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Diana, Princess of Wales

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Diana, Princess of Wales
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{{pp-move|small=yes}}{{pp-semi-indef|small=yes}}{{short description|member of the British royal family}}{{redirect-multi|4|Diana Spencer|Lady Di|People's Princess|Princess Diana}}{{EngvarB|date=July 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2017}}







factoids
| birth_place = Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk, England1997317df=yes}}| death_place = Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France| burial_date = 6 September 1997| burial_place= Lake Round Oval, Althorp, Northamptonshire, EnglandCharles, Prince of Wales28 August 1996|reason=divorced}} {edih} {edih}| father = John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer| mother = Frances Shand Kydd| signature = Lady Diana signature-vect.svg}}Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 â€“ 31 August 1997), was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, and the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex.Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility, and she was the youngest daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Althorp. She grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, and was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer, a style she would retain until her marriage.Diana came to prominence in February 1981 upon her engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II. Their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, and Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were then respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne. As Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas. She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Diana was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989. She also raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with HIV/AIDS, cancer, and mental illness.Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996 following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel on 31 August 1997 and subsequent televised funeral.

Early life

Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk.{{sfn|Morton |1997|p=70}} She was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp (1924–1992), and his first wife, Frances (née Roche; 1936–2004).{{sfn|Morton |1997|pp=70–71}} The Spencer family has been closely allied with the British royal family for several generations;{{sfn|Brown|2007|pp=32–33}} Diana's grandmothers had served as ladies-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=2}} The Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, and no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt who was also a prospective Princess of Wales.{{sfn|Morton |1997|p=71}}On 30 August 1961,WEB,weblink The Saddest Fairy Tale, Time (magazine), Time, 16 August 2007, 3 February 2017, Howard, Chua-Eoan, ...she died, suddenly, the day after the 36th anniversary of her christening...,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203163156weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, yes, Diana was baptised at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Sandringham.{{sfn|Morton |1997|p=71}} She grew up with three siblings: Sarah, Jane, and Charles.{{sfn|Brown|2007|pp=37–38}} Her infant brother, John, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born.{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=37}} The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, and Lady Althorp was reportedly sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem".{{sfn|Morton |1997|p=71}} The experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and probably the root of their divorce because I don't think they ever got over it."{{sfn|Morton |1997|p=71}} Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate.{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=41}} The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II. The royal family frequently holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, and Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|pp=2, 20}}Diana was seven years old when her parents divorced.{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=42}} Her mother later began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|pp=40, 42}} Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp. Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy.{{sfn|Brown|2007|pp=40–41}} In 1976, Lord Althorp married Raine, Countess of Dartmouth.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=34}} Diana's relationship with her stepmother was particularly bad.NEWS, Diana 'I thought of running off with lover',weblink 23 April 2018, Daily Telegraph, 7 December 2004,weblink 23 April 2018, no, She resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", and on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs". She later described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing".BOOK, Morton, Andrew, Diana: Her True Story - In Her Own Words: The Sunday Times Number-One Bestseller, 22 June 2017, Michael O'Mara Books, 9781782436935,weblink 25 April 2018, Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father later inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=29}}

Education and career

Diana was initially home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen. She began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton, Norfolk, and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|pp=21–22}} She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=23}} She did not shine academically, failing her O-levels twice. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.WEB,weblink Diana, Princess of Wales, The British Monarchy, The Royal Household, 17 February 2017,weblink 24 January 2017, She left West Heath when she was sixteen.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=35}} Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|pp=40–41}} She showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist. Diana also excelled in swimming and diving, and studied ballet and tap dance.{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=55}}After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette (a finishing school in Rougemont, Switzerland) for one term in 1978, Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=41, 44}} In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but seldom cooked for her roommates. She took a series of low-paying jobs; she worked as a dance instructor for youth until a skiing accident caused her to miss three months of work.{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=68}} She then found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, and acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London,{{sfn|Morton|1997|p=103}} and worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=45}} In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18th birthday present.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=46}} She lived there with three flatmates until 25 February 1981.{{sfn|Morton|1997|p=118}}

Marriage

Lady Diana first met Charles, Prince of Wales, the Queen's eldest son and heir apparent, when she was 16 in November 1977. He was then dating her older sister, Lady Sarah.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=40}}NEWS,weblink Descendant of 4 Kings Charms Her Prince, Daily Times, London, 24 April 2016, 24 July 1981, Glass, Robert, They were guests at a country weekend during the summer of 1980 when she watched him play polo and he took a serious interest in Diana as a potential bride. The relationship progressed when he invited her aboard the royal yacht Britannia for a sailing weekend to Cowes. This was followed by an invitation to Balmoral (the royal family's Scottish residence) to meet his family one weekend in November 1980.NEWS, Royal weekend fuels rumours,weblink 22 July 2013, The Age, 17 November 1980, London, {{sfn|Dimbleby|p=279|1994}} Lady Diana was well received by the Queen, the Queen Mother and the Duke of Edinburgh. Prince Charles subsequently courted Diana in London. The Prince proposed on 6 February 1981, and Lady Diana accepted, but their engagement was kept secret for the next few weeks.{{sfn|Morton|1997|p=118}}

Engagement and wedding

{{further|Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer|Wedding dress of Lady Diana Spencer}}File:British coin 25p (1981) reverse.jpg|thumb|The wedding of Charles and Diana commemorated on a 1981 British Crown ]]Their engagement became official on 24 February 1981.NEWS,weblink International Special Report: Princess Diana, 1961–1997, The Washington Post, 30 January 1999, 13 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000819020342weblink">weblink 19 August 2000, Diana selected a large engagement ring that consisted of 14 solitaire diamonds surrounding a 12-carat oval blue Ceylon sapphire set in 18-carat white gold, which was similar to her mother's engagement ring. The ring was made by the Crown jewellers Garrard. In 2010, it became the engagement ring of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.NEWS,weblink Princess Diana's engagement ring, Ringenvy, September 2009, 12 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110104164354weblink">weblink 4 January 2011, dmy-all, The Queen Mother gave Diana a sapphire and diamond brooch as an engagement present.NEWS,weblink Queen Mother on 'abhorrent' Diana, Princess of Wales, 24 April 2015, London, The Telegraph, 17 September 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150508050126weblink">weblink 8 May 2015, dmy-all, Following the engagement, Diana left her occupation as a kindergarten assistant and lived for a short period at Clarence House, which was the home of the Queen Mother.NEWS, It was love at first sight between British people and Lady Diana,weblink 23 July 2013, The Leader Post, 15 July 1981, AP, London, She then lived at Buckingham Palace until the wedding. Diana was the first Englishwoman to marry the first in line to the throne since Anne Hyde over 300 years earlier, and she was also the first royal bride to have a paying job before her engagement. She made her first public appearance with Prince Charles in a charity ball in March 1981 at Goldsmiths' Hall, where she met Grace Kelly, who was the Princess of Monaco.Twenty-year-old Diana became Princess of Wales when she married the Prince of Wales on 29 July 1981 at St Paul's Cathedral, which offered more seating than Westminster Abbey, a church that was generally used for royal nuptials. The service was widely described as a "fairytale wedding" and was watched by a global television audience of 750 million people while 600,000 spectators lined the streets to catch a glimpse of the couple en route to the ceremony.NEWS,weblink 1981: Charles and Diana marry, BBC News, 29 July 1981, 27 November 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080307135340weblink">weblink 7 March 2008, dmy-all, At the altar, Diana inadvertently reversed the order of Charles's first two names, saying "Philip Charles" Arthur George instead. She did not say that she would "obey" him; that traditional vow was left out at the couple's request, which caused some comment at the time.BOOK, How We Got bare: The '70s, Frum, David, David Frum, 2000, Basic Books, New York, 0-465-04195-7, 98, Diana wore a dress valued at £9,000 with a 25-foot (7.62-metre) train.BOOK, Denney, Colleen, Representing Diana, Princess of Wales: cultural memory and fairy tales revisited,weblink 30 April 2011, April 2005, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 978-0-8386-4023-4, 57, no,weblink 25 April 2016, dmy-all, After she became Princess of Wales, Diana automatically acquired rank as the third-highest female in the United Kingdom Order of Precedence (after the Queen and the Queen Mother), and was fifth or sixth in the orders of precedence of her other realms, following the Queen, the relevant viceroy, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen Mother, and the Prince of Wales. Within a few years of the wedding, the Queen extended Diana visible tokens of membership in the royal family; she lent the Princess the Cambridge Lover's Knot Tiara,BOOK, Field, Leslie, The Queen's Jewels: The Personal Collection of Elizabeth II, Harry N. Abrams, 2002, London, 0-8109-8172-6, 113–115, NEWS,weblink Duchess of Cambridge wears Princess Diana's favourite tiara to diplomatic reception at Buckingham Palace, Lucy Clarke-Billings, 9 December 2015, 29 December 2015, The Telegraph, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151225031537weblink">weblink 25 December 2015, dmy-all, and granted her the badge of the Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II.NEWS,weblink Duchess Kate 'to receive special honour from the Queen' to celebrate Her Majesty's record reign, Hello Magazine, 25 February 2016,

Children

The couple had residences at Kensington Palace and Highgrove House, near Tetbury. On 5 November 1981, the Princess's pregnancy was officially announced.{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=195}} In January 1982—twelve weeks into the pregnancy—Diana fell down a staircase at Sandringham, and the royal gynaecologist Sir George Pinker was summoned from London. He found that although she had suffered severe bruising, the foetus was uninjured.NEWS,weblink Obituary: Sir George Pinker, Daily Telegraph, 1 May 2007, 22 December 2012, London, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113043931weblink">weblink 13 November 2012, dmy-all, Diana later confessed that she had intentionally thrown herself down the stairs because she was feeling "so inadequate".NEWS, US TV airs Princess Diana tapes,weblink 23 April 2018, BBC, 5 March 2004, In February 1982, pictures of a pregnant Diana in bikini while holidaying was published in the media. The Queen subsequently released a statement and called it "the blackest day in the history of British journalism."NEWS,weblink Timeline: Diana, Princess of Wales, BBC, 5 July 2004, 29 May 2018, On 21 June 1982, the Princess gave birth to the couple's first son, Prince William.NEWS,weblink 1982: Princess Diana gives birth to boy, BBC, 17 May 2018, Amidst some media criticism, she decided to take William—who was still a baby—on her first major tours of Australia and New Zealand, and the decision was popularly applauded. By her own admission, the Princess of Wales had not initially intended to take William until Malcolm Fraser, the Australian prime minister, made the suggestion.{{sfn|Morton|1997|pp=142–143}}A second son, Prince Harry, was born on 15 September 1984.{{sfn|Morton|1997|p=147}} The Princess said she and the Prince were closest during her pregnancy with Harry. She was aware that their second child was a boy, but did not share the knowledge with anyone else, including the Prince of Wales.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Hewitt denies Prince Harry link, 21 September 2002, 23 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090215161416weblink">weblink 15 February 2009, dmy-all, Diana gave her sons wider experiences than was usual for royal children.NEWS,weblink Prince William Biography, People (magazine), People, 15 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081030002200weblink">weblink 30 October 2008, dmy-all, JOURNAL,weblink Prince Harry, People (magazine), People, 15 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081029221631weblink">weblink 29 October 2008, dmy-all, She rarely deferred to the Prince or to the royal family, and was often intransigent when it came to the children. She chose their first given names, dismissed a royal family nanny and engaged one of her own choosing, selected their schools and clothing, planned their outings, and took them to school herself as often as her schedule permitted. She also organised her public duties around their timetables.{{sfn|Morton|1997|p=184}}

Problems and separation

File:Prince Charles, Lady Di, 19860723.jpg|thumb|right|The Prince and Princess of Wales after the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of York in 1986]]Five years into the marriage, the couple's incompatibility and age difference of almost 13 years became visible and damaging.{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=174}} Charles resumed his relationship with his former girlfriend Camilla Parker Bowles, and Diana later began an affair with Major James Hewitt, the family's former riding instructor. The media speculated that Hewitt, not Charles, was Harry's father based on the alleged physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry, but Harry was born before the affair began.WEB, Holder, Margaret,weblink Who Does Prince Harry Look Like? James Hewitt Myth Debunked, The Morton Report, 24 August 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120529062152weblink">weblink 29 May 2012, dmy-all, In 1989, Diana was at a birthday party for Camilla's sister, Annabel Elliot, when she confronted Camilla about her and Charles's extramarital affair.NEWS,weblink Diana tells of Camilla encounter, BBC, 12 March 2004, 3 August 2018, WEB,weblink Diana tapes reveal Camilla confrontation, The Telegraph, 12 March 2004, 3 August 2018, These affairs were later exposed in May 1992 with the publication of Andrew Morton's book, Diana: Her True Story.NEWS,weblink Interview: Andrew Morton: He couldn't shout: `Diana was in on this.' `She trusted me. It would have been a betrayal', The Independent, 1 December 1997, 7 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170108002344weblink">weblink 8 January 2017, dmy-all, NEWS, Princess Di breaks down after making appearance,weblink 14 August 2013, Eugene Register Guard, 12 June 1992, The book, which also revealed the Princess's allegedly suicidal unhappiness, caused a media storm. Morton later revealed that in 1991 he had also conducted a secret interview with Diana in which she had talked about her marital issues and difficulties.WEB,weblink Princess Diana secretly recorded herself describing despair at the state of her marriage to Prince Charles, biographer reveals, The Telegraph, Rozina, Sabur, 10 June 2017, 8 March 2018,weblink 16 November 2017, no, The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh hosted a meeting between Charles and Diana and unsuccessfully tried to effect a reconciliation.{{sfn|Brandreth|2004|pp=348–349}} Philip wrote to Diana and expressed his disappointment at the extra-marital affairs of both her and Charles; he asked her to examine their behaviour from the other's point of view.{{sfn|Brandreth|2004|pp=349–351}} The Duke was direct and Diana was sensitive.{{sfn|Brandreth|2004|p=351}} She found the letters hard to take, but nevertheless, she appreciated that he was acting with good intent.{{sfn|Brandreth|2004|pp=351–353}}During 1992 and 1993, leaked tapes of telephone conversations reflected negatively on both the Prince and Princess of Wales. Tape recordings of the Princess and James Gilbey were made public in August 1992,NEWS, Princess Diana's 'admirer' named by Press,weblink 14 August 2013, New Straits Times, 27 August 1992, London, and transcripts were published the same month. The article, "Squidgygate", was followed in November 1992 by the leaked "Camillagate" tapes, intimate exchanges between the Prince and Camilla, published in the tabloids.{{sfn|Brown|2007|pp=304, 309}}BOOK, Brandreth, Gyles, Gyles Brandreth, Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair, Random House, 2007, 0-09-949087-0, 257–264, In December 1992, Prime Minister John Major announced the couple's "amicable separation" to the House of Commons.{{sfn|Dimbleby|p=489|1994}}Between 1992 and 1993, Diana hired voice coach Peter Settelen to help her develop her public speaking voice.NEWS, Diana tapes filmed by voice coach to air on Channel 4 documentary,weblink 30 July 2017, The Guardian, 24 July 2017, no,weblink 29 July 2017, dmy-all, In a videotape recorded by Settelen in 1992, Diana admitted that in 1984 through to 1986, she had been "deeply in love with someone who worked in this environment."NEWS, Diana 'wanted to live with guard',weblink BBC News, 31 July 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170731164728weblink">weblink 31 July 2017, dmy-all, WEB, Langley, By William, The Mannakee file,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 12 December 2004, 31 July 2017, en, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170731210646weblink">weblink 31 July 2017, dmy-all, It is thought she was referring to Barry Mannakee,WEB,weblink Diana: In Her Own Words – admirers have nothing to fear from the Channel 4 tapes, The Guardian, Mark, Lawson, 7 August 2017, 22 October 2017, no,weblink 20 September 2017, dmy-all, who was transferred to the Diplomatic Protection Squad in 1986 after his managers had determined that his relationship with Diana had been inappropriate.NEWS, Milmo, Cahal, Conspiracy theorists feast on inquiry into death of Diana's minder,weblink The Independent, 31 July 2017, 8 December 2004, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170801031824weblink">weblink 1 August 2017, dmy-all, Diana said in the tape that Mannakee had been "chucked out" from his role as her bodyguard following suspicion that the two were having an affair. Penny Junor suggested in her 1998 book that the Princess was in a romantic relationship with Mannakee.WEB,weblink New Book Casts Shadow Over Diana, CBS News, 26 October 1998, 7 March 2018, Diana's friends dismissed the claim as absurd. However, in the subsequently released tapes Diana stated that she had feelings for that "someone", saying that "I was quite happy to give all this up [and] just to go off and live with him". She described him as "the greatest friend [she's] ever had", though she denied any sexual relationship with him.WEB,weblink Princess Diana tapes: Part 2, NBC News, Ann, Curry, 6 December 2004, 7 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170817080410weblink">weblink 17 August 2017, no, She also spoke bitterly of her husband saying that "[He] made me feel so inadequate in every possible way, that each time I came up for air he pushed me down again."NEWS,weblink Diana tapes captivate America, BBC, Kevin, Anderson, 5 March 2004, 3 August 2018, Charles's aunt, Princess Margaret, burned "highly personal" letters that Diana had written to the Queen Mother in 1993. Biographer William Shawcross considered Margaret's action to be "understandable" as she was "protecting her mother and other members of the family", but "regrettable from a historical viewpoint".NEWS,weblink Princess Margaret destroyed letters from Diana to Queen Mother, The Daily Telegraph, 17 September 2009, 7 January 2017, Gordon, Rayner, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170108003827weblink">weblink 8 January 2017, dmy-all, Although she blamed Camilla Parker Bowles for her marital troubles, Diana began to believe that her husband had also been involved in other affairs. In October 1993, the Princess wrote to her butler Paul Burrell, telling him that she believed her husband was now in love with his personal assistant Tiggy Legge-Bourke—who was also his sons' former nanny—and was planning to have her killed "to make the path clear for him to marry Tiggy".NEWS,weblink Diana affair over before crash, inquest told, The Guardian, London, Rosalind Ryan, 7 January 2008, 13 October 2008, WEB,weblink Princess Diana letter: 'Charles plans to kill me', The Daily Telegraph, Gordon, Rayner, 20 December 2007, 19 October 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080123061245weblink">weblink 23 January 2008, yes, dmy-all, Legge-Bourke had been hired by the Prince as a young companion for his sons while they were in his care, and the Princess was resentful of Legge-Bourke and her relationship with the young princes.WEB,weblink Tiggy Legge-Bourke, The Guardian, 12 October 1999, 7 January 2017, Prince Charles sought public understanding via a televised interview with Jonathan Dimbleby on 29 June 1994. In the interview, he said that he had rekindled his relationship with Camilla in 1986 only after his marriage to the Princess had "irretrievably broken down".WEB,weblink The Princess and the Press, PBS, 7 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170310043520weblink">weblink 10 March 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Timeline: Charles and Camilla's romance, BBC, 6 April 2005, 7 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202161625weblink">weblink 2 February 2017, dmy-all, {{sfn|Dimbleby|p=395|1994}}In the same year, the News of the World claimed that Diana had made over 300 phone calls to the married art dealer Oliver Hoare.WEB,weblink British Press Advising Princess Di To Get A Life, Chicago Tribune, Ray, Moseley, 24 August 1994, 13 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170517145048weblink">weblink 17 May 2017, no, WEB,weblink A Princess in Peril, People, Michelle, Green, 5 September 1994, 13 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161012154045weblink">weblink 12 October 2016, no, These calls were proven to have been made from both her Kensington Palace apartment and from the phone box just outside the palace. According to Hoare's obituary, there was little doubt that she had been in a relationship with him.WEB, Oliver Hoare obituary,weblink The Times, 13 September 2018, 20 September 2018, However, the Princess denied any romantic relationship with Hoare, whom she described as a friend, and said that "a young boy" was the source of the nuisance calls made to Hoare.NEWS,weblink Schoolboy with a grudge was Oliver Hoare telephone pest, The Independent, Steve, Boggan, 26 November 1995, 13 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170819153807weblink">weblink 19 August 2017, no, WEB,weblink Princess Diana's secret life, NBC News, 8 December 2003, 13 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160906063221weblink">weblink 6 September 2016, She was also linked by the press to rugby union player Will CarlingWEB,weblink Sweep It Under the Rugger, People, 25 March 1996, 13 March 2018, WEB,weblink Diana's Secret Love, CBS News, Rebecca, Leung, 20 April 2004, 13 March 2018,weblink 14 February 2018, no, and private equity investor Theodore J. Forstmann,WEB,weblink Dealmaker of the Decade, The Washington Post, Brett, Fromson, 4 June 1995, 14 March 2018, NEWS,weblink Teddy Forstmann: Pioneer of the leveraged buy-out, The Independent, Martin, Childs, 26 November 2011, 14 March 2018, yet these claims were neither confirmed nor proven.WEB,weblink WILL CARLING: MY LIFE AS THE CAD: I used to be so arrogant. I thought, Sunday Mirror, Dennis, Ellam, 26 September 2014, 13 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060504203040weblink">weblink 4 May 2006, WEB,weblink Teddy Forstmann obituary, The Guardian, David, Brewerton, 22 November 2011, 14 March 2018,weblink 21 July 2016, no,

Divorce

Journalist Martin Bashir interviewed Diana for the BBC current affairs show Panorama. The interview was broadcast on 20 November 1995. The Princess discussed her and her husband's extramarital affairs.NEWS,weblink 1995: Diana admits adultery in TV interview, BBC, 1 August 2018, Referring to Charles's relationship with Camilla, she said: "Well, there were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded." She also expressed doubt about her husband's suitability for kingship. Authors Tina Brown, Sally Bedell Smith and Sarah Bradford support Diana's admission in the interview that she had suffered from depression, "rampant bulimia" and had engaged numerous times in the act of self mutilation; the show's transcript records Diana confirming many of her mental health problems, including that she had "hurt (her) arms and legs".NEWS,weblink The Panorama Interview with the Princess of Wales, BBC News, 20 November 1995, 8 January 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110304163240weblink">weblink 4 March 2011, dmy-all, The combination of illnesses from which Diana herself said that she suffered resulted in some of her biographers opining that she had a borderline personality disorder.WEB, Cohen, David, Diana: Death of a Goddess,weblink Random House, 2005, 18, 13 June 2016, Jonathan Dimbleby and ...Penny Junor...said that there were several people who had mentioned Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatrists had provided learned opinions that sadly (Diana) had suffered form Borderline Personality Disorder as well as eating disorders..., no,weblink 4 December 2017, dmy-all, The interview proved to be the tipping point. On 20 December, Buckingham Palace announced that the Queen had sent letters to the Prince and Princess of Wales, advising them to divorce.NEWS, Montalbano, D., Queen Orders Charles, Diana to Divorce,weblink 23 July 2013, Los Angeles Times, 21 December 1995, London, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140308022819weblink">weblink 8 March 2014, dmy-all, NEWS, Charles and Diana to divorce,weblink 23 July 2013, Associated Press, 21 December 1995, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402160109weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, The Queen's move was backed by the Prime Minister and by senior Privy Counsellors, and, according to the BBC, was decided after two weeks of talks.NEWS,weblink {{-', Divorce': Queen to Charles and Diana|work=BBC|date=20 December 1995|accessdate=2 November 2010|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080307140359weblink|archivedate=7 March 2008|df=dmy-all}} Charles formally agreed to the divorce in a written statement soon after. In February 1996, the Princess announced her agreement after negotiations with the Prince and representatives of the Queen,NEWS, Princess Diana agrees to divorce,weblink 23 July 2013, Gadsden Times, 28 February 1996, AP, London, irritating Buckingham Palace by issuing her own announcement of the divorce agreement and its terms. In July 1996, the couple agreed on the terms of their divorce. This followed shortly after the Princess's accusation that the Prince's personal assistant Tiggy Legge-Bourke had aborted the Prince's child, after which Legge-Bourke instructed her attorney Peter Carter-Ruck to demand an apology.NEWS,weblink Special: Princess Diana, 1961–1997, Time (magazine), Time, 12 February 1996, 24 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100406235031weblink">weblink 6 April 2010, NEWS,weblink Diana 'wept as she read brother's cruel words', The Telegraph, 10 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150416131223weblink">weblink 16 April 2015, dmy-all, Diana's secretary Patrick Jephson resigned shortly before the story broke, later writing that the Princess had "exulted in accusing Legge-Bourke of having had an abortion".BOOK, Jephson, P.D., Shadows of a Princess: An Intimate Account by Her Private Secretary, HarperCollins, 2001, 0-380-82046-3,weblink 2 November 2010, extract published in The Sunday Times newspaper on 24 September 2000, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720223112weblink">weblink 20 July 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Dark side of Diana described by ex-aide, The Guardian, 24 September 2000, 7 January 2017, no,weblink 8 January 2017, dmy-all, The divorce was finalised on 28 August 1996.NEWS,weblink Timeline: Diana, Princess of Wales, BBC News, 5 July 2004, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081208110008weblink">weblink 8 December 2008, dmy-all, Diana received a lump sum settlement of £17 million as well as £400,000 per year. The couple signed a confidentiality agreement that prohibited them from discussing the details of the divorce or of their married life.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=306}} Days before, letters patent were issued with general rules to regulate royal titles after divorce. Diana lost the style "Her Royal Highness" and instead was styled Diana, Princess of Wales. As the mother of the prince expected to one day ascend to the throne, she continued to be regarded as a member of the royal family and was accorded the same precedence she enjoyed during her marriage.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Divorce: Status And Role of The Princess of Wales, PR Newswire, Buckingham Palace, 12 July 1996, 24 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120603182714weblink">weblink 3 June 2012, dmy-all, The Queen reportedly wanted to let Diana continue to use the style of Royal Highness after her divorce, but Charles had insisted on removing it. Prince William was reported to have reassured his mother: "Don't worry, Mummy, I will give it back to you one day when I am King."NEWS,weblink Royal wedding: Diana's ghost will be everywhere on Prince William's big day, The Telegraph, UK, 23 April 2011, Allison, Pearson, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120630111342weblink">weblink 30 June 2012, dmy-all, Almost a year before, according to Tina Brown, the Duke of Edinburgh had warned the Princess of Wales: "If you don't behave, my girl, we'll take your title away." She is said to have replied: "My title is a lot older than yours, Philip."{{sfn|Brown|2007|p=392}} Diana and her mother quarrelled in May 1997 after she told Hello! magazine that Diana was happy to lose the royal style. They were reportedly not on speaking terms with each other by the time of Diana's death.NEWS, Milmo, Cahal, Diana did not talk to me in final months, admits her mother, The Independent, 25 October 2002,weblink 24 October 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305021537weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, dmy-all, By contrast, Diana's relationship with her estranged stepmother reportedly improved in the years before her death in 1997.WEB,weblink Countess Raine Spencer, stepmother of Princess Diana, dies aged 87, The Guardian, Caroline, Davies, 21 October 2016, 7 March 2018,weblink 24 June 2017, no, NEWS,weblink Raine Spencer dead: Princess Diana's step-mother dies age 87, The Independent, Tony, Jones, 21 October 2016, 7 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171020230030weblink">weblink 20 October 2017, no,

Public life

Public appearances

File:The Prince and Princess of Wales, Woombye, 1983 (cropped).jpg|thumb|Charles and Diana in WoombyeWoombyeFollowing her engagement to Prince Charles, Diana made her first official public appearance in March 1981 in a charity event at Goldsmiths' Hall.WEB,weblink Royal engagement photos through the years as Harry and Meghan's glamorous pictures prove they are Hollywood through and through, The Telegraph, 21 December 2017, 8 March 2018,weblink 9 January 2018, no, WEB,weblink Princess Diana Detailed Her Memorable Meetings with Grace Kelly and Elizabeth Taylor, Vanity Fair, Hilary, Weaver, 15 June 2017,weblink 20 July 2017, no, In October 1981, the Prince and Princess visited Wales.WEB,weblink The newlyweds tour of Wales and the moment the nation fell in love with Diana, ITV News, 29 August 2017, 12 August 2018, Diana attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time on 4 November 1981.WEB,weblink Statement regarding the State Opening of Parliament in May 2013, The British Monarchy, 1 April 2013, 16 October 2016, no,weblink 18 October 2016, dmy-all, Her first solo engagement was a visit to Regent Street on 18 November 1981 to switch on the Christmas lights.WEB,weblink The celebrities who have turned on the Christmas lights on Regent Street, The Telegraph, 16 November 2015, 20 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170220172321weblink">weblink 20 February 2017, dmy-all, She attended the Trooping the Colour for the first time in June 1982, making her appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace afterwards. The Princess made her inaugural overseas tour in September 1982, to attend the state funeral of Grace, Princess of Monaco. Also in 1982, Diana accompanied the Prince of Wales to the Netherlands and was created a Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown by Queen Beatrix. In 1983, she accompanied the Prince on a tour of Australia and New Zealand with Prince William, where they met with representatives of the Māori people. Their visit to Canada in June and July 1983 included a trip to Edmonton to open the 1983 Summer Universiade and a stop in Newfoundland to commemorate the 400th anniversary of that island's acquisition by the Crown.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120605024805weblink">weblink 5 June 2012, Royal Tours of Canada, Canadian Crown, Government of Canada, 29 January 2016, In February 1984, Diana was the patron of London City Ballet when she travelled to Norway on her own to attend a performance organised by the company. In April 1985, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Italy, and were later joined by Princes William and Harry. They met with President Alessandro Pertini. Their visit to the Holy See included a private audience with Pope John Paul II.NEWS,weblink Pope John Paul II in pictures, The Telegraph, 9 September 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170910040746weblink">weblink 10 September 2017, dmy-all, In November 1985, the couple visited the United States, meeting President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan at the White House. Diana had a busy year in 1986. She embarked with the Prince of Wales on a tour of Japan, Indonesia, Spain, and Canada. In Canada they visited Expo 86, where Diana fainted in the California Pavilion.WEB,weblink Diana Faints at Expo, The Washington Post, Richard C., Paddock, 7 May 1986, 7 March 2018, WEB,weblink Princess Diana Faints on Visit to California Expo Pavilion, Los Angeles Times, Richard C., Paddock, 7 May 1986, 7 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170602194135weblink">weblink 2 June 2017, no, In November 1986, she went on a six-day tour to the Arabian Gulf States including Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, where she met King Fahd and Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said.NEWS,weblink The burqa Princess Diana packed for her first tour of the Arabian Gulf, The National, 30 August 2018, 17 June 2019, In 1988, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Thailand and toured Australia for the bicentenary celebrations.NEWS, Holden, Anthony, Lamanna, Dean, 1 February 1989,weblink Charles and Diana: portrait of a marriage, Ladies Home Journal, Highbeam, 19 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116181319weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all, In February 1989, she spent a few days in New York as a solo visit. During a tour of Harlem Hospital Center, she made a profound impact on the public by spontaneously hugging a seven-year-old child with AIDS. In March 1989, she had her second trip to the Arabian Gulf States, in which she visited Kuwait, Abu Dhabi and Dubai.File:Dan Quayle and Marilyn Quayle with Prince Charles and Princess Diana.jpg|thumb|Charles and Diana with the US Vice President Dan Quayle and his wife Marilyn following the enthronement of Emperor Akihito, 1990]]In March 1990, she and the Prince of Wales toured Nigeria and Cameroon.WEB,weblink Elizabeth Blunt Remembers Diana, BBC, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304022613weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, The President of Cameroon hosted an official dinner to welcome them in Yaoundé. Highlights of the tour included visits by the Princess of Wales to hospitals and projects focusing on women's development. In May 1990, they visited Hungary for four days.NEWS,weblink Prince Charles, Princess Diana visit Hungary, Associated Press, 27 December 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116172426weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all, It was the first visit by members of the royal family to "a former Warsaw Pact country". They attended a dinner hosted by President Árpád Göncz and viewed a fashion display at the Museum of Applied Arts in Budapest. Peto Institute was among the places that were visited by the Princess, and she presented its director with an honorary OBE. In November 1990, the royal couple went to Japan to attend the enthronement of Emperor Akihito.WEB,weblink Distinguished guests from overseas such as State Guests, official guests (1989–1998), The Imperial Household Agency, 19 December 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116181125weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all, In her desire to play an encouraging role during the Gulf War, the Princess of Wales visited Germany in December 1990 to meet with the families of soldiers. She subsequently travelled to Germany in January 1991 to visit RAF Bruggen, and later wrote an encouraging letter which was published in Soldier, Navy News and RAF News. In 1991, the Prince and Princess of Wales visited Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, where they presented the university with a replica of their royal charter.WEB,weblink Royal Visits, Part I, Queen's University Archives, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160124010725weblink">weblink 24 January 2016, dmy-all, In September 1991, the Princess visited Pakistan on a solo trip, and went to Brazil with Charles.NEWS,weblink Prince Charles, Princess Diana leave Brazil after issue-oriented visit, Deseret News, 28 April 1991, 16 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117063509weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, yes, dmy, During the Brazilian tour, Diana paid visits to organisations that battled homelessness among street children. Her final trips with Charles were to India and South Korea in 1992. She visited Mother Teresa's hospice in Kolkata, India, in 1992. The two women met each other again that yearWEB,weblink Princess Diana: A photo album (slide 25), CBS News, 3 March 2018,weblink 4 August 2017, no, and developed a personal relationship. It was also during the Indian tour that pictures of Diana alone in front of the Taj Mahal made headlines.NEWS,weblink The History That Lurks Behind Prince William and Kate Middleton’s Taj Mahal Visit, Time, Ashley, Ross, 8 April 2016, 3 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170727030553weblink">weblink 27 July 2017, no, WEB,weblink Duke and Duchess of Cambridge pay loving tribute to Diana on visit to India's Taj Mahal, The Telegraph, Gordon, Rayner, 16 April 2016, 3 March 2018,weblink 5 February 2017, no, In December 1993, she announced that she would withdraw from public life, but in November 1994 she stated that she wished to "make a partial return". In her capacity as the vice-president of British Red Cross, she was interested in playing an important role for its 125th anniversary celebrations. Later, the Queen formally invited her to attend the anniversary celebrations of D-Day. In February 1995, the Princess visited Japan. She paid a formal visit to Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, and visited the National Children's Hospital in Tokyo.WEB,weblink Princess Diana and the Causes Close to Her Heart (slide 15), People, Cara Lynn, Shultz, Diana, Pearl, 23 June 2011, 4 March 2018, In June 1995, Diana went to the Venice Biennale art festival,WEB,weblink Princess Diana visits the British Pavilion, British Council – British Pavilion in Venice, 16 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117033017weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, yes, dmy, and also visited Moscow where she received the International Leonardo Prize.WEB, Diana, Princess of Wales {{!, British Monarchist Society and Foundation|url=http://bmsf.org.uk/diana-princess-of-wales/|website=bmsf.org.uk|accessdate=22 July 2017|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170827131922weblink|archivedate=27 August 2017|df=dmy-all}}WEB,weblink Princess Diana in Moscow – Beauty will save, 17 January 2012, viola.bz, 22 July 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170701223839weblink">weblink 1 July 2017, dmy-all, In November 1995, the Princess undertook a four-day trip to Argentina in order to attend a charity event.NEWS,weblink Diana Visits Argentina as 'Ambassador', Los Angeles Times, 7 January 2012, 24 November 1995, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130205163351weblink">weblink 5 February 2013, dmy-all, The Princess visited many other countries, including Belgium, Nepal, Switzerland, and Zimbabwe, alongside numerous others. During her separation from Charles which lasted for almost four years, she participated in major national occasions as a senior member of the royal family, notably including "the commemorations of the 50th anniversaries of Victory in Europe Day and Victory over Japan Day" in 1995. The Princess's 36th and final birthday celebration was held at Tate Gallery, which was also a commemorative event for the gallery's 100th anniversary.

Charity work and patronage

In 1983, she confided in the then-Premier of Newfoundland, Brian Peckford, "I am finding it very difficult to cope with the pressures of being Princess of Wales, but I am learning to cope with it."JOURNAL, MacLeod, Alexander, The Princess of Wales: life as a star, The Christian Science Monitor, 28 June 1983,weblink 10 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150414165227weblink">weblink 14 April 2015, dmy-all, As Princess of Wales, she was expected to make regular public appearances at hospitals, schools, and other facilities, in the 20th-century model of royal patronage. From the mid-1980s, she became increasingly associated with numerous charities. She carried out 191 official engagements in 1988NEWS,weblink The Royal Watch, Philadelphia Daily News, 11 October 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141025154024weblink">weblink 25 October 2014, dmy-all, and 397 in 1991.NEWS,weblink Royal Watch, People (magazine), People, 11 October 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141017224027weblink">weblink 17 October 2014, dmy-all, The Princess developed an intense interest in serious illnesses and health-related matters outside the purview of traditional royal involvement, including AIDS and leprosy. In recognition of her effect as a philanthropist, Stephen Lee, director of the UK Institute of Charity Fundraising Managers, said "Her overall effect on charity is probably more significant than any other person's in the 20th century."File:Princess diana bristol 1987 02.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Princess at the official opening of the community centre on Whitehall Road, BristolBristolDiana's extensive charity work also included campaigning for animal protection and fighting against the use of landmines.WEB, Sergei, Sayenko, 1 July 2011,weblink The bitter aftertaste of Princess Diana's 50th birthday, The Voice of Russia, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141019135410weblink">weblink 19 October 2014, dmy-all, She was the patroness of charities and organisations who worked with the homeless, youth, drug addicts, and the elderly. From 1989, she was president of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. She was patron of the Natural History MuseumNEWS, The Telegraph, Duchess of Cambridge walks in Diana's footsteps by becoming Patron of Natural History Museum,weblink 21 April 2013, 21 April 2013, London, Gordon, Rayner, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130423105216weblink">weblink 23 April 2013, dmy-all, and president of the Royal Academy of Music. From 1984 to 1996, she was president of Barnardo's, a charity founded by Dr. Thomas John Barnardo in 1866 to care for vulnerable children and young people.NEWS, Barnardo's and royalty,weblink Barnardo's, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160307083106weblink">weblink 7 March 2016, dmy-all, In 1988, she became patron of the British Red Cross and supported its organisations in other countries such as Australia and Canada. She made several lengthy visits each week to Royal Brompton Hospital, where she worked to comfort seriously ill or dying patients. From 1991 to 1996, she was a patron of Headway, a brain injury association.NEWS, Furness, Hannah,weblink Prince Harry to follow in his mother's footsteps in support of Headway charity, The Telegraph, 30 January 2016, 12 April 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160326135238weblink">weblink 26 March 2016, dmy-all, In 1992, she became the first patron of Chester Childbirth Appeal, a charity that she had supported since 1984.WEB,weblink About the Chester Childbirth Appeal, 25 February 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160106062203weblink">weblink 6 January 2016, The charity, which is named after one of Diana's royal titles, could raise over £1 million with her help. In 1994, she helped her friend Julia Samuel launch the charity Child Bereavement UK which supports children "of military families, those of suicide victims, [and] terminally-ill parents," and became its patron.WEB,weblink Prince William Gives Moving Tribute Speech About Princess Diana at Charity Event, ABC News, Carolyn, Durand, 15 October 2015, 30 May 2018, Prince William later replaced his mother as the charity's royal patron.WEB,weblink Prince William pays tribute to mother during charity event for grieving families, NBC Today, Eun Kyung, Kim, 16 October 2015, 30 May 2018, Her patronages also included Landmine Survivors Network,NEWS,weblink Diana memorial service in detail, The Telegraph, 30 January 2016, 31 August 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151002031733weblink">weblink 2 October 2015, dmy-all, Help the Aged,WEB,weblink Diana's groups of charities, BBC News, 17 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123155047weblink">weblink 23 January 2016, dmy-all, the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, the British Lung Foundation, Eureka! (joint patron with Prince Charles), the National Children's Orchestra, British Red Cross Youth,NEWS,weblink Princess Diana observes 32nd birthday, Star-News, 1 July 1993, 24 April 2016, the Guinness Trust, Meningitis Trust, the Malcolm Sargent Cancer Fund for Children, the Royal School for the Blind, Welsh National Opera, the Variety Club of New Zealand,NEWS,weblink Diana's Charities, BBC, 24 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150826012654weblink">weblink 26 August 2015, dmy-all, Birthright,NEWS,weblink Our History, Wellbeing of Women, 25 June 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150626151200weblink">weblink 26 June 2015, dmy-all, the British Deaf Association (for which she learned sign language),WEB,weblink NAMES IN THE NEWS : Princess Di Uses Sign Language, Los Angeles Times, 10 August 1990, 15 November 2018, All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, Anglo-European College of Chiropractic, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, British Sports Association for the Disabled, British Youth Opera, Faculty of Dental Surgery of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, London City Ballet, London Symphony Orchestra, Pre-School Playgroups Association, as well as president or patron of other charities.File:Modena-italy-diana-spencer.jpg|thumb|upright|Diana and Luciano Pavarotti at the benefit concert Pavarotti & Friends for the Children of Bosnia in ModenaModenaIn 1987, Diana was awarded the Honorary Freedom of the City of London, the highest honour which is in the power of the City of London to bestow on someone.WEB,weblink The Honorary Freedom, City of London, 27 January 2018, WEB,weblink Spurns Lunch Wine : 'I'm Not an Alcoholic'--Princess Di, Los Angeles Times, United Press International, 23 July 1987, 27 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150414232419weblink">weblink 14 April 2015, no, ...she turned down the vintage wine offered at the luncheon welcoming her as a "freeman" of the City of London. ... the ancient ritual giving Diana the right to drive sheep across London Bridge, to be hanged with a rope made of silk rather than hemp and a guaranteed place in a poorhouse should the need arise., In June 1995, the Princess travelled to Moscow. She paid a visit to a children's hospital that she had previously supported when she provided them with medical equipment. In Moscow, she received the International Leonardo Prize, which is given to "the most distinguished patrons and people in the arts, medicine, and sports". In December 1995, Diana received the United Cerebral Palsy Humanitarian of the Year Award in New York City for her philanthropic efforts.NEWS,weblink Harry honours his mother's legacy on the anniversary of her death, Hello!, 31 August 2011, 24 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151026151800weblink">weblink 26 October 2015, dmy-all, BOOK, Clayton, Tim, 2001, Diana: Story of a Princess, New York, Simon and Schuster, 978-1-43911-803-0, 288, NEWS,weblink Diana receives Humanitarian Award, The Standard (Philippines), The Standard, 13 December 1995, 24 April 2016, In October 1996, for her works on the elderly, the Princess was awarded a gold medal at a health care conference organised by the Pio Manzù Centre in Rimini, Italy.NEWS,weblink Diana appeals for the elderly after dropping their charity, The Herald Scotland, 14 October 1996, 24 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160306024916weblink">weblink 6 March 2016, dmy-all, The day after her divorce, she announced her resignation from over 100 charities and retained patronages of only six: Centrepoint, English National Ballet, Great Ormond Street Hospital, The Leprosy Mission, National AIDS Trust, and the Royal Marsden Hospital.Charities devastated after Diana quits as patron {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170902052359weblink |date=2 September 2017 }}, The Independent, 17 July 1996. (Retrieved 5 September 2011.) She continued her work with the British Red Cross Anti-Personnel Land Mines Campaign, but was no longer listed as patron.WEB,weblink Diana Memorial Charity Fund Set Up, BBC News, 17 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170314134452weblink">weblink 14 March 2017, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Pieler, George,weblink The philanthropic legacy of Princess Diana, Philanthropy, Winter 1998, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924091358weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, dmy-all, In May 1997, the Princess opened the Richard Attenborough Centre for Disability and the Arts in Leicester, after being asked by her friend Richard Attenborough.WEB,weblink Diana, Princess of Wales, to open Richard Attenborough Centre, University of Leicester, 24 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170110031106weblink">weblink 10 January 2017, dmy-all, In June 1997, her dresses and suits were sold at Christie's auction houses in London and New York, and the proceeds that were earned from these events were donated to charities. Her final official engagement was a visit to Northwick Park Hospital, London, on 21 July 1997.

Areas of work

HIV/AIDS

The Princess began her work with AIDS victims in the 1980s.NEWS, Nick, Allen, Gordon, Rayner,weblink Queen 'was against' Diana's Aids work, The Telegraph, 10 January 2008, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925145002weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, dmy-all, In 1989, she opened Landmark Aids Centre in South London.NEWS,weblink HIV/Aids: a timeline of the disease and its mutations, The Telegraph, 24 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150518155321weblink">weblink 18 May 2015, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink 1989: Diana opens Landmark Aids Centre, BBC, 21 May 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304220608weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, She was not averse to making physical contact with AIDS patients, though it was still unknown whether the disease could be spread that way.NEWS,weblink The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund, Diana, Princess of Wales was a global humanitarian figure who dedicated her life to helping improve the lives of disadvantaged people, 30 January 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160203183101weblink">weblink 3 February 2016, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Princess Diana, HIV Aware, 24 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150502095047weblink">weblink 2 May 2015, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Princess Diana: Charities, British Royals, 24 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150419070117weblink">weblink 19 April 2015, dmy-all, Diana was the first British royal figure to contact AIDS patients. In 1987, she held hands with an AIDS patient in one of her early efforts to de-stigmatise the condition.WEB,weblink How Princess Diana changed attitudes to Aids, BBC News, 5 April 2017, 9 September 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170909173439weblink">weblink 9 September 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Huffington Post, Diana: The Legacy, 31 August 2012, 23 May 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160310183222weblink">weblink 10 March 2016, Diana noted: "HIV does not make people dangerous to know. You can shake their hands and give them a hug. Heaven knows they need it. What's more, you can share their homes, their workplaces, and their playgrounds and toys."NEWS,weblink Biography Online, Princess Diana Charity Work, 24 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150518092200weblink">weblink 18 May 2015, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Learning to Give, Diana, Princess of Wales, 24 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150510120442weblink">weblink 10 May 2015, dmy-all, To Diana's disappointment, the Queen did not support this type of charity work, suggesting she get involved in "something more pleasant". In October 1990, Diana opened Grandma's House, a home for young AIDS victims in Washington, D.C.NEWS,weblink Princess Diana's charity work and causes (image 8), The Telegraph, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925122658weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, dmy-all, She was also a patron of the National AIDS Trust. In 1991, she famously hugged one victim during a visit to the AIDS ward of the Middlesex Hospital, which she had opened in 1987 as the first hospital unit dedicated to this cause in the UK.WEB,weblink Prince Harry calls for regular HIV and Aids testing, BBC News, 13 October 2017, 21 October 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171021162608weblink">weblink 21 October 2017, dmy-all, As the patron of Turning Point, a health and social care organisation, Diana visited its project in London for people with HIV/AIDS in 1992.NEWS,weblink Princess Diana's charity work and causes (image 13), The Telegraph, 24 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925122657weblink">weblink 25 September 2015, dmy-all, She later established and led fundraising campaigns for AIDS research.In March 1997, Diana visited South Africa, where she met with President Nelson Mandela.NEWS,weblink Diana 'Thrilled' To Meet Mandela In South Africa, Sun-Sentinel, 30 January 2016, 18 March 1997, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303222344weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, dmy-all, NEWS, Holt, William,weblink Prince Harry posts photo of mother and Nelson Mandela, Yahoo, 30 January 2016, 18 July 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305015247weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, dmy-all, On 2 November 2002, Mandela announced that the Nelson Mandela Children's Fund would be teaming up with the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund to help victims of AIDS.NEWS,weblink BBC, Mandela and Diana charities join forces, 23 May 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117095013weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, They had planned the combination of the two charities a few months before her death. Mandela later praised Diana for her efforts surrounding the issue of HIV/AIDS: "When she stroked the limbs of someone with leprosy or sat on the bed of a man with HIV/AIDS and held his hand, she transformed public attitudes and improved the life chances of such people".NEWS,weblink The Telegraph, Mandela tells world to learn from Diana, 3 November 2002, 23 May 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160229015235weblink">weblink 29 February 2016, Diana had used her celebrity status to "fight stigma attached to people living with HIV/AIDS", Mandela said. In 2009, a panel including Sir Ian McKellen and Alan Hollinghurst chose Diana's portrait to be shown in the Gay Icons exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, London.WEB,weblink Kate Middleton is an 'icon' to lesbians, says Tipping the Velvet author Sarah Waters, The Telegraph, Tim, Walker, 21 April 2011, 7 March 2018,weblink 19 February 2015, no, In October 2017, the Attitude magazine honoured Diana with its Legacy Award for her HIV/AIDS work. Prince Harry accepted the award on behalf of his mother.WEB,weblink Prince Harry accepts Attitude Legacy Award for Princess Diana's groundbreaking Aids activism, Attitude (magazine), Attitude, 21 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171022022200weblink">weblink 22 October 2017, dmy-all,

Landmines

File:Diana, Princess of Wales, with Hillary Clinton.jpg|thumb|U.S. First Lady Hillary Clinton and Diana chat in the Map Room following a landmines campaign fund-raiser, June 1997]]Diana was the patron of HALO Trust, an organisation that removes debris—particularly landmines—left behind by war.NEWS,weblink Prince Harry becomes patron of the HALO Trust's 25th Anniversary Appeal, The HALO Trust, 30 January 2016, 6 March 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151015234508weblink">weblink 15 October 2015, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Prince Harry continues Diana's charitywork in Africa, Today, 21 May 2015, 12 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150524134627weblink">weblink 24 May 2015, dmy-all, In January 1997, pictures of Diana touring an Angolan minefield in a ballistic helmet and flak jacket were seen worldwide. During her campaign, she was accused of meddling in politics and called a 'loose cannon' by the Earl Howe, an official in the British Ministry of Defence.NEWS,weblink Princess Diana sparks landmines row, BBC News, 15 January 1997, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080307133016weblink">weblink 7 March 2008, dmy-all, Despite the criticism, HALO states that Diana's efforts resulted in raising international awareness about landmines and the subsequent sufferings caused by them. In June 1997, she gave a speech at a landmines conference held at the Royal Geographical Society, and travelled to Washington, D.C. to help promote the American Red Cross landmines campaign. From 7 to 10 August 1997, just days before her death, she visited Bosnia and Herzegovina with Jerry White and Ken Rutherford of the Landmine Survivors Network.NEWS, Diana Meets Landmine Victim in Bosnia,weblink 10 April 2015, BBC, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041214072518weblink">weblink 14 December 2004, dmy-all, NEWS, Diana takes anti-land mine crusade to Bosnia,weblink 23 July 2013, CNN, 8 August 1997, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110131214815weblink">weblink 31 January 2011, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Diana refuels rumours of a Fayed romance, New Straits Times, 9 August 1997, 16 October 2016, Her work on the landmines issue has been described as influential in the signing of the Ottawa Treaty, which created an international ban on the use of anti-personnel landmines.JOURNAL,weblink The background to the Ottawa process, Maslen, Stuart, Herby, Peter, 31 December 1998, International Review of the Red Cross, 325, 693–713, 31 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080513115924weblink">weblink 13 May 2008, Introducing the Second Reading of the Landmines Bill 1998 to the British House of Commons, the Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook, paid tribute to Diana's work on landmines:All Honourable Members will be aware from their postbags of the immense contribution made by Diana, Princess of Wales to bringing home to many of our constituents the human costs of landmines. The best way in which to record our appreciation of her work, and the work of NGOs that have campaigned against landmines, is to pass the Bill, and to pave the way towards a global ban on landmines.WEB,weblink House of Commons Hansard Debates for 10 July 1998 (pt 1), British Parliament, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930031347weblink">weblink 30 September 2007, dmy-all, A few months after Diana's death in 1997, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines won the Nobel Peace Prize.NEWS,weblink CNN – The 1997 Nobel Prizes, CNN, 12 March 2010, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100524051244weblink">weblink 24 May 2010, dmy-all,

Cancer

For her first solo official trip, Diana visited The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, a cancer treatment hospital in London. She later chose this charity to be among the organisations that benefited from the auction of her clothes in New York. The trust's communications manager said, "The Princess had done much to remove the stigma and taboo associated with diseases such as cancer, AIDS, HIV and leprosy." Diana became president of the hospital on 27 June 1989.WEB,weblink President of The Royal Marsden, The Royal Marsden Cancer Charity, 16 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160112070633weblink">weblink 12 January 2016, yes, dmy, WEB,weblink Our President, The Royal Marsden, 16 October 2016,weblink 4 March 2016, yes, dmy, WEB,weblink Prince William becomes President of the Royal Marsden Hospital, Official website of the Prince of Wales, 4 May 2007, 16 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160216015046weblink">weblink 16 February 2016, yes, dmy, The Wolfson Children's Cancer Unit was opened by Diana on 25 February 1993. In February 1996, the Princess who had been informed about a newly opened cancer hospital built by Imran Khan, travelled to Pakistan to visit its children's cancer wards and attend a fundraising dinner in aid of the charity in Lahore.NEWS,weblink Diana flies in to battle royal in Pakistan, The Independent, Tim, McGirk, 22 February 1996, 3 March 2018, She later visited the hospital again in May 1997.WEB,weblink Princess Diana: A photo album (slide 40), CBS News, 3 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170708051351weblink">weblink 8 July 2017, no, In June 1996, she travelled to Chicago in her capacity as president of the Royal Marsden Hospital in order to attend a fundraising event and raised more than £1 million for cancer research. In September 1996, after being asked by Katharine Graham, the Princess went to Washington and appeared at a White House breakfast in respect of the Nina Hyde Center for Breast Cancer Research.WEB,weblink Diana Photo Gallery (13), The Washington Post, 17 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170218063206weblink">weblink 18 February 2017, dmy-all, She also attended an annual fund-raiser for breast cancer research organised by The Washington Post at the same centre.WEB,weblink Diana Photo Gallery (15), The Washington Post, 17 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160327060826weblink">weblink 27 March 2016, dmy-all, In 1988, the Princess of Wales opened Children with Leukaemia (later renamed Children with Cancer UK) in memory of two young cancer victims.WEB,weblink Our history, Children with Cancer UK, 16 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305000114weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, yes, dmy, WEB,weblink 27 years of saving young lives, Children with Cancer UK, 16 November 2015, 16 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305175530weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, yes, dmy, WEB,weblink Diana, Princess of Wales, Children with Cancer UK, 16 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305135335weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, yes, dmy, In November 1987, a few days after the death of Jean O'Gorman from cancer, Diana met her family. The deaths of Jean and her brother affected the Princess, and she assisted their family to establish the charity. It was opened by her on 12 January 1988 at Mill Hill Secondary School, and she supported it until her death in 1997.

Other areas

In November 1989, the Princess visited a leprosy hospital in Indonesia.NEWS,weblink The Life of Diana, Princess of Wales 1961–1997, BBC, 10 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202131756weblink">weblink 2 December 2010, dmy-all, Following her visit, she became patron of the Leprosy Mission, an organisation dedicated to providing medicine, treatment, and other support services to those who are afflicted with the disease. She remained the patron of this charity and visited several of its hospitals around the world, especially in India, Nepal, Zimbabwe and Nigeria until her death in 1997.NEWS,weblink Diana, Princess of Wales (1961–1997), The Leprosy Mission, UK, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160201005943weblink">weblink 1 February 2016, dmy-all, She famously touched those affected by the disease when many people believed it could be contracted through casual contact. "It has always been my concern to touch people with leprosy, trying to show in a simple action that they are not reviled, nor are we repulsed," she commented. The Diana Princess of Wales Health Education and Media Centre in Noida, India, was opened in her honour in November 1999, funded by the Diana Princess of Wales Memorial Fund to give social support to the people affected by leprosy and disability.Diana was a long-standing and active supporter of Centrepoint, a charity which provides accommodation and support to homeless people, and became patron in 1992.NEWS, Our Patron Prince William,weblink Centrepoint, 21 May 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150520162920weblink">weblink 20 May 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, William becomes patron of the homeless,weblink The Telegraph, 21 May 2015, 14 September 2005, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150524140319weblink">weblink 24 May 2015, dmy-all, She supported organisations that battle poverty and homelessness. The Princess was a supporter of young homeless people and spoke out on behalf of them by saying that "they deserve a decent start in life".NEWS,weblink Sarasota Herald-Tribune, People Princess Diana speaks out for homeless young, 8 December 1995, 31 January 2016, "We, as a part of society, must ensure that young people – who are our future – are given the chance they deserve," she said. Diana used to take young William and Harry for private visits to Centrepoint services and homeless shelters.WEB,weblink Charities must work together or risk confusing donors, Prince William warns, The Telegraph, Hannah, Furness, 23 January 2018, 24 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180124092949weblink">weblink 24 January 2018, no, "The young people at Centrepoint were always really touched by her visits and by her genuine feelings for them," said one of the charity's staff members. Prince William later became the patron of this charity.File:Diana visiting drug squad.jpg|thumb|left|Diana visiting the drug squad of the West Midlands PoliceWest Midlands PoliceDiana was a staunch and longtime supporter of charities and organisations that focused on social and mental issues, including Relate and Turning Point. Relate was relaunched in 1987 as a renewed version to its predecessor, the National Marriage Guidance Council. Diana became its patron in 1989. Turning Point, a health and social care organisation, was founded in 1964 to help and support those affected by drug and alcohol misuse and mental health problems. She became the charity's patron in 1987 and visited the charity on a regular basis, meeting the sufferers at its centres or institutions including Rampton and Broadmoor. In 1990 during a speech for Turning Point she said, "It takes professionalism to convince a doubting public that it should accept back into its midst many of those diagnosed as psychotics, neurotics and other sufferers who Victorian communities decided should be kept out of sight in the safety of mental institutions." Despite the protocol problems of travelling to a Muslim country, she made a trip to Pakistan later that year in order to visit a rehabilitation centre in Lahore as a sign of "her commitment to working against drug abuse".

Privacy and the media

In 1993, Mirror Group Newspapers (MGN) published photographs of the Princess that were taken by gym owner Bryce Taylor. The photos showed her exercising in the gym LA Fitness wearing "a leotard and cycling shorts".NEWS,weblink 1993: Diana sues over gym photos, BBC News, 5 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170326213607weblink">weblink 26 March 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Gym owner defends Princess pictures: Bryce Taylor says 98 per cent of people would also have tried his 'legal scam' to make money, The Independent, 17 November 1993, 5 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170205183619weblink">weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, The Princess's lawyers immediately filed a criminal complaint that sought "a permanent ban on the sale and publication of the photographs" around the world. However, some newspapers outside the UK published the pictures. The courts granted an injunction against Taylor and MGN that prohibited "further publication of the pictures". MGN later issued an apology after facing much criticism from the public. It is said that MGN gave the Princess £1 million as a payment for her legal costs and donated £200,000 to her charities. Taylor apologised as well and paid Diana £300,000, although it was alleged that a member of the royal family had helped him financially.

Personal life after divorce

File:Princess Diana Sri Chinmoy.jpg|thumb|Diana meeting with Sri ChinmoySri ChinmoyAfter her 1996 divorce, Diana retained the double apartment on the north side of Kensington Palace that she had shared with the Prince of Wales since the first year of their marriage; the apartment remained her home until her death the following year. She also moved her offices to Kensington Palace but was permitted "to use the state apartments at St James's Palace".NEWS, Charles and Diana Agree on Divorce Terms,weblink 23 April 2016, The New York Times, 13 July 1996, Sarah, Lyall, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160307140025weblink">weblink 7 March 2016, dmy-all, NEWS, Royal Split,weblink 23 July 2013, The Deseret News, 28 February 1996, AP, London, Furthermore, she continued to have access to the jewellery that she had received during her marriage, and was allowed to use the air transport of the British royal family and government. In a book published in 2003, Paul Burrell claimed that the Princess's private letters had revealed that her brother, Lord Spencer, had refused to allow her to live at Althorp, despite her request.Diana dated the British-Pakistani heart surgeon Hasnat Khan, who was called "the love of her life" by many of her closest friends after her death,NEWS, Massoud, Ansari, Andrew, Alderson,weblink Dr Hasnat Khan: Princess Diana and me, London, Sunday Telegraph, 16 January 2008, 25 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080907054040weblink">weblink 7 September 2008, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Imran Khan: I was Diana's go-between, The Telegraph, Andrew, Alderson, 13 August 2000, 3 March 2018,weblink 20 June 2017, no, WEB,weblink Diana: 'I need Dodi marriage like a rash', The Telegraph, Gordon, Rayner, 17 December 2007, 3 March 2018, and she is said to have described him as "Mr Wonderful".NEWS,weblink Princess Diana's 'Mr Wonderful' Hasnat Khan Still Haunted by her Death, Sky News, 13 January 2008, 25 August 2008, NEWS, Claire, Truscott,weblink Background to Dr Hasnat Khan and Diana, Princess of Wales, The Guardian, 14 January 2008, 5 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130819171939weblink">weblink 19 August 2013, dmy-all, NEWS, Khoshaba, Christy,weblink Princess Diana: Mag details 'secret romance' with Pakistani doctor, Los Angeles Times, 31 July 2013, 5 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130806013159weblink">weblink 6 August 2013, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Princess Diana's ex-lover Hasnat Khan to give evidence, Victoria, Australia, Herald Sun, 9 January 2008, 24 August 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090208222758weblink">weblink 8 February 2009, dmy-all, In May 1996, Diana visited Lahore upon invitation of Imran Khan, a relative of Hasnat Khan, and visited the latter's family in secret.NEWS, Imran and Jemima Khan Welcomed Princess Diana In Pakistan,weblink 31 May 2013, Huffington Post, 25 May 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141011123123weblink">weblink 11 October 2014, dmy-all, Khan was intensely private and the relationship was conducted in secrecy, with Diana lying to members of the press who questioned her about it. Their relationship lasted almost two years with differing accounts of who ended it.NEWS,weblink Princess Diana was 'madly in love' with heart surgeon Hasnat Khan, The Telegraph, 31 July 2013, 10 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150218061454weblink">weblink 18 February 2015, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink The doctor and Diana, The Guardian, 14 January 2008, 10 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141227091710weblink">weblink 27 December 2014, dmy-all, She is said to have spoken of her distress when "he" ended their relationship. However, according to Khan's testimonial at the inquest for her death, it was Diana who ended their relationship in the summer of 1997.NEWS, Hasnat Khan Tells Diana Inquest They Enjoyed "Normal" Sex Life, Says She Ended Affair,weblink 28 May 2013, Huffington Post, 25 May 2011, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120213020035weblink">weblink 13 February 2012, dmy-all, Burrell also said that the relationship was ended by the Princess in July 1997.NEWS, Gordon, Rayner,weblink Diana 'planned secret wedding to Hasnat Khan', London, Telegraph, 16 January 2008, 24 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080619185834weblink">weblink 19 June 2008, Burrell also claimed that Diana's mother, Frances Shand Kydd, disapproved of her daughter's relationship with a Muslim man.NEWS, Farouky, Jumana, Diana's Butler Tells Some Secrets,weblink 19 October 2017, Time (magazine), Time, 14 January 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130826043951weblink">weblink 26 August 2013, dmy-all, Within a month, Diana began a relationship with Dodi Fayed, the son of her summer host, Mohamed Al-Fayed.NEWS,weblink The Life of Diana, Princess of Wales 1961–1997: Separation And Divorce, BBC, 10 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202131756weblink">weblink 2 December 2010, dmy-all, That summer, Diana had considered taking her sons on a holiday to the Hamptons on Long Island, New York, but security officials had prevented it. After deciding against a trip to Thailand, she accepted Fayed's invitation to join his family in the south of France, where his compound and large security detail would not cause concern to the Royal Protection squad. Mohamed Al-Fayed bought the Jonikal, a 60-metre multimillion-pound yacht on which to entertain Diana and her sons.NEWS, Dodi 'ignored' protect Diana advice,weblink 11 October 2014, Metro (UK), 18 December 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141018105228weblink">weblink 18 October 2014, dmy-all, NEWS, 19 May 2010,weblink Two Ladies, Two Yachts, and a Billionaire, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, New York, Dominick Dunne, 11 October 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131013012757weblink">weblink 13 October 2013, dmy-all,

Death

File:Alma tunnel Paris.jpg|thumb|East entrance to the Pont de l'AlmaPont de l'AlmaOn 31 August 1997, Diana died in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma tunnel in Paris while the driver was fleeing the paparazzi.NEWS,weblink 1997: Princess Diana dies in Paris crash, BBC, 29 May 2018, The crash also resulted in the deaths of her companion Dodi Fayed and the driver, Henri Paul, who was the acting security manager of the Hôtel Ritz Paris. Diana's bodyguard, Trevor Rees-Jones, survived the crash. The televised funeral, on 6 September, was watched by a British television audience that peaked at 32.10 million, which was one of the United Kingdom's highest viewing figures ever. Millions more watched the event around the world."Tracking 30 years of TV's most watched programmes" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150118055431weblink |date=18 January 2015 }}. BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2015NEWS,weblink Diana's funeral watched by millions on television, BBC News, 6 September 1997, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080307133005weblink">weblink 7 March 2008, dmy-all,

Tribute, funeral, and burial

{{Further|Althorp#Diana grave, memorial, and exhibition}}File:Flowers for Princess Diana's Funeral.jpg|thumb|left|Flowers outside Kensington PalaceKensington PalaceThe sudden and unexpected death of an extraordinarily popular royal figure brought statements from senior figures worldwide and many tributes by members of the public.NEWS, World Reaction to Diana's Death,weblink 26 May 2015, BBC, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041126033518weblink">weblink 26 November 2004, dmy-all, WEB,weblink World Remembers Diana, BBC, 25 May 2018, WEB,weblink Your Thoughts, BBC, 2 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170227173152weblink">weblink 27 February 2017, dmy-all, People left public offerings of flowers, candles, cards, and personal messages outside Kensington Palace for many months. Her coffin, draped with the royal flag, was brought to London from Paris by Prince Charles and Diana's two sisters on 31 August 1997.NEWS, Princess Diana's body comes home,weblink 23 July 2013, CNN, 31 August 1997, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150110183215weblink">weblink 10 January 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, Prince Charles Arrives in Paris to Take Diana's Body Home,weblink 5 May 2014, 31 August 1997, The New York Times, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131206170457weblink">weblink 6 December 2013, dmy-all, The coffin was taken to a private mortuary and then placed in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace.File:Diana's funeral.jpg|thumb|Diana's coffin, draped in the royal standard with an ermine border, borne through the streets of London on its way to Westminster AbbeyWestminster AbbeyOn 5 September, Queen Elizabeth II paid tribute to her in a live television broadcast. Diana's funeral took place in Westminster Abbey on 6 September. Her sons walked in the funeral procession behind her coffin, along with her ex-husband the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, Diana's brother Lord Spencer, and representatives of some of her charities. Lord Spencer said of his sister, "She proved in the last year that she needed no royal title to continue to generate her particular brand of magic."NEWS,weblink The most hunted person of the modern age, 4 May 2007, 27 June 2011, The Guardian, London, Earl, Spencer, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131227062140weblink">weblink 27 December 2013, dmy-all, Re-written in tribute to Diana, "Candle in the Wind 1997" was performed by Elton John at the funeral service (the only occasion the song has been performed live). Released as a single in 1997, the global proceeds from the song have gone to Diana's charities.NEWS, Lynch, Joe, 17 Years Ago, Elton John's 'Candle In the Wind 1997' Started Its 14-Week No. 1 Run,weblink Billboard, 11 October 2014, 24 December 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170118232145weblink">weblink 18 January 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Millions of Dollars Pouring In To Diana's Favorite Charities, The New York Times, Ibrahim, Youssef M., 9 September 1997, 4 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170104162857weblink">weblink 4 January 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Elton John delivers proceeds to Diana charity, CNN, 19 November 1997, 4 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041201061646weblink">weblink 1 December 2004, dmy-all, The burial took place privately later the same day. Diana's former husband, sons, mother, siblings, a close friend, and a clergyman were present. Diana's body was clothed in a black long-sleeved dress designed by Catherine Walker, which she had chosen some weeks before. A set of rosary beads that she had received from Mother Teresa was placed in her hands. Mother Teresa had died the same week as Diana. Diana's grave is on an island ({{Coord|52.283082|-1.000278|region:GB_type:landmark}}) within the grounds of Althorp Park, the Spencer family home for centuries.NEWS,weblink Diana Returns Home, BBC, 29 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202150815weblink">weblink 2 December 2010, dmy-all, The burial party was provided by the 2nd Battalion The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, who were given the honour of carrying the Princess across to the island and laying her to rest. Diana was the Regiment's Colonel-in-Chief from 1992 to 1996. The original plan was for Diana to be buried in the Spencer family vault at the local church in nearby Great Brington, but Lord Spencer said that he was concerned about public safety and security and the onslaught of visitors that might overwhelm Great Brington. He decided that Diana would be buried where her grave could be easily cared for and visited in privacy by William, Harry, and other Spencer relatives.NEWS, Burial site offers princess a privacy elusive in life,weblink 29 June 2015, Sarasota Herald Tribune, 6 September 1997,

Conspiracy theories, inquest and verdict

The initial French judicial investigation concluded that the crash was caused by Paul's intoxication, reckless driving, speeding (65 mph), and effects of prescription drugs.NEWS,weblink Diana crash caused by chauffeur, says report, The Daily Telegraph, London, 4 September 1999, 1562,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080522130924weblink">weblink 22 May 2008, Peter, Oborne, yes, In February 1998, Mohamed Al-Fayed, owner of the Paris Ritz where Paul had worked, publicly stated that the crash had been plannedNEWS,weblink Diana crash was a conspiracy – Al Fayed, BBC News, 12 February 1998, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081214212517weblink">weblink 14 December 2008, dmy-all, and accused MI6 and the Duke of Edinburgh.NEWS,weblink Point-by-point: Al Fayed's claims, BBC News, 19 February 2008, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090112201131weblink">weblink 12 January 2009, dmy-all, An inquest that started in London in 2004 and continued in 2007–08WEB,weblink Inquests into the deaths of Diana, Princess of Wales and Mr Dodi Al Fayed,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090322061844weblink">weblink 22 March 2009, Judicial Communications Office, 7 December 2011, attributed the crash to grossly negligent driving by Paul and to the pursuing paparazzi, who forced Paul to speed into the tunnel.NEWS,weblink Princess Diana unlawfully killed, BBC News, 7 April 2008, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090111214755weblink">weblink 11 January 2009, dmy-all, On 7 April 2008, the jury returned a verdict of "unlawful killing". On the day after the final verdict of the inquest, Al-Fayed announced that he would end his 10-year campaign to establish that the tragedy was murder rather than an accident; he stated that he did so for the sake of the Princess's children.NEWS,weblink Al Fayed abandons Diana campaign, BBC News, 8 April 2008, 16 January 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120306004036weblink">weblink 6 March 2012, dmy-all,

Later events

Finances

Following her death, Diana left a £21 million estate, "netting £17 million after estate taxes", which were left in the hands of trustees, her mother, and her sister, Lady Sarah.WEB,weblink As Remainder Of Princess Diana's Estate Passes To Harry, Troubling Questions Remain, Forbes, Danielle, Mayoras, Andy, Mayoras, WEB,weblink Diana's will: The full text, CNN, 4 March 1998, 2 June 2018, The will was signed in June 1993, but Diana had it modified in February 1996 to remove the name of her personal secretary from the list of trustees and have her sister Sarah replace him.WEB,weblink What Does Princess Diana's Will Say?, The Balance, Julie, Garber, 31 May 2018, 2 June 2018, Her two sons subsequently inherited the majority of her estate. Each of them received £10 million upon turning 30 years old in 2012 and 2014 respectively.WEB,weblink What will Prince Harry and Prince William inherit from Princess Diana?, The Daily Telegraph, 1 September 2014, 2 June 2018, Many of Diana's possessions were initially left in the care of her brother who put them on show in Althorp twice a year until they were returned to the princes. They were also put on display in American museums and {{as of|2011|lc=y}} raised two million dollars for charities. Among the objects were her dresses and suits along with numerous family paintings, jewels and two diamond tiaras. Diana's engagement ring was given to William, who later passed it to his wife, Catherine Middleton, while her wedding dress was given to Harry.WEB,weblink Princess Diana's Will Revealed—Find Out How Her Fortune Was Dispersed, E! News, Francesca, Bacardi, 20 April 2015, 2 June 2018, In addition to her will, Diana had also written a letter of wishes in which she had asked for three-fourths of her personal property to be given to her sons, and dividing the remaining one-fourth (aside from the jewelry) between her 17 godchildren. Despite Diana's wishes, the executors (her mother and sister) "petitioned the probate court for a "variance" of the will", and the letter of wishes was ignored "because it did not contain certain language required by British law". Eventually, one item from Diana's estate was given to each of her godchildren, while they would have received £100,000 each, had one-fourth of her estate been divided between them. The variance also prevented the estate from being distributed between her sons at the age of 25 but postponed it until they were 30. Diana also left her butler Paul Burrell around $80,000 in cash.

Subject of government surveillance

In 1999 after the submission of a Freedom of Information Act request filed by the Internet news service apbonline.com, it was revealed that Diana had been placed under surveillance by the National Security Agency until her death, and the organisation kept a top secret file on her containing more than 1,000 pages.NEWS, Vernon, Loeb, NSA Admits to Spying on Princess Diana,weblink The Washington Post, 29 January 2018, 12 December 1998,weblink 9 November 2017, no, NEWS, Top secret US files could hold clues to death of Diana,weblink The Guardian, 11 January 2004, 29 January 2018,weblink 8 January 2018, no, The contents of Diana's NSA file cannot be disclosed because of national security concerns. The NSA officials insisted that Diana was not a "target of [their] massive, worldwide electronic eavesdropping infrastructure." Despite multiple inquiries for the files to be declassified—with one of the notable ones being filed by Mohamed Al-Fayed—the NSA has refused to release the documents.In 2008, Ken Wharfe, a former bodyguard of the Princess, claimed that her scandalous conversations with James Gilbey (commonly referred to as the Squidgygate) were in fact recorded by the GCHQ, which intentionally released them on a "loop".NEWS, Nick, Allen, Diana's Squidgygate tapes 'leaked by GCHQ',weblink The Daily Telegraph, 29 January 2018, 9 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170903193451weblink">weblink 3 September 2017, no, People close to the Princess believed that the action was intended to defame her. Wharfe said that Diana herself believed that members of the royal family were all being monitored, though he also stated that the main reason of it could be due to the potential threats of the IRA.

The Memorial Fund controversy

The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund was established after her death and was granted intellectual property rights over her image.NEWS,weblink Diana's lost millions, BBC News, Rajan Datar, 13 May 2005, 13 October 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081015201842weblink">weblink 15 October 2008, dmy-all, In 1998, the fund sued the Franklin Mint, accusing it of illegally selling Diana dolls, plates, and jewellery after having been refused a license to do so.NEWS,weblink Diana Memorial Fund faces £15m legal bill as sister of Princess is sued by US company, The Independent, 10 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150416161224weblink">weblink 16 April 2015, dmy-all, PRESS RELEASE, 14 September 2000,weblink Federal Court Orders Princess Diana Memorial Fund to Pay $2.3 Million in Attorneys' Fees to Franklin Mint, PR Newswire, The Franklin Mint, 10 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150413233802weblink">weblink 13 April 2015, dmy-all, In California, where the initial case was tried, a suit to preserve the right of publicity may be filed on behalf of a dead person, but only if that person is a Californian. The Memorial Fund therefore filed the lawsuit on behalf of the estate and, upon losing the case, was required to pay the Franklin Mint's legal costs of £3 million which, combined with other fees, caused the Memorial Fund to freeze its grants to charities. In 2003, the Franklin Mint counter-sued. In November 2004, the case was settled out of court with the Memorial Fund agreeing to pay £13.5 million (US$21.5 million) to charitable causes on which both sides agreed.NEWS,weblink Diana's fund in legal settlement, BBC, 10 November 2004, 29 May 2018, In addition to this, the Memorial Fund had spent a total of close to £4 million (US$6.5 million) in costs and fees relating to this litigation, and as a result froze grants allocated to a number of charities.

Anniversaries, commemorations, and auctions

{{Wikinews|10 years on Diana, Princess of Wales remembered}}On the first anniversary of Diana's death, people left flowers and bouquets outside the gates of Kensington Palace and a memorial service was held at Westminster Abbey.NEWS,weblink Diana: the people pay tribute, BBC, 31 August 1998, 29 May 2018, NEWS,weblink Prayers for Diana, 30 August 1998, 29 May 2018, The royal family and the Prime Minister and his family went to Crathie Kirk for private prayers, while Diana's family held a private memorial service at Althorp.NEWS,weblink Princes say thank you, BBC, 31 August 1998, 29 May 2018, NEWS,weblink Commemorating Diana, BBC, 30 August 1998, 29 May 2018, All flags at Buckingham Palace and other royal residences were flown at half-mast on the Queen's orders.NEWS, Flags at half mast for Diana,weblink 23 July 1998, BBC News, 17 March 2018, The Union Jack was first lowered to half-mast on the day of Diana's funeral and has set a precedent, as based on the previous protocol no flag could ever fly at half-mast over the palace "even on the death of a monarch". Since 1997, however, the flag has flown at half-mast upon the deaths of members of the royal family, and other times of national mourning.BOOK, Constitutional and Administrative Law: Text with Materials, David Pollard, Neil, 22, Oxford University Press, 2007, 978-0-199-28637-9, The Concert for Diana at Wembley Stadium was held on 1 July 2007. The event, organised by the Princes William and Harry, celebrated the 46th anniversary of their mother's birth and occurred a few weeks before the 10th anniversary of her death on 31 August.NEWS,weblink Diana concert a 'perfect tribute', BBC, 25 August 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070825150220weblink">weblink 25 August 2007, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Concert for Diana, BBC, 18 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150330170353weblink">weblink 30 March 2015, dmy-all, The proceeds that were earned from this event were donated to Diana's charities.NEWS,weblink What is the Concert for Diana?, BBC, 23 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017214644weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, dmy-all, On 31 August 2007, a memorial service for Diana took place in the Guards Chapel.NEWS,weblink Princes lead Diana memorial service tributes, The Telegraph, 18 May 2015, 31 August 2007, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150519100046weblink">weblink 19 May 2015, dmy-all, Guests included members of the royal family and their relatives, members of the Spencer family, members of Diana's wedding party, Diana's close friends and aides, representatives from many of her charities, British politicians Gordon Brown, Tony Blair, and John Major, and friends from the entertainment world such as David Frost, Elton John, and Cliff Richard.In January 2013, a previously unseen photograph of Diana taken during her engagement to Charles was put up for auction. The picture belonged to the Daily Mirror newspaper and has "Not to be published" written on it. In it, a young Diana lies across the lap of an unidentified man.WEB,weblink 'Do-not-publish' Diana photo up for auction in US, Inquirer, 3 January 2013, 31 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203004536weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, File:John Travolta and Princess Diana.jpg|thumb|John Travolta and the Princess of Wales dancing at the White HouseWhite HouseOn 19 March 2013, ten of Diana's dresses, including a midnight blue velvet gown she wore to a 1985 state dinner at the White House when she famously danced with John Travolta (which became known as the Travolta dress), raised over £800,000 at auction in London.NEWS, Princess Diana's dresses raise over £800,000 at auction,weblink The Telegraph, 20 March 2013, London, Belinda, White, 19 March 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130320012643weblink">weblink 20 March 2013, dmy-all, In January 2017, a series of letters that Diana and other members of the royal family had written to a Buckingham Palace steward were sold as a part of a collection titled "the private letters between a trusted butler and the royal family".NEWS,weblink Handwritten Diana letters sell for £15,100 at auction, BBC News, 5 January 2017, 31 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170207040334weblink">weblink 7 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Princess Diana's letters about Prince Harry getting into trouble at school sell for five times more than expected, The Telegraph, 6 January 2017, 31 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170113192751weblink">weblink 13 January 2017, dmy-all, The six letters that were written by Diana included information about her young sons' daily life and raised £15,100."Diana: Her Fashion Story", an exhibition of gowns and suits worn by the Princess, was announced to be opened at Kensington Palace in February 2017 as a tribute to mark her 20th death anniversary, with her favorite dresses created by numerous fashion designers, including Catherine Walker and Victor Edelstein, being displayed.WEB,weblink Princess Diana fashion exhibition to feature classic outfits from 80s and 90s, The Guardian, 16 November 2016, 31 January 2017, no,weblink 29 January 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Princess Diana's most iconic dresses being brought back to Kensington Palace to mark 20 years since her death, The Telegraph, 15 November 2016, 31 January 2017, Gordon, Rayner, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170129034439weblink">weblink 29 January 2017, dmy-all, The exhibition opened on 24 February displaying a collection of 25 dresses, and is set to remain open until 2018.WEB,weblink Diana: Her Fashion Story, Historic Royal Palaces, www.hrp.org.uk, English, 16 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170606030033weblink">weblink 6 June 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Princess Diana's dresses go on display in London, 20 years after her death, Reuters, 22 February 2017, 10 March 2017, Alistair, Smout, Stephen, Addiso, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170312052616weblink">weblink 12 March 2017, dmy-all, Other tributes planned for the anniversary included exhibitions at Althorp hosted by the Princess's brother, Earl Spencer, a series of commemorating events organised by the Diana Memorial Award,WEB,weblink Princes William and Harry plan statue of their mother, Diana, The Guardian, 28 January 2017, 31 January 2017, no,weblink 31 January 2017, dmy-all, as well as restyling Kensington Gardens and creating a new section called "The White Garden" in order to symbolise Diana's life and style.WEB,weblink William and Harry visit Princess Diana memorial, BBC, 30 August 2017, 9 September 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170909171926weblink">weblink 9 September 2017, dmy-all,

Legacy

Public image

Diana remains one of the most popular members of the royal family throughout history, and she continues to influence the principles of the royal family and its younger generations.WEB,weblink We will never forget how Princess Diana made us feel, The Telegraph, 25 June 2011, 2 February 2017, Patrick, Jephson, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203163505weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, She was a major presence on the world stage from her engagement to the Prince of Wales in 1981 until her death in 1997, and was often described as the "world's most photographed woman".JOURNAL, Faulkner, Larissa J., Shades of Discipline: Princess Diana, The U.S. Media, and Whiteness, Iowa Journal of Cultural Studies, 1997, 16, 31,weblink 16 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131219013115weblink">weblink 19 December 2013, dmy-all, She was noted for her compassion,{{sfn|Bradford|2006|pp=307–308}} style, charisma, and high-profile charity work, as well as her ill-fated marriage to the Prince of Wales.WEB,weblink Diana's embrace: The legacy she left her sons, BBC, Alex, Regan, 31 August 2017, 3 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180223181355weblink">weblink 23 February 2018, no, Her former private secretary described her as an organised and hardworking person, and pointed out that the Princess's husband was not able to "reconcile with his wife's extraordinary popularity",WEB,weblink's+Extraordinary+Popularity, Patrick Jephson: Prince Charles Was Unable to Reconcile with Princess Diana's Extraordinary Popularity, The Independent, 31 August 2016, 2 February 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170221010930weblink">weblink 21 February 2017, dmy-all, a viewpoint supported by biographer Tina Brown. He also said that she was a tough boss who was "equally quick to appreciate hard work", but could also be defiant "if she felt she had been the victim of injustice". Paul Burrell, who worked as a butler for the Princess, remembered her as a "deep thinker" capable of "introspective analysis". She was often described as a devoted mother to her children,NEWS,weblink 'Rebel Royal Mum': Diana's Legacy as Parent, NBC News, 26 May 2013, 2 February 2017, Rob, Wallace, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204003212weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, dmy-all, who are influenced by her personality and way of life. In the early years, Diana was often noted for her shy nature, as well as her shrewdness, funny character, and smartness. Those who communicated with her closely describe her as a person who was led by her heart. The Princess was also said to have a strong character, because she entered the royal family as an inexperienced girl with little education, but could handle their expectations, and overcome the difficulties and sufferings of her marital life.WEB,weblink Royal rebel: the legacy of Diana, The Guardian, 30 March 2011, 2 February 2017, Monica, Ali, no,weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, Diana was widely known for her encounters with sick and dying patients, and the poor and unwanted whom she used to comfort, an action that earned her more popularity.WEB,weblink Farewell, Diana, Time (magazine), Time, 15 September 1997, 2 February 2017, Paul, Gray, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203163111weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, She was mindful of people's thoughts and feelings, and later revealed her wish to become a beloved figure among the people, saying in her 1995 interview, that "[She would] like to be a queen of people's hearts, in people's hearts."WEB,weblink Why Princess Diana still fascinates us, NBC News, 28 August 2007, 2 February 2017, Chris, Hampson, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204003119weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, dmy-all, According to Tina Brown, she could charm people with a single glance.WEB,weblink Princess Diana's Life and Legacy, ABC News, 29 August 2007, 2 February 2017, Cynthia, McFadden, Melinda, Arons, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204002941weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, dmy-all, Brown also points out that Diana's fame had spread around the world, even affecting Tony Blair who reportedly said that Diana had shown the nation "a new way to be British". Diana is often credited with widening the range of charity works carried out by the royal family in a more modern style, as well as affecting some of the household's traditional manners.WEB,weblink A moment of madness?, The Guardian, 12 August 2007, 2 February 2017, Jonathan, Freedland, no,weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, Eugene Robinson of The Washington Post wrote in an article that "Diana imbued her role as royal princess with vitality, activism and, above all, glamour." Alicia Carroll of The New York Times described Diana as "a breath of fresh air" who was the main reason the royal family was known in the United States.NEWS,weblink America's Obsession With Royalty Started With Princess Diana, The New York Times, 31 May 2012, 2 February 2017, Alicia, Carroll, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203163532weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, Despite all the marital issues and scandals, Diana continued to enjoy a high level of popularity in the polls while her husband was suffering from low levels of public approval. Her peak popularity rate in the United Kingdom between 1981 and 2012 was 47%.NEWS, Prince William now the most popular royal as monarchy rides high in national poll,weblink London Evening Standard, Ross, Lydall, 19 November 2012, 23 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304002122weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, Diana had become what Prime Minister Tony Blair called the "People's Princess", an iconic national figure. Her accidental death brought an unprecedented spasm of grief and mourning,Richard Weight, Patriots: National Identity in Britain 1940–2000 (2002) pp. 659, 681 and subsequently a crisis arose in the Royal Household.WEB,weblink Criticism of Queen after death of Diana 'hugely upset' Queen Mother, The Telegraph, 26 September 2009, 2 February 2017, Andrew, Alderson, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202002653weblink">weblink 2 February 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Royal Family, Stung by Critics, Responds to a Grieving Nation, The New York Times, 4 September 1997, 2 February 2017, Warren, Hoge, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203163337weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, Andrew Marr said that by her death she "revived the culture of public sentiment". Her brother, the Earl Spencer, captured her role:Diana was the very essence of compassion, of duty, of style, of beauty. All over the world she was a symbol of selfless humanity. All over the world, a standard bearer for the rights of the truly downtrodden, a very British girl who transcended nationality. Someone with a natural nobility who was classless and who proved in the last year that she needed no royal title to continue to generate her particular brand of magic.Earl Spencer, "A brother remembers his sister: Full text of Earl Spencer's Funeral Oration" online {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170529053037weblink |date=29 May 2017 }}In 1997, the Princess was one of the runners-up for Time magazine's person of the Year.WEB,weblink Man of the Year 1997, Time (magazine), Time, 16 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170216214322weblink">weblink 16 February 2017, dmy-all, In 1999, Time magazine named Diana one of the (Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century|100 Most Important People of the 20th Century).NEWS, Princess Diana â€“ Time 100 People of the Century,weblink Time (magazine), Time, Joshua, Quittner, 14 June 1999, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130308133259weblink">weblink 8 March 2013, dmy-all, In 2002, Diana ranked third on the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, above the Queen and other British monarchs.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040204074057weblink">weblink 4 February 2004, Great Britons 1–10, BBC via Wayback Machine, 22 December 2012, In 2006, the Japanese public ranked Diana twelfth in The Top 100 Historical Persons in Japan.WEB,weblink Japanese rank their favorite 100 historical figures, Japan Probe, 8 May 2006, 2 April 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170415014304weblink">weblink 15 April 2017, dmy-all, In 2018, Diana ranked fifteenth on the BBC History's poll of 100 Women Who Changed the World.WEB,weblink Marie Curie tops BBC History poll of women who changed the world, The Guardian, Mark, Brown, 9 August 2018, 12 August 2018, WEB,weblink Marie Curie named the most 'world-changing' woman in history in new poll, ITV News, 9 August 2018, 12 August 2018, Despite being regarded as an iconic figure and a popular member of the royal family, Diana was subject to criticism during her life. Patrick Jephson, her private secretary of eight years, wrote in an article in The Daily Telegraph that "[Diana] had an extra quality that frustrated her critics during her lifetime and has done little to soften their disdain since her death ... the human face of a remote institution". Some have said that it was Diana who let the journalists and paparazzi into her life as she knew that they were the source of her power, thus she had "overburdened herself with public duties" and destroyed the border between private and public life.NEWS,weblink Shrinking the Princess, The New York Times, 22 August 1999, 5 February 2017, Frank, Kermode, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203162942weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, Diana was famously criticised by philosophy professor Anthony O'Hear who, in his notes argued that she was unable to fulfill her duties, her reckless behaviour was damaging the monarchy, and she was "self-indulgent" in her philanthropic efforts.NEWS,weblink Author defends Diana criticism, BBC, 17 April 1998, 2 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160318152247weblink">weblink 18 March 2016, dmy-all, Following his remarks, charity organisations that were supported by her defended the Princess, and Peter Luff called O'Hear's comments "distasteful and inappropriate". Further criticism surfaced as she was accused of using her public profile to benefit herself, which in turn "demeaned her royal office". Diana's unique type of charity work, which sometimes included physical contact with people affected by serious diseases sometimes had a negative reaction in the media.Sally Bedell Smith characterised Diana as unpredictable, egocentric, and possessive. Smith also argued that in her desire to do charity works she was "motivated by personal considerations, rather than by an ambitious urge to take on a societal problem". Robinson, however, said that "[Diana] was serious about the causes she espoused". According to Sarah Bradford, Diana looked down on the House of Windsor whom she reportedly viewed "as jumped-up foreign princelings" and called them "the Germans". She believed that Diana was a "victim of her own poor judgment" as she lost social privilege by doing the Panorama interview. Some observers characterised her as a manipulative person.WEB,weblink Tony Blair: Diana was a manipulator like me, The Telegraph, 31 August 2010, 2 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203163456weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Princess Diana's influence on the royal family lives on, The Guardian, 31 August 2012, 2 February 2017, Michael, White, no,weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, It was also alleged by some people that the Princess and her former father-in-law, Prince Philip, had a relationship filled with tension;WEB,weblink Prince Philip sent 'nasty, cruel' letters to Diana, The Telegraph, 11 January 2008, 5 February 2017, Nick, Allen,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080524045533weblink">weblink 24 May 2008, however, other observers said that their letters provided no sign of friction between them.WEB,weblink Diana and Prince Philip: the truth, The Telegraph, 14 October 2007, 2 February 2017, Andrew, Alderson, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204002813weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, dmy-all, Author Anne Applebaum believed that Diana has not had any impact on public opinions posthumously; an idea supported by Jonathan Freedland of The Guardian who also noted in his article that Diana's memory and influence started to fade away in the years after her death, while Peter Conrad, another Guardian contributor, argued that even in "a decade after her death, she is still not silent,"WEB,weblink Diana: the myth, 10 years on, The Guardian, 16 June 2007, 2 February 2017, Peter, Conrad, no,weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all, and Allan Massie of The Telegraph described the Princess as "the celebrity of celebrities" whose sentiments "continue to shape our society".WEB,weblink Why Diana is still the spirit of the age, The Telegraph, 12 April 2008, 2 February 2017, Allan, Massie, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203163446weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, dmy-all,

Style icon

File:Princess Diana Cannes.jpg|thumb|right|180px|The Princess of Wales at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival. The strapless Catherine Walker dress,WEB,weblink What was the secret behind Bella Hadid's sensational Cannes dress?, The Telegraph, 23 May 2016, 19 February 2017, Tabi, Jackson Gee, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170220101438weblink">weblink 20 February 2017, dmy-all, which was inspired by a dress worn by Grace Kelly in To Catch a Thief, is considered to be among the most iconic dresses worn at the festival throughout its history.WEB,weblink Best Cannes Film Festival dresses of all time, Marie Claire, 11 May 2016, 19 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170220093804weblink">weblink 20 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink See Over 50 Years of Glamour on the Cannes Red Carpet, Elle magazine, 19 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170220173202weblink">weblink 20 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The Most Iconic Cannes Film Festival Dresses Of All-Time, The Huffington Post, 12 May 2016, 19 February 2017, Madelyn, Chung, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170220092744weblink">weblink 20 February 2017, dmy-all, It was later sold to Julien's AuctionsJulien's AuctionsDiana was a fashion icon whose style was emulated by women around the world. Iain Hollingshead of The Telegraph wrote: "[Diana] had an ability to sell clothes just by looking at them."NEWS, The Woman We Loved,weblink Newsweek, 17 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160306213754weblink">weblink 6 March 2016, dmy-all, An early example of the effect occurred during her courtship with Charles in 1980 when sales of Hunter Wellington boots skyrocketed after she was pictured wearing a pair on the Balmoral estate.NEWS, Will Kate kick off a war of the Welles?,weblink The Telegraph, 17 June 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160402183318weblink">weblink 2 April 2016, dmy-all, NEWS, These were the boots that shaped the world,weblink The Telegraph, 17 June 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117032453weblink">weblink 17 November 2015, dmy-all, According to designers and people who worked with Diana, she used fashion and style to endorse her charitable causes, express herself and communicate.NEWS,weblink Why Are We Still Obsessed With Princess Diana's Style?, The New York Times, 22 February 2017, 13 March 2017, Elizabeth, Paton, no,weblink 8 November 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Dresses that tell a story: Princess Diana fashion exhibit to open at Kensington Palace, Chicago Tribune, 22 February 2017, Gregory, Katz, 2 April 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170403014253weblink">weblink 3 April 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink No gloves and high split skirts: How Princess Diana rewrote the rules of royal dressing, The Telegraph, 24 February 2017, Bethan, Holt, 3 April 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170404045202weblink">weblink 4 April 2017, dmy-all, The Princess continued to remain a prominent figure for her fashion style, and is still considered an inspiration for stylists,WEB,weblink The Princess Diana looks that could be from today, The Telegraph, 25 February 2017, 10 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170312132134weblink">weblink 12 March 2017, dmy-all, celebrities,WEB,weblink Why Princess Diana remains an enduring style icon for all generations, The Telegraph, 19 November 2016, 1 February 2017, Bethan, Holt, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170129034419weblink">weblink 29 January 2017, dmy-all, and young women, famously including the singer Rihanna who is influenced by her and during an interview by Glamour in 2013 said: "[Diana] killed it. Every look was right. She was gangsta with her clothes. She had these crazy hats. She got oversize jackets. I loved everything she wore!"WEB,weblink Why Rihanna's obsessed with Princess Diana, The Guardian, 4 April 2016, 1 February 2017, Morwenna, Ferrier, no,weblink 2 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Rihanna: Princess Diana was a fashion "gangsta", Glamour (magazine), Glamour, 2 October 2013, 1 February 2017, Hannah, Lyons Powell, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171204222433weblink">weblink 4 December 2017, dmy-all, In the words of one of her favourite milliners, John Boyd, "Diana was our best ambassador for hats, and the entire millinery industry owes her a debt." Boyd's pink tricorn hat Diana wore for her honeymoon was later copied by milliners across the world and credited with rebooting an industry in decline for decades.WEB, John Boyd, milliner who helped make Princess Diana a fashion icon, dies at 92,weblink The Washington Post, 6 March 2018, WEB, Discreet hatmaker who sparked a craze for British millinery after he designed Princess Diana’s pink, ostrich-feathered going-away hat,weblink The Times, 7 March 2018, The Princess chose her dressing style based on both the royal family's demands and popular modern styles in Britain,NEWS,weblink Diana, Style Icon, CBS News, 1 February 2017, no,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, and developed her personal fashion trend. While on diplomatic trips, her clothes and attire were chosen to match the destination countries' costumes, and while off-duty she used to wear loose jackets and jumpers.WEB,weblink How Princess Diana Became a Fashion Icon, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, 23 February 2017, 3 April 2017, Rachel, Tashjian, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170226072643weblink">weblink 26 February 2017, dmy-all, "She was always very thoughtful about how her clothes would be interpreted, it was something that really mattered to her," according to Anna Harvey, a former Vogue editor and the Princess's fashion mentor.WEB,weblink Princess Diana's Iconic Style: Why We're Still Fascinated by Her Fashion Today, Vogue, 1 November 2013, 1 February 2017, Sarah, Mower, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161125062447weblink">weblink 25 November 2016, dmy-all, David Sassoon, one of the designers who worked with Diana, believed that she had "broken the rules" trying new styles. Diana chose not to practice some of the royal clothing traditions such as putting aside the tradition of wearing gloves as she believed it would prevent a direct connection with the people she met, such as those affected by serious diseases like AIDS patients. She used to wear certain types of clothes at charity events which were appropriate for the people she would meet, such as wearing colourful dresses and "jangling jewels" so she could easily play with children at hospitals. According to Donatella Versace who worked closely with the Princess alongside her brother, Diana's interest and sense of curiosity about fashion grew significantly after her separation from Charles. Versace also points out that "[she doesn't] think that anyone, before or after her, has done for fashion what Diana did".Catherine Walker was among Diana's favorite designers with whom she worked to create her "royal uniform". For her foreign tours and state visits, Walker and her husband used to do research and were determined to design clothes that would not outshine the Princess, a viewpoint supported by Taki Theodoracopulos who believes that Diana did not want "to let her clothes wear her". Eleri Lynn, curator of the exhibition Diana: Her Fashion Story, also believes that "[Diana] didn't want to be known as a clothes horse," and mentions that "the style [Catherine and Diana] created together was a very slender, fluid silhouette which did away with the frills and ruffles of the early '80s and created a sleek silhouette that really flattered the princess's frame and became a timeless look for her. A royal uniform if you like."WEB,weblink See the Dress Princess Diana Wore for Her Last Public Appearance in America, People (magazine), People, Simon, Perry, 19 February 2017, 2 April 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402171149weblink">weblink 2 April 2017, dmy-all, Diana made her debut as a Sloane Ranger in 1979 with a gown by Regamus. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the Princess wore outfits and ensembles by numerous notable fashion designers.WEB,weblink Anna Harvey On Princess Diana, British Vogue, 31 August 2017, 23 February 2019, WEB,weblink In Honor of Princess Diana's Birthday, We're Looking Back at Some of Her Most Memorable Style Moments, People (magazine), People, 1 July 2015, 1 February 2017, Brittany, Talarico, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170827125310weblink">weblink 27 August 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Dressing 'Diana' With a Little Help From Her Friends, US News, 30 October 2013, 1 February 2017, Tierney, Sneed, no,weblink 27 August 2017, dmy-all, She also wore ensembles by fashion companies such as Versace, Armani, Chanel, Dior and Clarks. Among her iconic outfits are a décolleté by David and Elizabeth Emanuel worn by a newly engaged Diana at a charity event, a cocktail dress by Christina Stambolian, commonly known as the "Revenge Dress", which she wore after Charles's admission of adultery,WEB,weblink Princess Diana's Black Dress Was The Best 'Revenge' After Separation, The Huffington Post, 1 July 2013, 1 February 2017, Rebecca, Adams, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170222065051weblink">weblink 22 February 2017, dmy-all, an evening gown by Victor Edelstein that she wore to a reception at the White House and later became known as the "Travolta dress", and a Catherine Walker pearl-encrusted gown and jacket dubbed the "Elvis Dress",WEB,weblink Style File – Diana, Princess Of Wales, Vogue, 15 April 2011, 1 February 2017, Julia, Neel, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161121030935weblink">weblink 21 November 2016, dmy-all, which she wore for the first time on an official visit to Hong Kong.WEB,weblink Princess Diana's fashion style on display at Kensington Palace, ABC News, 23 February 2017, 2 April 2017, Carolyn, Durand, Lama, Hasan, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170403013855weblink">weblink 3 April 2017, dmy-all, In early 1980s, Diana preferred to wear dresses with floral collars, pie-crust blouses, and pearls.WEB,weblink Diana: Her Fashion Story, review: this riveting show of Diana's dresses shows just how magnificent she was, The Telegraph, 22 February 2017, 10 March 2017, Mark, Hudson, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170312132108weblink">weblink 12 March 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The modern way to dress like Princess Diana, The Telegraph, 13 October 2016, 1 February 2017, Bethan, Holt, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170424220849weblink">weblink 24 April 2017, dmy-all, These items rapidly became fashion trends. Copies of her Vogue-featured pink chiffon blouse by David and Elizabeth Emanuel, which appeared on the magazine's cover on her engagement announcement day, sold in the millions. Her habit of wearing wide-shouldered gowns and lavish fabrics earned her the nickname "Dynasty Di". In the years after her marriage and then her divorce, Diana grew more confident in her choices,WEB,weblink Princess Diana's changing fashion style explored in exhibition, BBC News, 19 February 2017, 10 March 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170312092522weblink">weblink 12 March 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Forever fashionable: Princess Diana's style legacy lives on, NBC News, 30 August 2012, 1 February 2017, Rachel, Elbaum, no,weblink 2 December 2017, dmy-all, and her style underwent a change, with her new choices consisting of blazers, one-shoulder and off-shoulder dresses, two-tone themed suits, military-styled suits, and nude-colored outfits. White shirt and jeans, plaid dresses, jumpsuits and sheath dresses were among the other fashion trends that she tried.WEB,weblink Princess Diana's Iconic Fashion Moments, Elle UK, 17 November 2016, 1 February 2017, Tamsin, Crimmens, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170703191116weblink">weblink 3 July 2017, dmy-all, Her way of dressing began to be influenced by other celebrities including Cindy Crawford, Madonna, Elizabeth Taylor, as well as many others.The Princess's influential short hairstyle was created by Sam McKnight after a Vogue shoot in 1990, which, in McKnight and Donatella Versace's opinion, brought her more liberty as "it always looked great". The Princess reportedly did her own make up and would always have a hairstylist by her side before an event. She told McKnight: "It's not for me, Sam. It is for the people I visit or who come to see me. They don't want me in off-duty mode, they want a princess. Let's give them what they want."The Princess was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1989.WEB,weblink The International Hall of Fame: Women, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, 3 August 2009, 31 January 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160713221045weblink">weblink 13 July 2016, dmy-all, In 2003, VH1 ranked her at number nine on its 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons list, which recognizes "the folks that have significantly inspired and impacted American society".WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160511154709weblink">weblink 21 July 2003, 13 June 2019, The 200 Greatest Pop Culture Icons Complete Ranked List, PR Newswire, In 2004, People cited her as one of the all-time most beautiful women.NEWS, All-Time Most Beautiful Women,weblink People (magazine), People, Lucy, Maher, 3 April 2004, 23 April 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160428071024weblink">weblink 28 April 2016, dmy-all, In 2012, Time included Diana on its All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons list.WEB,weblink All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons: Princess Diana, Time (magazine), Time, 2 April 2012, 1 February 2017, William, Lee Adams, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161128093210weblink">weblink 28 November 2016, dmy-all, In 2016, fashion designer Sharmadean Reid designed a collection of clothes for ASOS.com inspired by Diana's style.WEB,weblink Asos launch Princess Diana-themed collection, The Guardian, 11 October 2016, 31 January 2017, Lauren, Cochrane, no,weblink 31 January 2017, dmy-all, "Di's incredible relationship with accessible sportswear through to luxury fashion forms the cornerstone of the collection and feels more modern than ever," Reid said about the Princess in a press release.Following the opening of an exhibition of Diana's clothes and dresses at Kensington Palace in 2017, Catherine Bennett of The Guardian stated that such exhibitions are among the suitable ways to commemorate public figures whose fashion styles were noted due to their achievements. The exhibition suggests to detractors that, like many other princesses, "looking lovely in different clothes was pretty much her life's work" which also brings interest in her clothing.WEB,weblink Diana shook up the royals but they have their poise back now, Catherine, Bennett, The Guardian, 25 February 2017, 2 April 2017, no,weblink 2 April 2017, dmy-all, Diana was an inspiration for Off-White's Spring 2018 show at Paris Fashion Week in 2017.WEB,weblink Naomi Campbell stars in Off-White’s tribute to Princess Diana’s style, The Daily Telegraph, Bethan, Holt, 29 September 2017, 30 January 2018, The designer Virgil Abloh used the Princess' signature looks as fragments to design new suits and attire.WEB,weblink How Fashion Queen Naomi Campbell Paid Tribute to Princess Diana at Off-White, Vogue, Janelle, Okwodu, 28 September 2017, 30 January 2018,weblink 29 September 2017, no, WEB,weblink Spring 2018 Ready-To-Wear: Off-White, Vogue, Amy, Verner, 28 September 2017, 30 January 2018,weblink 25 January 2018, no, Supermodel Naomi Campbell, dressed in a combination of white blazer and cropped spandex leggings in reference to Diana's formal and off-duty styles, closed off the show.

Memorials

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| image1 = The Lake at Althorp with the Diana memorial beyond - geograph.org.uk - 1174863.jpg
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| caption2 = Memorial in Harrods Department Store to Diana, Princess of Wales, and Dodi Fayed
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| caption5 = Unveiling of a memorial to Diana in Örményes, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, Hungary
}}Immediately after her death, many sites around the world became briefly ad hoc memorials to Diana where the public left flowers and other tributes. The largest was outside the gates of Kensington Palace, where people continue to leave flowers and tributes. Permanent memorials include: The Flame of Liberty was erected in 1989 on the Place de l'Alma in Paris above the entrance to the tunnel in which the fatal crash later occurred. It has become an unofficial memorial to Diana.NEWS,weblink In Paris, 'pilgrims of the flame' remember Diana, 31 August 2007, Katrin, Bennhold, International Herald Tribune, 23 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080214141658weblink">weblink 14 February 2008, NEWS,weblink Paris Honors Diana with Two Memorials, 28 August 2002, Stephen M., Silverman, People (magazine), People, 30 January 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160207081010weblink">weblink 7 February 2016, dmy-all, In addition, there are two memorials inside Harrods department store, commissioned by Dodi Fayed's father, who owned the store from 1985 to 2010. The first memorial is a pyramid-shaped display containing photos of the princess and al-Fayed's son, a wine glass said to be from their last dinner, and a ring purchased by Dodi the day prior to the crash. The second, Innocent Victims, unveiled in 2005, is a bronze statue of Fayed dancing with Diana on a beach beneath the wings of an albatross.NEWS,weblink Harrods unveils Diana, Dodi statue, 1 September 2005, 30 January 2016, CNN, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304031720weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, In January 2018, it was announced that the statue would be returned to the Al-Fayed family.WEB,weblink 'Tacky' statue of Diana and Dodi Fayed to be removed from Harrods, Chris, Johnston, 13 January 2018, The Guardian, 23 January 2018,weblink 13 January 2018, no, Rosa 'Princess of Wales', a white blend rose cultivar, is named in honour of Diana.WEB,weblink 'Princess of Wales' rose Description, Help Me Find, 4 February 2017, no,weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Princess of Wales, Harkness, 4 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170220120135weblink">weblink 20 February 2017, dmy-all, She received it as a tribute for her 10-year cooperation with the British Lung Foundation. It was bred by Harkness in the United Kingdom and introduced in 1997. The nostalgic floribunda is also known as 'Hardinkum'.WEB,weblink Rosa Princess of Wales = 'Hardinkum', Royal Horticultural Society, 4 February 2017, no,weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, It has a double bloom form, and a mild to strong fragrance. The rose is said to be one of Diana's favourites. After her death, the proceeds from selling the roses in 1998–99 were donated to the British Lung Foundation. In 2002, it was granted the Award of Garden Merit by the Royal Horticultural Society.WEB,weblink RHS AGM Listing January 2015 (Ornamentals), Royal Horticultural Society, 63, 4 February 2017, no,weblink 23 July 2015, dmy-all, Rosa 'Diana, Princess of Wales', a pink blend garden rose, was first introduced in 1998 at the British Embassy in the United States.WEB,weblink 'Diana, Princess of Wales' rose Description, Help Me Find, 4 February 2017, no,weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, The classical hybrid tea rose was bred by Keith W. Zary of Jackson & Perkins and is also known under the names 'Elegant Lady' and 'Jacshaq'.WEB,weblink Elegant Lady Hybrid Tea Rose, Jackson & Perkins, 4 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170205013535weblink">weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Rosa Diana, Princess of Wales = 'Jacshaq', Royal Horticultural Society, 4 February 2017, no,weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, It has a classic bloom form with ivory petals, and a mild, sweet fragrance. "15% of the retail price" for buying each of the roses was donated to the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund. It was also not sold in the United Kingdom in order to prevent from creating a competition with Rosa 'Princess of Wales'.In 1998, Azermarka issued postage stamps commemorating Diana in Azerbaijan. The English text on souvenir sheets issued reads "DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES The Princess that captured people's hearts (1961–1997)".WEB, 1998, February, 4. Princess Diana.,weblink Azermarka, 23 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150511143527weblink">weblink 11 May 2015, dmy-all, Several other countries issued commemorative stamps that year, including Great Britain, Somalia, and Congo.WEB,weblink Princess Diana Honored on Postage Stamps: Online Sales from The Collectible Stamps Gallery, The Collectible Stamps Gallery, 1 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123000742weblink">weblink 23 January 2016, dmy-all, HayPost also issued a postage stamp commemorating Diana in Armenia at the same year.WEB,weblink 1998 – (140) To the Memory of Princess Diana, HayPost, 23 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140121025057weblink">weblink 21 January 2014, In November 2002, a £4,000 bronze plaque was unveiled by Earl Spencer at Northampton Guildhall as a memorial to his sister.NEWS,weblink Diana memorial unveiled, BBC, 7 November 2002, 29 May 2018, In February 2013, OCAD University in Toronto announced that its new 25,000 square foot arts centre would be named the Princess of Wales Visual Arts Centre.NEWS, Alcoba, Natalie, Royal assent: William and Harry cheer OCAD University decision to name new arts centre after Princess Diana,weblink 1 August 2013, National Post, 13 February 2013, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20130801175554weblink">weblink 1 August 2013, dmy-all, Princess Diana Drive was named in her memory in Trenton, New Jersey.Princess Diana Drive infosite {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304052706weblink |date=4 March 2016 }}, New Jersey Post Code Base; accessed 18 May 2014. Diana's granddaughter, Charlotte Elizabeth Diana (born 2015),NEWS,weblink Royal princess named Charlotte Elizabeth Diana, BBC, London, 4 May 2015, 16 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150507193118weblink">weblink 7 May 2015, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Princess Charlotte Elizabeth Diana: why William and Kate made their name choices for royal baby, The Daily Telegraph, London, 4 May 2015, 16 May 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150506222259weblink">weblink 6 May 2015, dmy-all, and her niece, Charlotte Diana (born 2012),NEWS,weblink Earl Spencer names baby daughter after Diana, Princess of Wales, The Telegraph, UK, 6 August 2012, 5 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170205184920weblink">weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, are named after her.In January 2017, Diana's sons commissioned a statue of their mother for Kensington Palace to commemorate the 20th anniversary of her death.WEB,weblink Princess Diana: Princes commission statue 20 years after her death, 29 January 2017, 29 January 2017, BBC News, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170129000209weblink">weblink 29 January 2017, dmy-all, In an official statement released by Kensington Palace, William and Harry said "Our mother touched so many lives. We hope the statue will help all those who visit Kensington Palace to reflect on her life and her legacy." The money will be raised through public donations, and a small committee consisting of close friends and advisers, including Diana's sister Lady Sarah McCorquodale, are said to be working on the project.WEB,weblink Diana's Princes announce lasting memorial to their mother, "who touched so many lives", The Telegraph, 29 January 2017, 31 January 2017, Gordon, Rayner, Patrick, Sawer, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170130204426weblink">weblink 30 January 2017, dmy-all, In December 2017, it was announced that Ian Rank-Broadley had been commissioned to execute the statue. Its completion is expected in 2019.WEB,weblink Princes announce Ian Rank-Broadley will sculpt new Diana statue, The Guardian, 9 December 2017, 14 December 2017,weblink 10 December 2017, WEB,weblink Princes William and Harry announce sculptor for new Diana statue, Reuters, 11 December 2017, 14 December 2017,weblink 14 December 2017,

Diana in contemporary art

Before and after her death, Diana has been depicted in contemporary art. The first biopics about Diana and Charles were Charles and Diana: A Royal Love Story and The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana that were broadcast on American TV channels on 17 and 20 September 1981, respectively.JOURNAL, Bastin, Giselle, Filming the Ineffable: Biopics of the British Royal Family, Auto/Biography Studies, Summer 2009, 24, 1, 34–52,weblink 21 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151119025128weblink">weblink 19 November 2015, dmy-all, In December 1992, ABC aired Charles and Diana: Unhappily Ever After, a TV movie about marital discord between Diana and Charles.NEWS, Tucker, Ken, Charles and Diana: Unhappily Ever After,weblink 14 August 2013, Entertainment Weekly, 11 December 1992, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131021052129weblink">weblink 21 October 2013, dmy-all, In the 1990s, British magazine Private Eye called her "Cheryl" and Prince Charles "Brian".NEWS, Brett, Oliver, What's in a nickname?,weblink 15 August 2013, BBC, 15 January 2009, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131020180551weblink">weblink 20 October 2013, dmy-all, In July 1999, Tracey Emin created a number of monoprint drawings featuring textual references about Diana's public and private life for Temple of Diana, a themed exhibition at The Blue Gallery, London. Works such as They Wanted You To Be Destroyed (1999)Work illustrated on page 21 of Neal Brown's book Tracey Emin (Tate's Modern Artists Series) (London: Tate, 2006) {{ISBN|1-85437-542-3}} related to Diana's bulimia, while others included affectionate texts such as Love Was on Your Side and Diana's Dress with puffy sleeves. Another text praised her selflessness – The things you did to help other people, showing Diana in protective clothing walking through a minefield in Angola – while another referenced the conspiracy theories. Of her drawings, Emin maintained "They're quite sentimental ... and there's nothing cynical about it whatsoever."NEWS,weblink The tent is empty, Adams, Tim, 16 July 2009, New Statesman, 15 February 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305152722weblink">weblink 5 March 2016, dmy-all, In 2005, Martín Sastre premiered during the Venice Biennale the film (Diana: The Rose Conspiracy). This fictional work starts with the world discovering Diana alive and enjoying a happy undercover new life in a dangerous cantegril on the outskirts of Montevideo. Shot at an Uruguayan slum using a Diana impersonator from São Paulo, the film was selected by the Italian Art Critics Association as one of the Venice Biennial's best works.NEWS, Vídeo do artista Martín Sastre revive Lady Di em favela uruguaia, Portuguese,weblink 23 April 2016, Diversao, 24 August 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060510200002weblink">weblink 10 May 2006, NEWS, Vídeo do artista Martín Sastre revive Lady Di em favela uruguaia, Portuguese,weblink 7 September 2013, Terra, 24 August 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222121325weblink">weblink 22 December 2015, yes, NEWS,weblink Vídeo do artista Martín Sastre revive Lady Di em favela uruguaia, Ezabella, Fernanda, 24 August 2008, UOL Entretenimento, Portuguese, 9 April 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100118110714weblink">weblink 18 January 2010, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Lady Di vive en Uruguay, 2 April 2007, infobae.com, Spanish, 9 April 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071010080735weblink">weblink 10 October 2007, dmy-all, In 2007, following an earlier series referencing the conspiracy theories, Stella Vine created a series of Diana paintings for her first major solo exhibition at Modern Art Oxford gallery.WEB,weblink Stella Vine: Paintings, Modern Art Oxford, 23 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090504080318weblink">weblink 4 May 2009, NEWS,weblink Modern Art Oxford To Present Stella Vine: Paintings, Art Daily, 10 April 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150416064259weblink">weblink 16 April 2015, dmy-all, Vine intended to portray Diana's combined strength and vulnerability as well as her closeness to her two sons. The works, all completed in 2007, included Diana branches, Diana family picnic, Diana veil, Diana crash and Diana pram, which incorporates the quotation "I vow to thee my country".Nairne, Andrew and Greer, Germaine. "Stella Vine: Paintings", Modern Art Oxford, 2007. This was the first line of a favourite English hymn, which had been sung at Diana and Charles's wedding.Barnett, Laura. "Portrait of the artist: Immodesty Blaize, burlesque dancer" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170328152040weblink |date=28 March 2017 }}, The Guardian, 4 September 2007. Retrieved 16 December 2008. Vine asserted her own abiding attraction to "the beauty and the tragedy of Diana's life".Stella Vine's Latest Exhibition Modern Art Oxford, 14 July 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2009.The 2007 docudrama (Diana: Last Days of a Princess) details the final two months of her life. She is portrayed by Irish actress Genevieve O'Reilly.NEWS,weblink Diana: Last Days of a Princess TV Show, TV Guide, 24 December 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130120044829weblink">weblink 20 January 2013, dmy-all, On an October 2007 episode of The Chaser's War on Everything, Andrew Hansen mocked Diana in his "Eulogy Song", which immediately created considerable controversy in the Australian media.NEWS,weblink Chaser's war on dead celebs angers relatives, News.com.au, 18 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081229121354weblink">weblink 29 December 2008, 23 September 2011, yes, In 2017, Prince William and Prince Harry commissioned two documentaries to mark the 20th anniversary of her death. The first of the two, (Diana, Our Mother: Her Life and Legacy), was broadcast on ITV and HBO on 24 July 2017.WEB,weblink About page for the HBO Documentary Film Diana, Our Mother: Her Life and Legacy, HBO, en, 2017-07-25, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170723071454weblink">weblink 23 July 2017, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Diana, Our Mother: Her Life and Legacy., "ITV Press Centre", 2017-07-25, en, This film focuses on Diana's legacy and humanitarian efforts for causes such as AIDS, landmines, homelessness and cancer. The second documentary, Diana, 7 Days, aired on 27 August on BBC and focused on Diana's death and the subsequent outpouring of grief.NEWS,weblink William And Harry To Share Memories Of Mother Diana In Intimate TV Documentary, 2017-05-03, HuffPost UK, 2017-07-25, English, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170827131415weblink">weblink 27 August 2017, dmy-all, Actresses who have portrayed Diana include Serena Scott Thomas (in (Diana: Her True Story)),WEB,weblink Serena Scott Thomas, People (magazine), People, 28 March 2005, 4 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204170915weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, dmy-all, Julie Cox (in Princess in Love),WEB,weblink Princess in Love, Rotten Tomatoes, 4 February 2017, no,weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, Amy Seccombe (in (Diana: A Tribute to the People's Princess)),NEWS,weblink Legal fight to safeguard Diana's voice from exploitation by `soundalike s', The Independent, 27 January 1998, 4 February 2017, Kathy, Marks, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170205013234weblink">weblink 5 February 2017, dmy-all, Genevieve O'Reilly (in (Diana: Last Days of a Princess)),WEB,weblink Banished – Mrs Mary Johnson, BBC Two, 4 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150309001428weblink">weblink 9 March 2015, dmy-all, Nathalie Brocker (in The Murder of Princess Diana),WEB,weblink The Murder of Princess Diana, TV Guide, 4 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170204172021weblink">weblink 4 February 2017, dmy-all, and Naomi Watts (in Diana).WEB,weblink Diana film slammed by British press, BBC News, 6 September 2013, 4 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170827144420weblink">weblink 27 August 2017, dmy-all,

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

File:Royal Monogram of Princess Diana of Wales.svg|thumb|upright|Royal monogramRoyal monogram
  • 1 July 1961 – 9 June 1975: The Honourable Diana Frances Spencer
  • 9 June 1975 – 29 July 1981: Lady Diana Frances Spencer
  • 29 July 1981 – 28 August 1996: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
    • in Scotland: 29 July 1981 – 28 August 1996: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Rothesay
  • 28 August 1996 – 31 August 1997: Diana, Princess of Wales
Posthumously, as in life, she is most popularly referred to as "Princess Diana", a title not formally correct and one she never held.{{efn|Often used by the public and media, the style "Princess Diana" is incorrect. With rare exceptions by permission of the Sovereign (such as Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester), only women born to the title (such as Princess Anne) may use it before their given names. After her divorce in 1996, Diana was officially styled Diana, Princess of Wales, having lost the prefix "HRH".}} She is still sometimes referred to in the media as "Lady Diana Spencer" or simply as "Lady Di". In a speech after her death, then-Prime Minister Tony Blair referred to Diana as the People's Princess.NEWS,weblink Tony coined the 'people's princess{{'-, |newspaper = The Daily Telegraph|location = London|date = 9 July 2007|accessdate = 23 June 2015|deadurl = no|archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150622155727weblink">weblink|archivedate = 22 June 2015|df = dmy-all}}

Honours

{{See also|List of honours of the British royal family by country}}
Orders


Foreign honours


Fellowships
  • 1988: The Royal College of Surgeons of England, Honorary Fellow in Dental SurgeryWEB,weblink RCS: Faculty of Dental Surgery, The Royal College of Surgeons, July 2016, 16 August 2018, There were records of such diverse events of the endowment of the Nuffield Research Professor in Dental Science, the admission of HRH Diana Princess of Wales as an Honorary Fellow in Dental Surgery and ...,


Others

Honorary military appointments

The Princess of Wales held the following military appointments:
{{flagicon|AUS}} Australia
  • {{flagicon|AUS|army}}: Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Australian Survey CorpsC.D. Coulthard-Clark, Australia's Military Mapmakers, Oxford University Press, published 2000, {{ISBN|0-19-551343-6}}


{{flagicon|CAN}} Canada


{{flagicon|UK}} United Kingdom
She gave up these appointments following her divorce.

Arms









factoids
|year_adopted = 1981Coronet of Charles, Prince of Wales>Coronet of the Prince of Wales|torse =|helm =quartering (heraldry)>Quarterly 1st and 4th gules three lions passant guardant in pale or armed and langed azure 2nd or a lion rampant gules armed and langued azure within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second 3rd azure a harp or stringed argent (the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom), the whole difference with a label of three points Argent; with an inescutcheon of four lions passant guardant, in gold and red, counterchanged, surmounted by the coronet of the heir (for the Principality of Wales); impaled with a shield quarterly 1st and 4th Argent 2nd and 3rd Gules a Charge (heraldry)#Ordinaries and sub-ordinaries>fret Or overall a bend Sable charged with three escallops Argent.|supporters = Dexter a lion rampant gardant Or crowned with the coronet of the Prince of Wales Proper, sinister a griffin winged and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or|compartment =DIEU DEFEND LE DROIT(Anglo-Norman language>Anglo-Norman: God defends the right)|orders =|other_elements =|banner =|badge =right|100px) The Spencers were granted a coat of arms in 1504 (Azure a fess Ermine between 6 sea-mews' heads erased Argent), which bears no resemblance to that used by the family after c. 1595, which was derived from the Despencer arms. Writer J.H. Round argued that the Despencer descent was fabricated by Richard Lee, a corrupt Clarencieux King of Arms.Round, J.H. (1901) Studies in Peerage and Family History, A. Constable and Company, London, pp. 292–309Lozenge (heraldry)>lozenge shaped shield of arms hanging from a blue ribbon, which symbolised her unmarried state. It included three escallops argent of the Spencer coat of arms. This version was used only before her marriage and was also applied by her sisters.}}

Descendants{| class"wikitable"

! rowspan=2 | Name !! rowspan=2 | Birth !! colspan=2 | Marriage !! rowspan=2 | Issue! Date !! Spouse| Prince William, Duke of Cambridge| 21 June 1982| 29 April 2011| Catherine Middleton| Prince George of CambridgePrincess Charlotte of Cambridge Prince Louis of Cambridge| Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex| 15 September 1984| 19 May 2018| Meghan Markle| Archie Mountbatten-Windsor

Ancestry

Diana was born into the British Spencer family, different branches of which hold the titles of Duke of Marlborough, Earl Spencer, Earl of Sunderland, and Baron Churchill of Whichwood.NEWS, The Times, 25 July 2013, A Modern Monarchy – The Royal Family appears to have overcome its troubles and the new generation has adapted skilfully to a changing Britain, Leading articles, Prince George of Cambridge, born on Monday, now has in his relatively recent line miners and labourers; something hard to contemplate a generation ago., NEWS, The Times, David White, Somerset Herald, College of Arms, 23 July 2013, The Windsors & the Middletons – A family tree, Pull-out supplement, The Spencers claimed descent from a cadet branch of the powerful medieval Despenser family, but its validity is questioned.BOOK, Lowe, Mark Anthony, Patronymica Britannica, A Dictionary of Family Names of the United Kingdom,weblink 1860, 325, London, no,weblink 4 December 2017, dmy-all, Her great-grandmother was Margaret Baring, a member of the German-British Baring family of bankers and the daughter of Edward Baring, 1st Baron Revelstoke.BOOK, Ziegler, Philip, The Sixth Great Power: Barings 1762–1929, Collins, London, 1988, 0-00-217508-8, Philip Ziegler, WEB,weblink A Brief History of Barings, Baring Archive, 11 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130211224944weblink">weblink 11 February 2013, dmy-all, Diana's distant noble ancestors included the first Duke and Duchess of Marlborough.{{sfn|Bradford|2006|p=31}} Diana and Charles were distantly related, as they were both descended from the House of Tudor through Henry VII of England.NEWS, Charles 'amazed' by Lady Di's yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151117034757weblink">weblink 17 November 2015,weblink 25 February 1981, 25 February 2015, She was also descended from the House of Stuart through Charles II of England by Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, and Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and his brother James II of England by Henrietta FitzJames.Moncreiffe of that Ilk, Sir Iain (1982).Royal Highness. London: Hamish Hamilton. p. 38. Other noble ancestors include Margaret Kerdeston, granddaughter of Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl of Suffolk; Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I of England; and Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, a descendant of Edward III of England through his son Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence.WEB, Roberts, Gary Boyd, The Royal Ancestry of Meghan Markle,weblink New England Historic Genealogical Society, December 16, 2017, The Rev. William Skipper's ancestors Sir Philip Wentworth (died 1464) and Mary Clifford are ancestors also, in various lines, of both H.M. the late Queen Mother (and thus H.M. the Queen, the Prince of Wales, and Prince Harry) and of the late Diana, Princess of Wales., no,weblink December 1, 2017, JOURNAL, Roberts, Gary Boyd, The Shared Ancestry of (Rachel) Meghan Markle and Prince Harry, American Ancestors, November 30, 2017,weblink December 7, 2017, no,weblink December 8, 2017, Diana's Scottish roots came from her maternal grandmother, Lady Fermoy. Among her Scottish ancestors were Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon, and his wife Jane, and Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll.Diana's American lineage came from her great-grandmother Frances Ellen Work, daughter of wealthy American stockbroker Franklin H. Work from Ohio, who was married to her great-grandfather James Roche, 3rd Baron Fermoy, an Irish peer.BOOK, Evans, Richard K., The Ancestry of Diana, Princess of Wales, 2007, New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, 9780880822084,weblink 12 January 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101210205411weblink">weblink 10 December 2010, WEB,weblink The other American in Prince Harry's family, BBC, Owen, Amos, 27 November 2017, 12 November 2018, Diana's fourth great-grandmother in her direct maternal line, Eliza Kewark, was of Indian descent.WEB, New genetic evidence that Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is the direct descendant of an Indian woman and that he carries her mitochondrial DNA.,weblink BritainsDNA, 10 April 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140701132540weblink">weblink 1 July 2014, dmy-all, NEWS, DNA tests reveal Prince William's Indian ancestry,weblink CNN, 14 June 2013, 9 September 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170910125205weblink">weblink 10 September 2017, dmy-all, NEWS, The Times, 14 June 2013, Revealed: the Indian ancestry of William, David, Brown, 1,weblink subscription, NEWS, Sinha, Kounteya, Hunt on for Prince William's distant cousins in Surat,weblink 11 August 2013, The Times of India, 16 June 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150319150215weblink">weblink 19 March 2015, dmy-all, NEWS, Hern, Alex, Are there ethical lapses in the Times' story on William's 'Indian ancestry'?,weblink 11 August 2013, New Statesman, 14 June 2013, Although Eliza Kewark was indeed thought of as Armenian, it's not particularly surprising that she would have had Indian ancestors; the Armenian diaspora had been in India for centuries at the time of her birth, and even the most insular communities tend to experience genetic mixing over in that timescale., no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130820173757weblink">weblink 20 August 2013, dmy-all, {{ahnentafelalign=center Williamsonp= }}{{sfn1981b|p= }}|boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|1= 1. Diana, Princess of Wales|2= 2. John Spencer, 8th Earl SpencerFrances Shand Kydd>The Honourable Frances Roche|4= 4. Albert Spencer, 7th Earl SpencerCynthia Spencer, Countess Spencer>Lady Cynthia Hamilton|6= 6. Maurice Roche, 4th Baron FermoyRuth Roche, Baroness Fermoy>Ruth Gill|8= 8. Charles Spencer, 6th Earl SpencerMargaret Spencer, Countess Spencer>The Honorable Margaret Baring|10= 10. James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of AbercornRosalind Hamilton, Duchess of Abercorn>Lady Rosalind Bingham|12= 12. James Roche, 3rd Baron Fermoy|13= 13. Frances Ellen Work|14= 14. William Smith Gill|15= 15. Ruth Littlejohn}}

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Bradford, Sarah, Sarah Bradford, 2006, Diana, Viking, New York; Toronto; London, 978-0-670-03807-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Brandreth, Gyles, Gyles Brandreth, 2004, Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage, Century, London, 0-7126-6103-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Brown, Tina, Tina Brown, 2007, The Diana Chronicles, Doubleday, London; New York, 978-0-385-51708-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Dimbleby, Jonathan, Jonathan Dimbleby, 1994, The Prince of Wales: A Biography, New York, William Morrow and Company, 0-688-12996-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Morton, Andrew, Andrew Morton (writer), 1997, 1992, Diana: Her True Story – In Her Own Words, Simon & Schuster, New York, 0-684-85080-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Smith, Sally Bedell, Sally Bedell Smith, 2000, 1999, Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess, Signet, 978-0-451-20108-9, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Williamson, D., 1981a, The Ancestry of Lady Diana Spencer, Genealogist's Magazine, 20, 6, 192–199, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Williamson, D., 1981b, The Ancestry of Lady Diana Spencer, Genealogist's Magazine, 20, 8, 281–282, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Anderson, Christopher, Christopher Andersen, Diana's Boys: William and Harry and the Mother they Loved, 2001, William Morrow, 1st, United States, 978-0-688-17204-6,
  • BOOK, Bedell Smith, Sally, 1999, Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess, Times Books, 0-8129-3030-4,
  • BOOK, Brennan, Kristine, Diana, Princess of Wales, 1998, Chelsea House, Philadelphia, 0-7910-4714-8,
  • BOOK, Burrell, Paul, Paul Burrell, A Royal Duty, 2003, HarperCollins Entertainment, United States, 978-0-00-725263-3,
  • BOOK, Burrell, Paul, Paul Burrell, The Way We Were: Remembering Diana, 2007, HarperCollins Entertainment, United States, 978-0-06-113895-9,
  • BOOK, Caradec'h, Jean-Michel, Jean-Michel Caradec'h, Diana. L'enquête criminelle, French, 2006, Michel Lafon, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 978-2-7499-0479-5,
  • BOOK, Corby, Tom, Diana, Princess of Wales: A Tribute, 1997, Benford Books, United States, 978-1-56649-599-8,
  • BOOK, Coward, Rosalind, Rosalind Coward, Diana: The Portrait, 2004, HarperCollins, United Kingdom (other publishers worldwide), 0-00-718203-1,
  • BOOK, Davies, Jude, Diana, A Cultural History: Gender, Race, Nation, and the People's Princess, 2001, Palgrave, Houndmills, Hampshire; New York, 0-333-73688-5, 46565010,
  • BOOK, Denney, Colleen, Representing Diana, Princess of Wales: Cultural Memory and Fairy Tales Revisited, 2005, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Madison, New Jersey, 0-8386-4023-0, 56490960,
  • BOOK, Edwards, Anne, Anne Edwards, Ever After: Diana and the Life She Led, 2001, St. Martin's Press, New York, 978-0-312-25314-1, 43867312,
  • BOOK, Frum, David, David Frum, 2000, How We Got bare: The '70s, Basic Books, New York, 0-465-04195-7,
  • BOOK, Mattern, Joanne, 2006, Princess Diana, DK Biography, DK Publishing, New York, 978-0-756-61614-4,
  • BOOK, Morton, Andrew, Andrew Morton (writer), Diana: In Pursuit of Love, 2004, Michael O'Mara Books, United States, 978-1-84317-084-6,
  • BOOK, Rees-Jones, Trevor, Trevor Rees-Jones (bodyguard), The Bodyguard's Story: Diana, the Crash, and the Sole Survivor, 2000, Little, Brown, United States, 978-0-316-85508-2,
  • BOOK, Steinberg, Deborah Lynn, Mourning Diana: Nation, Culture and the Performance of Grief, 1999, Routledge, London, 0-415-19393-1,
  • BOOK, Taylor, John A., Diana, Self-Interest, and British National Identity, 2000, Praeger, Westport, CN, 0-275-96826-X, 42935749,
  • BOOK, Thomas, James, Diana's Mourning: A People's History, 2002, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 0-7083-1753-7, 50099981,
  • BOOK, Turnock, Robert, Interpreting Diana: Television Audiences and the Death of a Princess, 2000, British Film Institute, London, 0-85170-788-2, 43819614,

External links

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