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Duke of Edinburgh
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{{short description|Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom}}{{about|the title|}}







factoids
File:Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales by Philip Mercier.jpg|thumb|150px|Prince Frederick Louis (1707–1751) was the first Duke of Edinburgh, from 1726 to his death.]]Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, is a substantive title that has been created three times for members of the British royal family since 1726. The current holder is Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II.

1726 creation

File:George III As Prince of Wales.jpg|thumb|right|150px|Prince George was the second Duke of Edinburgh, before he became George III.]]The title was first created in the Peerage of Great Britain on 26 July 1726 by King George I, who bestowed it on his grandson Prince Frederick, who also became Prince of Wales the following year. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Baron of Snowdon, in the County of Caernarvon, Viscount of Launceston, in the County of Cornwall, Earl of Eltham, in the County of Kent,{{London Gazette |issue=6494 |date=12 July 1726 |page=1 }} and Marquess of the Isle of Ely.WEB,weblink Frederick Louis Hanover, Prince of Wales, Thepeerage.com, 2014-08-25, WEB,weblink Peerages: Eames to Emly, Leighrayment.com, 2014-08-25, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-07-13, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130420032158weblink">weblink 20 April 2013, dmy-all, These titles were also in the Peerage of Great Britain. The marquessate was apparently erroneously gazetted as Marquess of the Isle of Wight although Marquess of the Isle of Ely was the intended title. In later editions of the London Gazette the Duke is referred to as the Marquess of the Isle of Ely.{{London Gazette |issue=6741 |date=4 January 1728 |page=2 }}{{London Gazette |issue=9050 |date=16 April 1751 |page=1 }} Upon Frederick's death, the titles were inherited by his son Prince George. When Prince George became King George III in 1760, the titles "merged into the Crown", and ceased to exist.

1866 creation

Queen Victoria re-created the title, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, on 24 May 1866 for her second son Prince Alfred, instead of Duke of York, the traditional title of the second son of the Monarch. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.{{London Gazette |issue=23119 |date=25 May 1866 |page=3127 }} When Alfred became the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1893, he retained his British titles. His only son Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha committed suicide in 1899, so the Dukedom of Edinburgh and subsidiary titles became extinct upon the elder Alfred's death in 1900.

1947 creation

The title was created for a third time on 19 November 1947 by King George VI, who bestowed it on his son-in-law Philip Mountbatten, when he married Princess Elizabeth. Subsequently, Elizabeth was styled "HRH The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh" until her accession in 1952. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom are Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, of Greenwich in the County of London. Like the dukedom, these titles are also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.{{London Gazette |issue=38128 |date=21 November 1947 |page=5496 }} Earlier that year, Philip had renounced his Greek and Danish royal titles (he was born a Prince of Greece and Denmark, being a male-line grandson of King George I of Greece and male-line great-grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark) along with his rights to the Greek throne. In 1957, Philip became a Prince of the United Kingdom.{{London Gazette |issue=41009 |date=22 February 1957 |page=1209 }}

Dukes of Edinburgh

First creation, 1726

{{Nobility table header|name=Duke}}Frederick, Prince of Wales>Prince FrederickHouse of Hanover1726–1751also: Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, Baron Snowdon (1726–1729);Prince of Wales (1729), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Rothesay (1398)100px|Prince Frederick)Leineschloss, Hanoverson of George II of Great Britain>King George II and Queen Caroline| Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha17 April 17369 children| 31 March 1751Leicester House, Leicester Square, Londonaged 44George III of the United Kingdom>Prince GeorgeHouse of Hanover1751–1760''also: Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, Baron Snowdon (1751–1760);Prince of Wales (1751)100px|Prince George)Norfolk House, Londonson of Frederick, Prince of Wales>Prince Frederick and Princess AugustaCharlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz>Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz8 September 176115 childrenWindsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire>Windsoraged 81Prince George succeeded as George III in 1760 upon his grandfather's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Second creation, 1866

{{Nobility table header|name=Duke}}Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha>Prince AlfredHouse of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha1866–1900also: Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster (1866)100px|Prince Edward)Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire>Windsorson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert| Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia23 January 18746 childrenSchloss Rosenau, Coburg>Schloss Rosenau, Coburgaged 55Prince Alfred and Princess Maria had one son, who predeceased him; and all his titles became extinct on his death.

Third creation, 1947

{{Nobility table header|name=Duke}}| Prince PhilipHouse of Glücksburg1947–presentalso: Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich (1947)100px|Prince Philip)Mon Repos, Corfu>Mon Repos, Corfuson of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg| Queen Elizabeth II20 November 19474 children192110}} old

Line of succession

Although the following individuals are in the line of succession to the Dukedom, they are also in line of succession to the throne. As a consequence, should one of the following individuals become king, the Dukedom of Edinburgh would cease to exist, as it would merge with the Crown.{{Tree list}} (3) Prince George of Cambridge (b. 2013)(4) Prince Louis of Cambridge (b. 2018) {{Tree list/end}}

Possible future creations

It was announced in 1999, at the time of the wedding of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, that he would follow his father as Duke of Edinburgh. This is unlikely to happen by direct inheritance, as Prince Edward is the youngest of Prince Philip's three sons. Rather, the title is expected to be newly created for Prince Edward after it "eventually reverts to the crown"WEB,weblink The Earl of Wessex, Royal.gov.uk, 2010-10-30, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101203012826weblink">weblink 3 December 2010, after "both the death of the current Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales' succession as King."Whitaker's Almanack 2010, page 46 'Peers of the Blood Royal'

Family tree

{{hidden|Family Tree: Dukes of Edinburgh|{{familytree/start|style=font-size:90%}}{{familytree | | | Ge2 |Ge2=King George II(1683–r.1727–1760)}}{{familytree | | | |!|}}{{familytree | | | 1cr |border=0|1cr=DUKE OF EDINBURGH, 1726}}{{familytree | | |FPW |FPW=Prince Frederick Louis,1st Duke of Edinburgh,Prince of Wales(1707–1751)|boxstyle_FPW=background-color:#CFFFFF}}{{familytree | | | |)|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.|}}{{familytree | | | |!| | | | | | | | | | | | |GEcr |border=0|GEcr=DUKE OF GLOUCESTER& EDINBURGH, 1764}}{{familytree | | |Ge3 | | | | | | | | | | | |WmH |Ge3=Prince George William Frederick,2nd Duke of EdinburghKing George III(1738–r.1760–1820)|WmH=Prince William Henry,1st Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh(1743–1805)|boxstyle_Ge3=background-color:#CFFFFF|boxstyle_WmH=background-color:#CFFFFF}}{{familytree | |,|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|.| | | |!|}}{{familytree |Ge4 | |Wm4 | |EdK | |Mary |-|WmF |Ge4=King George IV(1762–r.1820–1830)|Wm4=King William IV(1765–r.1830–1837)|EdK=Prince Edward,Duke of Kent(1767–1820)|Mary=Princess Mary(1776–1857)|WmF=Prince William Frederick,2nd Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh(1776–1834)|boxstyle_WmF=background-color:#CFFFFF}}{{familytree | | | | | | | | | |!|}}{{familytree | | | | | | | | |Vic |Vic=Queen Victoria(1819–r.1837–1901)}}{{familytree | | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|^|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|.|}}{{familytree | | | |!| | | | | | | |!| | | | | 2cr |border=0|2cr=DUKE OF EDINBURGH, 1866}}{{familytree | | |Ed7 | | | | | |AlHR | | | |ASCG |Ed7=King Edward VII(1841–r.1901–1910)|AlHR=Princess Alice(1843–1878)m. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse|ASCG=Prince Alfred Ernest Albert,Duke of Edinburgh,Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha(1844–1900)|boxstyle_ASCG=background-color:#CFFFFF}}{{familytree | | | |!| | | | | | | |!|}}{{familytree | | |Ge5 | | | | | |VHR |Ge5=King George V(1865–r.1910–1936)|VHR=Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine(1863–1950)m. Prince Louis of Battenberg}}{{familytree | |,|-|^|-|.| | | | | |!|}}{{familytree |Ed8 | |Ge6 | | | |AlB |Ed8=King Edward VIII(1894–1972, r.1936)|Ge6=King George VI(1895–r.1936–1952)|AlB=Princess Alice of Battenberg(1885–1969)m. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark}}{{familytree | | | | | |!| | | | | |!|}}{{familytree | | | | | |!| | | | | 3cr |border=0|3cr=DUKE OF EDINBURGH, 1947}}{{familytree | | | | |Ez2 |-|-|-|PDE |Ez2=Queen Elizabeth II(1926–r.1952–)|PDE=Prince Philip,Duke of Edinburgh(1921–)|boxstyle_PDE=background-color:#CFFFFF}}{{familytree/end}}bodystyle=text-align:center}}

Fictional Duke of Edinburgh

A fictional Duke of Edinburgh appears in the 1980s sitcom The Black Adder. Rowan Atkinson plays the title character, Prince Edmund, who is granted the title Duke of Edinburgh by his father, a fictitious King Richard IV.

References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Dukes of Edinburgh}}{{British royal titles}}{{Extant British dukedoms}}{{Philip, Duke of Edinburgh}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2011}}

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