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ETH Zurich
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| administrative_staff = 2,658 (full-time equivalents 2017, 42.5% female, 24.4% foreign nationals)| students = 20,607 (headcount 2017, 31.8% female, 38.7% foreign nationals)| undergrad = 9,262| postgrad = 6,158| doctoral = 4,092| other = 1,095| address = Rämistrasse 101CH-8092 ZürichSwitzerland| city = Zurich4735853region:CH-ZH_type:edu|display=inline,title}}Urban area>Urban| language = German, English (Masters and upwards, sometimes Bachelor)Conference of European Schools for Advanced Engineering Education and Research>CESAER, European University Association, GlobalTech, International Alliance of Research Universities>IARU, IDEA League1=https://www.ethz.ch/en.html|2=www.ethz.ch}}ACCESSDATE=2019-03-02, {{color boxwhite}}}}{{Location map | Switzerland| caption = Location: ETH Zurich, Switzerland| width = 250| label = ETH Zurich| label-size = 90| background = #DDDD44| position = top| lat_deg = 47| lat_min = 22 | lon_deg = 8| lon_min = 32 marksize=8| float = right}}ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; ; French: École polytechnique fédérale de Zurich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. Like its sister institution EPFL, it is an integral part of the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain (ETH Domain) that is directly subordinate to Switzerland's Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research.WEB,weblink ETH Board - Governance ETH Domain, eth-rat.ch, 2013-11-01, The school was founded by the Swiss Federal Government in 1854 with the stated mission to educate engineers and scientists, serve as a national center of excellence in science and technology and provide a hub for interaction between the scientific community and industry.JOURNAL,weblink PDF, Bericht über den Entwurf zu einem Reglemente für die Eidgenössische polytechnische Schule, Schweizerisches Bundesblatt, 6, 21 June 1854, 39, Bd. 3, 163–182, Swiss Federal Council, Berne, Switzerland, ethistory.ethz.ch, In the 2020 edition of the QS World University Rankings ETH Zurich has been ranked 6th in the world (2nd in Europe after the University of Oxford),NEWS,weblink QS World University Rankings 2020, 2019-05-22, Top Universities, 2019-05-22, en, which represents a one place improvement compared to the 2019 edition,NEWS,weblink QS World University Rankings 2019, 2018-05-29, Top Universities, 2018-06-22, en, and is also ranked 13th in the world by the Times Higher Education World Rankings 2018 (4th in Europe after Oxbridge and Imperial College London).NEWS,weblink World University Rankings, 2017-08-18, Times Higher Education (THE), 2018-06-22, en, In the 2019 QS World University Rankings by subject it is ranked 3rd in the world for engineering and technology (1st in Europe), and 1st for Earth & Marine Science.WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings by Subject 2019 - Engineering & Technology, Top Universities, QS Quacquarelli Symonds, 2019-03-02, WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings by Subject 2019 - Earth & Marine Sciences, Top Universities, QS Quacquarelli Symonds, 2019-03-02, As of August 2018, 32 Nobel laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, and 1 Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the Institute, including Albert Einstein. It is a founding member of the IDEA League and the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) and a member of the CESAER network.

History

(File:Hundert Jahre Bilder aus der Stadt Zürich - Das Polytechnikum 1865.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Polytechnikum in 1865)(File:ETH Zentrum.jpg|thumb|upright|left|ETH Zürich Zentrum)ETH was founded on 7 February 1854 by the Swiss Confederation and began giving its first lectures on 16 October 1855 as a polytechnic institute (eidgenössische polytechnische Schule) at various sites throughout the city of Zurich.WEB, 1848–1855: The polytechnical realisation of a long-held dream,weblink ETH Zürich, 2018-02-05, It was initially composed of six faculties: architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry, forestry, and an integrated department for the fields of mathematics, natural sciences, literature, and social and political sciences.It is locally still known as Polytechnikum, or simply as Poly, derived from the original name eidgenössische polytechnische Schule,WEB,weblink ETHistory 1855-2005, ETH Zurich, 2005, ETHistory, 19 July 2015, which translates to "federal polytechnic school".ETH is a federal institute (i.e., under direct administration by the Swiss government), whereas the University of Zurich is a cantonal institution. The decision for a new federal university was heavily disputed at the time; the liberals pressed for a "federal university", while the conservative forces wanted all universities to remain under cantonal control, worried that the liberals would gain more political power than they already had.WEB,weblink 1848-1855: Polytechnical realization of an old dream, ETH Zurich, 31 March 2005, ETHistory, 2018-02-05, In the beginning, both universities were co-located in the buildings of the University of Zurich.From 1905 to 1908, under the presidency of Jérôme Franel, the course program of ETH was restructured to that of a real university and ETH was granted the right to award doctorates. In 1909 the first doctorates were awarded. In 1911, it was given its current name, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. In 1924, another reorganization structured the university in 12 departments. However, it now has 16 departments.(File:ETH Interior.jpg|upright|thumb|right|Interior skylights in the main building)ETH Zurich, the EPFL, and four associated research institutes form the "ETH Domain" with the aim of collaborating on scientific projects.WEB,weblink ETH Domain, ETH Board, Zurich and Berne, Switzerland, 2015-02-23,

Reputation and ranking









factoids
ETH Zurich is ranked among the top universities in the world. Typically, popular rankings place the institution as the best university in continental Europe and ETH Zurich is consistently ranked among the top 1-5 universities in Europe, and among the top 3-10 best universities of the world.Historically, ETH Zurich has achieved its reputation particularly in the fields of chemistry, mathematics and physics. There are 32 Nobel Laureates who are associated with ETH. The most recent Nobel Laureate is Richard F. Heck who was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2010. Albert Einstein is perhaps its most famous alumnus.JOURNAL, ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879 – 1955),weblink Zuerich, In 2018, the QS World University Rankings placed ETH Zurich at 7th overall in the world.WEB, QS World University Rankings,weblink Top Universities, QS Quacquarelli Symonds, 16 June 2018, live, In 2015, ETH was ranked 5th in the world in Engineering, Science and Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Cambridge University and National University of Singapore. In 2015, ETH also ranked 6th in the world in Natural Sciences, and in 2016 ranked 1st in the world for Earth & Marine Sciences for the second consecutive year.WEB, QS World University Rankings by Subject 2016 - Earth & Marine Sciences,weblink Top Universities, QS Quacquarelli Symonds, 14 September 2016, In 2016, Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked ETH Zurich 9th overall in the world and 8th in the world in the field of Engineering & Technology, just behind the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, California Institute of Technology, Princeton University, Cambridge University, Imperial College London and Oxford University.WEB,weblink ETH Zurich – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Times Higher Education, 19 July 2015, In a comparison of Swiss universities by weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100330050940weblink">swissUP Ranking and in rankings published by CHE comparing the universities of German-speaking countries, ETH Zurich traditionally is ranked first in natural sciences, computer science and engineering sciences.In the survey weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081010153923weblink">CHE ExcellenceRanking on the quality of Western European graduate school programmes in the fields biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics, ETH was assessed as one of the three institutions to have excellent graduate programmes in all considered fields, the other two being the Imperial College London and the University of Cambridge. ETH Zurich had a total budget of 1.885 billion CHF in the year 2017.

Admission and education

{{ETH Institutes}}(File:ETH Dome.jpg|thumb|left|Students and locals in ETH front courtyard)For Swiss students, ETH is not selective in its undergraduate admission procedures. Like every public university in Switzerland, ETH is obliged to grant admission to every Swiss resident who took the Matura.WEB, Admission to the first semester with a Swiss matriculation certificate ("Matura"), ETH Zurich,weblink 4 April 2014, Applicants from foreign countries are required to take either the reduced entrance exam or the comprehensive entrance exam although some applicants from several European countries are exempted from this rule. An applicant can be admitted to ETH even without any verifiable educational records by passing the comprehensive entrance exam.WEB, Admission to first semester without Swiss matriculation certificate, ETH Zurich,weblink 4 April 2014, As at all universities in Switzerland, the academic year is divided into two semesters. Examinations are often held during examination sessions which are immediately before the beginning of the next semester (only a few select courses offer an exam immediately after the semester ends). After the first year of study, bachelor students must pass a block examination of all courses taken in the first year, called the Basisprüfung. If the weighted average score is not sufficient, a student is required to retake the entire Basisprüfung which usually means having to re-sit the whole first year. About 50% of the students fail the Basisprüfung on the first try and many of them choose to drop out of the course instead of repeating the Basisprüfung.The structure of examinations in higher academic years is similar to the Basisprüfung (Basis examination), but with a higher success rate.The regular time to reach graduation is six semesters for the Bachelor of Science degree and three or four further semesters for the Master of Science degree. The final semester is dedicated to writing a thesis.Education at ETH Zurich generally focuses more on theoretical aspects than application and most degree programs contain a high amount of mathematical training. The main language of instruction in undergraduate (Bachelor) studies is German and for admission a proof of sufficient knowledge of the German language is required for Bachelor students.WEB, Language requirements, ETH Zurich,weblink 4 April 2014, Most Master's programmes and doctoral studies are in English.

Campus

{{more citations needed|section|date=February 2018}}(File:ETH-Hoenggerberg-2008.jpg|thumb|320px|ETH Hönggerberg with the new HIT building)ETH Zurich has two campuses. The main building was constructed 1858–1864 outside and right above the eastern border of the town, but nowadays it is located right in the heart of the city. As the town and university grew, the ETH spread into the surrounding vineyards and later quarters. As a result, the Zentrum campus consists of various buildings and institutions throughout Zürich and firmly integrates the ETH in the city. The main building stands directly across the street from the University Hospital of Zurich and the University of Zurich.Because this geographic situation substantially hindered the expansion of ETH, a new campus was built from 1964 to 1976 on the Hönggerberg on a northern hill in the outskirts of the city. The last major expansion project of this new campus was completed in 2003; since then, the Hönggerberg location houses the departments of architecture, civil engineering, biology, chemistry, materials science and physics.

Main building

(File:ETH Zürich Hauptgebäude, Ansicht von der Polyterasse 2011-08-06 ShiftN.jpg|thumb|Main building as seen from Polyterrasse)(File:ETH Zürich im Abendlicht.jpg|thumb|ETH Zurich at night.)The main building of ETH was built from 1858 to 1864 under Gustav Zeuner; the architect, however, was Gottfried Semper, who was a professor of architecture at ETH at the time and one of the most important architectural writers and theorists of the age. Semper worked in a neoclassical style that was unique to him; and the namesake and architect of the Semperoper in Dresden. It emphasized bold and clear massings with a detailing, such as the rusticated ground level and giant order above, that derived in part from the work of Andrea Palladio and Donato Bramante. During the construction of the University of Zürich, the south wing of the building was allocated to the University until its own new main building was constructed (1912–1914). At about the same time, Semper's ETH building was enlarged and received its impressive cupola.

Science City

In the year of ETH Zurich's 150th anniversary, an extensive project called "Science City" for the Hönggerberg Campus was started with the goal to transform the campus into an attractive district based on the principle of sustainability.(File:ETH Hönggerberg Frontansicht.JPG|540px|center|thumb|ETH Hönggerberg from the south, looking at the five "fingers" of the HCI and behind the high HPP building.)In September 2014 a new project to connect Science City by train was published.WEB,weblink Tunnelbahnhof für "Science City", www.adf-innovation.com, de,

ETH Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics

The ETH Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIB) is a physics laboratory located in Science City. It specializes in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and the use of ion beam based techniques with applications in archeology, earth sciences, life sciences, material sciences and fundamental physics. An example of such application is the tracing of isotopes and the detection of rare radionuclides with radiocarbon dating and the use of techniques such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry or elastic recoil detection.WEB
, The world of Ion Beam Physics
, overview
, ETH Zurich
, September 2010
,weblink
,
, 2010-09-05, The LIB is developing the next generation of AMS machines. It is also a laboratory available for users interested in applying the techniques of ion beam analysis.WEB,weblink Laboratory for Ion Physics, September 2010, ETH Zurich, Department of Physics, 2010-09-05,

Student life

ETH students were found to be the busiest students of all institutions of higher education in Switzerland."Willkommen auf Students.ch" {{De icon}}{{Failed verification|date=December 2009}} The undergraduates' tight curriculum consists of as much as twice the number of lectures as comparable courses of other Swiss universities.{{citation needed|date=April 2011}}ETH has well over 100 student associations. Most notable is the VSETH (Verband der Studierenden an der ETH) which comprises all department associations. The associations regularly organize events with varying size and popularity. Events of the neighboring University of Zürich are well-attended by ETH students and vice versa. The VSETH organizes events of greater public attention, such as the Polyball, the Polyparty (does not exist any more) and the Erstsemestrigenfest, the first two housed in the main building of ETH. Sometimes, the annual Erstsemestrigenfest takes place at extraordinary locations, for example the Zurich Airport. All freshmen enjoy special treatment at that event.Some of the notable associations that are not affiliated with a specific department are the ETH Entrepreneur Club and ETH Model United Nations. Both organisations enjoy high international standings and are regularly awarded for excellence in their field.{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} ETH Juniors is another student run organisation. It forms a bridge between the industry and ETH and offers many services for students and companies alike.WEB,weblink ETH Juniors, 29 August 2017, The Academic Sports Association of Zürich (ASVZ) offers more than 120 sports.WEB,weblink Academic Sports Association Zurich, January 25, 2017, The biggest annual sports event is the SOLA-Stafette (SOLA relay race) which consists of 14 sections over a total distance of 140 kilometers. More than 760 teams participated in the 2009 edition.SOLA-Stafette 2009 The 40th edition of the SOLA, held on May 4, 2013, had 900 enrolled teams, of which 893 started and 876 were classified.SOLA - Erfolgreiche Jubiläumsstafette In 2014 ASVZ celebrated their 75th anniversary.WEB,weblink ASVZ, 19 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150801034944weblink">weblink 1 August 2015,

Traditions

The annual Polyball is the most prestigious public event at ETH, with a long tradition since the 1880s. The end of November, the Polyball welcomes around 10,000 dancers, music-lovers and partygoers in the extensively decorated main building of ETH. The Polyball is the biggest decorated ball in Europe.The amicable rivalry between ETH and the neighbouring University of Zürich has been cultivated since 1951 (Uni-Poly). There has been an annual rowing match between teams from the two institutions on the river Limmat.There are many regular symposia and conferences at ETH, most notably the annual Wolfgang Pauli Lectures, in honor of former ETH Professor Wolfgang Pauli. Distinct lecturers, among them 24 Nobel Laureates, have held lectures of the various fields of natural sciences at this conference since 1962.

Notable alumni and faculty

File:Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 2.jpg|thumb|Albert EinsteinAlbert EinsteinFile:JohnvonNeumann-LosAlamos.gif|thumb|John von Neumann, graduated in chemical engineering, ETH Zurich 1925.WEB, Ed Regis, Johnny Jiggles the Planet,weblink The New York TimesThe New York TimesThe names listed below are taken from the official record compiled by the ETH. It includes only graduates of the ETH and professors who have been awarded the Nobel Prize for their achievements at ETH.WEB,weblink Die ETH Zürich, 19 July 2015,

Nobel Prize in Physics

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Nobel Prize in Medicine

Other Nobel Laureates directly affiliated with the ETH

ETH Rectors

ETH Presidents

ETH Zurich has produced and attracted many famous scientists in its short history, including Albert Einstein. More than twenty Nobel laureates have either studied at ETH or were awarded the Nobel Prize for their work achieved at ETH. Other alumni include scientists who were distinguished with the highest honours in their respective fields, amongst them Fields Medal, Pritzker Prize and Turing Award winners. Academic achievements aside, ETH has been Alma Mater to many Olympic Medalists and world champions.

Related Organizations

Collegium Helveticum

The Collegium Helveticum is an Institute for Advanced Study.Collegium Helveticum. eurias Network of French Institutes for Advanced Study. Retrieved 4 August 2019 It is jointly supported and operated by the ETH Zurich, the University of Zurich and the Zurich University of the Arts. It is dedicated to transdisciplinary research and acts as a think tank as well. Fellows are elected for five years to work together on a particular subject. For the period 2016–2020, the research focus is on digital societies.Website Collegium Helveticum. Retrieved 4 August 2019

ETH Zurich Foundation

The ETH Zurich Foundation is a legal entity on its own (a Swiss non-profit foundation) and as such not part of the ETH Zurich. Its purpose is to raise funds to support chosen institutes, projects, faculty and students at the ETH Zurich. It receives charitable donations from companies, foundations and private individuals. It can be compared with university endowments in the USA. However, the ETH Zurich is a public university so that the funds of this foundation are much smaller than at comparable private universities.René Donzé: ETH sucht Sponsoren in Deutschland. Neue Zürcher Zeitung am Sonntag, 7 April 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2019 Examples of funded teaching and research are:Website ETH Foundation. Retrieved 4 August 2019

Military Academy

The Military Academy is an institution for the education, training and development of career officers of the Swiss Armed Forces. The scientific part of this organization is attached to the ETH Zurich, while other parts such as training and an assessment center are under the direct management of the defence sector of the Swiss Federal Government.Military Academy (MILAC). Website Military Academy, Swiss Armed Forces. Retrieved 4 August 2019

Swiss National Supercomputing Center

The Swiss National Supercomputing Centre is an autonomous organizational unit of the ETH Zurich. It is a national facility based in Lugano, offering high-performance computing services for Swiss-based scientists.Swiss National Supercomputing Center. Retrieved 4 August 2019

Gallery

Panorama eth-hit-interieur.jpg|ETH HIT building interiorPanorama eth-hpt-tree.jpg|ETH HPT Tree in WinterPanorama ETH HIT F21.jpg|ETH HIT F 21 Seminar roomETH-HIL-HIP-HIT.jpg|ETH HIL, HIP, and HIT buildingsPanorama ETH-HPS.jpg|ETH HPS building

See also

Notes and references

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • {{Citation |authors=David Gugerli, Patrick Kupper, Daniel Speich |title=Die Zukunftsmaschine. Konjunkturen der ETH Zürich 1855-2005. |date=2005 |publisher=CHRONOS |language=de |location=Zurich, Switzerland |url=http://www.ethistory.ethz.ch/besichtigungen/epochen/debatte1/ausblick/werbetext_zukunftsmaschine/popupfriendly/ |via=www.ethistory.ethz.ch}}

External links

{{Commons category}} {{Universities in Switzerland}}{{Research institutes in Switzerland}}{{Navboxes|list1={{Top Industrial Managers for Europe|State=collapsed}}{{Global Alliance of Technological Universities}}{{International Alliance of Research Universities}}{{IDEA League}}{{CESAER}}}}{{Authority control}}

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