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Emirate of Granada

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Emirate of Granada
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{{redirect|Kingdom of Granada|the post-1492 kingdom out the Crown of Castile|Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile)}}{{short description|Historic Iberian state}}{{more footnotes|date=November 2018}}













factoids
conventional_long_name Emirate of Granada|common_name = Granada|era = Late Middle Ages|status = Tributary state|status_text = Tributary state of the Crown of Castile (intermittent)|empire = Crown of Castile|government_type = Hereditary monarchy|year_start = 1230|year_end = 1492Granada War>Castilian conquest|p1 = Almohad Caliphate|flag_p1 = Flag of Morocco 1147 1269.svg|border_p1 = no|s1 = Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile)|flag_s1 = Banner of the Kingdom of Granada.svg|border_s1 = no|image_flag = Royal Standard of Nasrid Dynasty Kingdom of Grenade.svg|flag_border = no|flag_type = Flag|flag = Flag of Spain|image_coat = Coat of Arms of the Emirate of Granada (1013-1492).svg|image_map = Reino de Granada.svg|image_map_caption = Territory of the Nasrid Kingdom|national_motto = Wa lā ghāliba illā-llāh(There is no victor but God)Classical ArabicOther languages: Andalusi Arabic, Mozarabic language>Mozarabic, Berber languages, Judaeo-Spanish>Ladino|capital = GranadaIslamMinority religions:Catholic Church>Roman CatholicismJudaismMuhammad I of Granada>Muhammad IMuhammad XII of Granada>Muhammad XII|year_leader1 = 1238–1273|year_leader2 = 1487–1492|title_leader = Sultan|stat_year1 = 1450|stat_area1 = 28600|stat_pop1 = 255,000
    {edih}{{History of al-Andalus}}The Emirate of Granada (, trans. Imārat Ġarnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.{{sfn|Miranda|1970|p=429}} After Prince Idris left Iberia to take the Almohad Caliphate leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last Muslim dynasty on the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. The Nasrid emirs were responsible for building the Alhambra palace complex as it is known today. By 1250, the Emirate was the last part of the Iberian peninsula held by the Muslims. It roughly corresponded to the modern Spanish provinces of Granada, Almería, and Málaga. Andalusian Arabic was the mother tongue of the majority of the population. For two more centuries, the region enjoyed considerable cultural and economic prosperity.It was gradually conquered by the Crown of Castile and dissolved with the 1491 Treaty of Granada, ending the Granada War. In January 1492 Muhammad XII of Granada, the last Nasrid ruler of Granada, formally relinquished his sovereignty and surrendered his territories to Castile, eventually moving to Morocco in exile.

    History

    Tributary state

    With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in June 1236, Mohammed I ibn Nasr aligned Granada with Ferdinand III of Castile in 1246,{{sfn|Miranda|1970|p=429}} thereby creating a tributary state, or taifa, under the Crown of Castile. Granada remained a tributary state for the next 250 years, with Nasrid emirs paying tribute to Castilian kings mostly in the form of gold from present-day Mali and Burkina Faso that was carried to Iberia through the merchant routes in the Sahara. The Nasrids also provided military assistance to Castile for its conquest of areas under Muslim control, most notably Seville in November 1248 and the Taifa of Niebla in 1262.{{Citation needed|date=September 2013}}In 1305, Granada conquered Ceuta, but lost control of the city in 1309 to the Kingdom of Fez with the assistance of the Crown of Aragon. Granada re-captured Ceuta a year later, but again lost it in 1314. Granada again held the city from 1315 to 1327. In 1384, Granada again re-took Ceuta but lost it definitively to Kingdom of Fez in 1386. Finally Ceuta was taken by the Portuguese Empire in 1415 and by the Spanish Empire in 1580.Granada's peace with Castile broke down on various occasions. Granada lost territory to Castile at the Battle of Teba in 1330. In 1340, Granada under Yusuf I supported the failed Marinid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, which ended at the Battle of Río Salado.

    Regional entrepôt

    (File:Spain and Western North Africa 1360.jpg|thumb|left|Granada and its surrounding states in 1360)Granada's status as a tributary state and its favorable geographic location, with the Sierra Nevada as a natural barrier, helped to prolong Nasrid rule and allowed the Emirate to prosper as a regional entrepôt with the Maghreb and the rest of Africa. The city of Granada was one of the largest cities during this time: it accepted numerous Muslim refugees expelled from Christian controlled areas, doubling the size of the cityGranada- The Last Refuge of Muslims in Spain by Salah Zaimeche and even becoming the largest city of Europe in 1450 in terms of population. During this time there were 137 mosques in the Medina of Grenada.WEB, Minaret of San Juan De Los Reyes and Mosque of The Conversos,weblink legadonazari.blogspot.com, 18 October 2018, Granada also served as a refuge for Muslims fleeing during the Reconquista. Regardless of its comparative prosperity, intra-political strife was constant. Skirmishes along the border of Granada occurred frequently and territory was gradually lost to Castile.Granada was tightly integrated in Mediterranean trade networks and heavily financed by Genoese bankers aiming to gain control of the gold trade carried in through Trans-Saharan trade routes.BOOK, Arrighi, Giovanni, The Long Twentieth Century, 2010, Verso, 978-1-84467-304-9, 120, However, after Portugal opened direct trade routes to Sub-Saharan Africa by sea in the 15th century, Granada became less important as a regional commercial center. With the union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, these kingdoms set their sights on annexing Granada.File:Reino_de_Granada_cuarto_dírhem_23111.jpg|thumb|left|Silver coinSilver coin

    Fall of Granada

    The war of Granada would offer an opportunity for Ferdinand and Isabella to harness the restless Castilian nobility against a common enemy and instill subjects with a sense of loyalty to the crown.BOOK, Barton, Simon, A History of Spain, 2004, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-230-20012-8, 103, The Emirate's attack on the Castilian frontier town of Zahara in December 1481 led to a prolonged war. The Granada War began in 1482, with Christian forces capturing Alhama de Granada in February 1482. This marked the beginning of a grinding 10-year war. The Christian force was made up of troops provided by Castilian nobles, towns, and the Santa Hermandad, as well as Swiss mercenaries.BOOK, Barton, Simon, History of Spain, 2004, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-230-20012-8, 104, The Catholic Church also encouraged other Christian countries to offer their troops and their finances to the war effort. Meanwhile, civil war erupted in Granada as a result of succession struggles in the Nasrid ruling house. Castile used this internal strife as an opportunity to push further into Granada. By 1491, the city of Granada itself lay under siege. On November 25, 1491, the Treaty of Granada was signed, setting out the conditions for surrender. On January 2, 1492, the last Muslim leader, Muhammad XII, known as Boabdil to the Spanish, gave up complete control of Granada, to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos ("The Catholic Monarchs").

    Aftermath

    {{refimprove section|date=June 2013}}The Christian ousting of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula with the conquest of Granada did not extinguish the spirit of the Reconquista. Isabella urged Christians to pursue a conquest of Africa.BOOK, Barton, Simon, A History of Spain, 2004, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-230-20012-8, 105, About 200,000 Muslims are thought to have emigrated{{dubious|date=June 2013}} to North Africa after the fall of Granada. Initially, under the conditions of surrender, the Muslims who remained were guaranteed their property, laws, customs, and religion. This however, was not the case, causing the Muslims to rebel against their Christian rulers, culminating with an uprising in 1500. The rebellion was seen as a chance to formally end the treaty of Granada, and the rights of Muslims and Jews were withdrawn. Muslims in the area were given the choice of expulsion or conversion. In 1568–1571, the descendants of the converted Muslims revolted again, leading to their expulsion from the former Emirate to North Africa and Anatolia.For Jews as well, a period of mixed religious tolerance and persecution under Muslim rule in Spain came to an end with their expulsion by the Christian monarchy in 1492.

    List of sultans of Granada

    {| class="wikitable sortable"! Years !! Ruler !! ReignMuhammad I of Granada>Muhammed I ibn Nasr Muhammad II of Granada>Muhammed II al-Faqih Muhammed III, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed III Nasr, Sultan of Granada>Nasr Ismail I, Sultan of Granada>Ismail I Muhammed IV, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed IV Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada>Yusuf I Muhammed V of Granada>Muhammed V Ismail II, Sultan of Granada>Ismail II Muhammed VI, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed VI Muhammed V of Granada>Muhammed V SecondYusuf II, Sultan of Granada>Yusuf II Muhammed VII, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed VII Yusuf III, Sultan of Granada>Yusuf III Muhammed VIII, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed VIII Muhammed IX, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed IX Muhammed VIII, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed VIII SecondMuhammed IX, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed IX SecondYusuf IV, Sultan of Granada>Yusuf IV Muhammed IX, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed IX Third Yusuf V, Sultan of Granada>Yusuf V Muhammed X, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed X Muhammed IX, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed IX FourthMuhammed XI, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed XI Sa'ad, Sultan of Granada>Sa'ad Yusuf V, Sultan of Granada>Yusuf V SecondAbu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada>Ali Abu l-Hasan Muhammad XII of Granada>Muhammed XII Abu ‘Abd Allah Abu l-Hasan Ali, Sultan of Granada>Ali Abu l-Hasan SecondMuhammed XIII, Sultan of Granada>Muhammed XIII Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muhammad XII of Granada>Muhammed XII Abu ‘Abd Allah Second

    See also

    References

    {{reflist}}

    Bibliography

    • BOOK, The Alhambra. Vol 1. From the Ninth Century to Yusuf I (1354), Antonio, Fernández Puertas, Saqi Books, 1997, 0-86356-466-6,
    • BOOK, The Alhambra. Vol. 2. (1354–1391), Antonio, Fernández Puertas, Saqi Books, 0-86356-467-4,
    • BOOK, Islamic Spain 1250 to 1500, Leonard Patrick, Harvey, University of Chicago Press, 1992, 0-226-31962-8,
    • BOOK, A History of Islamic Spain, W. Montgomery, Watt, William Montgomery Watt, Edinburgh University Press, 1965, 0-7486-0847-8,
    • BOOK, Rachel, Arié, L’Espagne musulmane au Temps des Nasrides (1232–1492), De Boccard, 1990, 2nd, 2-7018-0052-8, french,
    • BOOK, Bueno, Francisco, Los Reyes de la Alhambra. Entre la historia y la leyenda, Miguel Sánchez, 2004, 84-7169-082-9, Spanish,
    • BOOK, Cortés Peña, Antonio Luis, Bernard, Vincent, Historia de Granada. 4 vols., Editorial Don Quijote, 1983–1987, Spanish,
    • BOOK, Cristobal Torrez Delgado, El Reino Nazari de Granada, 1982, Spanish,
    • BOOK, The Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, Ambroxio Huici, Miranda, The Cambridge History of Islam, P.M, Holt, Ann K.S., Lambton, Bernard, Lewis, Vol. 2A, Cambridge University Press, 1970, harv,

    External links

    {{commons category|Emirate of Granada}}
    • Granada- The Last Refuge of Muslims in Spain by Salah Zaimeche
    • {{es icon}} weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090427093923weblink">Al-Ándalus III: el Sultanato De Granada (1232–1492) y Una Breve Reseña Sobre la Alhambra
    • {{es icon}} R.H. Shamsuddín Elía, Historia de Al-Andalus, Boletín N° 53 -08/2006 weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927010027weblink">Al-Ándalus III: El Sultanato De Granada (1232–1492)
    • {{es icon}} Nicolás Homar Vives, Genealogy of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
    • {{fr icon}} weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081113170329weblink">Genealogy of the muslim dynasties in Spain
    • {{ar icon}} Les Nasrides, Les Banû al-Ahmar à Grenade
    {{coord|37|11|N|3|36|W|type:city_source:kolossus-hewiki|display=title}}{{Spanish Kingdoms |state=expanded}}{{authority control}}

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