SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Dionysius Thrax

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Dionysius Thrax
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2018}}Dionysius Thrax (, 170–90 BCE) was a Hellenistic grammarian and a pupil of Aristarchus of Samothrace. He was long considered to be the author of the earliest grammatical text on the Greek language, one that was used as a standard manual for perhaps some 1,500 years,{{sfn|Škiljan|2000|p=91}} and which was until recently regarded as the groundwork of the entire Western grammatical tradition.{{efn|"Elle a été considérée comme le texte d'ancrage de toute la tradition grammaticale occidentale."{{sfn|Ildefonse|1997|p=447}}}}

Life

His place of origin was not Thrace as the epithet "Thrax" denotes, but probably Alexandria. His Thracian background was inferred from the name, considered to be Thracian, of his father TÄ“rÄ“s (Τήρης). One of his co-students during his studies in Alexandria under Aristarchus was Apollodorus of Athens, who also became a distinguished grammarian.{{sfn|Robertson|2008|p=4, n. 10}}{{sfn|De Jonge|2008|p=101}} Rudolf Pfeiffer dates his shift to the isle of Rhodes to around 144/3 BCE, when political upheavals associated with the policies of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II are thought to have led to his exile. According to a report in Athenaeus' Deipnosophistae (11,489a, b), his Rhodian pupils, grateful for his learning,{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=266}} gathered enough silver to enable him to fashion a cup whose shape aspired to recreate that of Nestor mentioned in the Iliad (Book 11, lines 632–637).{{sfn|Athenaeus|1933|pp=174–175}}{{sfn|Robins|1998|p=15}}Dionysius was primarily an Homeric scholar, which was integral to his training under Aristarchus in Alexandria. His work shows some influence of earlier Stoic grammatical theory, particular on word classes.{{sfn|De Jonge|2008|pp=100, 137}} He is also reported by Varro to have been an erudite analyst of Greek lyric poetry, perhaps referring to his linguistic and prosodic use of that material.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=267}} He wrote prolifically in three genres: philological questions (γραμματικά); running commentaries (ὑπομνήματα) and treatises (συνταγματικά). Of the last genre, he wrote a polemical monograph criticizing the Homeric interpretations of Krates. Another work he is said to have written was the Περὶ ποσοτήτων (On quantities). From the scholia{{efn|There are extensive scholia to the Techne, which have been edited by A. Hilgard in 1901: Scholia in Dionysii Thracis Artem Grammaticam, recensuit et apparatum criticum indicesque adiecit Alfredus Hilgard, Lipsiae: in aedibus B.G. Teubneri 1901. The collections of scholia are the following: Prolegomena Vossiana (p. 1); Commentarius Melampodis seu Diomedis (p. 10); Commentarius Heliodori (p. 67); Scholiorum collectio Vaticana (p. 106); Scholiorum collectio Marciana (p. 292); Scholiorum collectio Londinensis (p. 442); Commentariolus Byzantinus (pp. 565–586).}} preserved from the critical works of Aristonicus and Didymus who excerpted Dionysius' work it is clear that he was decidedly independent in his textual judgements on the Homeric corpus, since he frequently contradicts his master's known readings.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=267}} His teaching may have exercised a formative impact on the rise of Roman grammatical studies, if as an entry in the Suda suggests, the elder Tyrannion was one of his pupils. The founder of classical scholarship in Rome, L. Aelius Stilo may have profited from Dionysius' instruction, since he accompanied to Rhodes Q. Metellus Numidicus when the latter went into voluntary exile, and while Dionysius was still teaching there.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=266}}

Tékhnē grammatikē

Dionysius Thrax was credited traditionally as the author of the first extant grammar of Greek, Art of Grammar (, Tékhnē grammatikē). The Greek text, in August Immanuel Bekker's edition, runs to fifty pages.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|pp=267–268}}{{efn|Immanuel Bekker, Anecdota Graeca, Volume 2 Berlin 1816 pp 627–643}} Its importance in Byzantine scholarship is attested by the fact that commentaries on it by Byzantine scholiasts run to some 600 pages.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=268}}{{sfn|Ildefonse|1997|p=447}} The text itself was thought to be the unique extant example of a work by Hellenistic scholars.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=266}} This general consensus began to break down when examinations of grammatical texts datable to a later period emerged among the finds of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri which, until relatively late, showed no awareness of key elements in the text attributed to Dionysius Thrax. It concerns itself primarily with a morphological description of Greek, lacking any treatment of syntax. The work was translated into Armenian sometime around the 5th to 6th centuries CE,{{sfn|Clackson|1998|pp=121–133}} and into Syriac around that same period.{{sfn|Sandys|2010|p=138}}{{sfn|Ildefonse|1997|p=447}}Thrax defines grammar at the beginning of the Tékhnē as "the empirical knowledge of what is for the most part being said by poets and prose writers."{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=268}} He states that grammatikē, what we might nowadays call "literary criticism",{{efn|Strictly speaking, "literary criticism" is more or less what the sixth section of the treatise, krísis poiēmάtōn, deals with. That phrase was translated by Di Benedetto as "textual criticism" which however in classical Greek was called διόρθωσις (diórthōsis).{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=269,n.2}}}} comprises six parts:Grammatikḗ
  • (a) ἀνάγνωσις (anágnōsis): reading aloud with correct pronunciation, accent and punctuation (προσῳδία).
  • (b) ἐξήγησις (exḗgÄ“sis): exposition of the tropes/τρόποι, the figurative language of texts.
  • (c) γλῶσσαι (glōssai): exposition of obsolete words and subject matter (ἱστορίαι).
  • (d) ἐτυμολογία (etumología): finding the correct meaning of words, by etymology.
  • (e) ἀνάλογίας ἐκλογισμός (análogías eklogismós): setting forth or considering analogies.
  • (f) κρίσις ποιημάτων (krísis poiÄ“mάtōn): critical judgement of the works examined.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|pp=268–269}}{{efn|Diorthosis(διόρθωσις), literally "correction", indicates the scholarly work of "recension" of a text, that is, the establishment of the correct text by critical analysis and choice of specific readings. The ekdosis (ἐκδοσις) is the final result of such an operation.'{{sfn|Schironi|2018|p=20, n.64}}}}{{sfn|Berglund|2018|p=226}}
Paragraph 6 outlines the στοιχεῖα (stoikheia) or letters of the alphabet, together with the divisions into vowels, diphthongs and consonants.Paragraphs 7-10 deal with syllables, long (μακραὶ συλλαβαί), short (βραχεῖαι συλλαβαί) and anceps (κοιναὶ συλλαβαί).Paragraph 11 treats the eight word classes, though strong doubts exist as to whether or not this division goes back to Dionysius Thrax, since asncient testimonies assert that he conflated proper nouns and appellatives, and classified the article together with pronouns.{{sfn|De Jonge|2008|p=92}} In the text attributed to Dionysius, the eight classes. which Di Benedetto and others argue was probably developed by Tryphon several decades after Dionysius, are as follows:
  • (a) the proper noun (ὄνομα) and its three genders: masculine (ἀρσενικόν), feminine (θηλυκόν) and neutral (οὺδέτερον) are distinguished, together with the five case endings.{{efn|Classification according to gender was, fide Aristotle, the invention of Protagoras. He designated the neuter category by the word σκεῦας (inanimate thing), which Aristotle replaced by μεταξύ (in between), meaning neither male nor female, a terminology which was adopted in Stoic approaches, which however established οὺδέτερον as the default term.{{sfn|Michael|2010|pp=110–111}}}} He also notes however that two other terms are also in use: κοινόν (common) designating those words whose gender varies depending on the sex of the creature, such as ἳππος (hippos/horse)) and ἐπίκοινον (epicene) used to define words whose gender is stable, but which can refer to either sex, instancing χελίδων (khelídōn/swallow).{{sfn|Michael|2010|p=111}}
    • The appellative (προσηγορία),{{sfn|De Jonge|2008|p=100}} which he considers a species (εἶδος) of the proper noun, not a distinct part of speech.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=269}}
  • (b) the verb (ῥῆμα) with its tenses.
  • (c) participles (μετοχή)
  • (d) the article (ἄρθρον)
  • (e) pronouns (ἀντωνυμία)
  • (f) preposition (πρόθεσις)
  • (g) adverb (ἐπίρρημα)
  • (h) conjunction (σύνδεσμος){{sfn|De Jonge|2008|p=91}}
Paragraphs 12-20 then elaborates successively on the parts of speech.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=269}}

Authorship

Modern scepticism over the attribution is associated with the pioneering work of Vincenzo Di Benedetto in particular, though as early as 1822 Karl Wilhelm Göttling, by analyzing the scholia on the text that had recently been collected and publisher by A. I. Bekker, concluded that the text as we have it was to be dated, not to the Hellinistic period but rather to Byzantine period.{{sfn|Pfeiffer|1968|p=272}} Göttling's thesis convinced neither (:de:Moritz Schmidt|Moritz Schmidt) nor Gustav Uhlig, and disappeared from view. In 1958/1959, Di Benedetto revived doubts by comparing the received text with ancient grammatical papyri that had since come to light.{{sfn|Di Benedetto|2007|pp=381–461}} He argued that before the 3rd to 4th centuries CE, no papyri on Greek grammar reveal material structured in a way similar to the exposition we have in Dionysius's treatise, that the surviving witnesses for the period before that late date, namely authors such as Sextus Empiricus, Aelius Herodianus, Apollonius Dyscolus and Quintilian, fail to cite him, and that Dionysius's work only begins to receive explicit mention in the works written from the 5th century onwards by such scholars as Timotheus of Gaza, Ammonius Hermiae and Priscian.{{sfn|Pagani|2014|pp=206–207}} Di Benedetto concluded that only the first five paragraphs of the treatise came from Dionysius' hand.{{sfn|De Jonge|2008|p=92}}Though initially rebuffed by scholars of the caliber of Pfeiffer and Hartmut Erbse, De Benedetto's argument today has found general acceptance among specialists.{{sfn|De Jonge|2008|p=92}}

Notes

{{notelist}}

Citations

{{Reflist|20em}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Deipnosophistae


, Athenaeus
, Athenaeus
, 1933
, Gulick, Charles Burton, :de:Charles Burton Gulick
, Volume 5
, Harvard University Press
, harv
,
  • BOOK, Interpreting readers: the Role of Greco-Roman Education in Early Interpretation of New Testament Writings


, Berglund, Carl Johan
, 2018
, Scriptural Interpretation at the Interface between Education and Religion: In Memory of Hans Conzelmann
, Wilk, Florian
, BRILL Publishers, Brill
,weblink
, 204–246
, 978-9-004-38569-6
, harv
,
  • BOOK, On the Geometrical Background of Dionysius Thrax' Definition of Comparatives


, Berrettoni, Pierangelo
, 2004
, Actualité des anciens sur la théorie du langage
, Petrilli, Raffaella
, Gambarara, Daniele
, Nodus Publications
,weblink'_definition_of_comparatives
, 17–36
, 3-89323-314-8
, harv
,
  • BOOK, The TechnÄ“ in Armenian


, Clackson, James Peter
, 1998, First published 1995
, Dionysius Thrax and the Technē Grammatikē
, Law, Vivien
, Sluiter, Ineke, Ineke Sluiter
, Nodus Publikationen, Munster
, 121–133
, 3-89323-451-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK, Between Grammar and Rhetoric: Dionysius of Halicarnassus on Language, Linguistics, and Literature


, De Jonge, Casper Constantijn
, 2008
, Brill Publishers, Brill
,weblink
, 978-9-004-16677-6
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Dionisio Trace e la Techne a lui attribuita


, Di Benedetto, Vincenzo
, Vincenzo Di Benedetto
, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa (ASNP)
, 1958-1959, 62/28, 169–210,87–118
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, At the Origins of Greek Grammar


, Di Benedetto, Vincenzo
, Vincenzo Di Benedetto
, (:de:Glotta, Glotta)
, 1990, 68, 19–39
, harv
,
  • BOOK, Il richiamo del testo. Contributi di filologia e letteratura


, Di Benedetto, Vincenzo
, Vincenzo Di Benedetto
, 2007
, Volume 2, 381–461
, (:it:Edizioni ETS, Edizioni ETS)
,weblink
, 978-8-846-71940-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK, La Naissance de la Grammaire dans l'Antiquité grecque


, Ildefonse, Frédérique
, 1997
, Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, Vrin, Paris
, 2-7116-1311-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK, Crates Mallos, Dionysius Thrax and the Tradition of Stoic Grammatical Theory


, Janko, Richard
, Richard Janko
, 1995
, The Passionate Intellect. Essays on the Transformation of Classical Traditions Presented to Prof. I. G. Kidd
, Ayres, L.
, Rutgers University Press
,weblink
, 213–233
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, The Tekhne Grammatike of Dionysius Thrax


, Kemp, J. Alan
, Historiographia Linguistica
, 1986, 13, 2/3, 343–363
, harv
,
  • BOOK, La grammaire de Denys le Thrace, 2nd


, Lallot, Jean
, 2003, First published 1998
, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS Éditions, Paris
, harv
,
  • BOOK, English Grammatical Categories: And the Tradition to 1800


, Michael, Ian
, Ian Michael
, 2010
, Cambridge University Press
,weblink
, 978-0-521-14326-4
, harv
,
  • JOURNAL, Techne Grammatike e la documentazione papiracea


, Pagani, Lara
, Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica
, 2014
,weblink
, 205–217
, harv
,
  • BOOK, History of classical scholarship from the beginnings to the end of the Hellenistic age


, Pfeiffer, Rudolf
, Rudolf Pfeiffer
, 1968
, Volume 1
, Clarendon Press
,weblink
, harv
,
  • BOOK, Word and Meaning in Ancient Alexandria: Theories of Language from Philo to Plotinus


, Robertson, David
, 2008, First published 1903
, Ashgate Publishing
,weblink
, 978-0-754-60696-3
, harv
,
  • BOOK, The Tekhne grammatike of Dionysius Thrax in its Historical Perspective: The Evolution of the Traditional European Word Class System


, Robins, Robert Henry
, R. H. Robins
, 1987
, Mots et parties du discours
, Swiggers, Pierre
, van Hoecke, Willy
, Leuven University Press, Leuven
, 9–37
, harv
,
  • BOOK, The Authenticity of the TechnÄ“


, Robins, Robert Henry
, R. H. Robins
, 1998, First published 1995
, Dionysius Thrax and the Technē Grammatikē
, Law, Vivien
, Sluiter, Ineke, Ineke Sluiter
, Nodus Publikationen, Munster
, 13–26
, 3-89323-451-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK, A History of Classical Scholarship: From the End of the Sixth Century B.C. to the End of the Middle Ages


, Sandys, John Edwin
, John Sandys (classicist)
, 2010, First published 1903
, Cambridge University Press
,weblink
, 978-1-108-02706-9
, harv
,
  • BOOK, The Best of the Grammarians: Aristarchus of Samothrace on the Iliad


, Schironi, Francesca
, 2018
, University of Michigan Press
,weblink
, 978-0-472-13076-4
, harv
,
  • BOOK, The Amnesic Syndromes of Structuralism


, Å kiljan, Dubravko
, 2000
, History and Perspectives of Language Study: Papers in Honor of Ranko Bugarski
, Tomić, Olga Mišeska
, Radovanović, Milorad
, John Benjamins Publishing
,weblink
, 85–99
, 978-9-027-23692-0
, harv
,

External links

  • WEB


, τέχνη γραμματική
, Art of Grammar
, Thrax, Dionysius
, Greek
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040825223124weblink">weblink
, 25 August 2004
, harv
,
  • BOOK, Τέχνη Γραμματική


, Thrax, Dionysius
, Greek, Latin
,weblink
, The Internet Archive
, harv
,
  • {{Wikisourcelang-inline|el|Διονύσιος ο Θραξ|Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ}}.
  • {{Wikisourcelang-inline|en|The grammar of Dionysios Thrax}}
{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Dionysius Thrax" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 6:42am EDT - Thu, Sep 19 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT