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Environmental Performance Index
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(File:Countries by Environmental Performance Index (2018).png|upright=2.75|thumb|Countries by Environmental Performance Index (2018))The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies. This index was developed from the Pilot Environmental Performance Index, first published in 2002, and designed to supplement the environmental targets set forth in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.WEB, Environmental Performance Index,weblink 2008-03-16, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, and Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University, {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}The EPI was preceded by the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), published between 1999 and 2005. Both indices were developed by Yale University (Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy) and Columbia University (Center for International Earth Science Information Network) in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The ESI was developed to evaluate environmental sustainability relative to the paths of other countries. Due to a shift in focus by the teams developing the ESI, the EPI uses outcome-oriented indicators, then working as a benchmark index that can be more easily used by policy makers, environmental scientists, advocates and the general public.WEB, 2008 Environmental Performance Index Report,weblink 2008-03-18, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080409055057weblink">weblink 2008-04-09, See Executive Summary, pp. 32-35 for a detailed comparison between the ESI 2005, the EPI 2006 and the EPI 2008. Other leading indices like the Global Green Economy Index (GGEI)WEB, 2016 Global Green Economy Index (GGEI),weblink provide an integrated measure of the environmental, social and economic dynamics of national economies. The GGEI utilizes EPI data for the environmental dimension of the index while also providing a performance assessment of efficiency sectors (e.g. transport, buildings, energy), investment, green innovation and national leadership around climate change.In January 2012 four EPI reports have been released — the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index,WEB, Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index Main Report,weblink 2007-06-17, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University, 33, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070105152140weblink">weblink 2007-01-05, and the 2008, 2010, and 2012 Environmental Performance Index.WEB, 2012 Environmental Performance Index,weblink 2010-01-27, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100204001019weblink">weblink 2010-02-04, dead, See also official Press release For the 2012 report, a new "Pilot Trend EPI" was developed to rank countries based on the environmental performance changes occurred during the last decade, allowing to establish which countries are improving and which are declining.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161230151440weblink">weblink dead, 2016-12-30, EPI 2012: Summary for Policymakers, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University, EPI Yales, 2012-01-27, In the 2014 EPI ranking, the top five countries were Switzerland, Luxembourg, Australia, Singapore, and the Czech Republic. The bottom five countries in 2014 were Somalia, Mali, Haiti, Lesotho, and Afghanistan. The United Kingdom was ranked in 12th place, Japan 26th place, the United States 33rd, Brazil 77th, China 118th, and India came in 155th. The top five countries based on their 2012 Pilot Trend EPI were Estonia, Kuwait, El Salvador, Namibia and Congo.

Methodology

EPI calculation variables change often as can be seen below. This should be taken into account when observing country performance through several reports, as it can lead to score and ranking changes founded just on methodology modification.

2018 variables

Are largely similar to those from 2016, but have changed in details and some weights.Notably environmental Health is now weighted at 40% and Ecosystem Vitality at 60%.WEB,weblink EPI 2018 variables, weblink {{Dead link|dateSeptember 2018 |botInternetArchiveBot |fix-attemptedyes }} {| class"wikitable" style"margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto"">

2016 variablesWEB, title2016 EPI Raw Data, publisherYale University, year2016, urweblink {{Dead link|dateSeptember 2018 |botInternetArchiveBot |fix-attemptedyes }} {| class"wikitable" style"margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto"

!EPI!!Objective!!Issue Category!!Indicator
Environmental Performance Index (EPI)Environmental health (40%)Health Impacts (33%)Environmental Risk Exposure (100%)
Air quality (33%)Household Air Quality (30%)
|Air pollution - Average Exposure to PM2.5 (30%)
|Air pollution - PM2.5 Exceedance (30%)
|Air pollution - Average Exposure to NO2 (10%)
Water and sanitation (33%)Unsafe Sanitation (50%)
|Drinking Water Quality (50%)
Ecosystem vitality (60%)Water resources (25%)Wastewater treatment (100%)
Agriculture (10%)Nitrogen use efficiency (75%)
|Nitrogen balance (25%)
|Change in forest cover (100%)
Fisheries (5%)>|Fish stocks (100%)
Biodiversity and habitat (25%)Terrestrial Protected Areas (National Biome Weights) (20%)
|Terrestrial protected areas (Global Biome Weights) (20%)
|Marine protected areas (20%)
|Species protection (National) (20%)
|Species protection (Global) (20%)
Climate and energy (25%)Trend in carbon intensity (75%)
|Trend in CO2 emissions per kWh (25%)

2010 variables

{{collapse top}}{| class="wikitable" align="center"|+ EPI 2008: Objectives, policy categories and sub-categories, and indicators
OBJECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
POLICY CATEGORIES Environmental Burden of Disease Water (effects on humans) Air Pollution (effects on humans)
INDICATORS 1. Environmental Burden of Disease 2. Adequate Sanitation 4. Indoor Air Pollution
|
3. Drinking Water 5. Urban Particulates
|
6. Local Ozone
OBJECTIVE ECOSYSTEM VITALITY
POLICY CATEGORIES Air Pollution (effects on ecosystems) Water Biodiversity and Habitat
INDICATORS 7. Regional Ozone 9. Water Quality Index11. Conservation Risk Index
|
8. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions10. Water Stress12. Effective Conservation
|
13. Critical Habitat Protection
|
14. Marine Protected Areas
POLICY CATEGORIES Productive Natural Resources Productive Natural Resources Productive Natural Resources
POLICY SUB-CATEGORY Forestry Fisheries Agriculture
INDICATORS15. Growing Stock16. Marine Trophic Index18. Irrigation Stress
|
17. Trawling Intensity19. Agricultural subsidies
|
20. Intensive Cropland
|
21. Burnt Land Area
|
22. Pesticide Regulation
POLICY CATEGORIES Climate Change
INDICATORS23. Emissions per capita
|
24. Emissions per electricity generated
|
25. Industrial carbon intensity
{{collapse bottom}}

EPI scores

2018

EPI 2018 full list is available online.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right;"!Rank!Country!EPI score!EnvironmentalHealth (40% weight)!EcosystemVitality(60% weight)
{{flag|83.32
{{flag|76.11
{{flag|70.53
{{flag|72.30
{{flag|71.24
{{flag|69.13
{{flag|68.48
{{flag|74.03
{{flag|67.34
{{flag|64.83
{{flag|65.34
{{flag|67.85
{{flag|71.50
{{flag|63.91
{{flag|69.39
{{flag|71.02
{{flag|62.63
{{flag|64.25
{{flag|62.25
{{flag|62.48
{{flag|58.23
{{flag|61.98
{{flag|74.83
{{flag|62.37
{{flag|55.29
{{flag|59.53
{{flag|56.04
{{flag|75.08
{{flag|67.18
{{flag|66.68

2016

On 23 January 2016, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index was released at the World Economic Forum, with 180 countries being ranked.WEB,weblink 2016 EPI FULL REPORT, Yale, May 20, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171004102150weblink">weblink 2017-10-04, dead, Top 30 countries and score{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{flag|Finland{edih} 90.88
  2. {{flag|Iceland}} 90.51
  3. {{flag|Sweden}} 90.43
  4. {{flag|Denmark}} 89.21
  5. {{flag|Slovenia}} 88.98
  6. {{flag|Spain}} 88.91
  7. {{flag|Portugal}} 88.63
  8. {{flag|Estonia}} 88.59
  9. {{flag|Malta}} 88.48
  10. {{flag|France}} 88.20
  11. {{flag|New Zealand}} 88.00
  12. {{flag|United Kingdom}} 87.38
  13. {{flag|Australia}} 87.22
  14. {{flag|Singapore}} 87.04
  15. {{flag|Croatia}} 86.98
  16. {{flag|Switzerland}} 86.93
  17. {{flag|Norway}} 86.90
  18. {{flag|Austria}} 86.64
  19. {{flag|Ireland}} 86.60
  20. {{flag|Luxembourg}} 86.58
  21. {{flag|Greece}} 85.81
  22. {{flag|Latvia}} 85.71
  23. {{flag|Lithuania}} 85.49
  24. {{flag|Slovakia}} 85.42
  25. {{flag|Canada}} 85.06
  26. {{flag|United States of America}} 84.72
  27. {{flag|Czech Republic}} 84.67
  28. {{flag|Hungary}} 84.60
  29. {{flag|Italy}} 84.48
  30. {{flag|Germany}} 84.25
}}

2014

On 25 January 2014 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2014 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 178 countries.Top 30 countries and score{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{SWI{edih} 87.67
  2. {{LUX}} 83.29
  3. {{AUS}} 82.4
  4. {{SGP}} 81.78
  5. {{CZE}} 81.47
  6. {{DEU}} 80.47
  7. {{ESP}} 79.79
  8. {{AUT}} 78.32
  9. {{SWE}} 78.09
  10. {{NOR}} 78.04
  11. {{NLD}} 77.75
  12. {{GBR}} 77.35
  13. {{DNK}} 76.92
  14. {{ISL}} 76.5
  15. {{SVN}} 76.43
  16. {{NZL}} 76.41
  17. {{POR}} 75.8
  18. {{FIN}} 75.72
  19. {{Flag|Ireland}} 74.67
  20. {{EST}} 74.66
  21. {{SVK}} 74.45
  22. {{ITA}} 74.36
  23. {{GRC}} 73.28
  24. {{CAN}} 73.14
  25. {{ARE}} 72.91
  26. {{JPN}} 72.35
  27. {{FRA}} 71.05
  28. {{HUN}} 70.28
  29. {{CHL}} 69.93
  30. {{POL}} 69.53
}}

2012

On 25 January 2012 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2012 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 132 countries.Top 30 countries and score{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{SWI{edih} 76.69
  2. {{LVA}} 70.37
  3. {{NOR}} 69.92
  4. {{LUX}} 69.2
  5. {{CRI}} 69.03
  6. {{FRA}} 69
  7. {{AUT}} 68.92
  8. {{ITA}} 68.9
  9. {{GBR}} 68.82
  10. {{SWE}} 68.82
  11. {{GER}} 66.91
  12. {{SVK}} 66.62
  13. {{ISL}} 66.28
  14. {{NZL}} 66.05
  15. {{ALB}} 65.85
  16. {{NLD}} 65.65
  17. {{LTU}} 65.5
  18. {{CZE}} 64.79
  19. {{FIN}} 64.44
  20. {{CRO}} 64.16
  21. {{DNK}} 63.61
  22. {{POL}} 63.47
  23. {{JPN}} 63.36
  24. {{BEL}} 63.02
  25. {{MYS}} 62.51
  26. {{flag|Brunei}} 62.49
  27. {{COL}} 62.33
  28. {{flag|Slovenia}} 62.25
  29. {{TWN}} 62.23
  30. {{BRA}} 60.9
}}{{col-begin}}{{col-break}}Top 10 countries by Trend EPIThe EPI rank is shown in parentheses.{{ordered list|start=1| {{LVA}} (2)Azerbaijan}} (111)| {{ROM}} (88)| {{ALB}} (15)| {{EGY}} (60)Angola}} (90)| {{SVK}} (12)Ireland}} (36)| {{BEL}} (24)| {{THA}} (34)}}{{col-break|gap=2em}}Worst 10 countries by Trend EPIThe EPI rank is shown in parentheses.{{ordered list|start=123Turkmenistan}} (131)South Africa}} (128)Iraq}} (132)Kazakhstan}} (129)Kyrgyzstan}} (101)Estonia}} (54)Bosnia & Herzegovina}} (124)Saudi Arabia}} (82)Kuwait}} (126)Russia}} (106)}}{{col-end}}

2010

On 28 January 2010 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2010 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 163 countries. The top performer for 2010 is Iceland due to its high scores on environmental public health, gets virtually all of its power from renewable sources (hydropower and geothermal energy), and its control of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States fell to the 61st position, as compared to 39th in the 2008 EPI, Brazil ranks 62nd, Russia 69th, China 121st, and India ranks 123rd.NEWS,weblink Iceland Leads Environmental Index as U.S. Falls, Elizabeth Rosenthal, The New York Times, 2010-01-27, 2010-01-28, Top 30 countries and score{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{ISL{edih} 93.5
  2. {{CHE}} 89.1
  3. {{CRI}} 86.4
  4. {{SWE}} 86.0
  5. {{NOR}} 81.1
  6. {{flag|Mauritius}} 80.6
  7. {{FRA}} 78.2
  8. {{AUT}} 78.1
  9. {{CUB}} 78.1
  10. {{COL}} 76.8
  11. {{flag|Malta}} 76.3
  12. {{FIN}} 74.7
  13. {{SVK}} 74.5
  14. {{GBR}} 74.2
  15. {{NZL}} 73.4
  16. {{CHL}} 73.3
  17. {{GER}} 73.2
  18. {{ITA}} 73.1
  19. {{POR}} 73.0
  20. {{JPN}} 72.5
  21. {{LVA}} 72.5
  22. {{CZE}} 71.6
  23. {{ALB}} 71.4
  24. {{PAN}} 71.4
  25. {{ESP}} 70.6
  26. {{BLZ}} 69.9
  27. {{flag|Antigua and Barbuda}} 69.8
  28. {{flag|Singapore}} 69.6
  29. {{flag|Serbia}} 69.4
  30. {{ECU}} 69.3
}}

2008

On 23 January 2008 Yale University and Columbia University released the 2008 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 149 countries. The environmental experts at both universities concluded that "analysis of the drivers underlying the 2008 rankings suggests that wealth is a major determinant of environmental success".WEB
, Switzerland Tops 2008 Environmental Scorecard at World Economic Forum
,weblink
, 2008-01-26
, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080203141129weblink">weblink
, 2008-02-03
, Top 30 countries and scoreWEB, Environmental Performance Index 2008,weblink 2010-01-28, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University, dead,weblink" title="archive.is/20100225110947weblink">weblink 2010-02-25, {hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{CHE{edih} 95.5
  2. {{NOR}} 93.1
  3. {{SWE}} 93.1
  4. {{FIN}} 91.4
  5. {{CRI}} 90.5
  6. {{AUT}} 89.4
  7. {{NZL}} 88.9
  8. {{LVA}} 88.8
  9. {{COL}} 88.3
  10. {{FRA}} 87.8
  11. {{ISL}} 87.6
  12. {{CAN}} 86.6
  13. {{GER}} 86.3
  14. {{GBR}} 86.3
  15. {{SLO}} 86.3
  16. {{LTU}} 86.2
  17. {{SVK}} 86.0
  18. {{PRT}} 85.8
  19. {{EST}} 85.2
  20. {{CRO}} 84.6
  21. {{JPN}} 84.5
  22. {{ECU}} 84.4
  23. {{HUN}} 84.2
  24. {{ITA}} 84.2
  25. {{ALB}} 84.2
  26. {{DNK}} 84.0
  27. {{MYS}} 84.0
  28. {{RUS}} 84.0
  29. {{CHL}} 83.9
  30. {{ESP}} 83.4
}}

2006

On 26 January 2006 Yale (YCELP) and Columbia University (CIESIN) released the Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index at the World Economic Forum ranking 133 countries. It was done in collaboration with the World Economic Forum and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.Top 30 countries and scoreWEB
, Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index
,weblink
, 2007-06-17
, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy / Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070617132034weblink">weblink
, 2007-06-17
, {hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  1. {{NZL{edih} 88.0
  2. {{SWE}} 87.8
  3. {{FIN}} 87.0
  4. {{CZE}} 86.0
  5. {{GBR}} 85.6
  6. {{AUT}} 85.2
  7. {{DNK}} 84.2
  8. {{CAN}} 84.0
  9. {{MYS}} 83.3
  10. {{Flag|Ireland}} 83.3
  11. {{PRT}} 82.9
  12. {{FRA}} 82.5
  13. {{ISL}} 82.1
  14. {{JPN}} 81.9
  15. {{CRI}} 81.6
  16. {{CHE}} 81.4
  17. {{COL}} 80.4
  18. {{NOR}} 80.2
  19. {{GRC}} 80.2
  20. {{AUS}} 80.1
  21. {{ITA}} 79.8
  22. {{DEU}} 79.4
  23. {{ESP}} 79.2
  24. {{TWN}} 79.1
  25. {{SVK}} 79.1
  26. {{CHL}} 78.9
  27. {{NLD}} 78.7
  28. {{USA}} 78.5
  29. {{CYP}} 78.4
  30. {{ARG}} 77.7
}}

See also

References

}

External links

{{Quality of life country lists}}

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