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E. Howard Hunt
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| birth_place = Hamburg, New York, United States20072310mf=y}}| death_place = Miami, Florida, United States| buried =Hamburg, New York, United States| height =| nationality = American| religion =| residence =| parents = Everette Howard Hunt Sr. and Ethel Jean Totterdale| spouse = Dorothy Louise Wetzel Laura E. Martin| children = Lisa Tiffany Hunt, Kevan Spence (nee Hunt), Howard Saint John Hunt, David Hunt, Austin Hunt, Hollis Hunt Central Intelligence Agency>CIA officer, author| alma_mater = Brown University| signature =}}Everette Howard Hunt Jr. (October 9, 1918 â€“ January 23, 2007), better known as E. Howard Hunt, was an American intelligence officer and published author of 73 books. From 1949 to 1970, Hunt served as an officer in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Along with G. Gordon Liddy and others, Hunt was one of the Nixon administration "plumbers", a team of operatives charged with identifying government sources of national security information "leaks" to outside parties. Hunt and Liddy plotted the Watergate burglaries and other clandestine operations for the Nixon administration. In the ensuing Watergate scandal, Hunt was convicted of burglary, conspiracy, and wiretapping, eventually serving 33 months in prison.

Early life and career

Hunt was born in Hamburg, New York,NEWS, Weiner, Tim, Tim Weiner, January 24, 2007, E. Howard Hunt, Agent Who Organized Botched Watergate Break-In, Dies at 88,weblink The New York Times, July 7, 2015, United States, the son of Ethel Jean (Totterdale) and Everette Howard Hunt Sr., an attorney and Republican Party official. He graduated from Hamburg High School in 1936Szulc, Compulsive Spy, p 56. and Brown University in 1940. During World War II, Hunt served in the U.S. Navy on the destroyer USS Mayo, the United States Army Air Corps, and finally, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in China.JOURNAL, Hedegaard, Erik, The Last Confessions of E. Howard Hunt, Rolling Stone, April 5, 2007,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080618150441weblink">weblink June 18, 2008,

Author

Hunt was a prolific author.Bookfinder.com. (February 5, 2013) During and after the war, he wrote several novels under his own name, including East of Farewell (1942), Limit of Darkness (1944), Stranger in Town (1947), Bimini Run (1949), and The Violent Ones (1950) . He also wrote, more famously, several spy and hardboiled novels under an array of pseudonyms, including Robert Dietrich, Gordon Davis and David St. John. Hunt won a Guggenheim Fellowship for his writing in 1946. Some of his writings found parallels in his espionage and Watergate experiencesweblink

CIA and anti-Castro efforts

Warner Bros. had just bought rights to Hunt's novel Bimini Run when he joined the CIA's Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) in October 1949 as a covert action officer specializing in political action and influence, in what later came to be called the CIA's Special Activities Division.Safe For Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA, John Prados, 2006 page xxii The CIA was the successor organization of the OSS.According to David Talbot, "Howard Hunt prided himself on being part of the CIA’s upper tier. But that’s not how he was viewed at the top of the agency. Hunt liked to brag that he had family connections to Wild Bill Donovan himself, who had admitted him into the OSS, the original roundtable of American intelligence. But it turned out that Hunt’s father was a lobbyist in upstate New York to whom Donovan owed a favor, not a fellow Wall Street lawyer. Everyone knew Hunt was a writer, but they also knew he was no Ian Fleming. To the Georgetown set, there would always be something low-rent about men like Hunt—as well as William Harvey and David Morales. The CIA was a cold hierarchy. Men like this would never be invited for lunch with Allen Dulles at the Alibi Club or to play tennis with Dick Helms at the Chevy Chase Club. These men were indispensable—until they became expendable."https://www.salon.com/2015/11/22/inside_the_plot_to_kill_jfk_the_secret_story_of_the_cia_and_what_really_happened_in_dallas/

Mexico, Guatemala, Japan, Uruguay and Cuba

Hunt became the OPC Station Chief in Mexico City in 1950, and recruited and supervised William F. Buckley Jr., who worked in Hunt's OPC Station in Mexico during the period 1951–1952. Buckley and Hunt remained lifelong friends and Buckley became godfather to Hunt's first three children.William F. Buckley Jr. (January 26, 2007), "Howard Hunt, RIP" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927010257weblink |date=2007-09-27 }}. Buckley describes their early friendship in Mexico in his introduction to Hunt's posthumously-published memoir, American Spy.In Mexico, Hunt helped lay the framework for Operation PBFORTUNE, later renamed Operation PBSUCCESS, the successful covert operation to overthrow Jacobo Árbenz, the democratic elected president of Guatemala. Hunt was assigned as Chief of Covert Action in Japan. He afterwards served as Chief of Station in Uruguay, (where he was noted by American diplomatic contemporary Samuel F. Hart for controversial working methods).Tim Weiner, Obituary: E. Howard Hunt, Agent Who Organized Botched Watergate Break-In, Dies at 88, New York Times, 24 January 2007 weblink Hunt was subsequently given the assignment of forging Cuban exile leaders in the United States into a broadly representative government-in-exile that would, after the Bay of Pigs Invasion, form a pro-American Puppet state to take over Cuba.Tad Szulc, Compulsive Spy: The Strange Career of E. Howard Hunt (New York: Viking, 1974), 78. The failure of the invasion temporarily damaged his career.Hunt was undeniably bitter about what he perceived as President John F. Kennedy's lack of commitment in attacking and overthrowing the government of Cuba.Rosenberg, Carol (June 28, 2001). Plotter of Bay of Pigs, Watergate conspirator: 'File and forget' Castro. Miami Herald In his semi-fictional autobiography, Give Us This Day, he wrote: "The Kennedy administration yielded Castro all the excuse he needed to gain a tighter grip on the island of José Martí, then moved shamefacedly into the shadows and hoped the Cuban issue would simply melt away."

Executive Assistant to DCI Allen Dulles

After the Bay of Pigs fiasco, Hunt was reassigned as Executive Assistant to Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Allen Dulles.HSCA Deposition (November 3, 1978), Part II, p. 6:10–17 While Hunt was working on Brigade 2506, he helped Dulles write The Craft of Intelligence (1959).Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 95

Other work & association with G. Gordon Liddy

After President John F. Kennedy fired Dulles in 1961 for the Bay of Pigs failure, Hunt served as the first Chief of Covert Action for the Domestic Operations Division (DODS) from 1962 to 1964.Hunt told The New York Times in 1974 that he spent about four years working for DODS, beginning shortly after it was set up by the Kennedy administration in 1962, over the "strenuous opposition" of Richard Helms and Thomas H. Karamessines. He said that the division was assembled shortly after the Bay of Pigs operation, and that "many men connected with that failure were shunted into the new domestic unit." He said that some of his projects from 1962 to 1966, which dealt largely with the subsidizing and manipulation of news and publishing organizations in the US, "did seem to violate the intent of the agency's charter."Seymour M. Hersh, "Hunt Tells of Early Work For a CIA Domestic Unit," New York Times (December 31, 1974), p. 1, col. 6. In 1964, DCI John A. McCone directed Hunt to take a special assignment as a Non-Official Cover (NOC) officer in Madrid, Spain, tasked to create the American answer to Ian Fleming's British MI-6 James Bond novel series. While assigned in Spain, Hunt was covered as a recently retired U.S. State Department Foreign Service Officer (FSO) who had moved his family to Spain in order to write the first installment of the 9-novel Peter Ward series, On Hazardous Duty (1965).After a year and a half in Spain, Hunt returned to his assignment at DODS. Following a brief tenure on the Special Activities Staff of the Western European Division, he became Chief of Covert Action for the region (while remaining based in the Washington metropolitan area) in July 1968. Hunt was lauded for his "sagacity, balance and imagination", and received the second-highest rating of Strong (signifying "performance... characterized by exceptional proficiency") in a performance review from the Division's Chief of Operations in April 1969. However, this was downgraded to the third-highest rating of Adequate in an amendment from the Division's Deputy Chief, who recognized Hunt's "broad experience" but opined that "a series of personal and taxing problems" had "tended to dull his cutting edge."https://www.archives.gov/files/research/jfk/releases/104-10194-10023.pdf Hunt would later maintain that he "had been stigmatized by the Bay of Pigs", and had come to terms with the fact that he "would not get promoted too much higher."https://books.google.com/books?id=96UjNz1lBV4C&pg=PA157In these final years of Hunt's CIA service, he began to cultivate new contacts in "society and the business world." While serving as vice president of the Brown University Club of Washington, he befriended and commenced a strong association with the organization's president, former congressional aide Charles Colson, who soon began working on Richard Nixon's presidential campaign.Hunt, Give Us This Day, 13–14 Hunt retired from the CIA at the pay grade of GS-15, Step weblink on April 30, 1970.

White House service

{{Watergate|White House}}He went to work for the Robert R. Mullen Company, which cooperated with the CIA; H. R. Haldeman, White House Chief of Staff to President Nixon, wrote in 1978 that the Mullen Company was in fact a CIA front company, a fact that was apparently unknown to Haldeman while he worked in the White House.The Ends of Power, by H. R. Haldeman with Joseph DiMona, 1978 Through CIA's Project QKENCHANT, Hunt obtained a Covert Security Approval to handle the firm's affairs during Mullen's absence from Washingtonweblink ARRB REQUEST: CIA-IR-06, QKENCHANT, Central Intelligence Agency,weblink gif, 1996-05-14, 2010-06-11, 3, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120308121801weblink">weblink 2012-03-08, The following year, he was hired as a consultant by Charles Colson, now Special Counsel to President Richard Nixon, and joined the White House Special Investigations Unit.Having neglected to elect survivorship benefits for his wife upon retiring from the CIA, Hunt raised the possibility of returning to active duty for a short period of time in exchange for activating the benefits upon his proposed second retirement in a May 5, 1972 letter to CIA General Counsel Lawrence Houston. (An April 1971 request to retroactively amend his election was rebuffed by the agency.) However, Houston advised Hunt in his May 16 response that this "would be in violation of the spirit of the CIA Retirement Act".

Watergate and related scandals

Hunt's first assignment for the White House was a covert operation to break into the Los Angeles office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist, Lewis J. Fielding.Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 128 In July 1971, Fielding had refused a request from the Federal Bureau of Investigation for psychiatric data on Ellsberg.Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 127 Hunt and Liddy cased the building in late August.Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 130 The burglary, on September 3, 1971, was not detected, but no Ellsberg files were found.Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 131Also in the summer of 1971, Colson authorized Hunt to travel to New England to seek potentially scandalous information on Senator Edward Kennedy, specifically pertaining to the Chappaquiddick incident and to Kennedy's possible extramarital affairs. Hunt sought and used CIA disguises and other equipment for the project.Marjorie Hunter, "Colson Confirms Backing Kennedy Inquiry but Denies Knowing of Hunt's CIA Aid," New York Times (June 30, 1973), p. 15. This mission eventually proved unsuccessful, with little if any useful information uncovered by Hunt.Hunt's White House duties included assassinations-related disinformation. In September 1971, Hunt forged and offered to a Life magazine reporter two top-secret U.S. State Department cables designed to prove that President Kennedy had personally and specifically ordered the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother, Ngô Đình Nhu.Szulc, Compulsive Spy, 134–135. Hunt told the Senate Watergate Committee in 1973 that he had fabricated the cables to show a link between President Kennedy and the assassination of Diem, a Catholic, to estrange Catholic voters from the Democratic Party, after Colson suggested he "might be able to improve upon the record."David E. Rosenbaum, "Hunt Says He Fabricated Cables on Diem to Link Kennedy to Killing of a Catholic; Testifies Colson Sought To Alienate Democrats," New York Times (September 25, 1973), p. 28.According to Seymour Hersh, writing in The New Yorker, Nixon White House tapes show that after presidential candidate George Wallace was shot on May 15, 1972, Nixon and Colson agreed to send Hunt to the Milwaukee home of the gunman, Arthur Bremer, to place McGovern presidential campaign material there. The intention was to link Bremer with the Democrats. Hersh writes that, in a taped conversation, "Nixon is energized and excited by what seems to be the ultimate political dirty trick: the FBI and the Milwaukee police will be convinced, and will tell the world, that the attempted assassination of Wallace had its roots in left-wing Democratic politics." Hunt did not make the trip, however, because the FBI had moved too quickly to seal Bremer's apartment and place it under police guard.Molotsky, Irvin (December 7, 1992). Article Says Nixon Schemed to Tie Foe to Wallace Attack. "[T]he agent picked for the mission was E. Howard Hunt." The New York TimesHunt organized the bugging of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate office building.Reynolds, Tim. "Watergate Figure E. Howard Hunt Dies." Associated Press. January 23, 2007.A few days after the break-in, Nixon was recorded saying, to H. R. Haldeman, "This fellow Hunt, he knows too damn much."[V]ery bad, to have this fellow Hunt, ah, you know, ah, it's, he, he knows too damn much and he was involved, we happen to know that. And that it gets out that the whole, this is all involved in the Cuban thing, that it's a fiasco, and it's going to make the FBI, ah CIA look bad, it's going to make Hunt look bad, and it's likely to blow the whole, uh, Bay of Pigs thing which we think would be very unfortunate for CIA and for the country at this time, and for American foreign policy, and he just better tough it and lay it on them.Transcript of a Recording of a Meeting Between the President and H. R. Haldeman, the Oval Office, June 23, 1972 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071126221509weblink |date=November 26, 2007 }}Hunt and fellow operative G. Gordon Liddy, along with the five burglars arrested at the Watergate, were indicted on federal charges three months later.Hunt put pressure on the White House and the Committee to Re-Elect the President for cash payments to cover legal fees, family support, and expenses, for himself and his fellow burglars. Key Nixon figures, including Haldeman, Charles Colson, Herbert W. Kalmbach, John Mitchell, Fred LaRue, and John Dean eventually became entangled in the payoff schemes, and large amounts of money were passed to Hunt and his accomplices, to try to ensure their silence at the trial, by pleading guilty to avoid prosecutors' questions, and afterwards.Blind Ambition, by John Dean, New York, 1976, Simon & Schuster Tenacious media, including The Washington Post and The New York Times, eventually used investigative journalism to break open the payoff scheme, and published many articles that proved to be the beginning of the end for the cover-up. Prosecutors had to follow up once the media reported. Hunt also pressured Colson, Dean, and John Ehrlichman to ask Nixon for clemency in sentencing, and eventual presidential pardons for himself and his cronies; this eventually helped to implicate and snare those higher up.All the President's Men, by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, New York, 1974, Simon & SchusterHunt's wife, Dorothy, was killed in the December 8, 1972 plane crash of United Airlines Flight 553 in Chicago. Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the crash, and found it to be an accident caused by crew error.NTSB report {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070620171338weblink |date=June 20, 2007 }} Over $10,000 in cash was found in Dorothy Hunt's handbag in the wreckage.CNN Live Today, "Deadly Plane Skid in Chicago" Aired December 9, 2005.Hunt eventually spent 33 months in prison at Federal Correctional Complex, Allenwood and the low-security Federal Prison Camp at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, on a conspiracy charge, arriving at the latter institution on April 25, 1975.Braxton, Sheila, "Hunt Arrives at Eglin â€“ 'Equal Treatment' Is All He Asks", Playground Daily News, Fort Walton Beach, Florida, Sunday 27 April 1975, Volume 30, Number 68, page 1A. While at Allenwood, he suffered a mild strokeweblink Hunt said he was bitter that he was sent to prison while Nixon was allowed to resign while avoiding prosecution for any crimes he may have committed; later, Nixon was fully pardoned in September 1974 by incoming President Gerald Ford. Hunt eventually applied for a presidential pardon but was turned down by Ronald Reagan in 1983.NEWS, President Reagan Denied Pardons last month to E. Howard..., Ira R. Allen, UPI, May 14, 1983,weblink May 25, 2016,

JFK conspiracy allegations

Hunt supported the Warren Commission's conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.NEWS, Mabe, Chauncey, April 12, 1992, Plumber Sailor, Author Spy,weblink Sun-Sentinel, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, August 16, 2014,

Early allegations: Hunt as one of the "three tramps"

(File:E. Howard Hunt & One of the Three Tramps Arrested after JFK Assassination.jpg|thumb|E. Howard Hunt and one of the three tramps arrested after the assassination of President Kennedy.) The Dallas Morning News, the Dallas Times Herald, and the Fort Worth Star-Telegram photographed three transients under police escort near the Texas School Book Depository shortly after the assassination of Kennedy.BOOK, Bugliosi, Vincent, Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy, 2007, W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 0-393-04525-0, 930, harv, The men later became known as the "three tramps".{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=930}} According to Vincent Bugliosi, allegations that these men were involved in a conspiracy originated from theorist Richard E. Sprague who compiled the photographs in 1966 and 1967, and subsequently turned them over to Jim Garrison during his investigation of Clay Shaw.{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=930}} Appearing before a nationwide audience on the December 31, 1968, episode of The Tonight Show, Garrison held up a photo of the three and suggested they were involved in the assassination.{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=930}} Later, in 1974, assassination researchers Alan J. Weberman and Michael Canfield compared photographs of the men to people they believed to be suspects involved in a conspiracy and said that two of the men were Watergate burglars E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis.{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=931}} Comedian and civil rights activist Dick Gregory helped bring national media attention to the allegations against Hunt and Sturgis in 1975 after obtaining the comparison photographs from Weberman and Canfield.{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=931}} Immediately after obtaining the photographs, Gregory held a press conference that received considerable coverage and his charges were reported in Rolling Stone and Newsweek.{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=931}}BOOK, Weberman, Alan J, A. J. Weberman, Canfield, Michael, Coup D'Etat in America: The CIA and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Revised, 1992, 1975, Quick American Archives, San Francisco, 9780932551108, 7, {{harvid, Weberman and Canfield, 1975, }}The Rockefeller Commission reported in 1975 that they investigated the allegation that Hunt and Sturgis, on behalf of the CIA, participated in the assassination of Kennedy.BOOK, Report to the President by Commission on CIA Activities in the United States,weblink June 1975, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 251, Chapter 19: Allegations Concerning the Assassination of President Kennedy,weblink {{harvid, Report to the President by Commission on CIA Activities in the United States, Chapter 19, 1975, }} The final report of that commission stated that witnesses who testified that the "derelicts" bore a resemblance to Hunt or Sturgis "were not shown to have any qualifications in photo identification beyond that possessed by an average layman".{{sfn|Report to the President by Commission on CIA Activities in the United States, Chapter 19|1975|p=256}} Their report also stated that FBI Agent Lyndal L. Shaneyfelt, "a nationally-recognized expert in photoidentification and photoanalysis" with the FBI photographic laboratory, had concluded from photo comparison that none of the men was Hunt or Sturgis.{{sfn|Report to the President by Commission on CIA Activities in the United States, Chapter 19|1975|p=257}} In 1979, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations reported that forensic anthropologists had again analyzed and compared the photographs of the "tramps" with those of Hunt and Sturgis, as well as with photographs of Thomas Vallee, Daniel Carswell, and Fred Lee Chrisman.BOOK, Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives,weblink 1979, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 91–92, I.B. Scientific acoustical evidence establishes a high probability that two gunmen fired at President John F. Kennedy. Other scientific evidence does not preclude the possibility of two gunmen firing at the President. Scientific evidence negates some specific conspiracy allegations,weblink {{harvid, Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives, Chapter I, Section B, 1979, }} According to the Committee, only Chrisman resembled any of the tramps, but determined that he was not to be in Dealey Plaza on the day of the assassination.In 1992, journalist Mary La Fontaine discovered the November 22, 1963 arrest records that the Dallas Police Department had released in 1989, which named the three men as Gus W. Abrams, Harold Doyle, and John F. Gedney.{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=933}} According to the arrest reports, the three men were "taken off a boxcar in the railroad yards right after President Kennedy was shot", detained as "investigative prisoners", described as unemployed and passing through Dallas, then released four days later.{{sfn|Bugliosi|2007|p=933}}

Compulsive Spy and Coup d'Etat in America

In 1973, Viking Press published Tad Szulc's book about Hunt's career titled Compulsive Spy.NEWS, Cheshire, Maxine, October 7, 1973, New Book Places Hunt In Second Bay Of Pigs Plot,weblink The Blade, Toledo, Ohio, C3, April 12, 2015, Szulc, a former correspondent for The New York Times, claimed unnamed CIA sources told him that Hunt, working with Rolando Cubela Secades, had a role in coordinating the assassination of Castro for an aborted second invasion of Cuba. In one passage, he also stated that Hunt was the acting chief of the CIA station in Mexico City in 1963 while Lee Harvey Oswald was there.NEWS, Seaberry, Jane, September 6, 1978, Hunt Sues to Obtain Data Linking Him to Assassination,weblink The Washington Post, Washington, D.C., A6, April 13, 2015, NEWS, Source Ruling Goes Against Hunt,weblink Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 52, 83, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, AP, 10, November 4, 1978, April 13, 2015, {{#tag:ref|Szulc wrote: "As I mentioned above, Hunt spent August and September 1963 in Mexico City in charge of the CIA station there."BOOK, Szulc, Tad, Tad Szulc, 1974, Compulsive Spy: The Strange Career of E. Howard Hunt, Viking Press, 99, 9780670235469, |group="nb"}}The Rockefeller Commission's June 1975 report stated that they investigated allegations that the CIA, including Hunt, may have had contact with Oswald or Jack Ruby.{{sfn|Report to the President by Commission on CIA Activities in the United States, Chapter 19|1975|pp=267-269}} According to the Commission, one "witness testified that E. Howard Hunt was Acting Chief of a CIA Station in Mexico City in 1963, implying that he could have had contact with Oswald when Oswald visited Mexico City in September 1963."{{sfn|Report to the President by Commission on CIA Activities in the United States, Chapter 19|1975|pp=269}} Their report stated that there was "no credible evidence" of CIA involvement in the assassination and noted: "At no time was [Hunt] ever the Chief, or Acting Chief, of a CIA Station in Mexico City.{{sfn|Report to the President by Commission on CIA Activities in the United States, Chapter 19|1975|pp=269}}Released in the Fall of 1975 after the Rockefeller Commission's report, Weberman and Canfield's book Coup d'Etat in America reiterated Szulc's allegation.{{#tag:ref|Weberman and Canfield wrote: "According to former Times reporter Tad Szulc, Howard Hunt just happened to be CIA station chief in Mexico City in August–September 1963."|group="nb"}} In July 1976, Hunt filed a $2.5 million libel suit against the authors, as well as the book's publishers and editor.NEWS, Hunt files libel suit over death charges,weblink The Miami News, Miami, July 29, 1976, AP, 4A, August 16, 2014, According to Ellis Rubin, Hunt's attorney who filed the suit in a Miami federal court, the book said that Hunt took part in the assassination of Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.As part of his suit, Hunt filed a legal action in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia in September 1978 requesting that Szulc be cited for contempt if he refused to divulge his sources. Three months earlier, Szulc stated in a deposition that he refused to name his sources due to "the professional confidentiality of sources" and "journalistic privilege". Rubin stated that knowing the source of the allegation that Hunt was in Mexico City in 1963 was important because Szulc's passage "is what everybody uses as an authority... he's cited in everything written on E. Howard Hunt". He added that rumors that Hunt was involved in the Kennedy assassination might be put to end if Szulc's source was revealed. Stating that Hunt had not provided a sufficient reason to override Szulc's First Amendment rights to protect the confidentiality of his sources, United States District Judge Albert Vickers Bryan Jr. ruled in favor of Szulc.

Libel suit: Liberty Lobby and The Spotlight

On November 3, 1978, Hunt gave a security-classified deposition for the House Select Committee on Assassinations. He denied knowledge of any conspiracy to kill Kennedy. (The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB) released the deposition in February 1996.)HSCA Deposition (November 3, 1978) Two newspaper articles published a few months before the deposition stated that a 1966 CIA memo linking Hunt to the assassination of President Kennedy had recently been provided to the HSCA. The first article, by Victor Marchetti â€“ author of the book The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (1974) â€“ appeared in the Liberty Lobby newspaper The Spotlight on August 14, 1978. According to Marchetti, the memo said in essence, "Some day we will have to explain Hunt's presence in Dallas on November 22, 1963."Victor Marchetti, "CIA to Admit Hunt Involvement in Kennedy Slaying," The Spotlight (August 14, 1978) He also wrote that Hunt, Frank Sturgis, and Gerry Patrick Hemming would soon be implicated in a conspiracy to kill John F. Kennedy.The second article, by Joseph J. Trento and Jacquie Powers, appeared six days later in the Sunday edition of The News Journal, Wilmington, Delaware.NEWS,weblink PDF, Joe, Trento, Jacquie, Powers, The News Journal, Sunday News Journal, 4, 34, A-1, August 28, 1978, Was Howard Hunt in Dallas the Day JFK Died?, It alleged that the purported memo was initialed by Richard Helms and James Angleton and showed that, shortly after Helms and Angleton were elevated to their highest positions in the CIA, they discussed the fact that Hunt had been in Dallas on the day of the assassination and that his presence there had to be kept secret. However, nobody has been able to produce this supposed memo, and the United States President's Commission on CIA Activities within the United States determined that Hunt had been in Washington, D.C. on the day of the assassination.WEB,weblink Magen, Knuth, E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis: Were Watergate Conspirators Also JFK Assassins?, May 6, 2015, Hunt sued Liberty Lobby â€“ but not the Sunday News Journal â€“ for libel. Liberty Lobby stipulated, in this first trial, that the question of Hunt's alleged involvement in the assassination would not be contested.Hunt v. Marchetti, 824 F.2d 916 (11th Cir. 1987). "In arguing that the stipulation should be binding on retrial, Hunt attempts to characterize the statements of the Liberty Lobby attorney as stipulating to the fact that Hunt was not in Dallas on the day of the Kennedy assassination. The statements, however, are more accurately viewed as a stipulation that the question of Hunt's alleged involvement in the assassination would not be contested at trial. They thus served merely to narrow the factual issues in dispute." Id. at 917–18 (citations omitted). Hunt prevailed and was awarded $650,000 damages. In 1983, however, the case was overturned on appeal because of error in jury instructions.Hunt v. Liberty Lobby, 720 F.2d 631 (11th Cir. 1983). "Libel Award for Howard Hunt overturned by appeals court," New York Times (December 4, 1983). In a second trial, held in 1985, Mark Lane made an issue of Hunt's location on the day of the Kennedy assassination.Hunt v. Marchetti, 824 F.2d 916 (11th Cir. 1987). "Hunt was aware throughout discovery prior to the retrial that Liberty Lobby intended to make Hunt's location on the day of the Kennedy assassination an issue on retrial." Id. at 928. Lane successfully defended Liberty Lobby by producing evidence suggesting that Hunt had been in Dallas. He used depositions from David Atlee Phillips, Richard Helms, G. Gordon Liddy, Stansfield Turner, and Marita Lorenz, plus a cross-examination of Hunt. On retrial, the jury rendered a verdict for Liberty Lobby.Hunt v. Marchetti, 824 F.2d 916 (11th Cir. 1987). "The jury on retrial rendered a verdict for Liberty Lobby. We affirm." Id. at 918. Lane claimed he convinced the jury that Hunt was a JFK assassination conspirator, but some of the jurors who were interviewed by the media said they disregarded the conspiracy theory and judged the case (according to the judge's jury instructions) on whether the article was published with "reckless disregard for the truth."John McAdams, "Implausible Assertions" Lane outlined his theory about Hunt's and the CIA's role in Kennedy's murder in a 1991 book, Plausible Denial.Isaacs, Jeremy (1997). Cold War: Howard Hunt interview excerpts {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071106000000weblink |date=November 6, 2007 }} and full transcript. CNN

Mitrokhin Archive

Former KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin indicated in 1999 that Hunt was made part of a fabricated conspiracy theory disseminated by a Soviet "active measures" program designed to discredit the CIA and the United States.BOOK, Andrew, Christopher, Christopher Andrew (historian), Mitrokhin, Vasili, Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB,weblink 2001, 1999, Basic Books, New York, 978-0-465-00312-9, 225–230, Fourteen: Political Warfare (Active Measures and the Main Political Adversary),weblink harv, BOOK, Trahair, Richard C. S., Miller, Robert L., Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations,weblink First paperback / Revised, 2009, 2004, Enigma Books, New York, 978-1-929631-75-9, 188–190, {{harvid, Trahair, 2009, }} According to Mitrokhin, the KGB created a forged letter from Oswald to Hunt implying that the two were linked as conspirators, then forwarded copies of it to "three of the most active conspiracy buffs" in 1975. Mitrokhin indicated that the photocopies were accompanied by a fake cover letter from an anonymous source alleging that the original had been given to FBI Director Clarence M. Kelley and was apparently being suppressed.

"Deathbed confession" of involvement in Kennedy assassination

After Hunt's death, Howard St. John Hunt and David Hunt stated that their father had recorded several claims about himself and others being involved in a conspiracy to assassinate President John F. Kennedy.NEWS, Williams, Carol J., Watergate plotter may have a last tale,weblink December 30, 2012, Los Angeles Times, March 20, 2007, Los Angeles, Notes and audio recordings were made. In the April 5, 2007, issue of Rolling Stone, St. John Hunt detailed a number of individuals purported to be implicated by his father, including Lyndon B. Johnson, Cord Meyer, David Phillips, Frank Sturgis, David Morales, Antonio Veciana, William Harvey, and an assassin he termed "French gunman grassy knoll" who many presume was Lucien Sarti.BOOK, McAdams, John, JFK Assassination Logic: How to Think About Claims of Conspiracy, 2011, Potomac Books, Washington, D.C., 9781597974899,weblink John C. McAdams, December 30, 2012, 189, Too Much Evidence of Conspiracy, The two sons alleged that their father cut the information from his memoirs to avoid possible perjury charges. According to Hunt's widow and other children, the two sons took advantage of Hunt's loss of lucidity by coaching and exploiting him for financial gain and furthermore falsified accounts of Hunt's supposed confession. The Los Angeles Times said they examined the materials offered by the sons to support the story and found them to be "inconclusive".

American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate, and Beyond

Hunt's memoir, American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate, and Beyond, was ghost-written by Greg Aunapu and published by John Wiley & Sons in March 2007.Reed, Christopher (January 25, 2007). E Howard Hunt obituary. The Guardian According to the Hunt Literary Estate, Hunt had intended to write an update to his 1974 autobiography Undercover and supplement this edition with post-9/11 reflections, but by the time he had embarked on the project, he was too ill to continue. This prompted John Wiley & Sons to search for and hire a ghost writer to write the book in its entirety. According to St. John Hunt, it was he who suggested to his father the idea of a memoir to reveal what he knew about the Kennedy assassination, but the Hunt Literary Estate refutes this as scurrilous. Scott Waxman was Hunt's literary agent on the book.NEWS, Minzesheimer, Bob, 'Deep Throat': Source of additional books?,weblink January 5, 2013, USA Today, June 1, 2005, The foreword to American Spy was written by William F. Buckley Jr.NEWS, Buckley Jr., William F., Howard Hunt, R.I.P.,weblink January 5, 2013, National Review, January 26, 2007, William F. Buckley Jr., Universal Press Syndicate, New York, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120722232539weblink">weblink July 22, 2012, According to Buckley, he was asked through an intermediary to write the introduction but declined after he found that the manuscript contained material "that suggested transgressions of the highest order, including a hint that LBJ might have had a hand in the plot to assassinate President Kennedy." He stated that the work "was clearly ghostwritten", and eventually agreed to write an introduction focusing on his early friendship with Hunt after he received a revised manuscript "with the loony grassy-knoll bits chiseled out".Publishers Weekly called American Spy a "breezy, unrepentant memoir" and described it as a "nostalgic memoir [that] breaks scant new ground in an already crowded field".WEB, American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate and Beyond,weblink publishersweekly.com, Publishers Weekly, January 5, 2013, Publishers Weekly, Publishers Weekly, February 5, 2007, Tim Rutten of the Los Angeles Times said it was "a bitter and self-pitying memoir" and "offers a rather standard account of how men of his generation became involved in intelligence work".NEWS, Rutten, Tim, Book Review: Hunt, ever a true believer â€“ in himself,weblink January 5, 2013, Los Angeles Times, February 28, 2007, Tim Rutten, Los Angeles, Referencing the book's title, Tim Weiner of The New York Times wrote: "American Spy is presented as a 'secret history,' a double-barreled misrepresentation. There are no real secrets in this book. As history it is bunk."NEWS, Weiner, Tim, Watergate Warrior,weblink January 5, 2013, The New York Times, May 13, 2007, Tim Weiner, New York, Weiner said that the author's examination of the Kennedy assassination was the low-point of the book, indicating that Hunt pretended to take various conspiracy theories, including the involvement of former President Johnson, seriously. He concluded his review describing it as a work "in a long tradition of arrant nonsense" and "a book to shun". Joseph C. Goulden of The Washington Times described it as a "true mess of a book" and dismissed Hunt's allegations against Johnson as "fantasy".NEWS, Goulden, Joseph C., E. Howard Hunt’s ‘memoir’ and its glitches,weblink January 5, 2013, The Washington Times, April 7, 2007, Washington, D.C., Goulden summarized his review: "I wish now that I had not read this pathetic book. Avoid it."Writing for The Christian Science Monitor, Daniel Schorr said "Hunt tells most of his Watergate venture fairly straight".NEWS, Schorr, Daniel, Remembering Watergate's field commander,weblink January 5, 2013, The Christian Science Monitor, February 16, 2007, Daniel Schorr, Contrasting this opinion, Politico's James Rosen described the chapters regarding Watergate as the "[m]ost problematic" and wrote: "There are numerous factual errors â€“ misspelled names, wrong dates, phantom participants in meetings, fictitious orders given â€“ and the authors never substantively address, only pause occasionally to demean, the vast scholarly literature that has arisen in the last two decades to explain the central mystery of Watergate."WEB, Rosen, James, Howard Hunt's Final Mission,weblink politico.com, Politico, January 5, 2013, February 6, 2007, Rosen's review was not entirely negative and he indicated that the book "succeeds in taking readers beyond the caricatures and conspiracy theories to preserve the valuable memory of Hunt as he really was: passionate patriot; committed Cold Warrior; a lover of fine food, wine and women; incurable intriguer, wicked wit and superb storyteller." Dennis Lythgoe of Deseret News said "[t]he writing style is awkward and often embarrassing", but that "the book as a whole is a fascinating look into the mind of one of the major Watergate figures".NEWS, Lythgoe, Dennis, Book review: CIA spy tells his side of the Watergate story,weblink January 5, 2013, Deseret News, March 11, 2007, Salt Lake City, In National Review, Mark Riebling praised American Spy as "the only autobiography I know of that convincingly conveys what it was like to be an American spy."NEWS, Riebling, Mark, His Long War,weblink January 5, 2013, National Review, April 30, 2007, Mark Riebling, 46, The Boston Globe writer Martin Nolan called it "admirable and important" and said that Hunt "presents a livelier, tabloid version of the 1970s".NEWS, Nolan, Martin, Secret service How the machinations of two unlikely allies defined â€“ and deformed â€“ an era,weblink January 5, 2013, The Boston Globe, May 6, 2007, Martin Nolan, Boston, According to Nolan: "It is the best moment-by-moment depiction of the June 17, 1972, burglary of Democratic National Committee headquarters I have ever read."

Later life and death

Following his release from prison in 1978, Hunt lived in Biscayne Park, Florida.Bardach, A.L. (October 6, 2004). Scavenger Hunt. slate.com He continued his literary career (publishing nearly twenty spy thrillers between 1980 and 2000) and raised two sons (Austin and Hollis) with his second wife, schoolteacher Laura Martinweblink January 23, 2007, he died of pneumonia in Miami, Florida.Cornwell, Rupert (January 25, 2007). E. Howard Hunt obituary. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070524115830weblink |date=2007-05-24 }} The Independent He is buried in Prospect Lawn Cemetery in his hometown of Hamburg, New York.WEB, History Of Prospect Lawn Cemetery,weblink Prospect Lawn Cemetery, January 2, 2013, Prospect Lawn Cemetery, Hamburg, New York,

In the media

A fictionalized account of Hunt's role in the Bay of Pigs operation appears in Norman Mailer's 1991 novel Harlot's Ghost. He was portrayed by Ed Harris in the 1995 biopic Nixon. Canadian journalist David Giammarco interviewed Hunt for the December 2000 issue of Cigar Aficionado magazine.Cigar Aficionado, November/December 2000 He later wrote the foreword to Giammarco's book For Your Eyes Only: Behind the Scenes of the James Bond Films (ECW Press, 2002).

Books

Nonfiction
  • Give Us This Day: The Inside Story of the CIA and the Bay of Pigs Invasion â€“ by One of Its Key Organizers (1973)
  • Undercover: memoirs of an American secret agent / by E. Howard Hunt (1974)
  • ''For Your Eyes Only: Behind the Scenes of the James Bond Films / by David Giammarco; foreword by E. Howard Hunt (2002)
  • American spy: my secret history in the CIA, Watergate, and beyond / E. Howard Hunt; with Greg Aunapu; foreword by William F. Buckley Jr. (2007)
Novels published as Howard Hunt or E. Howard Hunt:
  • East of Farewell (1942)
  • Limit of darkness, a novel by Howard Hunt (1944)
  • Stranger in town (1947)
  • Calculated risk: a play / by Howard Hunt (1948)
  • Maelstrom / Howard Hunt (1948)
  • Bimini run / by Howard Hunt (1949)
  • The Violent Ones (1950)
  • Berlin ending; a novel of discovery (1973)
  • Hargrave deception / E. Howard Hunt (1980)
  • Gaza intercept / E. Howard Hunt (1981)
  • Cozumel / E. Howard Hunt (1985)
  • Kremlin conspiracy / E. Howard Hunt (1985)
  • Guadalajara / E. Howard Hunt (1990)
  • Murder in State / E. Howard Hunt (1990)
  • Body count / E. Howard Hunt (1992)
  • Chinese Red / by E. Howard Hunt (1992)
  • Mazatlán / E. Howard Hunt (1993) (lists former pseudonym P. S. Donoghue on cover)
  • Ixtapa / E. Howard Hunt (1994)
  • Islamorada / E. Howard Hunt (1995)
  • Paris edge / E. Howard Hunt (1995)
  • Izmir / E. Howard Hunt (1996)
  • Dragon teeth: a novel / by E. Howard Hunt (1997)
  • Guilty knowledge / E. Howard Hunt (1999)
  • Sonora / E. Howard Hunt (2000)
As Robert Dietrich:
  • Cheat (1954)
  • Be My Victim (1956)
  • Murder on the rocks: an original novel (1957)
As P. S. Donoghue:
  • Dublin Affair (1988)
  • Sarkov Confession: a novel (1989)
  • Evil Time (1992)
As David St. John
  • Festival for Spies
  • The Towers of Silence
  • The Venus Probe
  • Return from Vorkuta (1965)
  • On Hazardous Duty (1966)
  • One of Our Agents is Missing (1967)
  • Mongol Mask (1968)
  • Sorcerers (1969)
  • Diabolus (1971)
  • Coven (1972)
As Gordon Davis:
  • I Came to Kill (1953)
  • House Dick (1961)
  • Counterfeit Kill (1963)
  • Ring Around Rosy (1964)
  • Where Murder Waits (1965)
As John Baxter:
  • A Foreign Affair (1954)

Notes

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Authority control}}

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