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Ethnic groups in Europe

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Ethnic groups in Europe
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{{pp-pc1}}{{redirect|Europeans|other uses|European (disambiguation)}}{{Tone|article|date=May 2019}}The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to the German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans.Christoph Pan, Beate Sibylle Pfeil (2002), Minderheitenrechte in Europa. Handbuch der europäischen Volksgruppen, Braumüller, {{ISBN|3700314221}} (Google Books, snippet view). Also 2006 reprint by Springer (Amazon, no preview) {{ISBN|3211353070}}. WEB,weblink Archived copy, August 14, 2015,weblink December 5, 2015, bot: unknown, mdy-all, There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people, nationality and ethno-linguistic group, are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe.Pan and Pfeil (2004), "Problems with Terminology", pp. xvii-xx.

Overview

{{Further|Demographics of Europe}}About 20–25 million residents (3%){{year needed|date=September 2017}} are members of diasporas of non-European origin.{{cn|date=September 2019}} The population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population.Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality, Spanish and British, may controversially{{cn|date=September 2019}} take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups (see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom). Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations.

Linguistic classifications

{{Further|Languages of Europe}}{{refimprove section |reason=only one language has a reference of the dozens listed |date=June 2019}}thumb|right|280px|Distribution of major languages of EuropeOf the total population of Europe of some 740 million (as of 2010), close to 90% (or some 650 million) fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being; Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not closely related to those larger language families; In addition, there are also smaller sub-groups within the Indo-European languages of Europe, including; Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European:

History

Prehistoric populations

{{Further|Genetic history of Europe|Prehistoric Europe|Eurasian nomads|Indo-European expansion|Neolithic revolution}}File:Simplified model for the recent demographic history of Europeans.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Simplified model for the demographic history of Europeans during the Neolithic period and the introduction of agriculture.JOURNAL, Bustamante, Carlos D., Cucca, Francesco, Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe, PLOS Genetics, 8 May 2014, 10, 5, e1004353, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004353,weblink en, 1553-7404, 4014435, ]]The Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly.see e.g. Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles {{doi|10.1073/pnas.071036898}} PNAS 24 April 2001 Vol. 98 No. 9 5078–5083.JOURNAL, Günther, Torsten, etal, Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 38, 2015, 11917–11922,weblink 10.1073/pnas.1509851112, 2 November 2016, 26351665, 4586848, 2015PNAS..11211917G, The Indo-European groups of Europe (the Centum groups plus Balto-Slavic and Albanian) are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations, after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe (Yamnaya culture, Corded ware, Beaker people).JOURNAL,weblink Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, David, Reich, Kurt Werner, Alt, Alan, Cooper, David, Anthony, Dorcas, Brown, Johannes, Krause, Matthias, Meyer, Joachim, Wahl, Anna, Szécsényi-Nagy, Christina, Roth, Manuel A. Rojo, Guerra, Roberto, Risch, Sandra L., Pichler, Nicole, Nicklisch, Vayacheslav, Moiseyev, Oleg, Mochalov, Harald, Meller, Pavel, Kuznetsov, Michael, Kunst, Aleksandr, Khokhlov, Valery, Khartanovich, Fredrik, Hallgren, Rafael Garrido, Pena, Susanne, Friederich, Michael, Francken, Christos, Economou, Eszter, Bánffy, Alissa, Mittnik, Qiaomei, Fu, Kristin, Stewardson, Eadaoin, Harney, Susanne, Nordenfelt, Guido, Brandt, Bastien, Llamas, Swapan, Mallick, Nadin, Rohland, Nick, Patterson, Iosif, Lazaridis, Wolfgang, Haak, February 10, 2015, bioRxiv, 013433, www.biorxiv.org, 10.1101/013433, 1502.02783, JOURNAL,weblink Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia, June 7, 2015, Nature, 522, 7555, 167–172, www.nature.com, 10.1038/nature14507, JOURNAL,weblink Eight thousand years of natural selection in Europe, David, Reich, Nick, Patterson, Wolfgang, Haak, Kurt W., Alt, Alan, Cooper, Carles Lalueza, Fox, Dorcas, Brown, David, Anthony, Johannes, Krause, Manuel A. Rojo, Guerra, Harald, Meller, Joseph, Pickrell, Bastien, Llamas, Swapan, Mallick, Nadin, Rohland, Iosif, Lazaridis, Iain, Mathieson, March 14, 2015, bioRxiv, 016477, www.biorxiv.org, 10.1101/016477, The Finnic peoples are assumed to also be descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains, that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago.BOOK, Finland, Cultural Lone Wolf, Richard, Lewis, 2005, Intercultural Press, 978-1-931930-18-5,weblink WEB
,weblink
, The Origin of the Baltic-Finns
, Niskanen
, Markku
, 2008-10-06
, The Mankind Quarterly
, 2002
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081002184956weblink">weblink
, 2 October 2008
, dead
, WEB
,weblink
, Y-Chromosomal Diversity Suggests that Baltic Males Share Common Finno-Ugric-Speaking Forefathers
, 2008-10-08
, Laitinen
, Virpi
, Päivi Lahermo
, August 24, 2001
,
, Department of Genetics, University of Turku, Turku, Finnish Genome Center, University of Helsinki
, Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, and Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian, Lemnian, and perhaps Camunic. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basque can only be reconstructed with great uncertainty.Regarding the European Bronze Age, the only secure reconstruction is that of Proto-Greek (ca. 2000 BC). A Proto-Italo-Celtic ancestor of both Italic and Celtic (assumed for the Bell beaker period), and a Proto-Balto-Slavic language (assumed for roughly the Corded Ware horizon) has been postulated with less confidence. Old European hydronymy has been taken as indicating an early (Bronze Age) Indo-European predecessor of the later centum languages.

Historical populations

{{Further|History of Europe}}{{Unsourced section |date=June 2019}}File:RomanEmpire 117.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Provinces of the Roman EmpireRoman EmpireIron Age (pre-Great Migrations) populations of Europe known from Greco-Roman historiography, notably Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolemy and Tacitus:

Historical immigration

{{Further|Scythians|Huns|Turkic expansion|Islamic conquests}}{{Refimprove section|reason=Only two refs (both for Berbers); everything else lacks a source |date=June 2019}}File:Invasions of the Roman Empire 1.png|thumb|upright=1.15|The Great Migrations of Late AntiquityLate AntiquityFile:Mediterráneo año 800 dC 1.gif|upright=1.15|thumb|Map showing the three main political divisions around 800: The Carolingian Empire (purple), the Byzantine Empire (orange) and the Caliphate of CórdobaCaliphate of CórdobaEthno-linguistic groups that arrived from outside Europe during historical times are:

History of European ethnography

{{Refimprove section |date=June 2019}}File:Europa Polyglotta.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Europa Polyglotta, Linguarum Genealogiam exhibens, una cum Literis, Scribendique modis, Omnium Gentium ("multilingual Europe, exhibiting a genealogy of tongues together with the letters and modes of writing of all peoples"), from Synopsis Universae PhilologiaeSynopsis Universae PhilologiaeFile:Europe (1896), ethnic groups.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Ethnographic map of Europe, The Times AtlasTimes AtlasThe earliest accounts of European ethnography date from Classical Antiquity. Herodotus described the Scythians and Thraco-Illyrians. Dicaearchus gave a description of Greece itself, besides accounts of western and northern Europe. His work survives only fragmentarily, but was received by Polybius and others.Roman Empire period authors include Diodorus Siculus, Strabo and Tacitus. Julius Caesar gives an account of the Celtic tribes of Gaul, while Tacitus describes the Germanic tribes of Magna Germania. A number of authors like Diodorus Siculus, Pausanias and Sallust depict the ancient Sardinian and Corsican peoples.The 4th century Tabula Peutingeriana records the names of numerous peoples and tribes.Ethnographers of Late Antiquity such as Agathias of Myrina Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta give early accounts of the Slavs, the Franks, the Alamanni and the Goths.Book IX of Isidore's Etymologiae (7th century) treats de linguis, gentibus, regnis, militia, civibus (concerning languages, peoples, realms, war and cities).Ahmad ibn Fadlan in the 10th century gives an account of the Bolghar and the Rus' peoples.William Rubruck, while most notable for his account of the Mongols, in his account of his journey to Asia also gives accounts of the Tatars and the Alans.Saxo Grammaticus and Adam of Bremen give an account of pre-Christian Scandinavia. The Chronicon Slavorum (12th century) gives an account of the northwestern Slavic tribes.Gottfried Hensel in his 1741 Synopsis Universae Philologiae published what is probably the earliest ethno-linguistic map of Europe, showing the beginning of the pater noster in the various European languages and scripts.WEB,weblink Synopsis vniversæ philologiæ in qua miranda vnitas et harmonia lingvarvm: Totivs orbis terrarvm occvlta, e literarvm, syllabarvm, vocvmqve natvra & recessibvs ervitvr ; cum grammatica ... mappisqve geographico-polyglottis ..., Gottfried, Hensel, 12 December 2017, In commissis apvd heredes Homannianos, 12 December 2017, Google Books, Karl Friedrich Vollgraff, Erster Versuch einer Begründung sowohl der allgemeinen Ethnologie durch die Anthropologie, wie auch der Staats und Rechts-philosophie durch die Ethnologie oder Nationalität der Völker (1851), p. 257.In the 19th century, ethnicity was discussed in terms of scientific racism, and the ethnic groups of Europe were grouped into a number of "races", Mediterranean, Alpine and Nordic, all part of a larger "Caucasian" group.The beginnings of ethnic geography as an academic subdiscipline lie in the period following World War I, in the context of nationalism, and in the 1930s exploitation for the purposes of fascist and Nazi propaganda, so that it was only in the 1960s that ethnic geography began to thrive as a bona fide academic subdiscipline.A. Kumar, Encyclopaedia of Teaching of Geography (2002), p. 74 ff.; the tripartite subdivision of "Caucasians" into Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean groups persisted among some scientists into the 1960s, notably in Carleton Coon's book The Origin of Races (1962).The origins of modern ethnography are often traced to the work of Bronisław Malinowski, who emphasized the importance of fieldwork.Andrew Barry, Political Machines (2001), p. 56The emergence of population genetics further undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly defined racial groups. A 2007 study on the genetic history of Europe found that the most important genetic differentiation in Europe occurs on a line from the north to the south-east (northern Europe to the Balkans), with another east-west axis of differentiation across Europe, separating the "indigenous" Basques and Sami from other European populations.Despite these stratifications it noted the unusually high degree of European homogeneity: "there is low apparent diversity in Europe with the entire continent-wide samples only marginally more dispersed than single population samples elsewhere in the world."Measuring European Population Stratification using Microarray Genotype Data, Sitesled.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081218230512weblink |date=2008-12-18 }}WEB, DNA heritage,weblink 2007-07-20, WEB, Dupanloup, Isabelle, Giorgio Bertorelle, Lounès Chikhi, Guido Barbujani, Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans,weblink 2007-07-20,

Minorities

{{Further|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages}}{{Further|Multilingual countries and regions of Europe}}File:Gagauz-children.jpg|thumb|Gagauz peopleGagauz peopleThe total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of Europeans.The member states of the Council of Europe in 1995 signed the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. The broad aims of the Convention are to ensure that the signatory states respect the rights of national minorities, undertaking to combat discrimination, promote equality, preserve and develop the culture and identity of national minorities, guarantee certain freedoms in relation to access to the media, minority languages and education and encourage the participation of national minorities in public life. The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities defines a national minority implicitly to include minorities possessing a territorial identity and a distinct cultural heritage. By 2008, 39 member states had signed and ratified the Convention, with the notable exception of France.

Non-indigenous minorities

{{Further|Jews and Judaism in Europe|Islam in Europe|Hinduism in Europe|Buddhism in Europe|Afro-Europeans}}File:Expulsion judios-en.svg|thumb|right|Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600]]Many non-European ethnic groups and nationalities have migrated to Europe over the centuries. Some arrived centuries ago, while others arrived more recently, many in the 20th century, often from former colonies of the British, Dutch, French, Portuguese and Spanish empires. Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica"Israelite, in the broadest sense, a Jew, or a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob"Israelite at Encyclopædia Britannica"Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia BritannicaBOOK, Ostrer, Harry, Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People,weblink 19 April 2012, Oxford University Press, USA, 978-0-19-970205-3, originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.BOOK, Brenner, Michael, A Short History of the Jews,weblink 13 June 2010, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-14351-4, BOOK, Scheindlin, Raymond P., A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood,weblink 1998, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-513941-9, BOOK, Adams, Hannah, The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time,weblink 1840, Sold at the London Society House and by Duncan and Malcom, and Wertheim, WEB, Diamond, Jared,weblink Who are the Jews?, 1993, November 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721133548weblink">weblink July 21, 2011, dead, mdy-all, Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.
      • Ashkenazi Jews: approx. 1.4 million, mostly in the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Germany and Ukraine. They are believed by scholars to have arrived from Israel via southern EuropeJOURNAL,weblink Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes, 11 October 2012, 10.1073/pnas.100115997, 10801975, 97, 12, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 6769–6774, 2000, Hammer, M. F, Redd, A. J, Wood, E. T, Bonner, M. R, Jarjanazi, H, Karafet, T, Santachiara-Benerecetti, S, Oppenheim, A, Jobling, M. A, Jenkins, T, Ostrer, H, Bonne-Tamir, B, 2000PNAS...97.6769H, NEWS, Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora, Nicholas, Wade,weblink The New York Times, 9 May 2000, 10 October 2012, weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141011082707weblink |date=2014-10-11 }}JOURNAL,weblink A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages, Marta D., Costa, Joana B., Pereira, Maria, Pala, Verónica, Fernandes, Anna, Olivieri, Alessandro, Achilli, Ugo A., Perego, Sergei, Rychkov, Oksana, Naumova, JiÅ™i, Hatina, Scott R., Woodward, Ken Khong, Eng, Vincent, Macaulay, Martin, Carr, Pedro, Soares, Luísa, Pereira, Martin B., Richards, 8 October 2013, Nature Communications, 4, 2543, 12 December 2017, www.nature.com, 10.1038/ncomms3543, 24104924, 3806353, 2013NatCo...4E2543C, JOURNAL, Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans, Nature, 513, 7518, 409, 1312.6639, Lazaridis, Iosif, Patterson, Nick, Mittnik, Alissa, Renaud, Gabriel, Mallick, Swapan, Kirsanow, Karola, Sudmant, Peter H, Schraiber, Joshua G, Castellano, Sergi, Lipson, Mark, Berger, Bonnie, Economou, Christos, Bollongino, Ruth, Fu, Qiaomei, Bos, Kirsten I, Nordenfelt, Susanne, Li, Heng, Cesare de Filippo, Prüfer, Kay, Sawyer, Susanna, Posth, Cosimo, Haak, Wolfgang, Hallgren, Fredrik, Fornander, Elin, Rohland, Nadin, Delsate, Dominique, Francken, Michael, Guinet, Jean-Michel, Wahl, Joachim, Ayodo, George, 29, 2013, 10.1038/nature13673, 2014Natur.513..409L, in the Roman eraGregory Cochran, Henry Harpending, The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution, Basic Books, 2009 pp. 195–196. and settled in France and Germany towards the end of the first millennium. The Nazi Holocaust wiped out the vast majority during World War II and forced most to flee, with many of them going back to Israel.
      • Sephardi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France. They arrived via Spain and Portugal in the pre-RomanMoses ben Machir, in Seder Ha-Yom, p. 15a, Venice 1605 (Hebrew) and RomanJosephus Flavius, Antiquities, xi.v.2 eras, and were forcibly converted or expelled in the 15th and 16th centuries.
      • Mizrahi Jews: approx. 0.3 million, mostly in France, via Islamic-majority countries of the Middle East.
      • Italqim: approx. 50,000, mostly in Italy, since the 2nd century BC.
      • Romaniotes: approx. 6,000, mostly in Greece, with communities dating at least from the 1st century AD.
      • Crimean Karaites (Karaim): less than 4,000, mostly in Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania. They arrived in Crimea in the Middle Ages.
    • Assyrians: mostly in Sweden and Germany, as well in Russia, Armenia, Denmark and Great Britain (see Assyrian diaspora). Assyrians have been present in Eastern Turkey since the Bronze Age (circa 2000 BCE).
    • Kurds: approx. 2.5 million, mostly in the UK, Germany, Sweden and Turkey.
    • Iraqi diaspora: mostly in the UK, Germany and Sweden, and can be of varying ethnic origin, including Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Shabaks, Mandeans, Turcoman, Kawliya and Yezidis.
    • Lebanese diaspora: especially in France, Netherlands, Germany, Cyprus and the UK.NEWS,weblink Petition for expatriate voting officially launched, The Daily Star (Lebanon), The Daily Star, 14 July 2012,
    • Syrian diaspora: Largest number of Syrians live in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden and can be of varying ethnic origin, including; Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Armenians, Arameans, Turcoman, Mhallami and Yezidis.
  • Africans
  • Latin Americans: approx. 2.2 million, mainly in Spain and to a lesser extent Italy and the UK.WEB,weblink Latin American Immigration to Southern Europe, 28 June 2007, Migrationinformation.org, 12 December 2017, See also Latin American Britons (80,000 Latin American born in 2001).Born Abroad â€“ Countries of birth, BBC News
    • Brazilians: around 70,000 in Portugal and Italy each, and 50,000 in Germany.
    • Chilean refugees escaping the Augusto Pinochet regime of the 1970s formed communities in France, Sweden, the UK, former East Germany and the Netherlands.
    • Venezuelans: around 520,000 mostly in Spain (200,000), Portugal (100,000), France (30,000), Germany (20,000), UK (15,000), Ireland (5,000), Italy (5,000) and the Netherlands (1,000).{{Citation needed|date=December 2016}}
  • South Asians: approx. 3–4 million, mostly in the UK but reside in smaller numbers in Germany and France.File:Bihari Sándor Bíró elÅ‘tt.jpg|thumb|A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in Hungary, by Sándor BihariSándor Bihari
    • Romani (Gypsies): approx. 4 or 10 million (although estimates vary widely), dispersed throughout Europe but with large numbers concentrated in the Balkans area, they are of ancestral South Asian and European descent,JOURNAL, 31389, 11299048, 2, Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies): a review, 2001, BMC Med. Genet., 5, Kalaydjieva, L, Gresham, D, Calafell, F, 10.1186/1471-2350-2-5, originating from the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
    • Indians: approx. 2 million, mostly in the UK, also in Italy, in Germany and smaller numbers in Ireland.
    • Pakistanis: approx. 1,000,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy, but also in Norway and Sweden.
    • Tamils: approx. 250,000, predominantly in the UK.
    • Bangladeshi residing in Europe estimated at over 500,000, mostly in the UK and in Italy.
    • Sri Lankans: approx. 200,000, mainly in the UK and in Italy
    • Nepalese: approx. 50,000 in the UK
    • Afghans, about 100,000 to 200,000, most happen to live in the UK, but Germany and Sweden are destinations for Afghan immigrants since the 1960s.
  • Southeast Asians
  • East Asians
    • Chinese: approx. 1.7 million, mostly in France, Russia, the UK, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands.
    • Japanese: mostly in the UK and a sizable community in Düsseldorf, Germany.
    • Koreans: 100,000 estimated (excludes a possible 100,000 more in Russia), mainly in the UK, France and Germany. See also Koryo-saram.
    • Mongolians are a sizable community in Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic.
  • North Americans
  • Others

European identity

Historical

{{Further|History of Western civilization}}File:4 Gift Bringers of Otto III.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Personifications of Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Otto III; from a gospel book dated 990.]]Medieval notions of a relation of the peoples of Europe are expressed in terms of genealogy of mythical founders of the individual groups.The Europeans were considered the descendants of Japheth from early times, corresponding to the division of the known world into three continents, the descendants of Shem peopling Asia and those of Ham peopling Africa. Identification of Europeans as "Japhetites" is also reflected in early suggestions for terming the Indo-European languages "Japhetic".In this tradition, the Historia Brittonum (9th century) introduces a genealogy of the peoples of the Migration period (as it was remembered in early medieval historiography) as follows,
The first man that dwelt in Europe was Alanus, with his three sons, Hisicion, Armenon, and Neugio. Hisicion had four sons, Francus, Romanus, Alamanus, and Bruttus. Armenon had five sons, Gothus, Valagothus, Cibidus, Burgundus, and Longobardus. Neugio had three sons, Vandalus, Saxo, and Boganus. From Hisicion arose four nations—the Franks, the Latins, the Germans, and Britons; from Armenon, the Gothi, Valagothi, Cibidi, Burgundi, and Longobardi; from Neugio, the Bogari, Vandali, Saxones, and Tarincgi. The whole of Europe was subdivided into these tribes.ab Hisitione autem ortae sunt quattuor gentes Franci, Latini, Albani et Britti. ab Armenone autem quinque: Gothi, Valagothi, Gebidi, Burgundi, Longobardi. a Neguio vero quattuor Boguarii, Vandali, Saxones et Turingi. trans. J. A. Giles. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1848.
The text goes then on to list the genealogy of Alanus, connecting him to Japheth via eighteen generations.

European culture

European culture is largely rooted in what is often referred to as its "common cultural heritage".Cf. Berting (2006:51). Due to the great number of perspectives which can be taken on the subject, it is impossible to form a single, all-embracing conception of European culture.Cederman (2001:2) remarks: "Given the absence of an explicit legal definition and the plethora of competing identities, it is indeed hard to avoid the conclusion that Europe is an essentially contested concept." Cf. also Davies (1996:15); Berting (2006:51). Nonetheless, there are core elements which are generally agreed upon as forming the cultural foundation of modern Europe.Cf. Jordan-Bychkov (2008:13), Davies (1996:15), Berting (2006:51-56). One list of these elements given by K. Bochmann includes:K. Bochmann (1990) L'idée d'Europe jusqu'au XXè siècle, quoted in Berting (2006:52). Cf. Davies (1996:15): "No two lists of the main constituents of European civilization would ever coincide. But many items have always featured prominently: from the roots of the Christian world in Greece, Rome and Judaism to modern phenomena such as the Enlightenment, modernization, romanticism, nationalism, liberalism, imperialism, totalitarianism." Berting says that these points fit with "Europe's most positive realisations".{{harvnb|Berting|2006|page=51}}The concept of European culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic and philosophical principles which set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon.Duran (1995:81) The term has come to apply to countries whose history has been strongly marked by European immigration or settlement during the 18th and 19th centuries, such as the Americas, and Australasia, and is not restricted to Europe.

Religion

{{Further| Christianity in Europe|Islam in Europe|Hinduism in Europe|Buddhism in Europe}}(File:Eurobarometer poll.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results)Since the High Middle Ages, most of Europe has been dominated by Christianity. There are three major denominations: Roman Catholic, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox, with Protestantism restricted mostly to Northern Europe, and Orthodoxy to East and South Slavic regions, Romania, Moldova, Greece, and Georgia. The Armenian Apostolic Church, part of the Oriental Church, is also in Europe - another branch of Christianity (world's oldest National Church). Catholicism, while typically centered in Western Europe, also has a very significant following in Central Europe (especially among the Germanic, Western Slavic and Hungarian peoples/regions) as well as in Ireland (with some in Great Britain).Christianity has been the dominant religion shaping European culture for at least the last 1700 years.Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University Press, p.2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization — the civilization of western Europe and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo - Graeco - Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.Horst Hutter, University of New York, Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato.Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22: Western civilization is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization. Modern philosophical thought has very much been influenced by Christian philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas and Erasmus. And throughout most of its history, Europe has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture,BOOK, Dawson, Christopher, Crisis in Western Education, 1961, 978-0-8132-1683-6, reprint, Glenn Olsen, 108, The Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science.BOOK, Koch, Carl, The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission, 1994, St. Mary's Press, Early Middle Ages, 978-0-88489-298-4,weblink BOOK, Dawson, Christopher, Crisis in Western Education, 1961, 978-0-8132-1683-6, reprint, Glenn Olsen, The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of "Christianity and Christendom" many even attribute Christianity for being the link that created a unified European identity.BOOK, Dawson, Christopher, Crisis in Western Education, 1961, 9780813216836, reprint, Glenn Olsen, 108, Christianity is still the largest religion in Europe; according to a 2011 survey, 76.2% of Europeans considered themselves Christians.WEB,weblink Regional Distribution of Christians, 19 December 2011, Pewforum.org, 12 December 2017, {{citation |title=Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population |work=Pew Research Center |year=2011 |series=383 |page=130 |url=http://www.pewforum.org/files/2011/12/Christianity-fullreport-web.pdf |accessdate=14 August 2013 |publisher=Pew Research Center |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130805020311weblink |archive-date=5 August 2013 |url-status=dead |df=dmy-all }} Also according to a study on Religiosity in the European Union in 2012, by Eurobarometer, Christianity is the largest religion in the European Union, accounting for 72% of the EU's population.{{citation|title=Discrimination in the EU in 2012 |work=Special Eurobarometer |year=2012 |series=383 |page=233 |url=http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_393_en.pdf |accessdate=14 August 2013 |publisher=European Commission |location=European Union |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121202023700weblink |archivedate=2 December 2012 }}Islam has some tradition in the Balkans and the Caucasus due to conquest and colonization from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th to 19th centuries, as well as earlier though discontinued long-term presence in much of Iberia as well as Sicily. Muslims account for the majority of the populations in Albania, Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Northern Cyprus (controlled by Turks), and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Significant minorities are present in the rest of Europe. Russia also has one of the largest Muslim communities in Europe, including the Tatars of the Middle Volga and multiple groups in the Caucasus, including Chechens, Avars, Ingush and others. With 20th-century migrations, Muslims in Western Europe have become a noticeable minority. According to the Pew Forum, the total number of Muslims in Europe in 2010 was about 44 million (6%),WEB,weblink The Future of the Global Muslim Population, 27 January 2011, Pewforum.org, 12 December 2017, WEB,weblink Table: Muslim Population by Country, 27 January 2011, Pewforum.org, 12 December 2017, while the total number of Muslims in the European Union in 2007 was about 16 million (3.2%).WEB,weblink In Europa leben gegenwärtig knapp 53 Millionen Muslime, Almost 53 million Muslims live in Europe at present, de, Islam.de, 8 May 2007, 15 January 2016, Judaism has a long history in Europe, but is a small minority religion, with France (1%) the only European country with a Jewish population in excess of 0.5%. The Jewish population of Europe is composed primarily of two groups, the Ashkenazi and the Sephardi. Ancestors of Ashkenazi Jews likely migrated to Central Europe at least as early as the 8th century, while Sephardi Jews established themselves in Spain and Portugal at least one thousand years before that. Jews originated in the Levant where they resided for thousands of years until the 2nd century AD, when they spread around the Mediterranean and into Europe, although small communities were known to exist in Greece as well as the Balkans since at least the 1st century BC. Jewish history was notably affected by the Holocaust and emigration (including Aliyah, as well as emigration to America) in the 20th century.In modern times, significant secularization since the 20th century, notably in laicist France, Estonia and Czech Republic. Currently, distribution of theism in Europe is very heterogeneous, with more than 95% in Poland, and less than 20% in the Czech Republic and Estonia. The 2005 Eurobarometer pollWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060524004644weblink">weblink dead, EC.Europa.eu, May 24, 2006, found that 52% of EU citizens believe in God.

Pan-European identity

"Pan-European identity" or "Europatriotism" is an emerging sense of personal identification with Europe, or the European Union as a result of the gradual process of European integration taking place over the last quarter of the 20th century, and especially in the period after the end of the Cold War, since the 1990s. The foundation of the OSCE following the 1990s Paris Charter has facilitated this process on a political level during the 1990s and 2000s.From the later 20th century, 'Europe' has come to be widely used as a synonym for the European Union even though there are millions of people living on the European continent in non-EU member states. The prefix pan implies that the identity applies throughout Europe, and especially in an EU context, and 'pan-European' is often contrasted with national identity.This is particularly the case among proponents of the so-called confederalist or neo-functionalist position on European integration. Eder and Spohn (2005:3) note: "The evolutionary thesis of the making of a European identity often goes with the assumption of a simultaneous decline of national identities. This substitution thesis reiterates the well-known confederalist/neo-functionalist position in the debate on European integration, arguing for an increasing replacement of the nation-state by European institutions, against the intergovernmentalist/realist position, insisting on the continuing primacy of the nation-state."

European ethnic groups by sovereign state

Pan and Pfeil (2002) distinguish 33 peoples which form the majority population in at least one{{efn|Ethnic groups which form the majority in two states are the Albanians (in Albania and the partly recognized Republic of Kosovo).Also to note is that Luxembourg has a common ethnonational group, the Luxembourgers of partial Germanic, Celtic and Latin (French) and transplanted Slavic origins. There are two official languages: French and German in the relatively small country, but the informal everyday language of its people is Letzeburgesch.Closely related groups holding majorities in separate states are German speakers (Germans, Austrians, Luxembourgers, Swiss German speakers), the various South Slavic ethnic groups in the states of former Yugoslavia, the Dutch/Flemish, the Russians/Belarusians, Czechs/Slovaks and the Bulgarians/Macedonians.}} sovereign state geographically situated in Europe.{{efn|Including the European portions of Russia, not including Turkey, Georgia and Kazakhstan, excluding microstates with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants: Andorra, Holy See, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino.}} These majorities range from nearly homogeneous populations as in Armenia and Poland, to comparatively slight majorities as in Latvia or Belgium, or even the marginal majority in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Montenegro is a multiethnic state in which no group forms a majority.{| class="wikitable sortable"!Country !! Majority !! % !! width="25%"| Regional majorities !! Minorities{{efn|Percentages from the CIA Factbook unless indicated otherwise.}}
demographics of Albania>Albania Albanians 82.58%Demographics of Albania:Demographics of Albania Greeks in Albania ~3%,Demographics of Albania{{Circular reference>date=December 2017}}The Greeks: the land and people since the war. James Pettifer. Penguin, 2000. {{ISBNAromanians>Aromanian, Romani, Macedonians in Albania, Montenegrins, Bulgarians in Albania>Bulgarians and Serbs).HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/AL.HTML>TITLE=CIA FACTBOOK 2010, 26 July 2010,
demographics of Armenia>Armenia Armenians 98.1% Russians, Yazidis, Assyrians, Kurds, Greeks, Jews.
demographics of Austria>Austria Austrians 91.1% South Slavs 4% (includes Burgenland Croats, Carinthian Slovenes, Croats, Slovenes, Serbs in Austria and Bosnian Austrians>Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, and other or unspecified 2.4%. (2001 census)
demographics of Azerbaijan>Azerbaijan{{efnTranscontinental country, see boundaries of Europe.}} Azerbaijanis 91.6% Lezgians 2% >| Armenians, Russians, Talysh, Avars, Turks, Tatars, Ukrainians and Poles.
demographics of Belarus>Belarus Belarusians 83.7% Russians in Belarus 8.3%, Polish minority in Belarus>Poles 3.1%, Ukrainians 1.7%, and other 3.2%. (2009 census)
demographics of Belgium>Belgium Flemings 58%Walloons 31%, German-speaking Community of Belgium 1% >| mixed or other (i.e. Luxembourgers, Eastern or Southern Europeans, Africans and Asians, and Latin Americans) 10%.
Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina>Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosniaks 50.11% Bosnian Serbs 30.78%, Bosnian Croats>Croats 15.43% Other 2.73% (2013)
demographics of Bulgaria>Bulgaria Bulgarians 84% Turks in Bulgaria 8.8% >Roma in Bulgaria>Roma 5%, Others 2% (including Russians in Bulgaria, Armenians in Bulgaria>Armenian, Tatar, and Vlachs). (2001 census)HTTP://WWW.NSI.BG/CENSUS_E/CENSUS_E.HTM PUBLISHER=NSI.BG, 26 August 2010,
demographics of Croatia>Croatia Croats 90% Serbs in Croatia 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniaks, Hungarians, Slovenes, Czechs in Croatia>Czechs, Dalmatian Italians, Austrian-Germans of Croatia, Romanian and Roma in Croatia>Romani). (2001 census)
demographics of the Czech Republic>Czech Republic Czech people >Moravians (ethnic group)>Moravians 3.7% Slovaks 1.9%, and other 4%. (2001 census)
demographics of Denmark>Denmark Danish people >Statistics Denmark >Faroese people>Faroese other Scandinavian, North Schleswig Germans, Frisians, other European, (wikt:Greenlandic>Greenlandic) people and others.
demographics of Estonia>Estonia Estonians 68% Baltic Russians 25.6% Ukrainians 2.1%, Belarusians 1.3%, Finns 0.9%, and other (Baltic Germans, Estonian Swedes and Estonian Danes) 2.2%. (2000 census) Included are South Estonian speakers.
demographics of Finland>Finland Finns 93.4% Finland Swedes 5.6%, Sami people>Sami 0.1% Russian-speaking Finns 0.5%, Estonians 0.3%, Finnish Kale>Romani 0.1% and Turks 0.05%. (2006)
demographics of France>France French people >FIRST=JOSHUAWEBSITE=JOSHUAPROJECT.NETBretons, Corsicans, Occitans, Alsace>Alsatians, Arpitans, Basques, Catalan people and Flemings). >Pacific Islander.HTTPS://2009-2017.STATE.GOV/R/PA/EI/BGN/3842.HTM PUBLISHER=STATE.GOV ACCESSDATE=2012-08-13, French with recent immigrant background (at least one great-grandparent) 33%."Immigration is hardly a recent development in French history, as Gérard Noiriel amply demonstrates in his history of French immigration, The French Melting Pot. Noiriel estimates that one third of the population currently living in France is of "foreign" descent", Marie-Christine Weidmann-Koop, "France at the dawn of the twenty-first century, trends and transformations", Summa Publications, Inc., 2000, P.160" In present day France, one-third of the population has grandparents that were born outside France", Jean-Benoît Nadeau and Julie Barlow, "Sixty Million Frenchmen Can't be Wrong: What makes the French so French", Robson Books Ltd, 2004, p.8
demographics of Germany>Germany Germans 81%-91% Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background {{webarchive weblink >date=May 4, 2009 }}includes Bavarians, Swabians, Lower Saxony, Frisians, Sorbs, Silesians, Saarland Germans, Polish minority in Germany>Polish-Germans and Schleswig-Holstein Danes). Germans without immigrant background 81%; Germans with immigrant background (including ethnic German repatriates and people of partial immigrant background) 10%; Foreigners 9%: Turks 2.1%, others 6.7% and non-European descent about 2 to 5%).
demographics of Greece>Greece Greeks 93% includes minorities in Greece 3%>Aromanians/Megleno-Romanians, Cretan Turks and Macedonians (Greeks)>Macedonian/Greek Slavic 3%. (2001 census){{efn|Percents represent citizenship, since Greece does not collect data on ethnicity.}}
demographics of Hungary>Hungary Hungarians 92.3% Roma in Hungary 1.9%, Germans 1.2%, other (i.e. Croats of Hungary>Croats, Romanians in Hungary, Bulgarians in Hungary>Bulgarians, Turks and Ruthenians) or unknown 4.6%. (2001 census)
demographics of Iceland>Iceland Icelanders 91% other (non-native/immigrants - mainly Polish, Lithuanians, Danes, Germans and Latvians) 9%.HTTP://WWW.STATICE.IS/STATISTICS/POPULATION/INHABITANTS/BACKGROUND/>TITLE=BACKGROUND - HAGSTOFAACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017,
demographics of the Republic of Ireland>Ireland Irish people >Polish minority in Ireland>Polish and Ukrainian migration) 7.5%, Asian 1.3%, Black people in Ireland 1.1%, mixed 1.1%, and unspecified (i.e. Ulster Scots people>Ulster Scots and Irish Travellers) 1.6%. (2006 census)
demographics of Italy>Italy Italians 91.7% German-speaking Europe in South Tyrol >Sardinian people>Sardinian, French language, Occitan language>Occitan, Arpitan, Croatian language, Arbëreshë language>Albanian, Catalan language, Greeks in Italy>Greek, Ladin people, Friulian language>Friulian, Slovene language and Romani people>Roma minorities,HTTP://WWW.REFWORLD.ORG/CGI-BIN/TEXIS/VTX/RWMAIN?PAGE=SEARCH&DOCID=4954CE0123&SKIP=0&QUERY=SARDINIAN&COI=ITA>TITLE=REFWORLD - WORLD DIRECTORY OF MINORITIES AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES - ITALYLAST=REFUGEESACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017, HTTPS://WWW.CAMERA.IT/PARLAM/LEGGI/99482L.HTM>TITLE=LEGGE 482Chinese people in Italy>Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Black African and Latin American) 2.5%.HTTP://WWW.ISTAT.IT/IT/ARCHIVIO/149003>TITLE=INDICATORI DEMOGRAFICIWEBSITE=ISTAT.ITTITLE=CITTADINI NON COMUNITARI REGOLARMENTE SOGGIORNANTI : ANNI 2013-2014ACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017, HTTP://DEMO.ISTAT.IT/STR2012/INDEX.HTML>TITLE=CITTADINI STRANIERI. POPOLAZIONE RESIDENTE PER SESSO E CITTADINANZA AL 31 DICEMBRE 2012 ITALIA - TUTTI I PAESIACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017, Италианските българи >URL=HTTP://WWW.24CHASA.BG/ARTICLE.ASP?ARTICLEID=252055 PUBLISHER=24 CHASA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150608162822/HTTP://WWW.24CHASA.BG/ARTICLE.ASP?ARTICLEID=252055, 2015-06-08,
demographics of Kazakhstan>Kazakhstan Kazakh people >Russian people>Russians 23.7% Uzbeks, Ukrainians, Uyghurs, Tatars, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Germans, Poles and Koreans.
demographics of Kosovo>Kosovo{{efnpartially recognized state, see international recognition of Kosovo.}} Albanians in Kosovo >Serbs of Kosovo>Serbs 4% other 4% (Bosniaks of Kosovo, Gorani people>Gorani, Roma in Kosovo, Turks in Kosovo>Turk and Ashkali and Egyptians).
demographics of Latvia>Latvia Latvians 62.1%HTTP://WWW.CSB.GOV.LV/EN/NOTIKUMI/KEY-PROVISIONAL-RESULTS-POPULATION-AND-HOUSING-CENSUS-2011-33306.HTML >TITLE=ON KEY PROVISIONAL RESULTS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS 2011 | LATVIJAS STATISTIKA DATE=2012-01-18 Baltic Russians 26.9%>Poles in Latvia>Polish 2.2%, Lithuanian 1.2%, Livonian (Finno-Estonian) 0.1% and other 2.0%. (2011)
demographics of Lithuania>Lithuania Lithuanians 83.5% Poles in Lithuania 6.74%, Baltic Russians>Russians 6.31%, Belarusians 1.23%, other (Lipka Tatars) 2.27% and Jews (Karaites and Yiddish-speaking) 0.01%. (2001 census)
demographics of Malta>Malta Maltese people >WEBSITE=POPULSTAT.INFO|
demographics of Moldova>MoldovaMoldovans{{efnThere is an Controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Moldova over whether Moldovans' self-identification constitute a subgroup of Romanians or a separate ethnic group.}} >Gagauz people>Gagauzs 4.6%, Bessarabian Bulgarians 1.9% >Romanians{{efn>name=fn1}} 7%, Ukrainians 6.6%, Russians 4.1%, and other 0.8% (2014 census).
demographics of Montenegro>Montenegro — Montenegrins (ethnic group) 44.98%, Serbs of Montenegro>Serbs 28.73% Bosniaks of Montenegro 8.65%, Albanians in Montenegro>Albanians 4.91%, and other (Croats of Boka Kotorska, Greeks, Romani and Macedonians in Montenegro>Macedonians) 12,73%. (2011 census)
demographics of the Netherlands>NetherlandsDutch people >Frisians 3% >Indo people>Indonesians 2.4% including South Moluccans 1.5%,HTTP://WWW.SAFECOM.ORG.AU/DUTCH-MOLUCCANS.HTM>TITLE=MOLUCCANS IN THE NETHERLANDS: A SNAPSHOT ABOUT REFUGEES IN HOLLANDLAST=AUSTRALIAACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017, Turks in the Netherlands 2.2%, Surinamese people in the Netherlands>Surinamese 2%, Moroccan-Dutch 2%, Iranians in the Netherlands>Iranians 1%HTTPS://WWW.INTERNATIONS.ORG/NETHERLANDS-EXPATS/IRANIANS>TITLE=IRANIANS IN THE NETHERLANDS – IRANIAN EXPATS IN THE NETHERLANDS - INTERNATIONSACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017, Netherlands Antilles & Aruban 0.8%, other 4.8% and Frisian-speaking dominant 1%. (2008 est.)
Demographics of North Macedonia>North Macedonia Macedonians (ethnic group)>Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia>Albanians 25.2%, Turks in the Republic of Macedonia 4%>Serbs of the Republic of Macedonia>Serbs 1.8%, and other (i.e. Greeks in the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgarians in the Republic of Macedonia>Bulgarians, Romanians and Croats) 2.2%. (2002 census)
demographics of Norway>Norway Norwegians{{efnSami people>Sami{{efnPoles 1.4%. A variety of other ethnicities with background from 219 countries that together make up approximately 12% (Swedes, Pakistanis, Somalis, Iraqi Arabs and Kurds, Vietnamese people>Vietnamese, Germans, Lithuanians, Russians and Indian people) (2012).Personer med innvandringsbakgrunn, etter innvandringskategori, landbakgrunn og kjønn. 1. januar 2012 ( {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120918155443weblink |date=September 18, 2012 }} SSB (Statistics Norway), Retrieved November 6, 2012
demographics of Poland>PolandPolish people >German minority in Poland>Germans 0.4%, Belarusian minority in Poland 0.1%, Ukrainians in Poland>Ukrainians 0.1%, other and unspecified (i.e. Silesians, Kashubians, Masurians and Prussian Lithuanians) 2.7%, and about 5,000 Polish Jews reported to reside in the country. (2002 census)
demographics of Portugal>Portugal Portuguese people >Mirandese language>Mirandese-language speakers) other 5% - other Europeans (British, German, French, Spanish, Romanians, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Croats, Ukrainians, Moldavians, Russians, Serbs, Kosovars and Albanians); Portuguese-speaking African countries, Brazilians, Chinese people in Portugal>Chinese, Indians in Portugal, History of the Jews in Portugal>Jews, Portuguese Gypsies and Latin Americans.
demographics of Romania>Romania Romanians 83.4% Hungarians in Romania 6.1% >Roma in Romania>Romani 3.0%, Romanian Germans 0.2%, Ukrainians of Romania>Ukrainians 0.2%, Turks 0.2%, Russians 0.1% (2011 census)
Ethnic groups in Russia>Russia{{efnRussians >Tatars 3.9%, Chuvashes 1%, Chechens 1%, Ossetians 0.4%, Kabardin 0.4%, Ingushes 0.3%, Kalmyks 0.1%>Ukrainians 1.4%, Bashkirs>Bashkir 1.2%, Armenians 0.9%, Avar people (Caucasus) 0.7%, Mordvins 0.5% and other. (2010 census, includes Asian Russia, excludes unspecified people (3.94% of population)).Официальный сайт Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года. Информационные материалы об окончательных итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141006110329weblink WEBSITE=GKS.RU, 12 December 2017,
demographics of Serbia>Serbia{{efnKosovo}} >Serbs >Hungarians in Vojvodina>Hungarians 3.9%, Roma in Serbia 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks of Serbia>Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrins of Serbia 0.9%, and other 8%. i.e. Macedonians in Serbia>Macedonians, Slovaks in Vojvodina, Romanians of Serbia>Romanians, Croats of Serbia, Ruthenes, Bulgarians in Serbia>Bulgarians, Germans of Serbia, Albanians of Serbia>Albanians, and other (2002 census).
demographics of Slovakia>Slovakia Slovaks 86% Hungarians in Slovakia 9.7%>Roma in Slovakia>Romani 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
demographics of Slovenia>Slovenia Slovenes 83.1% Serbs in Slovenia 2%, Croats of Slovenia>Croats 1.8%, Bosniaks 1.1%, other (Dalmatian Italians, ethnic Germans, Hungarians and Romanians) and/or unspecified 12% (2002 census).
demographics of Spain>Spain Spaniards 89% Various Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain, including Castilians and Leonese people>Leonese, Catalan people/Valencians, Galicians, Asturians, Basques >Romani people in Spain>Gypsies, Spanish Jews, Latin Americans, Romanians in Spain>Romanians, North Africans, sub-Saharan Africans, Chinese, Filipinos, Levant Arabs, British expatriates, and others.
demographics of Sweden>Sweden Swedish people >Tornedalians), Sami people >Sweden-Finns), Yugoslavs (Serbs, Croats, and Bosniaks), Danes, Norwegians, Russians in Sweden>Russians, Arabs (Lebanese and Syrians), Syriacs, Greeks in Sweden, Turks in Sweden>Turks, Iranians in Sweden, Iraqis in Sweden>Iraqis, Pakistanis in Sweden, Thais, Koreans, and Chileans.HTTP://WWW.SCB.SE/STATISTIK/BE/BE0101/2006A01/BE0101KOMJMFBEF_2006.XLSWEBSITE=SCB.SEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20080406020127/HTTP://WWW.SCB.SE/STATISTIK/BE/BE0101/2006A01/BE0101KOMJMFBEF_2006.XLSURL-STATUS=DEAD, HTTP://WWW.SCB.SE/PAGES/PRODUCT____25785.ASPX>TITLE=SCB.SEACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017ARCHIVE-DATE=12 MARCH 2011, dead,
demographics of Switzerland>Switzerland Germans 65%linguistic geography of Switzerland, including the Alamannic German-speakers, the Romand French-speakers 24,4%, the Italian language>Italian-speakers 7% and Romansh people (see Romansh language). Balkans (Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks or Albanians in Switzerland) 6%, Italian immigration to Switzerland>Italians 4%, Portuguese 2%, Germans 1.5%, Turks 1%, Spanish 1%, Ukrainians 0.5% and others 1%.
demographics of Turkey>Turkey{{efnTurkish people>Turks 75% Kurdish people 18% >| Other 7%: Zaza, Laz, Jews, Greeks, Georgians, Circassians, Bulgarians, Bosniaks, Assyrians, Armenians, Arabs, Albanians and Romanians.
demographics of the Ukraine>Ukraine Ukrainians 77.8% Russians in Ukraine 17.3% >Moldovans in Ukraine>Moldovans{{efnMoldovans and Romanians were separately counted.}} 0.5%, Crimean Tatars 0.5%, Bulgarians in Ukraine 0.4%, Hungarians in Ukraine>Hungarians 0.3%, Romanians in Ukraine{{efn>name=fn2}} 0.3%, Poles in Ukraine 0.3%, Ukrainian Jew>Jews 0.2%, Armenians 0.1%, Urums 0.1% and other 1.8% (2001 census).
Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom>United Kingdom White British{{efn>Ethnicity group introduced with the ten-year United Kingdom census of United Kingdom Census by the Office for National Statistics, a non-ministerial department since 1 April 2008}} British People>British 81.9%{{efnWhite Irish or White British though no separate White English or White Welsh options were offered. In Scotland, white residents could identify themselves as White Scottish or Other White British. In the census of Northern Ireland, White Irish and White British were combined into a single "White" ethnic group on the census forms.}}>English people>English: ca. 75-80% Scottish people: 8.0%, Welsh people>Welsh: approx. 4.5%, Northern Irish people (could also be counted as Irish People>Irish): 2.8%, also Cornish people, Manx people>Manx and Channel Islanders). Included are the inhabitants of Gibraltar. African British, Asian British often consists of South Asian and East Indians peoples, Chinese British, British Jews, Romanichal>Romani, various other Commonwealth of Nations Citizens and other Europeans, particularly Irish British>Irish, Polish British, French British>French among others.

See also

{{Commons category|Ethnic groups in Europe}}{{Commons category|Maps of ethnic groups in Europe}}{{commons|Europeans}}{{Wikisource}}

Notes

{{notelist|colwidth=30em}}

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

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Further reading

{{Ethnic groups in Europe |state=collapsed}}{{Europe topic|Ethnic groups in}}{{Indigenous peoples by continent}}{{Ethnicity}}{{White people}}{{Western world}}

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