Epistle to the Romans

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Epistle to the Romans
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{{about|the book of the New Testament|Ignatius' letter to the Romans|Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans}}{{Paul}}{{Books of the New Testament}}The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament. Biblical scholars agree that it was composed by the Apostle Paul to explain that salvation is offered through the gospel of Jesus Christ. It is the longest of the Pauline epistles.WEB, Felix Just, S.J.,weblink New Testament Statistics: Number of Chapters, Verses, and Words in the Greek NT,, 2 September 2005, 18 September 2013,

General presentation

In the opinion of Jesuit scholar Joseph Fitzmyer, the book "overwhelms the reader by the density and sublimity of the topic with which it deals, the gospel of the justification and salvation of Jew and Greek alike by the grace of God through faith in Jesus Christ, revealing the uprightness and love of God the Father."{{sfn|Fitzmyer|1993|p=xiii}}N. T. Wright notes that Romans is

Authorship and dating

The scholarly consensus is that Paul wrote the Epistle to the Romans."Finally, there are seven letters that virtually all scholars agree were written by Paul himself: Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon. These 'undisputed' epistles are similar in terms of writing style, vocabulary, and theology. In addition, the issues that they address can plausibly be situated in the early Christian movement of the 40s and 50s of the Common Era, when Paul was active as an apostle and missionary." Bart Ehrman (2000, 2nd ed.). The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. C. E. B. Cranfield, in the introduction to his commentary on Romans, says:The denial of Paul's authorship of Romans by such critics ... is now rightly relegated to a place among the curiosities of NT scholarship. Today no responsible criticism disputes its Pauline origin. The evidence of its use in the Apostolic Fathers is clear, and before the end of the second century it is listed and cited as Paul's. Every extant early list of NT books includes it among his letters. The external evidence of authenticity could indeed hardly be stronger; and it is altogether borne out by the internal evidence, linguistic, stylistic, literary, historical and theological.Cranfield, C. E. B. The Epistle to the Romans 1–8 (Vol. 1), International Critical Commentary Series. King's Lynn: T&T Clark Ltd, 2004, pp. 1–2File:PaulT.jpg|thumb|right|A 17th-century depiction of Paul writing his epistles. Romans 16:22 indicates that Tertius acted as his amanuensisamanuensisThe letter was most probably written while Paul was in Corinth, probably while he was staying in the house of Gaius, and transcribed by Tertius, his amanuensis.Dunn, xliv; Stuhlmacher, 5; {{Bibleref2|Romans|16:22|31}} There are a number of reasons why Corinth is considered most plausible. Paul was about to travel to Jerusalem on writing the letter, which matches Acts{{Bibleref2c|Acts|20:3|KJV}} where it is reported that Paul stayed for three months in Greece. This probably implies Corinth as it was the location of Paul's greatest missionary success in Greece.Dunn, xliv Additionally, Phoebe was a deacon of the church in Cenchreae, a port to the east of Corinth, and would have been able to convey the letter to Rome after passing through Corinth and taking a ship from Corinth's west port. Erastus, mentioned in {{Bibleref2|Romans|16:23|31}}, also lived in Corinth, being the city's commissioner for public works and city treasurer at various times, again indicating that the letter was written in Corinth.Bruce, 280–281; Dunn, xlivThe precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the collection for Jerusalem had been assembled and Paul was about to "go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints", that is, at the close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding his last visit to that city.{{Bibleref2|Rom|15:25|KJV}}; cf. {{Bibleref2|Acts|19:21|KJV}}; {{Bibleref2|Acts|20:2–3|KJV}}, {{Bibleref2-nb|Acts|20:16|KJV}}; {{bibleref2|1Cor|16:1–4|KJV|1 Cor 16:1–4}} The majority of scholars writing on Romans propose the letter was written in late 55/early 56 or late 56/early 57.Bruce, 12; Dunn, xliii Early 55 and early 58 both have some support, while German New Testament scholar Gerd Lüdemann argues for a date as early as 51/52 (or 54/55), following on from Knox, who proposed 53/54. Lüdemann is the only serious challenge to the consensus of mid to late 50s.Dunn, xliii–xliv

Textual variants

Fourteen-chapter form

There is strong, albeit indirect, evidence that a recension of Romans that lacked Chapters 15 and 16 was widely used in the western half of the Roman Empire until the mid-4th century.BOOK, BeDuhn, Jason, Jason BeDuhn, The First New Testament: Marcion's Scriptural Canon, 305, 2013, Polebridge Press, 9781598151312, BOOK, Longenecker, Richard N., Richard Longenecker, Introducing Romans: Critical Issues in Paul's Most Famous Letter, 2011, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI, 978-0-8028-6619-6, 20ff, BOOK, Gamble, Harry Y., The Textual History of the Letter to the Romans, 16ff, 1977, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI,weblink 0-8028-1670-3, This conclusion is partially based on the fact that a variety of Church Fathers, such as Origen and Tertullian, refer to a fourteen-chapter edition of Romans, either directly or indirectly. The fact that Paul's doxology is placed in various different places in different manuscripts of Romans only strengthens the case for an early fourteen-chapter recension. While there is some uncertainty, Harry Gamble concludes that the canonical sixteen-chapter recension is likely the earlier version of the text. so that it read: "thus, we hold, then, that man is justified without doing the works of the law, alone through faith".The 1522 "Testament" reads at Romans 3:28: "So halten wyrs nu, das der mensch gerechtfertiget werde, on zu thun der werck des gesetzs, alleyn durch den glawben" (emphasis added to the German word for "alone"). weblink The word "alone" does not appear in the original Greek text,The Greek text reads: λογιζόμεθα γάρ δικαιоῦσθαι πίστει ἄνθρωπον χωρὶς ἔργων νόμου ("for we reckon a man to be justified by faith without deeds of law")weblink but Luther defended his translation by maintaining that the adverb "alone" was required both by idiomatic German and Paul's intended meaning. This is a "literalist view" rather than a literal view of the Bible.Martin Luther, On Translating: An Open Letter (1530), Luther's Works, 55 vols., (St. Louis and Philadelphia: Concordia Publishing House and Fortress Press), 35:187–189, 195; cf. also Heinz Bluhm, Martin Luther Creative Translator, (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1965), 125–137.Apologist James Swan lists numerous Catholic sources that also translated (Romans 3#Verse 28|Romans 3:28) with the word "alone," or testified to others doing so before Luther.WEB, Swan, James, Luther Added The Word "Alone" to Romans 3:28?,weblink February 05, 2006, 29 March 2014, A Bible commentary published in 1864 reports that:The Romans Road (or Roman Road) refers to a set of scriptures from Romans that Christian evangelists use to present a clear and simple case for personal salvation to each person, as all the verses are contained in one single book, making it easier for evangelism without going back and forth through the entire New Testament. The core verses used by nearly all groups using Romans Road are: Romans {{bibleref2-nb|Romans|3:23|9}}, {{bibleref2-nb|Romans|6:23|9}}, {{bibleref2-nb|Romans|5:8|9}}, {{bibleref2-nb|Romans|10:9|9}}, and {{bibleref2-nb|Romans|10:13|9}}.What is the Romans Road to salvation?, from Got Questions?Romans has been at the forefront of several major movements in Protestantism. Martin Luther's lectures on Romans in 1515–1516 probably coincided{{Citation needed|date=June 2018}} with the development of his criticism of Roman Catholicism which led to the 95 Theses of 1517. In 1738, while hearing Luther's Preface to the Epistle to the Romans read at St. Botolph Church on Aldersgate Street in London, John Wesley famously felt his heart "strangely warmed", a conversion experience which is often seen{{Citation needed|date=June 2018}} as the beginning of Methodism. In 1919 Karl Barth's commentary on Romans, The Epistle to the Romans, was the publication which is widely seen as the beginning of neo-orthodoxy.{{Citation needed|reason=Your explanation here|date=October 2016}}

See also




  • BOOK, Bruce, F. F., F. F. Bruce, 1983, The Epistle of Paul to the Romans: An Introduction and Commentary, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries, Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester, England, 0851118550, harv,
  • BOOK, Dunn, J. D. G., James Dunn (theologian), 1988a, Romans 1–8, Word Bible Commentary, Word Books, Publisher, Dallas, Texas, harv,
  • BOOK, Dunn, J. D. G., 1988b, Romans 9–16, Word Bible Commentary, Word Books, Publisher, Dallas, Texas, harv,
  • {{eastons|Romans, Epistle to the}}
  • BOOK, Fitzmyer, Joseph A., Joseph Fitzmyer, Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, Anchor Bible, 1993, Doubleday, New York, harv,
  • Rutherford, Graeme (1993). The Heart of Christianity: Romans [chapters] 1 to 8. Second ed. Oxford, Eng.: Bible Reading Fellowship. 248 p. {{ISBN|0-7459-2810-2}}
  • BOOK, Stuhlmacher, Peter, 1994, Paul's Letter to the Romans: A Commentary, John Knox Press, Westminster, 0-664-25287-7, harv,

External links

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