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Dome of the Rock
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{{Distinguish|Al-Aqsa Mosque|Mosque of Omar (Jerusalem)}}{{pp-30-500|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2015}}







factoids
| religious_affiliation = Islam| location = JerusalemYEAR= 1997 URL= HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=M0WUKOMJECCC&LPG=PP1&HL=NO&PG=PA92#V=ONEPAGE&Q&F=FALSE ISBN=978-0-521-59984-9, expanded 820s, restored 1020s, 1545–1566, 1721/2, 1817, 1874/5, 1959–1962, 1993.| tradition = | administration = Ministry of Awqaf (Jordan)| architecture_type = ShrineUmayyad architecture>Umayyad, Abbasid architecture, Ottoman architecture>Ottoman| dome_quantity = 1| minaret_quantity = 0| website =}}The Dome of the Rock ( Qubbat al-Sakhrah, Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. It was initially completed in 691–92 CE at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik during the Second Fitna on the site of the Second Jewish Temple, destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. The original dome collapsed in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23. The Dome of the Rock is in its core one of the oldest extant works of Islamic architecture.BOOK, Slavik, Diane, 2001, Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem, Geneva, Illinois, Runestone Press, 60, 978-0-8225-3218-7, registration,weblink Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces, although its outside appearance has been significantly changed in the Ottoman period and again in the modern period, notably with the addition of the gold-plated roof, in 1959–61 and again in 1993. The octagonal plan of the structure may have been influenced by the Byzantine Church of the Seat of Mary (also known as Kathisma in Greek and al-Qadismu in Arabic) built between 451 and 458 on the road between Jerusalem and Bethlehem.The Foundation Stone the temple was built over bears great significance in the Abrahamic religions as the place where God created the world and the first human, Adam.Carol Delaney, Abraham on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth, Princeton University Press 2000 p.120. It is also believed to be the site where Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son, and as the place where God's divine presence is manifested more than in any other place, towards which Jews turn during prayer. The site's great significance for Muslims derives from traditions connecting it to the creation of the world and the belief that the Prophet Muhammad's Night Journey to heaven started from the rock at the center of the structure.JOURNAL, M. Anwarul Islam and Zaid F. Al-hamad, The Dome of the Rock: Origin of its octagonal plan, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, 139, 2, 2007, 109–128, JOURNAL, Nasser Rabbat, The meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock, Muqarnas, 6, 1989, 12–21, A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it has been called "Jerusalem's most recognizable landmark,"WEB,weblink Arafat's Gift, Jeffrey, Goldberg, Jeffrey Goldberg, 29 January 2001, The New Yorker, 11 July 2015, along with two nearby Old City structures, the Western Wall, and the "Resurrection Rotunda" in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.WEB,weblink UNESCO World Heritage, It is the earliest archaeologically-attested religious structure to be built by a Muslim ruler and the building's inscriptions contain the earliest epigraphic proclamations of Islam and of the prophet Muhammad.{{sfn|Johns|2003|p=416}} The inscriptions proved to be a milestone, as afterward they became a common feature in Islamic structures and almost always mention Muhammad.{{sfn|Johns|2003|p=416}} The Dome of the Rock remains a "unique monument of Islamic culture in almost all respects", including as a "work of art and as a cultural and pious document", according to historian Oleg Grabar.{{sfn|Grabar|1986|p=299}}

Description

Basic structure

File:Dehio 10 Dome of the Rock Section.jpg|thumb|Cross section of the Dome (print from 1887, after the first detailed drawings of the Dome, made by Frederick Catherwood in 1833).WEB,weblink Drawings of Islamic Buildings: Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem., Victoria and Albert Museum, Until 1833 the Dome of the Rock had not been measured or drawn; according to Victor Wolfgang von Hagen, Victor von Hagen, 'no architect had ever sketched its architecture, no antiquarian had traced its interior design...' On 13 November in that year, however, Frederick Catherwood dressed up as an Egyptian officer and accompanied by an Egyptian servant 'of great courage and assurance', entered the buildings of the mosque with his drawing materials... 'During six weeks, I continued to investigate every part of the mosque and its precincts.' Thus, Catherwood made the first complete survey of the Dome of the Rock, and paved the way for many other artists in subsequent years, such as William Harvey (artist), William Harvey, Ernest Richmond and Carl Friedrich Heinrich WernerCarl Friedrich Heinrich WernerThe structure is basically octagonal. It is capped at its centre by a dome, approximately {{convert|20|m|ft|abbr=on}} in diameter, mounted on an elevated circular drum standing on 16 supports (4 tiers and 12 columns).Surrounding this circle is an octagonal arcade of 24 piers and columns.The Dome of the Rock. Glass Steel and Stone. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130511210052weblink |date=11 May 2013 }} The octagonal arcade and the inner circular drum create an inner ambulatorium that encircles the holy rock.The outer walls are also octagonal. They each measure approximately {{convert|60|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}} wide and {{convert|36|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}} high. The outer and inner octagon create a second, outer ambulatorium surrounding the inner one.Both the circular drum and the exterior walls contain many windows.

Interior decoration

The interior of the dome is lavishly decorated with mosaic, faience and marble, much of which was added several centuries after its completion. It also contains Qur'anic inscriptions.The dedicatory inscription in Kufic script placed around the dome contains the date believed to be the year the Dome was first completed, AH 72 (691/2 CE), while the name of the corresponding caliph and builder of the Dome, al-Malik, was deleted and replaced by the name of Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun (r. 813–833) during whose reign renovations took place.

Exterior decoration

Surah Ya Sin (the 'Heart of the Quran') is inscribed across the top of the tile work and was commissioned in the 16th century by Suleiman the Magnificent.Palestine: Masjid al-Aqsa:The Dome of the Rock, at IslamicLandmarks.com, accessed 18 February 2019 Al-Isra, the Surah 17 which tells the story of the Isra or Night Journey, is inscribed above this.

History

Pre-Islamic background

File:TempleMount HolylandModel.JPG|thumb|240px|Reconstruction of Herod's Temple as seen from the east (Holyland Model of JerusalemHolyland Model of JerusalemThe Dome of the Rock is situated in the center of the Temple Mount, the site of the Temple of Solomon and the Jewish Second Temple, which had been greatly expanded under Herod the Great in the 1st century BCE. Herod's Temple was destroyed in 70 CE by the Romans, and after the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135, a Roman temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was built at the site by Emperor Hadrian.Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aelia Capitolina". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 256. Lester L. Grabbe (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. A&C Black. p. 29.Jerusalem was ruled by the Christian Byzantine Empire throughout the 4th to 6th centuries. During this time, Christian pilgrimage to Jerusalem began to develop.Davidson, Linda Kay and David Martin Gitlitz Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA 2002, p. 274. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built under Constantine in the 320s, but the Temple Mount was left undeveloped after a failed project of restoration of the Jewish Temple under Julian the Apostate."Julian thought to rebuild at an extravagant expense the proud Temple once at Jerusalem, and committed this task to Alypius of Antioch. Alypius set vigorously to work, and was seconded by the governor of the province, when fearful balls of fire, breaking out near the foundations, continued their attacks, till the workmen, after repeated scorchings, could approach no more: and he gave up the attempt." Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, 23.1.2–3.

Original Umayyad construction

The initial octagonal structure of the Dome of the Rock and its round wooden dome had basically the same shape as is does today.WEB,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Dome of the Rock, 4 April 2012, It was built by the order of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik ({{reign|685|705}}).{{sfn|Elad|1999|p=45}} According to Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (1185–1256), construction started in 685/86, while al-Suyuti (1445–1505) holds that its commencement year was 688.{{sfn|Elad|1999|p=44–45, notes 98–99}} A dedicatory inscription in Kufic script is preserved inside the dome. The date is recorded as AH 72 (691/2 CE), the year most historians believe the construction of the original Dome was completed.{{sfn|Necipoğlu|2008|p=22}} In this inscription, the name of "al-Malik" was deleted and replaced by the name of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun ({{reign|813|833}}). This alteration of the original inscription was first noted by Melchior de Vogüé in 1864.{{sfn|Vogüé|1864|p=85}} Construction cost was reportedly seven times the yearly tax income of Egypt.Jacob Lassner: Muslims on the sanctity of Jerusalem: preliminary thoughts on the search for a conceptual framework. In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam. Band 31 (2006), p. 176. An alternative interpretation of the inscription claims that it indicates the year when construction started.Sheila Blair, "What Is The Date Of The Dome Of The Rock?" in J. Raby & J. Johns (ed.), "Bayt Al-Maqdis: `Abd al-Malik's Jerusalem", 1992, Part 1, Oxford University Press: Oxford (UK), pp. 59-87. Via Did `Abd al-Malik Build Dome Of The Rock To Divert The Hajj From Makkah? at "Islamic Awareness", posted 18 February 2001, accessed 18 February 2019Some scholars have suggested that the dome was added to an existing building, built either by Muawiyah I (r. 661–680),Oleg Grabar: The Meaning of the Dome of the Rock. or indeed a Byzantine building dating to before the Muslim conquest, built under Heraclius (r. 610–641).JOURNAL, Busse, Heribert, 1991, Zur Geschichte und Deutung der frühislamischen Ḥarambauten in Jerusalem, German, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 107, 144–154, 27931418, Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces. The two engineers in charge of the project were Raja ibn Haywah, a Muslim theologian from Beisan and Yazid ibn Salam, a non-Arab Muslim native of Jerusalem.BOOK, Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, Marilyn Jenkins, Islamic Art and Architecture 650–1250,weblink 2001, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-08869-4, 20, Shelomo Dov Goitein of the Hebrew University has argued that the Dome of the Rock was intended to compete with the many fine buildings of worship of other religions: "The very form of a rotunda, given to the Qubbat as-Sakhra, although it was foreign to Islam, was destined to rival the many Christian domes."JOURNAL, Goitein, Shelomo Dov, Shelomo Dov Goitein, 1950, The historical background of the erection of the Dome of the Rock, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 70, 2, 104–108, 595539, K.A.C. Creswell in his book The Origin of the Plan of the Dome of the Rock notes that those who built the shrine used the measurements of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The diameter of the dome of the shrine is {{convert|20.20|m|ft|abbr=on}} and its height {{convert|20.48|m|ft|abbr=on}}, while the diameter of the dome of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is {{convert|20.90|m|ft|abbr=on}} and its height {{convert|21.05|m|ft|abbr=on}}.Narratives by the medieval sources about Abd al-Malik's motivations in building the Dome of the Rock vary.{{sfn|Grabar|1986|p=299}} At the time of its construction, the caliph was engaged in war with Christian Byzantium and its Syrian Christian allies on the one hand and with the rival caliph Ibn al-Zubayr, who controlled Mecca, the annual destination of Muslim pilgrimage, on the other hand.{{sfn|Grabar|1986|p=299}}{{sfn|Johns|2003|pp=425–426}} Thus, one series of explanations was that Abd al-Malik intended for the Dome of the Rock to be a religious monument of victory over the Christians that would distinguish Islam's uniqueness within the common Abrahamic religious setting of Jerusalem, home of the two older Abrahamic faiths, Judaism and Christianity.{{sfn|Grabar|1986|p=299}}{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=60}} The other main explanation holds that Abd al-Malik, in the heat of the war with Ibn al-Zubayr, sought to build the structure to divert the focus of the Muslims in his realm from the Ka'aba in Mecca, where Ibn al-Zubayr would publicly condemn the Umayyads during the annual pilgrimage to the sanctuary.{{sfn|Grabar|1986|p=299}}{{sfn|Johns|2003|pp=425–426}}{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=60}} Though most modern historians dismiss the latter account as a product of anti-Umayyad propaganda in the traditional Muslim sources and doubt that Abd al-Malik would attempt to alter the sacred Muslim requirement of fulfilling the pilgrimage to the Ka'aba, other historians concede that this cannot be conclusively dismissed.{{sfn|Grabar|1986|p=299}}{{sfn|Johns|2003|pp=425–426}}{{sfn|Hawting|2000|p=60}}

Abbasids and Fatimids

The building was severely damaged by earthquakes in 808 and again in 846.JOURNAL, Amiran, D.H.K., Arieh, E., Turcotte, T., 1994, Earthquakes in Israel and adjacent areas: macroseismic observations since 100 B.C.E., Israel Exploration Journal, 44, 3/4, 260–305 [267], 27926357, The dome collapsed in an earthquake in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23. The mosaics on the drum were repaired in 1027–28.{{sfn|Necipoğlu|2008|p=31}}

Crusaders

(File:Seal of Templars.jpg|thumb|Depiction of the Templum Domini on the reverse side of the seal of the Knights Templar)For centuries Christian pilgrims were able to come and experience the Temple Mount, but escalating violence against pilgrims to Jerusalem (Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre, was an example) resulted in the Crusades.Stark, Rodney. God's Battalions; a Case for the Crusades. Harper Collins, NY, 2009, pp. 84–85. The Crusaders captured Jerusalem in 1099 and the Dome of the Rock was given to the Augustinians, who turned it into a church, while the nearby Al-Aqsa Mosque first became a royal palace for a while, and then for much of the 12th century the headquarters of the Knights Templar. The Templars, active from c. 1119, identified the Dome of the Rock as the site of the Temple of Solomon. The Templum Domini, as they called the Dome of the Rock, featured on the official seals of the Order's Grand Masters (such as Everard des Barres and Renaud de Vichiers), and soon became the architectural model for round Templar churches across Europe.

Ayyubids and Mamluks

{{unreferenced section|date=February 2019}}Jerusalem was recaptured by Saladin on 2 October 1187, and the Dome of the Rock was reconsecrated as a Muslim shrine. The cross on top of the dome was replaced by a crescent, and a wooden screen was placed around the rock below. Saladin's nephew al-Malik al-Mu'azzam Isa carried out other restorations within the building, and added the porch to the Al-Aqsa Mosque.The Dome of the Rock was the focus of extensive royal patronage by the sultans during the Mamluk period, which lasted from 1250 until 1510.{{dubious|Why not 1260s - 1516, the Mamluk sultanate dates?|date= February 2016}}

Ottoman Empire (1517–1917)

During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) the exterior of the Dome of the Rock was covered with tiles. This work took seven years.{{Citation needed |date= September 2016}}In its current state, the outer facade is made of porcelainSome of the interior decoration was added in the Ottoman period.Adjacent to the Dome of the Rock, the Ottomans built the free-standing Dome of the Prophet in 1620.Large-scale renovation was undertaken during the reign of Mahmud II in 1817.In a major restoration project undertaken in 1874–75 during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz, all the tiles on the west and southwest walls of the octagonal part of the building were removed and replaced by copies that had been made in Turkey.{{sfn|Clermont-Ganneau|1899|p=179}}BOOK, St. Laurent, Beatrice, Riedlmayer, András, 1993, Restorations of Jerusalem and the Dome of the Rock and their political significance, 1537–1928, Necipoğlu, Gülru, Muqarnas, Volume 10: Essays in Honor of Oleg Grabar, 76–84, Brill, Leiden, 1523174,weblink File:Jérusalem, esplanade du Temple de Salomon, Dôme du Rocher.jpg|The first-ever photograph of the building, 1842–44File:Dome of the Rock, from Governor's House, Francis Bedford 1862.jpg|View from the north, Francis Bedford (1862)File:Dome of the Rock, West Front, Francis Bedford 1862.jpg|West front in 1862. By this date many of the 16th century tiles were missing.File:MosqueOfOmar1914.jpg|Interior showing mosaic decoration (1914)File:Israel-2013-Jerusalem-Temple Mount-Dome of the Rock-Detail 01.jpg|Tiled façade (2013)File:Inside the Dome of the Rock.jpg|Interior showing rock (1915)

British Mandate

(File:Jerusalem Dome Rock.JPG|thumb|1920s photograph)Haj Amin al-Husseini, appointed Grand Mufti by the British in 1917, along with Yaqub al-Ghusayn, implemented the restoration of the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.The Dome of the Rock was badly shaken during the 11 July 1927 earthquake, damaging many of the repairs that had taken place over previous years.

Jordanian rule

In 1955, an extensive program of renovation was begun by the government of Jordan, with funds supplied by Arab governments and Turkey. The work included replacement of large numbers of tiles dating back to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, which had become dislodged by heavy rain. In 1965, as part of this restoration, the dome was covered with a durable aluminium bronze alloy made in Italy that replaced the lead exterior. Before 1959, the dome was covered in blackened lead. In the course of substantial restoration carried out from 1959 to 1962, the lead was replaced by aluminum-bronze plates covered with gold leaf.

Israeli rule

A few hours after the Israeli flag was hoisted over the Dome of the Rock in 1967 during the Six-Day War, Israelis lowered it on the orders of Moshe Dayan and invested the Muslim waqf (religious trust) with the authority to manage the Temple Mount / Haram al-Sharif, in order to "keep the peace".WEB,weblink Letter from Jerusalem: A Fight Over Sacred Turf by Sandra Scham, Archaeology.org, 4 April 2012, In 1993, the golden dome covering was refurbished following a donation of US$8.2 million by King Hussein of Jordan who sold one of his houses in London to fund the 80 kilograms of gold required.{{Citation needed |date= September 2016}}

Depictions in modern time

The Dome of the Rock has been depicted on the Obverse and reverse of several Middle East currencies:File:1000 Iranian Rial Z.jpg|Reverse of a 1,000 Iranian rial banknote (1992).File:ONE JD 1959-back.jpg|Reverse of a 1 Jordanian dinar banknote (1959). Since 1992, the 20 Dinar note bears the Dome's depiction.File:SaudiArabiaP24b-50Riyals-(1983)-donatedth f.jpg|Obverse of a 50 Saudi riyal banknote (1983).File:1 pound de Palestine, 1939.jpg|Obverse of a 1 Palestinian pound banknote (1939).

Accessibility

(File:Hebrew domeEntrance sign.jpg|thumb|upright|130px|Sign at visitors entrance to Temple Mount)The Dome is maintained by the Ministry of Awqaf in Amman, Jordan.WEB, Business Optimization Consultants B.O.C.,weblink Hashemite Restorations of the Islamic Holy Places in Jerusalem – kinghussein.gov.jo – Retrieved 21 January 2008, Kinghussein.gov.jo, 4 April 2012, Until the mid-twentieth century, non-Muslims were not permitted in the area. Since 1967, non-Muslims have been permitted limited access; however non-Muslims are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount, bring prayer books, or wear religious apparel. The Israeli police help enforce this.Jerusalem's Holy Places and the Peace Process Marshall J. Breger and Thomas A. Idinopulos, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1998. Israel restricted access for a short time during 2012 of Palestinian residents of the West Bank to the Temple Mount. West Bank Palestinian men had to be over 35 to be eligible for a permit.WEB, Browning, Noah,weblink Palestinians flock to Jerusalem as Israeli restrictions eased – Yahoo! News, News.yahoo.com, 15 August 2012, 31 October 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120818090425weblink">weblink 18 August 2012, dmy-all, Palestinian residents of Jerusalem, who hold Israeli residency cards, and Palestinians with Israeli citizenship are permitted unrestricted access.Some Orthodox rabbis encourage Jews to visit the site, while most forbid entry to the compound lest there be a violation of Jewish law. Even rabbis who encourage entrance to the Temple Mount prohibit entrance to the actual Dome of the Rock.WEB, Tzarich Iyun: The Har HaBayit – OU Torah,weblink OU Torah, 2015-11-16, en-US, Zivotofsky,

Religious significance

File:Dome of the Rock, 1546.jpg|thumb|The Temple in Jerusalem depicted as the Dome of the Rock on the printer's markprinter's markAccording to some Islamic scholars, the rock is the spotBraswell, G. Islam – Its Prophets, People, Politics and Power. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers. 1996. p. 14 from which the Islamic prophet Muhammad ascended to Heaven accompanied by the angel Gabriel. Further, Muhammad was taken here by Gabriel to pray with Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.Ali, A. The Holy Qur'an – Translation and Commentary. Bronx, NY: Islamic Propagation Centre International. 1946. pp. 1625–31Other Islamic scholars believe that the Prophet ascended to Heaven from the Al-Aqsa Mosque.WEB,weblink Me'raj – The Night Ascension, Al-islam.org, 31 October 2012, WEB,weblink Meraj Article, Duas.org, 31 October 2012, Muslims believe the location of the Dome of the Rock to be the site mentioned in Sura 17 of the Qur'an, which tells the story of the Isra and Mi'raj, the miraculous Night Journey of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to "the farthest mosque", where he leads prayers and rises to heaven to receive instructions from Allah. The Night Journey is mentioned in the Qur'an in a very brief form and is further elaborated by the hadiths. Caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab (579–644) was advised by Ka'ab al-Ahbar, a Jewish rabbi who converted to Islam,Yakub of Syria (Ka'b al-Ahbar) Last Jewish Attempt at Islamic Leadership Committee for Historical Research in Islam and Judaism, © 2004–2012, accessed July 2013. {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150513011205weblink |date=13 May 2015 }} "He continued to follow Rabbinic tradition such that later Islamic historians questioned whether he ever 'converted' to Islam." that "the farthest mosque" is identical with the site of the former Jewish Temples in Jerusalem.{{citation needed|date=March 2016}}File:The rock of the Dome of the Rock Corrected.jpg|thumb|upright|The Foundation StoneFoundation StoneThe Foundation Stone and its surroundings is the holiest site in Judaism. Though Muslims now pray towards the Kaaba at Mecca, they once{{year needed|date=September 2016}} faced the Temple Mount as the Jews do. Muhammad changed the direction of prayer for Muslims after a revelation from Allah. Jews traditionally regarded{{year needed|date=September 2016}} the location of the stone as the holiest spot on Earth, the site of the Holy of Holies during the Temple Period.According to Jewish tradition, the stone is the site where Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac.On the walls of the Dome of the Rock is an inscription in a mosaic frieze that includes an explicit rejection of the divinity of Christ, from Quran (19:33–35):33. "So peace is upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!" 34. Such is Jesus, son of Mary. It is a statement of truth, about which they doubt. 35. It is not befitting to (the majesty of) Allah that He should take himself a child. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it, "Be", and it is.According to Goitein, the inscriptions decorating the interior clearly display a spirit of polemic against Christianity, whilst stressing at the same time the Qur'anic doctrine that Jesus was a true prophet. The formula la sharika lahu ("God has no companion") is repeated five times; the verses from Sura Maryam 19:35–37, which strongly reaffirm Jesus' prophethood to God, are quoted together with the prayer: Allahumma salli ala rasulika wa'abdika 'Isa bin Maryam – "O Lord, send your blessings to your Prophet and Servant Jesus son of Mary." He believes that this shows that rivalry with Christendom, together with the spirit of Muslim mission to the Christians, was at work at the time of construction.The Temple Institute wishes to relocate the Dome to another site and replace it with a Third Temple.WEB, raisa, 'Third Temple' crowdfunding plan aims to relocate Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock, The Stream - Al Jazeera English, Text, 2017-11-25, 2014-07-30,weblink Many Israelis are ambivalent about the Movement's wishes.{{weasel inline|date=November 2017}} Some religious Jews, following rabbinic teaching, believe that the Temple should only be rebuilt in the messianic era, and that it would be presumptuous of people to force God's hand. However, some Evangelical Christians consider rebuilding of the Temple to be a prerequisite to Armageddon and the Second Coming.Stephen Spector, Evangelicals and Israel:The Story of American Christian Zionism, Oxford University Press, 2008 p. 202. Jeremy Gimpel, a US-born candidate for Habayit Hayehudi in the 2013 Israeli elections, caused a controversy when he was recorded telling a Fellowship Church evangelical group in Florida in 2011 to imagine the incredible experience that would follow were the Dome to be destroyed. All Christians would be immediately transported to Israel, he opined.Andrew Esensten U.S.-born Knesset candidate, Jeremy Gimpel, and his Dome of the Rock 'joke', Haaretz 20 January 2013.

Architectural homages

The Dome of the Rock has inspired the architecture of a number of buildings. These include the octagonal Church of St. Giacomo in Italy, the Mausoleum of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in Istanbul, the octagonal Moorish Revival style Rumbach Street Synagogue in Budapest, and the New Synagogue in Berlin, Germany. It was long believed by Christians that the Dome of the Rock echoed the architecture of the Temple in Jerusalem, as can be seen in Raphael's The Marriage of the Virgin and in Perugino's Marriage of the Virgin.BOOK, The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance, Jacob Burckhardt, Jacob, Burckhardt, Peter Murray, James C. Palmes, University of Chicago Press, 1986, 81, {{panorama|image=File:Panorámica de Jerusalén desde el Monte de los Olivos.jpg|height=180|caption=Panorama of the Temple Mount, including Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock, from the Mount of Olives}}{{-}}

Images

Dome_of_Rock_(Jerusalem_2018)_02.jpg|The Interior of the DomeDome of the Dome of the Rock inside (2018) 1.jpg|The Dome itselfOrnament and writing at Dome of the Dome of the Rock inside 2.jpg|Ornaments and writing inside the DomeOrnament and writing at Dome of the Dome of the Rock detail 2.jpg|More detailed imageFoundation stone on Dome of Rock (2018) 3.jpg|Foundation stone of the DomeFile:Panorámica de Jerusalén desde el Monte de los Olivos.jpg|Panorama of the Temple Mount, including Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock, from the Mount of OlivesFile:The Dome of the Rock.jpegFile:Temple Mount.JPGFile:Jerusalem (5).JPGFile:Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Victor 2011 -1-8.jpgFile:Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Victor 2011 -1-7.jpgFile:Dome of the Rock Jerusalem Victor 2011 -1-5.jpgFile:110409 042.jpgFile:Temple Mount---Hetch in Dome.JPGFile:Dome of the Rock viewed through Bab al-Qattanin.jpgFile:Felsendom photo-2.JPG|Stereo card of the Dome of Rock (late 19th century)File:Dome of the rock close.jpg|Exterior detailFile:Arabischer Maler um 690 001.jpg|Interior walls of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, vessel with floral motif and crownFile:Dome of the rock 2012.jpg|On a rainy dayFile:Dom of the Rock-1.JPGFile:Dom of the Rock-2.JPGFile:Dom of the Rock-3.JPGFile:Dom of the Rock-4.JPGFile:Dom of the Rock-5.JPGFile:Dom of the Rock-6.JPG

See also

References

Citations{{Reflist|30em}}

Works cited

  • Peterson, Andrew (1994). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. London: Routledge. {{ISBN|0-415-06084-2}}
  • Braswell, G. (1996). Islam – Its Prophets, People, Politics and Power. Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman Publishers.
  • BOOK, Elad, Amikam, Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship: Holy Places, Ceremonies, Pilgrimage, 1999, Brill, Leiden, 90-04-10010-5, 2nd,weblink harv,
  • {{EI2 |article=Kubbat al-á¹¢akhra |last=Grabar |first=O. |authorlink=Oleg Grabar |volume=5 |pages=298–299}}
  • {{The First Dynasty of Islam|edition=Second}}
  • JOURNAL, Johns, Jeremy, Archaeology and the History of Islam: The First Seventy Years, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, January 2003, 46, 4, 411–436, 10.1163/156852003772914848, harv,
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  • Christoph Luxenberg: Neudeutung der arabischen Inschrift im Felsendom zu Jerusalem. In: Karl-Heinz Ohlig / Gerd-R. Puin (Hg.): Die dunklen Anfänge. Neue Forschungen zur Entstehung und frühen Geschichte des Islam, Berlin (Verlag Hans Schiler) 2005, S. 124–147. English version: "A New Interpretation of the Arabic Inscription in Jerusalem's Dome of the Rock". In: Karl-Heinz Ohlig / Gerd-R. Puin (eds.): The Hidden Origins of Islam: New Research into Its Early History, Amherst, N.Y. (Prometheus Books) 2010

Further reading

External links

{{Commons}} {{Temple Mount}}{{Islamic structures on the Temple Mount}}{{Jerusalem Old City}}{{Umayyad Caliphate topics}}{{Authority control}}

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