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Einstein's static universe

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Einstein's static universe
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Einstein's static universe, also known as the Einstein universe or the Einstein world, is a relativistic model of the universe proposed by Albert Einstein in 1917.JOURNAL, Einstein, Albert, Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie, Sitzungs. König. Preuss. Akad., 1917, Sitzungsb. König. Preuss. Akad. 142–152, BOOK, Lorentz H.A., Einstein A., Minkowski H., H. Weyl, The Principle of Relativity, Metheun & Co., New York, 1923, 175–188, Shortly after completing the general theory of relativity, Einstein applied his new theory of gravity to the universe as a whole. Assuming a universe that was static in time, and possessed of a uniform distribution of matter on the largest scales, Einstein was led to a finite, static universe of spherical spatial curvature.In order to achieve a consistent solution to the Einstein field equations for the case of a static universe with a non-zero density of matter, Einstein found it necessary to introduce a new term to the field equations, the cosmological constant. In the resulting model, the radius R and density of matter ρ of the universe were related to the cosmological constant λ according to λ = 1/R2 = κρ/2 where κ is the Einstein constant.JOURNAL, O'Raifeartaigh et.al, Einstein's 1917 static model of the universe: a centennial review, Eur. Phys. J. H, 2017, 42, 3, 431–474, 10.1140/epjh/e2017-80002-5, 1701.07261, 2017EPJH...42..431O, Following the discovery by Edwin Hubble of a linear relation between the redshifts of the galaxies and their distance in 1929,JOURNAL, Hubble, Edwin, A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1929, 15, 3, 168–173, 10.1073/pnas.15.3.168, 16577160, 522427, 1929PNAS...15..168H, Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe and proposed expanding models such as the Friedmann-Einstein universe and the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In both cases, he set the cosmological constant to zero, declaring it "no longer necessary ... and theoretically unsatisfactory".JOURNAL, Einstein, Albert, Zum kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie, Sitzungsb. König. Preuss. Akad., 1931, 235–237, BOOK, Einstein, Albert, Relativity: The Special and General Theories, 1946, Metheun, New York, 137, 16th, JOURNAL, O'Raifeartaigh and McCann, Einstein's cosmic model of 1931 revisited: an analysis and translation of a forgotten model of the universe, Eur. Phys. J. H, 2014, 39, 1, 63–85, 10.1140/epjh/e2013-40038-x, 1312.2192, 2014EPJH...39...63O, BOOK, Nussbaumer and Bieri, Discovering the Expanding Universe, 2009, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 147,

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