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WRIGHT >FIRST1=M. R. DATE=1981 PAGE=6, |birth_place = Akragas, Sicily434 BCTITLE=EMPEDOCLES: THE EXTANT FRAGMENTS PUBLISHER=YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 6, (aged around 60)|death_place = Mount Etna, Sicily|school_tradition = Pluralist school|main_interests = Cosmogenesis, ontology, epistemology|influences = Parmenides, Pythagoreanism|influenced = Gorgias, Aristotle, Lucretius, Friedrich Nietzschematter is made up of four elements: water (classical element)>water, earth (classical element), air (classical element)>air and fire (classical element)The Arche>cosmic principles ofPhilotes (mythology) ("Love") and Neikea>Neikos ("Repulsion")Frank Reynolds, David Tracy (eds.), Myth and Philosophy, SUNY Press, 1990, p. 99.Theories about respiration}}Empedocles ({{IPAc-en|É›|m|ˈ|p|É›|d|É™|k|l|iː|z|}}; {{IPA-grc|empedoklɛ̂ːs|}}, EmpedoklÄ“s; {{circa|494|434 BC|lk=on}})BOOK, Wright, M. R., Empedocles: The Extant Fragments, 1981, Yale University Press, 6, was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogonic theory of the four classical elements. He also proposed forces he called Love and Strife which would mix and separate the elements, respectively. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life.Influenced by Pythagoras (died c. 495 BC) and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles challenged the practice of animal sacrifice and killing animals for food. He developed a distinctive doctrine of reincarnation. He is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher. Empedocles' death was mythologized by ancient writers, and has been the subject of a number of literary treatments.


File:Temple of Hera - Agrigento - Italy 2015.JPG|left|thumb|The temple of Hera at 470 BC}}.Empedocles was born, {{circa|490 BC|lk=on}}, at Akragas in Sicily to a distinguished family.Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 51 Very little is known about his life. His father Meton seems to have been instrumental in overthrowing the tyrant of Akragas, presumably Thrasydaeus in 470 BC. Empedocles continued this tradition by helping to overthrow the succeeding oligarchic government. He is said to have been magnanimous in his support of the poor;Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 73 severe in persecuting the overbearing conduct of the oligarchs;Timaeus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 64, comp. 65, 66 and he even declined the sovereignty of the city when it was offered to him.Aristotle ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 63; compare, however, Timaeus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, 66, 76His brilliant oratory,Satyrus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 78; Timaeus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, 67 his penetrating knowledge of nature, and the reputation of his marvellous powers, including the curing of diseases, and averting epidemics,Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 60, 70, 69; Plutarch, de Curios. Princ., adv. Colotes; Pliny, H. N. xxxvi. 27, and others produced many myths and stories surrounding his name. In his poem Purifications he claimed miraculous powers, including the destruction of evil, the curing of old age, and the controlling of wind and rain.Empedocles was acquainted or connected by friendship with the physicians PausaniasDiogenes Laërtius, viii. 60, 61, 65, 69 (his eromenosDiogenes Laërtius, viii. 60: "Pausanias, according to Aristippus and Satyrus, was his eromenos") and Acron;Pliny, Natural History, xxix.1.4–5; cf. Suda, Akron with various Pythagoreans; and even, it is said, with Parmenides and Anaxagoras.Suda, Empedocles; Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 55, 56, etc. The only pupil of Empedocles who is mentioned is the sophist and rhetorician Gorgias.Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 58Timaeus and Dicaearchus spoke of the journey of Empedocles to the Peloponnese, and of the admiration, which was paid to him there;Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 71, 67; Athenaeus, xiv. others mentioned his stay at Athens, and in the newly founded colony of Thurii, 446 BC;Suda, Akron; Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 52 there are also fanciful reports of him travelling far to the east to the lands of the Magi.Pliny, H. N. xxx. 1, etc.According to Aristotle, he died at the age of sixty ({{circa|430 BC|lk=no}}), even though other writers have him living up to the age of one hundred and nine.Apollonius, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 52, comp. 74, 73 Likewise, there are myths concerning his death: a tradition, which is traced to Heraclides Ponticus, represented him as having been removed from the Earth; whereas others had him perishing in the flames of Mount Etna. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 67, 69, 70, 71; Horace, ad Pison. 464, etc. Refer to {{harvp|Arnold|1852|loc=Empedocles on Etna}}.The contemporary Life of Empedocles by Xanthus has been lost.


File:Empedokles fragment Physika I 262–300.jpg|thumb|right|A piece of the Strasbourg Empedocles papyrus in the Bibliothèque nationale et universitaireBibliothèque nationale et universitaireEmpedocles is considered the last Greek philosopher to write in verse. There is a debateBOOK, Inwood, Brad, The poem of Empedocles : a text and translation with an introduction, 2001, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 0-8020-8353-6, 8-21, Rev., about whether the surviving fragments of his teaching should be attributed to two separate poems, Purifications and On Nature, with different subject matter, or whether they may all derive from one poem with two titlesBOOK, Osborne, Catherine, Rethinking early Greek philosophy : Hippolytus of Rome and the Presocratics, 1987, Duckworth, London, 0-7156-1975-6, 24-31, 108, , or whether one title refers to part of the whole poem. Some scholars argue that the title Purifications refers to the first part of a larger work called (as a whole) On Nature.Simon Trépanier, (2004), Empedocles: An Interpretation, Routledge. There is also a debate about which fragments should be attributed to each of the poems, if there are two poems, or if part of it is called "Purifications"; because ancient writers rarely mentioned which poem they were quoting. Empedocles was undoubtedly acquainted with the didactic poems of Xenophanes and ParmenidesHermippus and Theophrastus, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 55, 56—allusions to the latter can be found in the fragments—but he seems to have surpassed them in the animation and richness of his style, and in the clearness of his descriptions and diction. Aristotle called him the father of rhetoric,EB1911, Empedocles, 9, 344–345, William, Wallace, and, although he acknowledged only the meter as a point of comparison between the poems of Empedocles and the epics of Homer, he described Empedocles as Homeric and powerful in his diction.Aristotle, Poetics, 1, ap. Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 57. Lucretius speaks of him with enthusiasm, and evidently viewed him as his model.See especially Lucretius, i. 716, etc. Refer to {{harvp|Sedley|1998}}. The two poems together comprised 5000 lines.Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 77 About 550 lines of his poetry survive.


In the old editions of Empedocles, only about 100 lines were typically ascribed to his Purifications, which was taken to be a poem about ritual purification, or the poem that contained all his religious and ethical thought. Early editors supposed that it was a poem that offered a mythical account of the world which may, nevertheless, have been part of Empedocles' philosophical system. According to Diogenes Laërtius it began with the following verses:Friends who inhabit the mighty town by tawny Acragaswhich crowns the citadel, caring for good deeds,greetings; I, an immortal God, no longer mortal,wander among you, honoured by all,adorned with holy diadems and blooming garlands.To whatever illustrious towns I go,I am praised by men and women, and accompaniedby thousands, who thirst for deliverance,some ask for prophecies, and some entreat,for remedies against all kinds of disease.DK frag. B112 (Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 61)In the older editions, it is to this work that editors attributed the story about souls,Frag. B115 (Plutarch, On Exile, 607 C–E; Hippolytus, vii. 29) where we are told that there were once spirits who lived in a state of bliss, but having committed a crime (the nature of which is unknown) they were punished by being forced to become mortal beings, reincarnated from body to body. Humans, animals, and even plants are such spirits. The moral conduct recommended in the poem may allow us to become like gods again. If, as is now widely held, this title "Purifications" refers to the poem On Nature, or to a part of that poem, this story will have been at the beginning of the main work on nature and the cosmic cycle. The relevant verses are also sometimes attributed to the proem of On Nature, even by those who think that there was a separate poem called "Purifications".

On Nature

There are about 450 lines of his poem On Nature extant, including 70 lines which have been reconstructed from some papyrus scraps known as the Strasbourg Papyrus. The poem originally consisted of 2000 lines of hexameter verse,Suda, Empedocles and was addressed to Pausanias.Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 60 It was this poem which outlined his philosophical system. In it, Empedocles explains not only the nature and history of the universe, including his theory of the four classical elements, but he describes theories on causation, perception, and thought, as well as explanations of terrestrial phenomena and biological processes.


File:Empedocles-2-sized.jpg|right|thumb|Empedocles as portrayed in the Nuremberg ChronicleNuremberg ChronicleAlthough acquainted with the theories of the Eleatics and the Pythagoreans, Empedocles did not belong to any one definite school. An eclectic in his thinking, he combined much that had been suggested by Parmenides, Pythagoras and the Ionian schools. He was a firm believer in Orphic mysteries, as well as a scientific thinker and a precursor of physics. Aristotle mentions Empedocles among the Ionic philosophers, and he places him in very close relation to the atomist philosophers and to Anaxagoras.Aristotle, Metaphysics, i. 3, 4, 7, Phys. i. 4, de General, et Corr. i. 8, de Caelo, iii. 7.According to House (1956)BOOK, House, Humphry,weblink 32, Aristotles Poetics, 1956,
Another of the fragments of the dialogue On the Poets (Aristotle) treats more fully what is said in Poetics ch. i about Empedocles, for though clearly implying that he was not a poet, Aristotle there says he is Homeric, and an artist in language, skilled in metaphor and in the other devices of poetry.
Empedocles, like the Ionian philosophers and the atomists, continued the tradition of tragic thought which tried to find the basis of the relationship of the one and many. Each of the various philosophers, following Parmenides, derived from the Eleatics, the conviction that an existence could not pass into non-existence, and vice versa. Yet, each one had his peculiar way of describing this relation of Divine and mortal thought and thus of the relation of the One and the Many. In order to account for change in the world, in accordance with the ontological requirements of the Eleatics, they viewed changes as the result of mixture and separation of unalterable fundamental realities. Empedocles held that the four elements (Water, Air, Earth, and Fire) were those unchangeable fundamental realities, which were themselves transfigured into successive worlds by the powers of Love and Strife (Heraclitus had explicated the Logos or the "unity of opposites").James Luchte, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn, Bloomsbury, 2011.

The four elements

Empedocles established four ultimate elements which make all the structures in the world—fire, air, water, earthFrag. B17 (Simplicius, Physics, 157–159). Empedocles called these four elements "roots", which he also identified with the mythical names of Zeus, Hera, Nestis, and AidoneusFrag. B6 (Sextus Empiricus, Against the Mathematicians, x, 315) (e.g., "Now hear the fourfold roots of everything: enlivening Hera, Hades, shining Zeus. And Nestis, moistening mortal springs with tears."Peter Kingsley, in Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic: Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1995).) Empedocles never used the term "element" (, stoicheion), which seems to have been first used by Plato.Plato, Timaeus, 48b–c According to the different proportions in which these four indestructible and unchangeable elements are combined with each other the difference of the structure is produced. It is in the aggregation and segregation of elements thus arising, that Empedocles, like the atomists, found the real process which corresponds to what is popularly termed growth, increase or decrease. Nothing new comes or can come into being; the only change that can occur is a change in the juxtaposition of element with element. This theory of the four elements became the standard dogma for the next two thousand years.

Love and Strife

{{distinguish|text=the Greek deities of love and strife}}(File:Empedocles cosmic cycle concept map.svg|300px|right|thumb|Empedocles cosmic cycle is based on the conflict between love and strife)The four elements, however, are simple, eternal, and unalterable, and as change is the consequence of their mixture and separation, it was also necessary to suppose the existence of moving powers that bring about mixture and separation. The four elements are both eternally brought into union and parted from one another by two divine powers, Love and (Wikt:strife|Strife) or Hatred. Love () is responsible for the attraction of different forms of matter, and Strife () is the cause of their separation.Frag. B35, B26 (Simplicius, Physics, 31–34) If the four elements make up the universe, then Love and Strife explain their variation and harmony. Love and Strife are attractive and repulsive forces, respectively, which are plainly observable in human behavior, but also pervade the universe. The two forces wax and wane in their dominance, but neither force ever wholly escapes the imposition of the other.

The sphere of Empedocles

As the best and original state, there was a time when the pure elements and the two powers co-existed in a condition of rest and inertness in the form of a sphere. The elements existed together in their purity, without mixture and separation, and the uniting power of Love predominated in the sphere: the separating power of Strife guarded the extreme edges of the sphere.Frag. B35 (Simplicius, Physics, 31–34; On the Heavens, 528–530) Since that time, strife gained more sway and the bond which kept the pure elementary substances together in the sphere was dissolved. The elements became the world of phenomena we see today, full of contrasts and oppositions, operated on by both Love and Strife. The sphere being the embodiment of pure existence is the embodiment or representative of God. Empedocles assumed a cyclical universe whereby the elements return and prepare the formation of the sphere for the next period of the universe.


Empedocles attempted to explain the separation of elements, the formation of earth and sea, of Sun and Moon, of atmosphere. He also dealt with the first origin of plants and animals, and with the physiology of humans. As the elements entered into combinations, there appeared strange results—heads without necks, arms without shoulders.Frag. B57 (Simplicius, On the Heavens, 586) Then as these fragmentary structures met, there were seen horned heads on human bodies, bodies of oxen with human heads, and figures of double sex.Frag. B61 (Aelian, On Animals, xvi 29) But most of these products of natural forces disappeared as suddenly as they arose; only in those rare cases where the parts were found to be adapted to each other did the complex structures last. Thus the organic universe sprang from spontaneous aggregations that suited each other as if this had been intended. Soon various influences reduced creatures of double sex to a male and a female, and the world was replenished with organic life. It is possible to see this theory as an anticipation of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, although Empedocles was not trying to explain evolution.Ted Everson (2007), The gene: a historical perspective page 5. Greenwood

Perception and knowledge

Empedocles is credited with the first comprehensive theory of light and vision. He put forward the idea that we see objects because light streams out of our eyes and touches them. While flawed, this became the fundamental basis on which later Greek philosophers and mathematicians like Euclid would construct some of the most important theories of light, vision, and optics.Let There be Light 7 August 2006 01:50 BBC FourKnowledge is explained by the principle that elements in the things outside us are perceived by the corresponding elements in ourselves.Frag. B109 (Aristotle, On the Soul, 404b11–15) Like is known by like. The whole body is full of pores and hence respiration takes place over the whole frame. In the organs of sense these pores are specially adapted to receive the effluences which are continually rising from bodies around us; thus perception occurs.Frag. B100 (Aristotle, On Respiration, 473b1–474a6) In vision, certain particles go forth from the eye to meet similar particles given forth from the object, and the resultant contact constitutes vision.Frag. B84 (Aristotle, On the Senses and their Objects, 437b23–438a5) Perception is not merely a passive reflection of external objects.Empedocles noted the limitation and narrowness of human perceptions. We see only a part but fancy that we have grasped the whole. But the senses cannot lead to truth; thought and reflection must look at the thing from every side. It is the business of a philosopher, while laying bare the fundamental difference of elements, to show the identity that exists between what seem unconnected parts of the universe.Frag. B2 (Sextus Empiricus, Against the Mathematicians, vii. 123–125)


In a famous fragment, Empedocles attempted to explain the phenomena of respiration by means of an elaborate analogy with the clepsydra, an ancient device for conveying liquids from one vessel to another.Jonathan Barnes (2002), The Presocratic Philosophers, page 313. Routledge This fragment has sometimes been connected to a passage in Aristotle's Physics where Aristotle refers to people who twisted wineskins and captured air in clepsydras to demonstrate that void does not exist.Aristotle, Physics, 213a24–7 There is however, no evidence that Empedocles performed any experiment with clepsydras. The fragment certainly implies that Empedocles knew about the corporeality of air, but he says nothing whatever about the void. The clepsydra was a common utensil and everyone who used it must have known, in some sense, that the invisible air could resist liquid.W. K. C. Guthrie, (1980), A history of Greek philosophy II: The Presocratic tradition from Parmenides to Democritus, page 224. Cambridge University Press


Like Pythagoras, Empedocles believed in the transmigration of the soul/metempsychosis, that souls can be reincarnated between humans, animals and even plants.Frag. B127 (Aelian, On Animals, xii. 7); Frag. B117 (Hippolytus, i. 3.2) For Empedocles, all living things were on the same spiritual plane; plants and animals are links in a chain where humans are a link too. Empedocles was a vegetarianBOOK, Heath, John, The Talking Greeks: Speech, Animals, and the Other in Homer, Aeschylus, and Plato, 2005-05-12, Cambridge University Press, 9781139443913, 322,weblink'+vegetarianism+and+the+various+meanings+of+sacrifice+in+its+cultural+context+is+that+of+Rundin+(1998).%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjn6t3vltbOAhVD7GMKHVe8Cz4Q6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=%22An%20excellent%20study%20of%20Empedocles'%20vegetarianism%20and%20the%20various%20meanings%20of%20sacrifice%20in%20its%20cultural%20context%20is%20that%20of%20Rundin%20(1998).%22&f=false, An excellent study of Empedocles' vegetarianism and the various meanings of sacrifice in its cultural context is that of Rundin (1998)., BOOK, Plato, Plato, Meno, Bluck, Richard Stanley Harold, Cambridge University Press, 1961, c. 360 BC, 9780521172288,weblink'+vegetarianism+was+partly+at+least+due+to+the+idea+that+the+spilling+of+blood+brings+pollution.%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjA07HTl9bOAhUEKWMKHeY1BPMQ6AEIIDAB#v=onepage&q=%22This%20suggests%20that%20e.g.%20Empedocles'%20vegetarianism%20was%20partly%20at%20least%20due%20to%20the%20idea%20that%20the%20spilling%20of%20blood%20brings%20pollution.%22&f=false, This suggests that e.g. Empedocles' vegetarianism was partly at least due to the idea that the spilling of blood brings pollution., and advocated vegetarianism, since the bodies of animals are the dwelling places of punished souls.Sextus Empiricus, Against the Mathematicians, ix. 127; Hippolytus, vii. 21 Wise people, who have learned the secret of life, are next to the divine,Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, iv. 23.150 and their souls, free from the cycle of reincarnations, are able to rest in happiness for eternity.Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, v. 14.122

Death and literary treatments

File:The Death of Empedocles by Salvator Rosa.jpg|right|thumb|The Death of Empedocles by Salvator Rosa (1615 – 1673), depicting the legendary alleged suicide of Empedocles jumping into Mount Etna in SicilySicilyDiogenes Laërtius records the legend that Empedocles died by throwing himself into Mount Etna in Sicily, so that the people would believe his body had vanished and he had turned into an immortal god;Diogenes Laërtius, viii. 69 the volcano, however, threw back one of his bronze sandals, revealing the deceit. Another legend maintains that he threw himself into the volcano to prove to his disciples that he was immortal; he believed he would come back as a god after being consumed by the fire. Horace also refers to the death of Empedocles in his work Ars Poetica and admits poets the right to destroy themselves.Horace, Ars Poetica, 465–466In Icaro-Menippus, a comedic dialogue written by the second century satirist Lucian of Samosata, Empedocles’ final fate is re-evaluated. Rather than being incinerated in the fires of Mount Etna, he was carried up into the heavens by a volcanic eruption. Although a bit singed by the ordeal, Empedocles survives and continues his life on the Moon, surviving by feeding on dew.Empedocles' death has inspired two major modern literary treatments. Empedocles' death is the subject of Friedrich Hölderlin's play Tod des Empedokles (The Death of Empedocles), two versions of which were written between the years 1798 and 1800. A third version was made public in 1826. In Matthew Arnold's poem Empedocles on Etna, a narrative of the philosopher's last hours before he jumps to his death in the crater first published in 1852, Empedocles predicts:To the elements it came fromEverything will return.Our bodies to earth,Our blood to water,Heat to fire,Breath to air.In his History of Western Philosophy, Bertrand Russell humorously quotes an unnamed poet on the subject â€“ "Great Empedocles, that ardent soul, Leapt into Etna, and was roasted whole."Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, 1946, p. 60In J R by William Gaddis, Karl Marx's famous dictum ("From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs") is misattributed to Empedocles.JR by William Gaddis, Dalkey Archive, 2012In 2006, a massive underwater volcano off the coast of Sicily was named Empedocles.BBC News, Underwater volcano found by Italy, 23 June 2006In 2016, Scottish musician Momus wrote and sang the song "The Death of Empedokles" for his album Scobberlotchers.WEB, Freeman, Zachary, Albums,weblink Now Then, September 2016, 24 May 2017,

See also




  • BOOK, Arnold, Matthew, Empedocles on Etna, and Other Poems,weblink 1852, B. Fellows, London, harv,
  • LOTEP, Empedocles,
  • BOOK, Sedley, David, Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom, 1998, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Bakalis, Nikolaos, Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics, 2005, Trafford, Victoria, B.C., 1-4120-4843-5,
  • BOOK, Burnet, John, John Burnet (classicist), Early Greek Philosophy, 2003, 1892, Kessinger, Whitefish, Mont., 0-7661-2826-1,
  • BOOK, Gottlieb, Anthony, The Dream of Reason: A History of Western Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance, 2000, Allen Lane, London, 0-7139-9143-7,
  • BOOK, Guthrie, W. K. C., W. K. C. Guthrie, The Presocratic Tradition from Parmenides to Democritus, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 2, 1978, 1965, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 0-521-29421-5,
  • BOOK, Hoffman, Eric, Eric Hoffman (writer), Presence of Life, 2018, Dos Madres Press, Loveland, Ohio, 978-1-948017-16-9,
  • BOOK, Inwood, Brad, The Poem of Empedocles, 2001, rev., University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON, 0-8020-4820-X,
  • BOOK, Kingsley, Peter, Peter Kingsley_%28scholar%29, Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic: Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition, 1995, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 0-19-814988-3,
  • BOOK, Kirk, G. S., Geoffrey Kirk, Raven, J.E., John Raven, Schofield, M., The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History, 1983, 2nd, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 0-521-25444-2,
  • BOOK, Lambridis, Helle, Empedocles : a philosophical investigation, 1976, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 0-8173-6615-6, registration,weblink
  • BOOK, Long, A. A., The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, 1999, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 0-521-44122-6,
  • BOOK, Luchte, James, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn, 2011, Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 978-0567353313,
  • BOOK, Millerd, Clara Elizabeth, On the interpretation of Empedocles, 1908, University of Chicago Press, Chicago,
  • BOOK, O'Brien, D., Empedocles' cosmic cycle: a reconstruction from the fragments and secondary sources, 1969, Cambridge University Press, London, 0-521-05855-4,
  • BOOK, Russell, Bertrand, Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, A History of Western Philosophy, and Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, 1945, Simon and Schuster, New York, 0-415-07854-7,
  • BOOK, Wright, M. R., Empedocles: The Extant Fragments, 1995, new, Bristol Classical Press, London, 1-85399-482-0,

External links

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