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Earthworks (engineering)

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Earthworks (engineering)
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{{refimprove|date=March 2015}}File:CAT-D10N-at-work-01.jpg|thumb|300px|Caterpillar D10 bulldozerbulldozerEarthworks are engineering works created through the processing of parts of the earth's surface involving quantities of soil or unformed rock.

Types of excavation

(File:Bell telephone magazine (1922) (14569641579).jpg|thumb|300px|Earth moving equipment (circa 1922))File:Construction site near Yass site cleared and bull dozed cleared steam roller in background.JPG|thumb|Flattened and leveled construction site. Road rollerRoad rollerExcavation may be classified by type of material:Frederick S. Merritt, M. Kent Loftin, Jonathan T. Ricketts, Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1995.{{rp|13.1}}
  • Topsoil excavation
  • Earth excavation
  • Rock excavation
  • Muck excavation – this usually contains excess water and unsuitable soil
  • Unclassified excavation – this is any combination of material types
Excavation may be classified by the purpose:{{rp|13.1, 13.2}}
  • (wikt:stripVerb|Stripping)
  • Roadway excavation
  • Drainage or structure excavation
  • Bridge excavation
  • Channel excavation
  • Footing excavation
  • Borrow excavation
  • Dredge excavation
  • Underground excavation

Civil engineering use

Typical earthworks include road construction, railway beds, causeways, dams, levees, canals, and berms. Other common earthworks are land grading to reconfigure the topography of a site, or to stabilize slopes.File:Geofoam bridge overpass.jpg|thumb|250px|Geofoam is a new lightweight earthworks technique used to build a bridge overpass on weak soil near MontrealMontreal

Military use

(File:Ipf Wall.jpg|thumb|Earthworks ditch and rampart in Germany - age prehistorical prior to 300 BC)In military engineering, earthworks are, more specifically, types of fortifications constructed from soil. Although soil is not very strong, it is cheap enough that huge quantities can be used, generating formidable structures. Examples of older earthwork fortifications include moats, sod walls, motte-and-bailey castles, and hill forts. Modern examples include trenches and berms.

Equipment

Heavy construction equipment is usually used due to the amounts of material to be moved — up to millions of cubic metres. Earthwork construction was revolutionized by the development of the (Fresno) scraper and other earth-moving machines such as the loader, the dump truck, the grader, the bulldozer, the backhoe, and the dragline excavator.

Mass haul planning

(File:Panama Canal under construction, 1907.jpg|thumb|Excavation of over 76 million cubic metres (23 million cubic metres of which was additional to the planned amount due to landslides) for the Culebra Cut, Panama canal construction photo taken circa 1907)Engineers need to concern themselves with issues of geotechnical engineering (such as soil density and strength) and with quantity estimation to ensure that soil volumes in the cuts match those of the fills, while minimizing the distance of movement. In the past, these calculations were done by hand using a slide rule and with methods such as Simpson's rule. Earthworks cost is a function of hauled amount x hauled distance. The goal of mass haul planning is to determine these amounts and the goal of mass haul optimization is to minimize either or both.WEB, Earthworks cost optimization through mass haul planning,weblink www.topconplanning.com, 7 June 2015, Now they can be performed with a computer and specialized software, including optimisation on haul cost and not haul distance (as haul cost is not proportional to haul distance).

See also

References

External links



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