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Digital Revolution
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{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2018}}(File:Internet map 1024.jpg|thumb|261px|A visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet.){{HistOfTech}}The Digital Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.WEB,weblink The Digital Revolution, E. Schoenherr, Steven, 5 May 2004,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081007132355weblink">weblink 7 October 2008, Implicitly, the term also refers to the sweeping changes brought about by digital computing and communication technology during (and after) the latter half of the 20th century. Analogous to the Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution, the Digital Revolution marked the beginning of the Information Age.WEB,weblink Information Age, Central to this revolution is the mass production and widespread use of digital logic, MOSFETs (MOS transistors), and integrated circuit (IC) chips, and their derived technologies, including computers, microprocessors, digital cellular phones, and the Internet.WEB,weblink Cinema in the Age of Digital Revolution, Debjani, Roy, 2014, These technological innovations have transformed traditional production and business techniques.JOURNAL, Bojanova, Irena, The Digital Revolution: What's on the Horizon?, IT Professional (Jan.-Feb. 2014), 16, 1, 8–12, 10.1109/MITP.2014.11, 2014,

History

(File:Rings of time Information Age (Digital Revolution).jpg|thumb|Rings of time showing some important dates in Digital Revolution from 1968 to 2017)

Brief history

The underlying technology was invented in the later half of the 19th century, including Babbage's analytical engine and the telegraph. Digital communication became economical for widespread adoption after the invention of the personal computer. Claude Shannon, a Bell Labs mathematician, is credited for having laid out the foundations of digitalization in his pioneering 1948 article, A Mathematical Theory of Communication.BOOK, The mathematical theory of communication, Shannon, Claude E., University of Illinois Press, 1963, 0252725484, 4. print., Urbana, 144, Weaver, Warren, The digital revolution converted technology that had been analog into a digital format. By doing this, it became possible to make copies that were identical to the original. In digital communications, for example, repeating hardware was able to amplify the digital signal and pass it on with no loss of information in the signal. Of equal importance to the revolution was the ability to easily move the digital information between media, and to access or distribute it remotely.The turning point of the revolution was the change from analogue to digitally recorded music.NEWS,weblink Museum Of Applied Arts And Sciences - About, Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences, 22 August 2017, en-US, During the 1980s the digital format of optical compact discs gradually replaced analog formats, such as vinyl records and cassette tapes, as the popular medium of choice."The Digital Revolution Ahead for the Audio Industry," Business Week. New York, 16 March 1981, p. 40D.

Origins (1947–1969)

In 1947, the first transistor, the germanium-based point-contact transistor, was invented by William Shockley, Walter Houser Brattain and John Bardeen at Bell Labs.WEB,weblink Transistor History - Invention of the Transistor, 17 April 2015, Phil Ament, 17 April 2015, This led the way to more advanced digital computers. From the late 1940s, universities, the military, and business developed computer systems, to digitally replicate and automate previously manually performed mathematical calculations, with the LEO being the first commercially available general-purpose computer.In the late 1950s, Bell Labs engineer Mohamed Atalla demonstrated the effectiveness of silicon as a semiconductor material with his process of surface passivation by thermal oxidation.BOOK, Kooi, E., Schmitz, A., Brief Notes on the History of Gate Dielectrics in MOS Devices, High Dielectric Constant Materials: VLSI MOSFET Applications, 2005, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783540210818, 33–44,weblink BOOK, Black, Lachlan E., New Perspectives on Surface Passivation: Understanding the Si-Al2O3 Interface, 2016, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer, 9783319325217, 17,weblink BOOK, Heywang, W., Zaininger, K.H., 2.2. Early history, Silicon: Evolution and Future of a Technology, 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783662098974, 26–28,weblink This led to several major milestones in silicon semiconductor technology during 1959: the planar process by Jean HoerniBOOK, Lojek, Bo, History of Semiconductor Engineering, 2007, Springer Science & Business Media, 9783540342588, 120, and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip by Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductorweblink and the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labsweblink These developments paved the way for the mass-production of silicon semiconductor devices.JOURNAL, Sah, Chih-Tang, Chih-Tang Sah, Evolution of the MOS transistor-from conception to VLSI, Proceedings of the IEEE, October 1988, 76, 10, 1280–1326 (1290), 10.1109/5.16328,weblink 0018-9219, Those of us active in silicon material and device research during 1956{{ndash, 1960 considered this successful effort by the Bell Labs group led by Atalla to stabilize the silicon surface the most important and significant technology advance, which blazed the trail that led to silicon integrated circuit technology developments in the second phase and volume production in the third phase.|bibcode=1988IEEEP..76.1280S }}In 1968, Fairchild engineer Federico Faggin made an improvement on MOS technology, with his development of the silicon-gate MOS chip, which he later used to develop the Intel 4004, the first single-chip microprocessor.WEB, 1971: Microprocessor Integrates CPU Function onto a Single Chip,weblink Computer History Museum, It was released by Intel in 1971, and laid the foundations for the microcomputer revolution that began in the 1970s.The public was first introduced to the concepts that would lead to the Internet when a message was sent over the ARPANET in 1969. Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I, CYCLADES, Merit Network, Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.The Whole Earth movement of the 1960s advocated the use of new technology.WEB,weblink History of Whole Earth Catalog, 17 April 2015,

1970s

In the 1970s, the home computer was introduced,WEB,weblink Personal Computer Milestones, 17 April 2015, time-sharing computers,NEWS,weblink 2,076 IT jobs from 492 companies, Criss, Fillur, 14 August 2014, ICTerGezocht.nl, 19 August 2017, nl-NL, the video game console, the first coin-op video games,WEB,weblink Atari - Arcade/Coin-op, 17 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141102013604weblink">weblink 2 November 2014, yes, WEB,weblink Forgotten arcade games let you shoot space men and catch live lobsters, Vincze Miklós, io9, 17 April 2015, and the golden age of arcade video games began with Space Invaders. As digital technology proliferated, and the switch from analog to digital record keeping became the new standard in business, a relatively new job description was popularized, the data entry clerk. Culled from the ranks of secretaries and typists from earlier decades, the data entry clerk's job was to convert analog data (customer records, invoices, etc.) into digital data.

1980s

In developed nations, computers achieved semi-ubiquity during the 1980s as they made their way into schools, homes, business, and industry. Automated teller machines, industrial robots, CGI in film and television, electronic music, bulletin board systems, and video games all fueled what became the zeitgeist of the 1980s. Millions of people purchased home computers, making household names of early personal computer manufacturers such as Apple, Commodore, and Tandy. To this day the Commodore 64 is often cited as the best selling computer of all time, having sold 17 million units (by some accounts)WEB,weblink How many Commodore 64 computers were really sold?, pagetable.com, 17 April 2015, between 1982 and 1994.In 1984, the U.S. Census Bureau began collecting data on computer and Internet use in the United States; their first survey showed that 8.2% of all U.S. households owned a personal computer in 1984, and that households with children under the age of 18 were nearly twice as likely to own one at 15.3% (middle and upper middle class households were the most likely to own one, at 22.9%).WEB,weblink Archived copy, 20 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130402133738weblink">weblink 2 April 2013, yes, By 1989, 15% of all U.S. households owned a computer, and nearly 30% of households with children under the age of 18 owned oneweblink By the late 1980s, many businesses were dependent on computers and digital technology.Motorola created the first mobile phone, Motorola DynaTac, in 1983. However, this device used analog communication - digital cell phones were not sold commercially until 1991 when the 2G network started to be opened in Finland to accommodate the unexpected demand for cell phones that was becoming apparent in the late 1980s.Compute! magazine predicted that CD-ROM would be the centerpiece of the revolution, with multiple household devices reading the discs.WEB,weblink COMPUTE! magazine issue 93 Feb 1988, If the wheels behind the CD-ROM industry have their way, this product will help open the door to a brave, new multimedia world for microcomputers, where the computer is intimately linked with the other household electronics, and every gadget in the house reads tons of video, audio, and text data from CD-ROM disks., The first true digital camera was created in 1988, and the first were marketed in December 1989 in Japan and in 1990 in the United States.WEB,weblink 1988, 17 April 2015, By the mid-2000s, they would eclipse traditional film in popularity.Digital ink was also invented in the late 1980s. Disney's CAPS system (created 1988) was used for a scene in 1989's The Little Mermaid and for all their animation films between 1990's The Rescuers Down Under and 2004's Home On The Range.Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989.

1990s

The first public digital HDTV broadcast was of the 1990 World Cup that June; it was played in 10 theaters in Spain and Italy. However HDTV did not become a standard until the mid-2000s outside Japan.The World Wide Web became publicly accessible in 1991, which had been available only to government and universities.WEB,weblink 20 years ago today, the World Wide Web was born - TNW Insider, 6 August 2011, Martin Bryant, The Next Web, 17 April 2015, In 1993 Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina introduced Mosaic, the first web browser capable of displaying inline imagesWEB,weblink The World Wide Web, 17 April 2015, and the basis for later browsers such as Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer. Stanford Federal Credit Union was the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994.PRESS RELEASE, Stanford Federal Credit Union Pioneers Online Financial Services., 1995-06-21,weblink In 1996 OP Financial Group, also a cooperative bank, became the second online bank in the world and the first in Europe.WEB,weblink History - About us - OP Group, The Internet expanded quickly, and by 1996, it was part of mass culture and many businesses listed websites in their ads. By 1999 almost every country had a connection, and nearly half of Americans and people in several other countries used the Internet on a regular basis. However throughout the 1990s, "getting online" entailed complicated configuration, and dial-up was the only connection type affordable by individual users; the present day mass Internet culture was not possible.In 1989 about 15% of all households in the United States owned a personal computer, by 2000, this was up to 51%weblink for households with children nearly 30% owned a computer in 1989, and in 2000 65% owned one.

2000s

Cell phones became as ubiquitous as computers by the early 2000s, with movie theaters beginning to show ads telling people to silence their phones. They also became much more advanced than phones of the 1990s, most of which only took calls or at most allowed for the playing of simple games.Text messaging existed in the 1990s but was not widely used until the mid-2000s, when it became a cultural phenomenon.The digital revolution became truly global in this time as well - after revolutionizing society in the developed world in the 1990s, the digital revolution spread to the masses in the developing world in the 2000s.In late 2005 the population of the Internet reached 1 billion,WEB,weblink One Billion People Online!, 17 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081022105426weblink">weblink 22 October 2008, yes, dmy-all, and 3 billion people worldwide used cell phones by the end of the decade. HDTV became the standard television broadcasting format in many countries by the end of the decade.

2010s

By 2012, over 2 billion people used the Internet, twice the number using it in 2007. Cloud computing had entered the mainstream by the early 2010s. By 2015, tablet computers and smartphones were expected to exceed personal computers in Internet usage.Tablets, Phones to Surpass PCs for Internet Use in Four Years. PCWorld. By 2016, half of the world's population was connected.WEB,weblink World Internet Users Statistics and 2014 World Population Stats, 17 April 2015,

Rise in digital technology use of computers, 1980–2016

{{further|History of the Internet}}(File:Analog to digital transition.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Analog to digital transition 1986 - 2014)In the late 1980s, less than 1% of the world's technologically stored information was in digital format, while it was 94% in 2007, with more than 99% by 2014."The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information", especially Supporting online material, Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science, 332(6025), 60-65; free access to the article through here:weblink The year 2005 is estimated to be the year when human kind was able to store more information in digital, than in analog format (the "beginning of the digital age").WEB,weblink World_info_capacity_animation, Martin Hilbert, 11 June 2011, YouTube, It is estimated that the world's capacity to store information has increased from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986, to some 5,000 exabytes in 2014 (5 zettabytes).Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds, {{doi|10.1016/j.tree.2015.12.013}}, Gillings, M. R., Hilbert, M., & Kemp, D. J. (2016), Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 31(3), 180–189

1990

  • Cell phone subscribers: 12.5 million (0.25% of world population in 1990)WEB,weblink Worldmapper: The world as you've never seen it before - Cellular Subscribers 1990, 17 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110512203411weblink">weblink 12 May 2011, yes,
  • Internet users: 2.8 million (0.05% of world population in 1990)WEB,weblink Worldmapper: The world as you've never seen it before - Communication Maps, 17 April 2015,

2000

  • Cell phone subscribers: 1.5 billion (19% of world population in 2002)
  • Internet users: 631 million (11% of world population in 2002)

2010

  • Cell phone subscribers: 4 billion (68% of world population in 2010)WEB,weblink Cell Phone Dangers - Protecting Our Homes From Cell Phone Radiation, Arms, Michael, 2013, Computer User,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140329191616weblink">weblink 29 March 2014,
  • Internet users: 1.8 billion (26.6% of world population in 2010)

2016

  • Internet users: 3.9 billion (49.5% of world population in 2016)
File:Computer lab showing desktop PCs warwick.jpg|thumb|right|250px|A university computer labcomputer lab

Converted technologies

Conversion of below analog technologies to digital. (The decade indicated is the period when digital became dominant form.) Decline or disappearance of below analog technologies: Disappearance of other technologies also attributed to digital revolution. (Analog–digital classification doesn't apply to these.) Improvements in digital technologies.

Technological basis

The basic building block of the Digital Revolution is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor),BOOK, Wong, Kit Po, Electrical Engineering - Volume II, 2009, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems, EOLSS Publications, 9781905839780, 7, which is the most widely manufactured device in history.WEB, 13 Sextillion & Counting: The Long & Winding Road to the Most Frequently Manufactured Human Artifact in History,weblink April 2, 2018, Computer History Museum, It is the basis of every microprocessor, memory chip and telecommunication circuit in commercial use.BOOK, Colinge, Jean-Pierre, Greer, James C., Nanowire Transistors: Physics of Devices and Materials in One Dimension, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 9781107052406, 2,weblink MOSFET scaling (rapid miniaturization of MOS transistors) has been largely responsible for enabling Moore's law, which predicted that transistor counts would increase at an exponential pace.JOURNAL, Motoyoshi, M., Through-Silicon Via (TSV), Proceedings of the IEEE, 2009, 97, 1, 43–48, 10.1109/JPROC.2008.2007462,weblink 0018-9219, WEB, Tortoise of Transistors Wins the Race - CHM Revolution,weblink Computer History Museum, 22 July 2019, NEWS, Transistors Keep Moore's Law Alive,weblink 18 July 2019, EETimes, 12 December 2018, Following the development of the digital personal computer, MOS microprocessors and memory chips, with their steadily increasing performance and storage, have enabled computer technology to be embedded into a huge range of objects from cameras to personal music players. Also important was the development of transmission technologies including computer networking, the Internet and digital broadcasting. 3G phones, whose social penetration grew exponentially in the 2000s, also played a very large role in the digital revolution as they simultaneously provide ubiquitous entertainment, communications, and online connectivity.

Socio-economic impact

Positive aspects include greater interconnectedness, easier communication, and the exposure of information that in the past could have more easily been suppressed by totalitarian regimes. Michio Kaku wrote in his books Physics of the Future that the failure of the Soviet coup of 1991 was due largely to the existence of technology such as the fax machine and computers that exposed classified information.The Revolutions of 2011 were enabled by social networking and smartphone technology; however these revolutions in hindsight largely failed to reach their goals as hardcore Islamist governments and in Syria a civil war have formed in the absence of the dictatorships that were toppled.The economic impact of the digital revolution has been large. Without the World Wide Web (WWW), for example, globalization and outsourcing would not be nearly as feasible as they are today. The digital revolution radically changed the way individuals and companies interact. Small regional companies were suddenly given access to much larger markets. Concepts such as on-demand software services and manufacturing and rapidly dropping technology costs made possible innovations in all aspects of industry and everyday life.After initial concerns of an IT productivity paradox, evidence is mounting that digital technologies have significantly increased the productivity and performance of businesses.JOURNAL, 290325, Computing Productivity: Firm-Level Evidence, June 2003, Hitt, Lorin M., Brynjolfsson, Erik, Negative effects include information overload, Internet predators, forms of social isolation, and media saturation. In a poll of prominent members of the national news media, 65 percent said the Internet is hurting journalism more than it is helpingWEB,weblink Media Insiders Say Internet Hurts Journalism, Cyra Master, 10 April 2009, The Atlantic, 17 April 2015, by allowing anyone no matter how amateur and unskilled to become a journalist; causing information to be muddier and the rise of conspiracy theory in a way it didn't exist in the past.In some cases, company employees' pervasive use of portable digital devices and work related computers for personal use—email, instant messaging, computer games—were often found to, or perceived to, reduce those companies' productivity. Personal computing and other non-work related digital activities in the workplace thus helped lead to stronger forms of privacy invasion, such as keystroke recording and information filtering applications (spyware and content-control software).

Information sharing and privacy

Privacy in general became a concern during the digital revolution. The ability to store and utilize such large amounts of diverse information opened possibilities for tracking of individual activities and interests. Libertarians and privacy rights advocates feared the possibility of an Orwellian future where centralized power structures control the populace via automatic surveillance and monitoring of personal information in such programs as the CIA's Information Awareness Office.John Markoff (22 November 2002). "Pentagon Plans a Computer System That Would Peek at Personal Data of Americans". The New York Times. Consumer and labor advocates opposed the ability to direct market to individuals, discriminate in hiring and lending decisions, invasively monitor employee behavior and communications and generally profit from involuntarily shared personal information.The Internet, especially the WWW in the 1990s, opened whole new avenues for communication and information sharing. The ability to easily and rapidly share information on a global scale brought with it a whole new level of freedom of speech. Individuals and organizations were suddenly given the ability to publish on any topic, to a global audience, at a negligible cost, particularly in comparison to any previous communication technology.Large cooperative projects could be endeavored (e.g. Open-source software projects, SETI@home). Communities of like-minded individuals were formed (e.g. MySpace, Tribe.net). Small regional companies were suddenly given access to a larger marketplace.In other cases, special interest groups as well as social and religious institutions found much of the content objectionable, even dangerous. Many parents and religious organizations, especially in the United States, became alarmed by pornography being more readily available to minors. In other circumstances the proliferation of information on such topics as child pornography, building bombs, committing acts of terrorism, and other violent activities were alarming to many different groups of people. Such concerns contributed to arguments for censorship and regulation on the WWW.

Copyright and trademark issues

Copyright and trademark issues also found new life in the digital revolution. The widespread ability of consumers to produce and distribute exact reproductions of protected works dramatically changed the intellectual property landscape, especially in the music, film, and television industries.The digital revolution, especially regarding privacy, copyright, censorship and information sharing, remains a controversial topic. As the digital revolution progresses it remains unclear to what extent society has been impacted and will be altered in the future.

Concerns

While there have been huge benefits to society from the digital revolution, especially in terms of the accessibility of information, there are a number of concerns. Expanded powers of communication and information sharing, increased capabilities for existing technologies, and the advent of new technology brought with it many potential opportunities for exploitation. The digital revolution helped usher in a new age of mass surveillance, generating a range of new civil and human rights issues. Reliability of data became an issue as information could easily be replicated, but not easily verified. The digital revolution made it possible to store and track facts, articles, statistics, as well as minutiae hitherto unfeasible.From the perspective of the historian, a large part of human history is known through physical objects from the past that have been found or preserved, particularly in written documents. Digital records are easy to create but also easy to delete and modify. Changes in storage formats can make recovery of data difficult or near impossible, as can the storage of information on obsolete media for which reproduction equipment is unavailable, and even identifying what such data is and whether it is of interest can be near impossible if it is no longer easily readable, or if there is a large number of such files to identify. Information passed off as authentic research or study must be scrutinized and verified.{{Citation needed|date=January 2010}}These problems are further compounded by the use of digital rights management and other copy prevention technologies which, being designed to only allow the data to be read on specific machines, may well make future data recovery impossible. The Voyager Golden Record, which is intended to be read by an intelligent extraterrestrial (perhaps a suitable parallel to a human from the distant future), is recorded in analog rather than digital format specifically for easy interpretation and analysis.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720215121weblink">Virginia Heffernan (New York Times) - The Digital Revolution
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720215134weblink">Virginia Heffernan (New York Times), an interview
{{Industrial Revolution}}{{History of technology}}{{Authority control}}

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