05,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304111733weblink">weblink 2016-03-04, live, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2018-09-17,weblink 2018-08-21, live,
  • {{LAT}}WEB, Tomkins, Richard, Latvia buying Stinger air-defense missiles from Denmark,weblink United Press International, 24 August 2017,weblink 24 August 2017, 23 August 2017, dead,
  • {{LIT}}
  • {{NLD}}
  • {{NOR}}
  • {{PAK}}: 350 in service with the Pakistan Army.BOOK, Singh, R.S.N., Asian Strategic And Military Perspective, 2005, Lancer Publishers, 9788170622451, 238, BOOK, Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia: Crisis Behaviour and the Bomb, 2008, Routledge, 978-0-203-89286-2, 174, Sumit Ganguly & S. Paul Kapur,
  • {{POR}}
  • {{TWN}}: Republic of China Marine Corps, Republic of China ArmyWEB,weblink defpro.com, www.defpro.com, 2016-08-05, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151024130743weblink">weblink 2015-10-24,
  • {{SLO}}
  • {{SWI}}
  • {{TUR}}: Stingers made under license by Roketsan.Official Roketsan Stinger Page. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090101220840weblink |date=2009-01-01 }} Retrieved on October 23, 2008.
  • {{flagicon image|Flag of UNITA.svg}} UNITA
  • {{UK}}
  • {{USA}}

See also

References

, Charlie Rose, PBS, April 24, 2008, via charlierose.com(Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History), George Crile, 2003, Grove/Atlantic.Charlie Did It {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121003045143weblink |date=2012-10-03 }}, CBS News, 60 minutes. December 19, 2007 9:51 AM, From March 13, 2001: Former Rep. Charlie Wilson looks back on his efforts to arm the Mujahedeen against the Soviet Union back in the 1980s. Mike Wallace reports.Military engineer recounts role in Soviet-Afghan war {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120710193142weblink |date=2012-07-10 }}, By Michael Gisick, Stars and Stripes, Published: September 11, 2008}}

Further reading

  • O'Halloran, James C., and Christopher F. Foss (eds.)(2005). Jane's Land-Based Air Defence 2005–2006. Couldson, Surrey: Jane's Information Group. {{ISBN|0-7106-2697-5}}.

External links

{{Commons|FIM-92 Stinger}} {{Raytheon}}{{ModernUSInfWeaponsNav}}{{US missiles}}

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