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OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LAST = SALOMON TITLE = INDIAN EPIGRAPHY: A GUIDE TO THE STUDY OF INSCRIPTIONS IN SANSKRIT, PRAKRIT, AND THE OTHER INDO-ARYAN LANGUAGES SERIES = SOUTH ASIA RESEARCHPP=39–41, |region=India and NepalProto-Sinaitic script>Proto-Sinaitic[a]|footnotes=[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.BrāhmÄ« script>BrāhmÄ«Gupta script>GuptaNāgarÄ« script>NāgarÄ«Gurmukhi script>Gurmukhi, NandinagariGujarāti script>GujaratiMoḍī|unicode=U+0900–U+097F Devanagari, U+A8E0–U+A8FF Devanagari Extended, U+1CD0–U+1CFF Vedic Extensions|iso15924=Deva
{{Devanagari abugida sidebar}}{{brahmic}}Devanagari ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|d|eɪ|v|ə|ˈ|n|ɑː|ɡ|ər|iː}} {{respell|DAY|və|NAH|gər|ee}}; , {{IAST3|Devanāgarī}}, a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī" ; Hindi pronunciation: {{IPA-hi|deːʋˈnaːɡri|}}), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, ),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, {{ISBN|978-1615301492}}, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal. It is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, and is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Eastern Nagari, Odia, or Gurmukhi, but a closer examination reveals they are very similar except for angles and structural emphasis.George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415772945}}, pages 72-74; Quote: "(...) has a strong preference for symmertrical shapes, especially squared outlines and right angles (...)".The Nagari script has roots in the ancient Brāhmī script family.George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415772945}}, pages 68-69 Some of the earliest epigraphical evidence attesting to the developing Sanskrit Nagari script in ancient India, in a form similar to Devanagari, is from the 1st to 4th century CE inscriptions discovered in Gujarat.{{Google books|0bkMAAAAIAAJ|Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency}}, Rudradaman’s inscription from 1st through 4th century CE found in Gujarat, India, Stanford University Archives, pages 30-45, particularly Devanagari inscription on Jayadaman's coins pages 33-34 The Nagari script was in regular use by the 7th century CE and it was fully developed by about the end of first millennium. The use of Sanskrit in Nagari script in medieval India is attested by numerous pillar and cave temple inscriptions, including the 11th-century Udayagiri inscriptions in Madhya Pradesh,Michael Willis (2001), Inscriptions from Udayagiri: locating domains of devotion, patronage and power in the eleventh century, South Asian Studies, 17(1), pages 41-53 and an inscribed brick found in Uttar Pradesh, dated to be from 1217 CE, which is now held at the British Museum.Brick with Sanskrit inscription in Nagari script, 1217 CE, found in Uttar Pradesh, India (British Museum) The script's proto- and related versions have been discovered in ancient relics outside of India, such as in Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Indonesia; while in East Asia, Siddha Matrika script considered as the closest precursor to Nagari was in use by Buddhists.Wayan Ardika (2009), Form, Macht, Differenz: Motive und Felder ethnologischen Forschens (Editors: Elfriede Hermann et al.), Universitätsverlag Göttingen, {{ISBN|978-3940344809}}, pages 251-252; Quote: "Nagari script and Sanskrit language in the inscription at Blangjong suggests that Indian culture was already influencing Bali (Indonesia) by the 10th century CE." Nagari has been the primus inter pares of the Indic scripts.George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415772945}}, pages 75-77 It has long been used traditionally by religiously educated people in South Asia to record and transmit information, existing throughout the land in parallel with a wide variety of local scripts (such as Modi, Kaithi, and Mahajani) used for administration, commerce, and other daily uses.The Devanagari script is used for over 120 languages,Devanagari (Nagari), Script Features and Description, SIL International (2013), United States making it one of the most used and adopted writing systems in the world.WEB,weblink Devanagari script,, David Templin, 5 April 2015, Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are Hindi,Hindi, Omniglot Encyclopedia of Writing Systems and Languages Marathi, Nepali, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Rajasthani, Chhattisgarhi, Santali, Kashmiri, Konkani, Sindhi, Dogri, Bodo, Newar, Awadhi, Magahi, Haryanvi, Bhili, Mundari, Pali and Sanskrit. The Devanagari script is closely related to the Nandinagari script commonly found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India,George Cardona and Danesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415772945}}, page 75Reinhold Grünendahl (2001), South Indian Scripts in Sanskrit Manuscripts and Prints, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, {{ISBN|978-3447045049}}, pages xxii, 201-210 and it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts.Devanagari script has forty-seven primary characters, of which fourteen are vowels and thirty-three are consonants. The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters. Unlike the Latin alphabet, the script has no concept of letter case.Akira Nakanishi, Writing systems of the World, {{ISBN|978-0804816540}}, page 48 Generally the orthography of the script reflects the pronunciation of the language.


File:Falongsibeiye.png|right|thumb|400px| Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī SÅ«tra in Siddham on palm-leaf in 609 CE. HōryÅ«-jiHōryÅ«-jiDevanagari is part of the Brahmic family of scripts of India, Nepal, Tibet, and South-East Asia.{{Citation | title=A history of writing | author=Steven Roger Fischer | year=2004 | isbn=978-1-86189-167-9 |publisher=Reaktion Books | url= | quote=... an early branch of this, as of the fourth century CE, was the Gupta script, Brahmi's first main daughter ... the Gupta alphabet became the ancestor of most Indic scripts (usually through later Devanagari) ... Nagari, of India's north-west, first appeared around 633 CE ... in the eleventh century, Nagari had become Devanagari, or 'heavenly Nagari', since it was now the main vehicle, out of several, for Sanskrit literature ...}} It is a descendant of the Gupta script, along with Siddham and Sharada. Variants of script called NāgarÄ«, recognisably close to Devanagari, are first attested from the 1st century CE Rudradaman inscriptions in Sanskrit, while the modern standardised form of Devanagari was in use by about 1000 CE.Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0195356663}}, pages 40-42Krishna Chandra Sagar (1993), Foreign Influence on Ancient India, South Asia Books, {{ISBN|978-8172110284}}, page 137 Medieval inscriptions suggest widespread diffusion of the Nagari-related scripts, with biscripts presenting local script along with the adoption of Nagari scripts. For example, the mid 8th-century Pattadakal pillar in Karnataka has text in both Siddha Matrika script, and an early Telugu-Kannada script; while, the Kangra Jvalamukhi inscription in Himachal Pradesh is written in both Sharada and Devanagari scripts.Richard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0195356663}}, page 71File:Rigveda MS2097.jpg|thumb|A 19th century Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari.]]The 7th-century Tibetan king Srong-tsan-gambo ordered that all foreign books be transcribed into the Tibetan language. He sent his ambassador Tonmi Sambota to India to acquire alphabet and writing methods; returning with Sanskrit Nagari script from Kashmir corresponding to 24 Tibetan sounds and innovating new symbols for 6 local sounds.William Woodville Rockhill, {{Google books|avFDAQAAMAAJ|Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution|page=671}}, United States National Museum, page 671 Other closely related scripts such as Siddham Matrka were in use in Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan and other parts of East Asia by between 7th- to 10th-century.David Quinter (2015), From Outcasts to Emperors: Shingon Ritsu and the MañjuÅ›rÄ« Cult in Medieval Japan, Brill, {{ISBN|978-9004293397}}, pages 63-65 with discussion on Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī SÅ«traRichard Salomon (2014), Indian Epigraphy, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0195356663}}, pages 157-160 Sharada remained in parallel use in Kashmir. An early version of Devanagari is visible in the Kutila inscription of Bareilly dated to Vikram Samvat 1049 (i.e. 992 CE), which demonstrates the emergence of the horizontal bar to group letters belonging to a word. One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit text from early post-Maurya period available consists of 1,413 Nagari pages of a commentary by Patanjali, with a composition date of about 150 BCE, the surviving copy transcribed about 14th century CE.Michael Witzel (2006), in Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE (Editor: Patrick Olivelle), Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0195305326}}, pages 477-480 with footnote 60;Original manuscript, dates in Saka Samvat, and uncertainties associated with it: Mahabhasya of Patanjali, F Kielhorn{{IAST|NāgarÄ«}} is the Sanskrit feminine of {{IAST|Nāgara}} "relating or belonging to a town or city, urban". It is a phrasing with lipi ("script") as {{IAST|nāgarÄ« lipi}} "script relating to a city", or "spoken in city".Monier Williams Online Dictionary, nagara, Cologne Sanskrit Digital Lexicon, GermanyThe use of the name {{IAST|devanāgarÄ«}} is relatively recent, and the older term {{IAST|nāgarÄ«}} is still common. The rapid spread of the term {{IAST|devanāgarÄ«}} may be related to the almost exclusive use of this script to publish Sanskrit texts in print since the 1870s. The script was popularized for use by governments in the 1860s by Raja Sivaprasad.JOURNAL, Govi, K.M., Govi, Pushpaveni, Major Bibliographies of Indian Literature, Indian Literature, 1988, 31, 4 (126), 131–138, 24159343,


{{Refimprove section|date=April 2015}}As a Brahmic abugida, the fundamental principle of Devanagari is that each letter represents a consonant, which carries an inherent schwa vowel. This is usually written in Latin as a, though it is represented as [É™] in the International Phonetic Alphabet.{{Harvcoltxt|Salomon|2003|p=70}} The letter is read ka, the two letters are kana, the three are kanaya, etc. Other vowels, or the absence of vowels, require modification of these consonants or their own letters:(File:A page from Dictionary using Devnagari.jpg|thumb|Devanagari text from Vayu Purana (Marathi Translation).)
  • A final consonant is marked with the diacritic }} called the virāma in Sanskrit, halant in Hindi, and occasionally a "killer stroke" in English. This cancels the inherent vowel, so that from knaya is derived knay. The halant is often used for consonant clusters when typesetting conjunct ligatures is not feasible.{{clarify|reason=character is almost invisible, and not appropriate for inclusion in English text|date=April 2017}}
  • Consonant clusters are written with ligatures ({{IAST|saṃyuktāká¹£ara}} "conjuncts"). For example, the three consonants , , and , (k, n, y), when written consecutively without virāma form , as shown above. Alternatively, they may be joined as clusters to form knaya, kanya, or knya. This system was originally created for use with the Middle Indo-Aryan languages, which have a very limited number of clusters (the only clusters allowed are geminate consonants and clusters involving homorganic nasal stops). When applied to Sanskrit, however, it added a great deal of complexity to the script, due to the large variety of clusters in this language (up to five consonants, e.g. rtsny). Much of this complexity is required at least on occasion in the modern Indo-Aryan languages, due to the large number of clusters allowed and especially due to borrowings from Sanskrit.
  • Vowels other than the inherent a are written with diacritics (termed matras). For example, using ka, the following forms can be derived: ke, ku, kÄ«, kā, etc.
  • For vowels as an independent syllable (in writing, unattached to a preceding consonant), either at the beginning of a word or (in Hindi) after another vowel, there are full-letter forms. For example, while the vowel Å« is written with the diacritic }} in kÅ«, it has its own letter in Å«ka and (in Hindi but not Sanskrit) kaÅ«.
Such a letter or ligature, with its diacritics, is called an {{IAST|aká¹£ara}} "syllable". For example, kanaya is written with what are counted as three akshara, whereas knya and ku are each written with one.When handwriting, letters are usually written without the distinctive horizontal bar, which is added only once the word is completed.WEB,weblink,, 2004-12-07, 2011-06-13,


The letter order of Devanagari, like nearly all Brahmic scripts, is based on phonetic principles that consider both the manner and place of articulation of the consonants and vowels they represent. This arrangement is usually referred to as the {{IAST|varṇamālā}} "garland of letters".{{Harvcoltxt|Salomon|2003|p=71}} The format of Devanagari for Sanskrit serves as the prototype for its application, with minor variations or additions, to other languages.{{Harvcoltxt|Salomon|2003|p=75}}


The vowels and their arrangement are:{{Harvcoltxt|Wikner|1996|pp=13, 14}}{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:60%"!!Independent form!IAST/ISO!As diacritic with !Independent form!IAST/ISO!As diacritic with !{{IAST|kaṇṭhya}}(Guttural)a}}ā}}!{{IAST|tālavya}}(Palatal)i}}Ä«}}!{{IAST|oṣṭhya}}(Labial)u}}Å«}}!{{IAST|mÅ«rdhanya}}(Retroflex)á¹›}}/rÌ¥4ṝ}}/r̥̄!{{IAST|dantya}}(Dental)4ḷ}}/lÌ¥4, 5ḹ}}/l̥̄!{{IAST|kaṇṭhatālavya}}(Palatoguttural)e}}/Ä“ai}}!{{IAST|kaṇṭhoṣṭhya}}(Labioguttural)o}}/ōau}}!{{IAST|}}1aṃ}}/aṁ1aḥ}}!{{IAST|}} 7}}/ê7}}/ô
  1. Arranged with the vowels are two consonantal diacritics, the final nasal anusvāra {{IAST|ṃ}} and the final fricative visarga {{IAST|ḥ}} (called {{IAST|aṃ}} and {{IAST|aḥ}}). {{Harvcoltxt|Masica|1991|p=146}} notes of the anusvāra in Sanskrit that "there is some controversy as to whether it represents a homorganic nasal stop [...], a nasalised vowel, a nasalised semivowel, or all these according to context". The visarga represents post-vocalic voiceless glottal fricative {{IPA|[h]}}, in Sanskrit an allophone of {{IAST|s}}, or less commonly {{IAST|r}}, usually in word-final position. Some traditions of recitation append an echo of the vowel after the breath:{{Harvcoltxt|Wikner|1996|p=6}} {{IPA|[ihi]}}. {{Harvcoltxt|Masica|1991|p=146}} considers the visarga along with letters {{IAST|ṅa}} and {{IAST|ña}} for the "largely predictable" velar and palatal nasals to be examples of "phonetic overkill in the system".
  2. Another diacritic is the candrabindu/anunāsika . {{Harvcoltxt|Salomon|2003|pp=76–77}} describes it as a "more emphatic form" of the {{IAST|anusvāra}}, "sometimes [...] used to mark a true [vowel] nasalization". In a New Indo-Aryan language such as Hindi the distinction is formal: the {{IAST|candrabindu}} indicates vowel nasalisation{{Harvcoltxt|Snell|2000|pp=44–45}} while the {{IAST|anusvār}} indicates a homorganic nasal preceding another consonant:{{Harvcoltxt|Snell|2000|p=64}} e.g. {{IPA|[ɦə̃si]}} "laughter", {{IPA|[ɡəŋɡɑ]}} "the Ganges". When an akshara has a vowel diacritic above the top line, that leaves no room for the candra ("moon") stroke candrabindu, which is dispensed with in favour of the lone dot:{{Harvcoltxt|Snell|2000|p=45}} {{IPA|[ɦũ]}} "am", but {{IPA|[ɦɛ̃]}} "are". Some writers and typesetters dispense with the "moon" stroke altogether, using only the dot in all situations.{{Harvcoltxt|Snell|2000|p=46}}
  3. The avagraha (usually transliterated with an apostrophe) is a Sanskrit punctuation mark for the elision of a vowel in sandhi: {{IAST|eko'yam}} ( ← {{IAST|ekas}} + {{IAST|ayam}}) "this one". An original long vowel lost to coalescence is sometimes marked with a double avagraha: {{IAST|sadā'tmā}} ( ← {{IAST|sadā}} + {{IAST|ātmā}}) "always, the self".{{Harvcoltxt|Salomon|2003|p=77}} In Hindi, {{Harvcoltxt|Snell|2000|p=77}} states that its "main function is to show that a vowel is sustained in a cry or a shout": {{IAST|āīīī!}}. In Madhyadeshi Languages like Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Maithili, etc. which have "quite a number of verbal forms [that] end in that inherent vowel",{{Harvcoltxt|Verma|2003|p=501}} the avagraha is used to mark the non-elision of word-final inherent a, which otherwise is a modern orthographic convention: {{IAST|baiṭha}} "sit" versus {{IAST|baiṭh}}
  4. The syllabic consonants {{IAST|ṝ}}, {{IAST|ḷ}}, and {{IAST|ḹ}} are specific to Sanskrit and not included in the {{IAST|varṇamālā}} of other languages. The sound represented by {{IAST|ṛ}} has also been lost in the modern languages, and its pronunciation now ranges from {{IPA|[ɾɪ]}} (Hindi) to {{IPA|[ɾu]}} (Marathi).
  5. {{IAST|ḹ}} is not an actual phoneme of Sanskrit, but rather a graphic convention included among the vowels in order to maintain the symmetry of short–long pairs of letters.
  6. There are non-regular formations of ru and rū.
  7. There are two more vowels in Marathi as well as Konkani, and , that respectively represent [{{IPA|æ}}], similar to the RP English pronunciation of in ‘act’, and [{{IPA|ɒ}}], similar to the RP pronunciation of in ‘cot’. These vowels are sometimes used in Hindi too. IAST transliteration is not defined. In ISO 15919, the transliteration is ê and ô, respectively.


The table below shows the consonant letters (in combination with inherent vowel a) and their arrangement. To the right of the Devanagari letter it shows the Latin script transliteration using International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration,{{Harvcoltxt|Wikner|1996|pp=73}} and the phonetic value (IPA) in Hindi.BOOK, Stella Sandahl, A Hindi reference grammar,weblink 2000, Peeters, 978-9042908802, 1–4, BOOK, Tej K. Bhatia, A History of the Hindi Grammatical Tradition,weblink 1987, BRILL Academic, 90-04-07924-6, 51–63, 77–94, {|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:95%"!! colspan=8 | {{IAST|sparśa}}(Plosive)! colspan=2 | {{IAST|anunāsika}}(Nasal)! colspan=2 | {{IAST|antastha}}(Approximant)! colspan=4 | {{IAST|ūṣman/saṃghaṣhrī}}(Fricative)! Voicing → {{IAST|aghoṣa}} {{IAST|ghoṣa}} {{IAST|aghoṣa}} {{IAST|ghoṣa}}! Aspiration → {{IAST|alpaprāṇa}} {{IAST|mahāprāṇa}} {{IAST|alpaprāṇa}} {{IAST|mahāprāṇa}} {{IAST|alpaprāṇa}} {{IAST|mahāprāṇa}}!{{IAST|kaṇṭhya}}(Guttural){{IAST/k/}}{{IAST/kʰ/}}{{IAST/ɡ/}}{{IAST/ɡʱ/}}{{IAST/ŋ/}}{{IAST/ɦ/}}!tālavya(Palatal){{IAST/c, t͡ʃ/}}{{IAST/cʰ, t͡ʃʰ/}}{{IAST/ɟ, d͡ʒ/}}{{IAST/ɟʱ, d͡ʒʱ/}}{{IAST/ɲ/}}{{IAST/j/}}{{IAST/ɕ, ʃ/}}!mūrdhanya(Retroflex){{IAST/ʈ/}}{{IAST/ʈʰ/}}{{IAST/ɖ/}}{{IAST/ɖʱ/}}{{IAST/ɳ/}}{{IAST/r/}}{{IAST/ʂ/}}!dantya(Dental){{IAST/t̪/}}{{IAST/t̪ʰ/}}{{IAST/d̪/}}{{IAST/d̪ʱ/}}{{IAST/n/}}{{IAST/l/}}{{IAST/s/}}!{{IAST|oṣṭhya}}(Labial){{IAST/p/}}{{IAST/pʰ, ɸ/}}{{IAST/b/}}{{IAST/bʱ, β/}}{{IAST/m/}}{{IAST/w, ʋ/}}
  • Rounding this out where applicable is {{IAST|ḷa}} (IPA: {{IPA|/É­/}}or {{IPA|/ɭ̆/}}), the intervocalic lateral flap allophone of the voiced retroflex stop in Vedic Sanskrit, which is a phoneme in languages such as Marathi, Konkani, and Rajasthani.Masica (1991:97)
  • Beyond the Sanskritic set, new shapes have rarely been formulated. {{Harvcoltxt|Masica|1991|p=146}} offers the following, "In any case, according to some, all possible sounds had already been described and provided for in this system, as Sanskrit was the original and perfect language. Hence it was difficult to provide for or even to conceive other sounds, unknown to the phoneticians of Sanskrit". Where foreign borrowings and internal developments did inevitably accrue and arise in New Indo-Aryan languages, they have been ignored in writing, or dealt through means such as diacritics and ligatures (ignored in recitation).
    • The most prolific diacritic has been the subscript dot (nuqtā) . Hindi uses it for the Persian, Arabic and English sounds qa /q/, xa /x/, Ä¡a /É£/, za /z/, zha /Ê’/, and fa /f/, and for the allophonic developments {{IAST|á¹›a}} /ɽ/ and {{IAST|á¹›ha}} /ɽʱ/. (Although {{IAST|ḷha}} {{IPA|/ɭʱä/}} could also exist, it is not used in Hindi.)
    • Sindhi's and Saraiki's implosives are accommodated with a line attached below: {{IPA|[É É™]}}, {{IPA|[Ê„É™]}}, {{IPA|[É—É™]}}, {{IPA|[É“É™]}}.
    • Aspirated sonorants may be represented as conjuncts/ligatures with ha: mha, nha, {{IAST|ṇha}}, vha, lha, {{IAST|ḷha}}, rha.
    • {{Harvcoltxt|Masica|1991|p=147}} notes Marwari as using for {{IAST|ḍa}} {{IPA|[É—É™]}} (while represents {{IPA|[ɽə]}}).
For a list of the 297 (33×9) possible Sanskrit consonant-(short) vowel phonemes, see Āryabhaṭa numeration.

Schwa syncope in consonants

In many Indo-Aryan languages, the schwa ('É™') implicit in each consonant of the script is "obligatorily deleted" at the end of words and in certain other contexts,{{Citation | title=Language, speech, and mind, Part 2 |author1=Larry M. Hyman |author2=Victoria Fromkin |author3=Charles N. Li | date=1988| isbn=0-415-00311-3 | publisher=Taylor & Francis | url= | quote=... The implicit /a/ is not read when the symbol appears in word-final position or in certain other contexts where it is obligatorily deleted via the so-called schwa-deletion rule which plays a crucial role in Hindi word phonology ...}} unlike in Marathi{{citation needed|date=December 2015}} or Sanskrit. This phenomenon has been termed the "schwa syncope rule" or the "schwa deletion rule" of Hindi.{{Citation | title=A history of the Hindi grammatical tradition: Hindi-Hindustani grammar, grammarians, history and problems | author=Tej K. Bhatia | year=1987 | isbn=90-04-07924-6 | publisher=BRILL | url= | quote=... Hindi literature fails as a reliable indicator of the actual pronunciation because it is written in the Devanagari script ... the schwa syncope rule which operates in Hindi ...}} One formalisation of this rule has been summarised as {{nowrap|É™ → ∅ {{!}} VC_CV}}. In other words, when a schwa-succeeded consonant is followed by a vowel-succeeded consonant, the schwa inherent in the first consonant is deleted.{{Citation | title=A Diachronic Approach for Schwa Deletion in Indo Aryan Languages |author1=Monojit Choudhury |author2=Anupam Basu |author3=Sudeshna Sarkar |date = July 2004| journal=Proceedings of the Workshop of the ACL Special Interest Group on Computational Phonology (SIGPHON) | isbn= | publisher=Association for Computations Linguistics | url= | quote=... schwa deletion is an important issue for grapheme-to-phoneme conversion of IAL, which in turn is required for a good Text-to-Speech synthesiser ...}} However, this formalisation is inexact and incomplete (it sometimes deletes a schwa when it should not and, at other times, it fails to delete it when it should) and can cause errors. Schwa deletion is computationally important because it is essential to building text-to-speech software for Hindi.{{Citation | title=Prosodic rules for schwa-deletion in Hindi text-to-speech synthesis |author1=Naim R. Tyson |author2=Ila Nagar | date=2009| journal=International Journal of Speech Technology | isbn= | publisher= | url= | quote=... Without the appropriate deletion of schwas, any speech output would sound unnatural. Since the orthographical representation of Devanagari gives little indication of deletion sites, modern TTS systems for Hindi implemented schwa deletion rules based on the segmental context where schwa appears ...}}As a result of schwa syncope, the Hindi pronunciation of many words differs from that expected from a literal Sanskrit-style rendering of Devanagari. For instance, is rām (not rāma), is rac'nā (not racanā), is vÄ“d (not vÄ“da) and is nam'kÄ«n (not namakÄ«na). The name of the script itself is pronounced dev'nāgrÄ« (not devanāgarÄ«).{{Citation | title=The rāgs of North Indian music: their structure and evolution | author=Nazir Ali Jairazbhoy | publisher=Popular Prakashan, 1995 | isbn=978-81-7154-395-3 | url= | quote=... The Devnagri (Devanagari) script is syllabic and all consonants carry the inherent vowel a unless otherwise indicated. The principal difference between modern Hindi and the classical Sanskrit forms is the omission in Hindi ...}}Correct schwa deletion is also critical because, in some cases, the same Devanagari letter sequence is pronounced two different ways in Hindi depending on context, and failure to delete the appropriate schwas can change the sense of the word.{{Citation | title=A Rule Based Schwa Deletion Algorithm for Hindi |author1=Monojit Choudhury |author2=Anupam Basu |date = July 2004| isbn= | journal=Proceedings of the International Conference On Knowledge-Based Computer Systems | url= | quote=... Without any schwa deletion, not only the two words will sound very unnatural, but it will also be extremely difficult for the listener to distinguish between the two, the only difference being nasalisation of the e at the end of the former. However, a native speaker would pronounce the former as dha.D-kan-eM and the later as dha.Dak-ne, which are clearly distinguishable ...}} For instance, the letter sequence is pronounced differently in (harkat, meaning movement or activity) and (saraknā, meaning to slide). Similarly, the sequence in (the heart started beating) and in (beats of the heart) is identical prior to the nasalisation in the second usage. Yet, it is pronounced dhaá¹›aknÄ“ in the first and dhaá¹›kanÄ“ in the second. While native speakers correctly pronounce the sequences differently in different contexts, non-native speakers and voice-synthesis software can make them "sound very unnatural", making it "extremely difficult for the listener"'' to grasp the intended meaning.

Allophony of 'v' and 'w' in Hindi

{{IPA|[v]}} (the voiced labiodental fricative) and {{IPA|[w]}} (the voiced labio-velar approximant) are both allophones of the single phoneme represented by the letter in Hindi Devanagari. More specifically, they are conditional allophones, i.e. rules apply on whether is pronounced as {{IPA|[v]}} or {{IPA|[w]}} depending on context. Native Hindi speakers pronounce as {{IPA|[v]}} in vrat (, fast) and {{IPA|[w]}} in pakvān (, food dish), perceiving them as a single phoneme and without being aware of the allophone distinctions they are systematically making.{{Citation | title=Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods) | author=Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair, Volume Editor: Bernard Laks | publisher=European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996 | isbn=978-1-901471-02-1 | url= | quote=... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... [w] occurs when /व/ is in onglide position ... [v] occurs otherwise ...}} However, this specific allophony can become obvious when speakers switch languages. Non-native speakers of Hindi might pronounce in as {{IPA|[w]}}, i.e. as wrat instead of the more correct vrat. This results in a minor intelligibility problem because wrat can easily be confused for aurat,{{Citation needed|date=February 2011}} which means woman, instead of the intended fast'' (abstaining from food), in Hindi.


File:Devanagari matras.png|thumb|center|750px|Compound letters- क with vowel diacriticdiacriticTable: Compounds. Vowels in their independent form on the left and in their corresponding dependent form (vowel sign) combined with the consonant '{{transl|hi|ISO|k}}' on the right. '{{transl|hi|ISO|ka}}' is without any added vowel sign, where the vowel '{{transl|hi|ISO|a}}' is inherent. ISO 15919Difference between ISO 15919 & IAST transliteration is on the top two rows.{| class="wikitable Unicode" style="text-align:center; font-size:90%;width:100%" style="font-size: 75%;"! ISO !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|a !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|ā !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|æ !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|ɒ !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|i !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|ī !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|u !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|ū !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|e !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|ē !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|ai !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|o !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|ō !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|au !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|r̥ !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|r̥̄ !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|l̥ !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"|l̥̄ !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"| ṁ !! colspan="2" class="unsortable"| ḥ!!!a!ka!ā!kā!æ!kæ!ɒ!kɒ!i!ki!ī!kī!u!ku!ū!kū!e!ke!ē!kē!ai!kai!o!ko!ō!kō!au!kau!r̥!kr̥!r̥̄!kr̥̄!l̥!kl̥!l̥̄!kl̥̄!ṁ!kṁ!ḥ!kaḥ!k! style="font-size: 75%;" | Devanagari| कः|क्A vowel combines with a consonant to form their compound letter. For example, the vowel ({{transl|hi|ISO|ā}}) combines with the consonant ({{transl|hi|ISO|k}}) to form the compound ({{transl|hi|ISO|kā}}), with halant removed and added vowel sign which is indicated by diacritics. The vowel ({{transl|hi|ISO|a}}) combines with the consonant ({{transl|hi|ISO|k}}) to form the compound ({{transl|hi|ISO|ka}}) with halant removed. But, the compound letter series of ... ({{transl|hi|ISO|ka, kha, ga, gha}}) is without any added vowel sign, as the vowel अ (a) is inherent.

Conjunct consonants

You will be able to see the conjuncts only if your system has a Unicode font installed that includes the required conjunct glyphs (such as one of the TDILWEB,weblink TDIL (Technology Development for Indian Languages) Font Download, TDIL, 2014-01-03, fonts, see the list of fonts below. Keep in mind that there is significant variation in the number of conjuncts a font supports: Siddhanta (a newer version of the Chandas fontWEB, Stiehl, Ulrich, Siddhanta Font,weblink, 23 July 2017, ), for example, is one of the most comprehensive and covers more than 4300 ligaturesWEB, Stiehl, Ulrich, Chandas - Devanagari Unicode Open Type Font,weblink, 23 July 2017, whereas Hind, a decent font for modern use, has a coverage in the hundreds.WEB, Google Fonts: Hind,weblink Google Fonts, Google, 23 July 2017, Unicode-compatible fonts use the "virama" or "halant" character (्) between characters to indicate when they should be ligatured, so as a general rule, if you see a halant in the middle of a word, it is likely a conjunct that is not supported by current font.
As mentioned, successive consonants lacking a vowel in between them may physically join together as a conjunct consonant or ligature. Conjuncts are used mostly with loan words. Native words typically use the basic consonant and native speakers know to suppress the vowel. For example, the native Hindi word karnā is written (ka-ra-nā).Saloman, Richard (2007) “Typological Observations on the Indic Scripts” in The Indic Scripts: Paleographic and Linguistic Perspecticves D.K. Printworld Ltd., New Delhi. {{ISBN|812460406-1}}. p. 33. The government of these clusters ranges from widely to narrowly applicable rules, with special exceptions within. While standardised for the most part, there are certain variations in clustering, of which the Unicode used on this page is just one scheme. The following are a number of rules:
  • 24 out of the 36 consonants contain a vertical right stroke ( kha, gha, ṇa etc.). As first or middle fragments/members of a cluster, they lose that stroke. e.g. + = tva, + = ṇḍha, + = stha. In Unicode, these consonants without their vertical stems are called half forms.WEB, The Unicode Standard, chapter 9, South Asian Scripts I,weblink The Unicode Standard, v. 6.0, Unicode, Inc, Feb 12, 2012, Å›(a) appears as a different, simple ribbon-shaped fragment preceding va, na, ca, la, and ra, causing these second members to be shifted down and reduced in size. Thus Å›va, Å›na, Å›ca Å›la, and Å›ra.
  • r(a) as a first member takes the form of a curved upward dash above the final character or its ā-diacritic. e.g. rva, rvā, rspa, rspā. As a final member with á¹­a á¹­ha ḍa ḍha á¹›a cha it is two lines below the character, pointed downwards and apart. Thus á¹­ra á¹­hra ḍra ḍhra á¹›ra chra. Elsewhere as a final member it is a diagonal stroke extending leftwards and down. e.g. . ta is shifted up to make tra.
  • As first members, remaining characters lacking vertical strokes such as d(a) and h(a) may have their second member, reduced in size and lacking its horizontal stroke, placed underneath. k(a), ch(a), and ph(a) shorten their right hooks and join them directly to the following member.
  • The conjuncts for {{IAST|ká¹£}} and {{IAST|jñ}} are not clearly derived from the letters making up their components. The conjunct for {{IAST|ká¹£}} is ( + ) and for {{IAST|jñ}} it is ( + ).
The "Biconsonantal conjuncts" table below shows all the 1296 possible symbols for the biconsonantal clusters formed by collating the 36 fundamental symbols of Sanskrit as listed in {{Harvcoltxt|Masica|1991|pp=161–162}}. Scroll your cursor over the conjuncts to reveal their romanisations (in ISO 15919The romanization shown is identical to IAST, except that (which is not used in Sanskrit) has the ISO romanization ḷ, which in IAST is the dental vowel l.) and IPA transcriptions. Note that there will be variation in the conjuncts that are actually used in any given language written in Devanagari and many of them would not be viable combinations in any language.Conjuncts can be constructed of more than two consonants, and the theoretical number of possible combinations increases exponentially. However, longer conjuncts are increasingly constrained by the languages' phonology and the actual number of conjuncts observed drops sharply. Ulrich Stiel includes a five-consonant cluster in the top 360 most frequent conjuncts found in Classical Sanskrit; the complete list appears below. Conjuncts often span a syllable boundary, and many of he conjuncts below occur only in the middle of words, where the coda consonants of one syllable are conjoined with the onset consonants of the following syllable.

Biconsonantal conjuncts

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; font-size:15px"! !!{{H:title|ka (IPA:kə)|क|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|kha (IPA:kʰə)|ख|dotted=no}} !!|{{H:title|ga (IPA:ɡə)|ग|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|gha (IPA:ɡʱə)|घ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ṅa (IPA:ŋə)|ङ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ca (IPA:cɕə)|च|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|cha (IPA:cɕʰə)|छ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ja (IPA:ɟʝə)|ज|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|jha (IPA:ɟʝʱə)|झ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ña (IPA:ɲə)|ञ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ṭa (IPA:ʈə)|ट|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ṭha (IPA:ʈʰə)|ठ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ḍa (IPA:ɖə)|ड|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ḍha (IPA:ɖʱə)|ढ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ṇa (IPA:ɳə)|ण|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ta (IPA:t̪ə)|त|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|tha (IPA:t̪ʰə)|थ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|da (IPA:d̪ə)|द|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|dha (IPA:d̪ʱə)|ध|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|na (IPA:n̪ə)|न|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|pa (IPA:pə)|प|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|pha (IPA:pʰə)|फ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ba (IPA:bə)|ब|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|bha (IPA:bʱə)|भ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ma (IPA:mə)|म|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ya (IPA:jə)|य|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ra (IPA:rə)|र|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|la (IPA:lə)|ल|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|va (IPA:və)|व|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|śa (IPA:ʃə)|श|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ṣa (IPA:ʂə)|ष|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|sa (IPA:sə)|स|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ha (IPA:hə)|ह|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|ḷa (IPA:ɭə)|ळ|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|kṣa (IPA:kʂə)|क्ष|dotted=no}} !!{{H:title|jña (IPA:ɟʝɲə)|ज्ञ|dotted=no}}!{{H:title|k (IPA:k)|क|dotted=no}}kka (IPA:kkə)dotted=no}}kkha (IPA:kkʰə)dotted=no}}kga (IPA:kɡə)dotted=no}}kgha (IPA:kɡʱə)dotted=no}}kṅa (IPA:kŋə)dotted=no}}kca (IPA:kcɕə)dotted=no}}kcha (IPA:kcɕʰə)dotted=no}}kja (IPA:kɟʝə)dotted=no}}kjha (IPA:kɟʝʱə)dotted=no}}kña (IPA:kɲə)dotted=no}}kṭa (IPA:kʈə)dotted=no}}kṭha (IPA:kʈʰə)dotted=no}}kḍa (IPA:kɖə)dotted=no}}kḍha (IPA:kɖʱə)dotted=no}}kṇa (IPA:kɳə)dotted=no}}{{H:titleक्त|dotted=no}})ktha (IPA:kt̪ʰə)dotted=no}}kda (IPA:kd̪ə)dotted=no}}kdha (IPA:kd̪ʱə)dotted=no}}kna (IPA:kn̪ə)dotted=no}}kpa (IPA:kpə)dotted=no}}kpha (IPA:kpʰə)dotted=no}}kba (IPA:kbə)dotted=no}}kbha (IPA:kbʱə)dotted=no}}kma (IPA:kmə)dotted=no}}kya (IPA:kjə)dotted=no}}kra (IPA:krə)dotted=no}}kla (IPA:klə)dotted=no}}kva (IPA:kvə)dotted=no}}kśa (IPA:kʃə)dotted=no}}{{H:titleद्द|dotted=no}}){{H:titleद्ध|dotted=no}})dna (IPA:d̪n̪ə)dotted=no}}dpa (IPA:d̪pə)dotted=no}}dpha (IPA:d̪pʰə)dotted=no}}{{H:titleद्ब|dotted=no}}){{H:titleद्भ|dotted=no}}){{H:titleद्म|dotted=no}}){{H:titleद्य|dotted=no}})dra (IPA:d̪rə)dotted=no}}dla (IPA:d̪lə)dotted=no}}{{H:titleह्म|dotted=no}}){{H:titleह्य|dotted=no}})hra (IPA:hrə)dotted=no}}hla (IPA:hlə)dotted=no}}hva (IPA:hvə)dotted=no}}hśa (IPA:hʃə)dotted=no}}hṣa (IPA:hʂə)dotted=no}}hsa (IPA:hsə)dotted=no}}hha (IPA:hhə)dotted=no}}hḷa (IPA:hɭə)dotted=no}}hkṣa (IPA:hkʂə)dotted=no}}hjña (IPA:hɟʝɲə)dotted=no}}!{{H:title|ḷ (IPA:ɭ)|ळ|dotted=no}}ḷka (IPA:ɭkə)dotted=no}}ḷkha (IPA:ɭkʰə)dotted=no}}ḷga (IPA:ɭɡə)dotted=no}}ḷgha (IPA:ɭɡʱə)dotted=no}}ḷṅa (IPA:ɭŋə)dotted=no}}ḷca (IPA:ɭcɕə)dotted=no}}ḷcha (IPA:ɭcɕʰə)dotted=no}}ḷja (IPA:ɭɟʝə)dotted=no}}ḷjha (IPA:ɭɟʝʱə)dotted=no}}ḷña (IPA:ɭɲə)dotted=no}}ḷṭa (IPA:ɭʈə)dotted=no}}ḷṭha (IPA:ɭʈʰə)dotted=no}}ḷḍa (IPA:ɭɖə)dotted=no}}ḷḍha (IPA:ɭɖʱə)dotted=no}}ḷṇa (IPA:ɭɳə)dotted=no}}ḷta (IPA:ɭt̪ə)dotted=no}}ḷtha (IPA:ɭt̪ʰə)dotted=no}}ḷda (IPA:ɭd̪ə)dotted=no}}ḷdha (IPA:ɭd̪ʱə)dotted=no}}ḷna (IPA:ɭn̪ə)dotted=no}}ḷpa (IPA:ɭpə)dotted=no}}ḷpha (IPA:ɭpʰə)dotted=no}}ḷba (IPA:ɭbə)dotted=no}}ḷbha (IPA:ɭbʱə)dotted=no}}ḷma (IPA:ɭmə)dotted=no}}ḷya (IPA:ɭjə)dotted=no}}ḷra (IPA:ɭrə)dotted=no}}ḷla (IPA:ɭlə)dotted=no}}ḷva (IPA:ɭvə)dotted=no}}ḷśa (IPA:ɭʃə)dotted=no}}ḷṣa (IPA:ɭʂə)dotted=no}}ḷsa (IPA:ɭsə)dotted=no}}ḷha (IPA:ɭhə)dotted=no}}ḷḷa (IPA:ɭɭə)dotted=no}}ḷkṣa (IPA:ɭkʂə)dotted=no}}ḷjña (IPA:ɭɟʝɲə)dotted=no}}weblink, accessdate24 July 2017, ">

Top 360 Most Frequent Conjuncts in SanskritWEB, last1Stiel, first1Ulrich, titleDevanagari-Schreibübungen, urweblink, accessdate24 July 2017,

{{col-float|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center|width=auto}}क
  • {{H:title|kca (IPA:kkÉ™)|क्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kca (IPA:ktÍ¡É•É™)|क्च|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kta (IPA:kt̪ə)|क्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ktya (IPA:kt̪jÉ™)|क्त्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ktra (IPA:kt̪ɹə)|क्त्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ktva (IPA:kt̪vÉ™)|क्त्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ktha (IPA:kt̪ʰə)|क्थ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kna (IPA:kn̪ə)|क्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kpa (IPA:kpÉ™)|क्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kpra (IPA:kpɹə)|क्प्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kma (IPA:kmÉ™)|क्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kya (IPA:kjÉ™)|क्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kra (IPA:kɹə)|क्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kla (IPA:klÉ™)|क्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kva (IPA:kvÉ™)|क्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kÅ›a (IPA:kÉ•É™)|क्श|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ká¹£a (IPA:kÊ‚É™)|क्ष|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|kṣṇa (IPA:kʂɳə)|क्ष्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ká¹£ma (IPA:kÊ‚mÉ™)|क्ष्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ká¹£mya (IPA:kÊ‚mjÉ™)|क्ष्म्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ká¹£ya (IPA:kÊ‚jÉ™)|क्ष्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ká¹£va (IPA:kÊ‚vÉ™)|क्ष्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ksa (IPA:ksÉ™)|क्स|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|khya (IPA:kÊ°jÉ™)|ख्य|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ग
  • {{H:title|gga (IPA:ggÉ™)|ग्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gja (IPA:gdÍ¡Ê‘É™)|ग्ज|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gjya (IPA:gdÍ¡Ê‘jÉ™)|ग्ज्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gṇa (IPA:gɳə)|ग्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gda (IPA:gd̪ə)|ग्द|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gdha (IPA:gd̪ʱə)|ग्ध|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gdhva (IPA:gd̪ʱvÉ™)|ग्ध्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gna (IPA:gn̪ə)|ग्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gnya (IPA:gn̪jÉ™)|ग्न्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gba (IPA:gbÉ™)|ग्ब|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gbha (IPA:gbʱə)|ग्भ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gbhya (IPA:gbʱjÉ™)|ग्भ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gma (IPA:gmÉ™)|ग्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gya (IPA:gjÉ™)|ग्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gra (IPA:gɹə)|ग्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|grya (IPA:gɹjÉ™)|ग्र्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gla (IPA:glÉ™)|ग्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|gva (IPA:gvÉ™)|ग्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ghna (IPA:ɡʱn̪ə)|घ्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ghra (IPA:ɡʱɹə)|घ्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ghva (IPA:ɡʱvÉ™)|घ्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ङ
  • {{H:title|á¹…ka (IPA:Å‹kÉ™)|ङ्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…kta (IPA:Å‹kt̪ə)|ङ्क्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…ká¹£a (IPA:Å‹kÊ‚É™)|ङ्क्ष|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…ká¹£va (IPA:Å‹kÊ‚vÉ™)|ङ्क्ष्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…kha (IPA:Å‹kÊ°É™)|ङ्ख|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…khya (IPA:Å‹kÊ°jÉ™)|ङ्ख्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…ga (IPA:Å‹gÉ™)|ङ्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…gya (IPA:Å‹gjÉ™)|ङ्ग्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…gra (IPA:Å‹gɹə)|ङ्ग्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…gha (IPA:ŋɡʱə)|ङ्घ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…ghra (IPA:ŋɡʱɹə)|ङ्घ्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…na (IPA:Å‹n̪ə)|ङ्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹…ma (IPA:Å‹mÉ™)|ङ्म|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}च
  • {{H:title|cca (IPA:tÍ¡É•tÍ¡É•É™)|च्च|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ccya (IPA:tÍ¡É•tÍ¡É•jÉ™)|च्च्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ccha (IPA:tÍ¡É•tÍ¡É•Ê°É™)|च्छ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|cchra (IPA:tÍ¡É•t͡ɕʰɹə)|च्छ्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|cchva (IPA:tÍ¡É•tÍ¡É•Ê°vÉ™)|च्छ्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|cya (IPA:tÍ¡É•jÉ™)|च्य|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ज
  • {{H:title|jja (IPA:dÍ¡Ê‘dÍ¡Ê‘É™)|ज्ज|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jjña (IPA:dÍ¡Ê‘d͡ʑɲə)|ज्ज्ञ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jjya (IPA:dÍ¡Ê‘dÍ¡Ê‘jÉ™)|ज्ज्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jjva (IPA:dÍ¡Ê‘dÍ¡Ê‘vÉ™)|ज्ज्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jña (IPA:d͡ʑɲə)|ज्ञ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jma (IPA:dÍ¡Ê‘mÉ™)|ज्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jya (IPA:dÍ¡Ê‘jÉ™)|ज्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jra (IPA:d͡ʑɹə)|ज्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|jva (IPA:dÍ¡Ê‘vÉ™)|ज्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ञ
  • {{H:title|ñca (IPA:ɲtÍ¡É•É™)|ञ्च|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ñcha (IPA:ɲtÍ¡É•Ê°É™)|ञ्छ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ñja (IPA:ɲdÍ¡Ê‘É™)|ञ्ज|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ñjña (IPA:ɲd͡ʑɲə)|ञ्ज्ञ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ñśa (IPA:ɲɕə)|ञ्श|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ñśra (IPA:ɲɕɹə)|ञ्श्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ñśva (IPA:ɲɕvÉ™)|ञ्श्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ट
  • {{H:title|á¹­ka (IPA:ʈkÉ™)|ट्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹­á¹­a (IPA:ʈʈə)|ट्ट|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹­pa (IPA:ʈpÉ™)|ट्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹­ya (IPA:ʈjÉ™)|ट्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹­Å›a (IPA:ʈɕə)|ट्श|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹­sa (IPA:ʈsÉ™)|ट्स|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹­hya (IPA:ʈʰjÉ™)|ठ्य|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ड
  • {{H:title|ḍga (IPA:É–gÉ™)|ड्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ḍbha (IPA:É–bʱə)|ड्भ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ḍya (IPA:É–jÉ™)|ड्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ḍra (IPA:ɖɹə)|ड्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ḍva (IPA:É–vÉ™)|ड्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ḍhya (IPA:ɖʱjÉ™)|ढ्य|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ण
  • {{H:title|ṇṭa (IPA:ɳʈə)|ण्ट|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇṭha (IPA:ɳʈʰə)|ण्ठ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇḍa (IPA:ɳɖə)|ण्ड|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇḍya (IPA:ɳɖjÉ™)|ण्ड्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇḍra (IPA:ɳɖɹə)|ण्ड्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇṇa (IPA:ɳɳə)|ण्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇma (IPA:ɳmÉ™)|ण्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇya (IPA:ɳjÉ™)|ण्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṇva (IPA:ɳvÉ™)|ण्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}त
  • {{H:title|tka (IPA:t̪kÉ™)|त्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tkra (IPA:t̪kɹə)|त्क्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tkva (IPA:t̪kvÉ™)|त्क्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tká¹£a (IPA:t̪kÊ‚É™)|त्क्ष|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tkha (IPA:t̪kÊ°É™)|त्ख|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tta (IPA:t̪t̪ə)|त्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ttya (IPA:t̪t̪jÉ™)|त्त्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ttra (IPA:t̪t̪ɹə)|त्त्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ttva (IPA:t̪t̪vÉ™)|त्त्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ttha (IPA:t̪t̪ʰə)|त्थ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tna (IPA:t̪n̪ə)|त्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tnya (IPA:t̪n̪jÉ™)|त्न्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tpa (IPA:t̪pÉ™)|त्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tpra (IPA:t̪pɹə)|त्प्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tpha (IPA:t̪pÊ°É™)|त्फ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tma (IPA:t̪mÉ™)|त्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tmya (IPA:t̪mjÉ™)|त्म्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tya (IPA:t̪jÉ™)|त्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tra (IPA:t̪ɹə)|त्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|trya (IPA:t̪ɹjÉ™)|त्र्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tva (IPA:t̪vÉ™)|त्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tvya (IPA:t̪vjÉ™)|त्व्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tsa (IPA:t̪sÉ™)|त्स|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tsta (IPA:t̪st̪ə)|त्स्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tstra (IPA:t̪st̪ɹə)|त्स्त्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tstha (IPA:t̪st̪ʰə)|त्स्थ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tsna (IPA:t̪sn̪ə)|त्स्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tsma (IPA:t̪smÉ™)|त्स्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tsya (IPA:t̪sjÉ™)|त्स्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tsra (IPA:t̪sɹə)|त्स्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|tsva (IPA:t̪svÉ™)|त्स्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|thya (IPA:t̪ʰjÉ™)|थ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|thva (IPA:t̪ʰvÉ™)|थ्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}द
  • {{H:title|dga (IPA:d̪gÉ™)|द्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dgra (IPA:d̪gɹə)|द्ग्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dhha (IPA:d̪ʱɦə)|ध्ह|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dda (IPA:d̪d̪ə)|द्द|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ddya (IPA:d̪d̪jÉ™)|द्द्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ddra (IPA:d̪d̪ɹə)|द्द्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ddva (IPA:d̪d̪vÉ™)|द्द्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ddha (IPA:d̪d̪ʱə)|द्ध|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ddhya (IPA:d̪d̪ʱjÉ™)|द्ध्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ddhra (IPA:d̪d̪ʱɹə)|द्ध्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ddhva (IPA:d̪d̪ʱvÉ™)|द्ध्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dna (IPA:d̪n̪ə)|द्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dba (IPA:d̪bÉ™)|द्ब|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dbra (IPA:d̪bɹə)|द्ब्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dbha (IPA:d̪bʱə)|द्भ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dbhya (IPA:d̪bʱjÉ™)|द्भ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dbhra (IPA:d̪bʱɹə)|द्भ्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dma (IPA:d̪mÉ™)|द्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dya (IPA:d̪jÉ™)|द्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dra (IPA:d̪ɹə)|द्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|drya (IPA:d̪ɹjÉ™)|द्र्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dva (IPA:d̪vÉ™)|द्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dvya (IPA:d̪vjÉ™)|द्व्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dvra (IPA:d̪vɹə)|द्व्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dhna (IPA:d̪ʱn̪ə)|ध्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dhma (IPA:d̪ʱmÉ™)|ध्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dhya (IPA:d̪ʱjÉ™)|ध्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dhra (IPA:d̪ʱɹə)|ध्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|dhva (IPA:d̪ʱvÉ™)|ध्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}न
  • {{H:title|nka (IPA:n̪kÉ™)|न्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nkra (IPA:n̪kɹə)|न्क्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nkla (IPA:n̪klÉ™)|न्क्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nká¹£a (IPA:n̪kÊ‚É™)|न्क्ष|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nkha (IPA:n̪kÊ°É™)|न्ख|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nga (IPA:n̪gÉ™)|न्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ngha (IPA:n̪ɡʱə)|न्घ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nta (IPA:n̪t̪ə)|न्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ntya (IPA:n̪t̪jÉ™)|न्त्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ntra (IPA:n̪t̪ɹə)|न्त्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ntrya (IPA:n̪t̪ɹjÉ™)|न्त्र्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ntva (IPA:n̪t̪vÉ™)|न्त्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ntsya (IPA:n̪t̪sjÉ™)|न्त्स्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ntha (IPA:n̪t̪ʰə)|न्थ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nda (IPA:n̪d̪ə)|न्द|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ndya (IPA:n̪d̪jÉ™)|न्द्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ndra (IPA:n̪d̪ɹə)|न्द्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ndva (IPA:n̪d̪vÉ™)|न्द्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ndha (IPA:n̪d̪ʱə)|न्ध|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ndhya (IPA:n̪d̪ʱjÉ™)|न्ध्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ndhra (IPA:n̪d̪ʱɹə)|न्ध्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nna (IPA:n̪n̪ə)|न्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nnya (IPA:n̪n̪jÉ™)|न्न्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nnva (IPA:n̪n̪vÉ™)|न्न्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|npa (IPA:n̪pÉ™)|न्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|npra (IPA:n̪pɹə)|न्प्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|npha (IPA:n̪pÊ°É™)|न्फ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nba (IPA:n̪bÉ™)|न्ब|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nbra (IPA:n̪bɹə)|न्ब्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nbha (IPA:n̪bʱə)|न्भ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nbhra (IPA:n̪bʱɹə)|न्भ्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nma (IPA:n̪mÉ™)|न्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nya (IPA:n̪jÉ™)|न्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nra (IPA:n̪ɹə)|न्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nva (IPA:n̪vÉ™)|न्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nvya (IPA:n̪vjÉ™)|न्व्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nsa (IPA:n̪sÉ™)|न्स|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nstha (IPA:n̪st̪ʰə)|न्स्थ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nsma (IPA:n̪smÉ™)|न्स्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nsva (IPA:n̪svÉ™)|न्स्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|nha (IPA:n̪ɦə)|न्ह|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}प
  • {{H:title|pta (IPA:pt̪ə)|प्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ptva (IPA:pt̪vÉ™)|प्त्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|pna (IPA:pn̪ə)|प्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|pma (IPA:pmÉ™)|प्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|pya (IPA:pjÉ™)|प्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|pra (IPA:pɹə)|प्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|pla (IPA:plÉ™)|प्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|psa (IPA:psÉ™)|प्स|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|psya (IPA:psjÉ™)|प्स्य|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ब
  • {{H:title|bja (IPA:bdÍ¡Ê‘É™)|ब्ज|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bda (IPA:bd̪ə)|ब्द|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bdha (IPA:bd̪ʱə)|ब्ध|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bdhva (IPA:bd̪ʱvÉ™)|ब्ध्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bya (IPA:bjÉ™)|ब्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bra (IPA:bɹə)|ब्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bva (IPA:bvÉ™)|ब्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bhṇa (IPA:bʱɳə)|भ्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bhya (IPA:bʱjÉ™)|भ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bhra (IPA:bʱɹə)|भ्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|bhva (IPA:bʱvÉ™)|भ्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}म
  • {{H:title|mṇa (IPA:mɳə)|म्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mna (IPA:mn̪ə)|म्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mpa (IPA:mpÉ™)|म्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mba (IPA:mbÉ™)|म्ब|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mbya (IPA:mbjÉ™)|म्ब्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mbha (IPA:mbʱə)|म्भ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mya (IPA:mjÉ™)|म्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mra (IPA:mɹə)|म्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|mla (IPA:mlÉ™)|म्ल|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}य
  • {{H:title|yya (IPA:jjÉ™)|य्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|yva (IPA:jvÉ™)|य्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}र
  • {{H:title|rka (IPA:ɹkÉ™)|र्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rká¹£ya (IPA:ɹkÊ‚jÉ™)|र्क्ष्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rkha (IPA:ɹkÊ°É™)|र्ख|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rga (IPA:ɹgÉ™)|र्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rgya (IPA:ɹgjÉ™)|र्ग्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rgra (IPA:ɹgɹə)|र्ग्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rgha (IPA:ɹɡʱə)|र्घ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rghya (IPA:ɹɡʱjÉ™)|र्घ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rá¹…ga (IPA:ɹŋgÉ™)|र्ङ्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rca (IPA:ɹtÍ¡É•É™)|र्च|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rccha (IPA:ɹtÍ¡É•tÍ¡É•Ê°É™)|र्च्छ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rcya (IPA:ɹtÍ¡É•jÉ™)|र्च्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rcha (IPA:ɹtÍ¡É•Ê°É™)|र्छ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rja (IPA:ɹdÍ¡Ê‘É™)|र्ज|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rjña (IPA:ɹd͡ʑɲə)|र्ज्ञ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rjya (IPA:ɹdÍ¡Ê‘jÉ™)|र्ज्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rjva (IPA:ɹdÍ¡Ê‘vÉ™)|र्ज्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rṇa (IPA:ɹɳə)|र्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rṇya (IPA:ɹɳjÉ™)|र्ण्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rta (IPA:ɹt̪ə)|र्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtta (IPA:ɹt̪t̪ə)|र्त्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtma (IPA:ɹt̪mÉ™)|र्त्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtya (IPA:ɹt̪jÉ™)|र्त्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtra (IPA:ɹt̪ɹə)|र्त्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtva (IPA:ɹt̪vÉ™)|र्त्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtsa (IPA:ɹt̪sÉ™)|र्त्स|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtsnya (IPA:ɹt̪sn̪jÉ™)|र्त्स्न्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rtha (IPA:ɹt̪ʰə)|र्थ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rthya (IPA:ɹt̪ʰjÉ™)|र्थ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rda (IPA:ɹd̪ə)|र्द|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rddha (IPA:ɹd̪d̪ʱə)|र्द्ध|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdya (IPA:ɹd̪jÉ™)|र्द्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdra (IPA:ɹd̪ɹə)|र्द्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdva (IPA:ɹd̪vÉ™)|र्द्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdha (IPA:ɹd̪ʱə)|र्ध|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdhna (IPA:ɹd̪ʱn̪ə)|र्ध्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdhma (IPA:ɹd̪ʱmÉ™)|र्ध्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdhya (IPA:ɹd̪ʱjÉ™)|र्ध्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdhra (IPA:ɹd̪ʱɹə)|र्ध्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rdhva (IPA:ɹd̪ʱvÉ™)|र्ध्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rna (IPA:ɹn̪ə)|र्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rnya (IPA:ɹn̪jÉ™)|र्न्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rpa (IPA:ɹpÉ™)|र्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rba (IPA:ɹbÉ™)|र्ब|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rbra (IPA:ɹbɹə)|र्ब्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rbha (IPA:ɹbʱə)|र्भ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rbhya (IPA:ɹbʱjÉ™)|र्भ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rbhra (IPA:ɹbʱɹə)|र्भ्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rma (IPA:ɹmÉ™)|र्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rmya (IPA:ɹmjÉ™)|र्म्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rya (IPA:ɹjÉ™)|र्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rla (IPA:ɹlÉ™)|र्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rva (IPA:ɹvÉ™)|र्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rvya (IPA:ɹvjÉ™)|र्व्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rÅ›a (IPA:ɹɕə)|र्श|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rÅ›va (IPA:ɹɕvÉ™)|र्श्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rá¹£a (IPA:ɹʂə)|र्ष|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rṣṭa (IPA:ɹʂʈə)|र्ष्ट|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rṣṇa (IPA:ɹʂɳə)|र्ष्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rá¹£ya (IPA:ɹʂjÉ™)|र्ष्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rha (IPA:ɹɦə)|र्ह|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rhya (IPA:ɹɦjÉ™)|र्ह्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|rhra (IPA:ɹɦɹə)|र्ह्र|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ल
  • {{H:title|lka (IPA:lkÉ™)|ल्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lkya (IPA:lkjÉ™)|ल्क्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lga (IPA:lgÉ™)|ल्ग|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lpa (IPA:lpÉ™)|ल्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lba (IPA:lbÉ™)|ल्ब|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lma (IPA:lmÉ™)|ल्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lya (IPA:ljÉ™)|ल्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lla (IPA:llÉ™)|ल्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|lva (IPA:lvÉ™)|ल्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}व
  • {{H:title|vya (IPA:vjÉ™)|व्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|vra (IPA:vɹə)|व्र|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}श
  • {{H:title|Å›ca (IPA:É•tÍ¡É•É™)|श्च|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›cya (IPA:É•tÍ¡É•jÉ™)|श्च्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›cha (IPA:É•tÍ¡É•Ê°É™)|श्छ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›na (IPA:É•n̪ə)|श्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›pa (IPA:É•pÉ™)|श्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›ma (IPA:É•mÉ™)|श्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›ya (IPA:É•jÉ™)|श्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›ra (IPA:ɕɹə)|श्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›la (IPA:É•lÉ™)|श्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›va (IPA:É•vÉ™)|श्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|Å›vya (IPA:É•vjÉ™)|श्व्य|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ष
  • {{H:title|á¹£ka (IPA:Ê‚kÉ™)|ष्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹£kra (IPA:Ê‚kɹə)|ष्क्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṭa (IPA:ʂʈə)|ष्ट|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṭya (IPA:ʂʈjÉ™)|ष्ट्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṭra (IPA:ʂʈɹə)|ष्ट्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṭva (IPA:ʂʈvÉ™)|ष्ट्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṭha (IPA:ʂʈʰə)|ष्ठ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṭhya (IPA:ʂʈʰjÉ™)|ष्ठ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṇa (IPA:ʂɳə)|ष्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ṣṇya (IPA:ʂɳjÉ™)|ष्ण्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹£pa (IPA:Ê‚pÉ™)|ष्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹£pra (IPA:Ê‚pɹə)|ष्प्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹£ma (IPA:Ê‚mÉ™)|ष्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹£ya (IPA:Ê‚jÉ™)|ष्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|á¹£va (IPA:Ê‚vÉ™)|ष्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}स
  • {{H:title|ska (IPA:skÉ™)|स्क|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|sta (IPA:st̪ə)|स्त|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|stya (IPA:st̪jÉ™)|स्त्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|stra (IPA:st̪ɹə)|स्त्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|strya (IPA:st̪ɹjÉ™)|स्त्र्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|stva (IPA:st̪vÉ™)|स्त्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|stha (IPA:st̪ʰə)|स्थ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|sthya (IPA:st̪ʰjÉ™)|स्थ्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|sna (IPA:sn̪ə)|स्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|spa (IPA:spÉ™)|स्प|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|spha (IPA:spÊ°É™)|स्फ|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|sma (IPA:smÉ™)|स्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|smya (IPA:smjÉ™)|स्म्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|sya (IPA:sjÉ™)|स्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|sra (IPA:sɹə)|स्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|sva (IPA:svÉ™)|स्व|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|ssva (IPA:ssvÉ™)|स्स्व|dotted=no}}
{{col-float-break|class=plainlist|style=padding-right:10px; text-align:center}}ह
  • {{H:title|hṇa (IPA:ɦɳə)|ह्ण|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|hna (IPA:ɦn̪ə)|ह्न|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|hma (IPA:ɦmÉ™)|ह्म|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|hya (IPA:ɦjÉ™)|ह्य|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|hra (IPA:ɦɹə)|ह्र|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|hla (IPA:ɦlÉ™)|ह्ल|dotted=no}}
  • {{H:title|hva (IPA:ɦvÉ™)|ह्व|dotted=no}}{{col-float-end}}

Accent marks

The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit is written with various symbols depending on shakha. In the Rigveda, anudātta is written with a bar below the line (), svarita with a stroke above the line () while udātta is unmarked.


The end of a sentence or half-verse may be marked with the "" symbol (called a danda, meaning "bar", or called a {{IAST|pūrṇa virām}}, meaning "full stop/pause"). The end of a full verse may be marked with a double-danda, a "" symbol. A comma (called an {{IAST|alpa virām}}, meaning "short stop/pause") is used to denote a natural pause in speech.Unicode Consortium, The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0, Volume 1, {{ISBN|978-0201616330}}, Addison-Wesley, pages 221-223Transliteration from Hindi Script to Meetei Mayek Watham and Vimal (2013), IJETR, page 550 Other punctuation marks such as colon, semi-colon, exclamation mark, dash, and question mark are currently in use in Devanagari script, matching their use in European languages.Michael Shapiro (2014), The Devanagari Writing System in A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120805088}}, page 26

Old forms

The following letter variants are also in use, particularly in older texts.{{Harvsp|Bahri|2004|p=(xiii)}}{{full citation needed|date=August 2016}}{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center; margin: 0; margin-left: 2em"|+ Letter variants style="font-size: small;"! standard !! ancient15px) (File:Devanagari a old.svg|15px)15px) (File:Devanagari jh old.svg|15px)15px) (File:Devanagari nn old.svg|15px)15px) (File:Devanagari l.svg|15px)


{{See also|Indian numerals|Brahmi numerals|Hindu-Arabic numeral system}}{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto;"|+ Devanagari digits style="font-size:14pt;"| 4| 9


A variety of unicode fonts are in use for Devanagari. These include, but are not limited to, Akshar,Akshar Unicode South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Annapurna,Annapurna SIL Unicode, SIL International (2013) Arial,Arial Unicode South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) CDAC-Gist Surekh,CDAC-GIST Surekh Unicode South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) CDAC-Gist Yogesh,CDAC-GIST Yogesh South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Chandas, Gargi,Gargi South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Gurumaa,Gurumaa Unicode - a sans font KDE (2012) Jaipur,Jaipur South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Jana,Jana South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Kalimati,Kalimati South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Kanjirowa,Kanjirowa South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Lohit Devanagari, Mangal,Mangal South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Raghu,Raghu South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Sanskrit2003,Sanskrit Ashram South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) Santipur OT, Siddhanta, Thyaka,Thyaka South Asia Language Resource, University of Chicago (2009) and Uttara.Sanskrit Devanagari Fonts Harvard University (2010); see Chanda and Uttara ttf 2010 archive (Accessed: July 8, 2015)The form of Devanagari fonts vary with function. According to Harvard College for Sanskrit studies, "Uttara [companion to Chandas] is the best in terms of ligatures but, because it is designed for Vedic as well, requires so much vertical space that it is not well suited for the "user interface font" (though an excellent choice for the "original field" font). Santipur OT is a beautiful font reflecting a very early [medieval era] typesetting style for Devanagari. Sanskrit 2003Devanagari font {{webarchive |url= |date=2 December 2014 }} Unicode Standard 8.0 (2015) is a good all-around font and has more ligatures than most fonts, though students will probably find the spacing of the CDAC-Gist Surekh font makes for quicker comprehension and reading."Google Fonts project now has a number of new unicode fonts for Devanagari in a variety of typefaces in Serif, Sans-Serif, Display and Handwriting categories.


There are several methods of Romanisation or transliteration from Devanagari to the Roman script.{{Citation | title=Transliteration into Roman and Devanagari of the languages of the Indian group | author=Daya Nand Sharma | publisher=Survey of India, 1972 | isbn= | url= | quote=... With the passage of time there has emerged a practically uniform system of transliteration of Devanagari and allied alphabets. Nevertheless, no single system of Romanisation has yet developed ...}}

Hunterian system

The Hunterian system is the "national system of romanisation in India" and the one officially adopted by the Government of India.{{Citation | title=Technical reference manual for the standardisation of geographical names | author=United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs | publisher=United Nations Publications, 2007 | isbn=978-92-1-161500-5 | url= | quote=... ISO 15919 ... There is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products ... The Hunterian system is the actually used national system of romanisation in India ...}}{{Citation | title=United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Far East, Volume 2 | author=United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs | publisher=United Nations, 1955 | isbn= | url= | quote=... In India the Hunterian system is used, whereby every sound in the local language is uniformly represented by a certain letter in the Roman alphabet ...}}{{Citation | title=Indian scientific & technical publications, exhibition 1960: a bibliography | author=National Library (India) | publisher=Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India, 1960 | isbn= | url= | quote=... The Hunterian system of transliteration, which has international acceptance, has been used ...}}

ISO 15919

A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard of 2001. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic graphemes to the Latin script. The Devanagari-specific portion is nearly identical to the academic standard for Sanskrit, IAST.


The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is the academic standard for the romanisation of Sanskrit. IAST is the de facto standard used in printed publications, like books, magazines, and electronic texts with Unicode fonts. It is based on a standard established by the Congress of Orientalists at Athens in 1912. The ISO 15919 standard of 2001 codified the transliteration convention to include an expanded standard for sister scripts of Devanagari.Devanagari IAST conventions Script Source (2009), SIL International, United StatesThe National Library at Kolkata romanisation, intended for the romanisation of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST.


Compared to IAST, Harvard-Kyoto looks much simpler. It does not contain all the diacritic marks that IAST contains. It was designed to simplify the task of putting large amount of Sanskrit textual material into machine readable form, and the inventors stated that it reduces the effort needed in transliteration of Sanskrit texts on the keyboard. This makes typing in Harvard-Kyoto much easier than IAST. Harvard-Kyoto uses capital letters that can be difficult to read in the middle of words.


ITRANS is a lossless transliteration scheme of Devanagari into ASCII that is widely used on Usenet. It is an extension of the Harvard-Kyoto scheme. In ITRANS, the word devanāgarī is written "devanaagarii" or "devanAgarI". ITRANS is associated with an application of the same name that enables typesetting in Indic scripts. The user inputs in Roman letters and the ITRANS pre-processor translates the Roman letters into Devanagari (or other Indic languages). The latest version of ITRANS is version 5.30 released in July, 2001. It is similar to Velthius system and was created by Avinash Chopde to help print various Indic scripts with personal computers.Transliteration of Devanāgarī D. Wujastyk (1996)


The disadvantage of the above ASCII schemes is case-sensitivity, implying that transliterated names may not be capitalised. This difficulty is avoided with the system developed in 1996 by Frans Velthuis for TeX, loosely based on IAST, in which case is irrelevant.

ALA-LC Romanisation

ALA-LCWEB,weblink,, 2011-06-13, romanisation is a transliteration scheme approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association, and widely used in North American libraries. Transliteration tables are based on languages, so there is a table for Hindi,WEB,weblink 0001.eps, PDF, 2011-06-13, one for Sanskrit and Prakrit,WEB,weblink, PDF, 2011-06-13, etc.


WX is a Roman transliteration scheme for Indian languages, widely used among the natural language processing community in India. It originated at IIT Kanpur for computational processing of Indian languages. The salient features of this transliteration scheme are as follows.
  • Every consonant and every vowel has a single mapping into Roman. Hence it is a prefix code, advantageous from computation point of view.
  • Lower-case letters are used for unaspirated consonants and short vowels, while capital letters are used for aspirated consonants and long vowels. While the retroflex stops are mapped to 't, T, d, D, N', the dentals are mapped to 'w, W, x, X, n'. Hence the name 'WX', a reminder of this idiosyncratic mapping.



ISCII is an 8-bit encoding. The lower 128 codepoints are plain ASCII, the upper 128 codepoints are ISCII-specific.It has been designed for representing not only Devanagari but also various other Indic scripts as well as a Latin-based script with diacritic marks used for transliteration of the Indic scripts.ISCII has largely been superseded by Unicode, which has, however, attempted to preserve the ISCII layout for its Indic language blocks.


The Unicode Standard defines three blocks for Devanagari: Devanagari (U+0900–U+097F), Devanagari Extended (U+A8E0–U+A8FF), and Vedic Extensions (U+1CD0–U+1CFF).{{Unicode chart Devanagari}}{{Unicode chart Devanagari Extended}}{{Unicode chart Vedic Extensions}}

Devanagari keyboard layouts

{{hatnote|For a list of Devanagari input tools and fonts, please see (Help:Multilingual support (Indic)).}}(File:इन्स्क्रिप्ट कळपाटाची ओळख.ogg|200px|right|Introduction to Inscript Key board)

InScript layout

InScript is the standard keyboard layout for Devanagari as standardized by the Government of India. It is inbuilt in all modern major operating systems. Microsoft Windows supports the InScript layout (using the Mangal font), which can be used to input unicode Devanagari characters. InScript is also available in some touchscreen mobile phones.(File:Devanagari INSCRIPT Keyboard.JPG|thumb|none|middle|upright=4|Devanagari INSCRIPT bilingual keyboard layout.)

Nepali layouts

There are two Nepali computer keyboard layouts for Devanagari: the traditional layout and a romanized layoutWEB,weblink Language Technology Kendra,, 2018-09-21, .(File:Devanagari Nepali layout (traditional).jpg|thumb|none|middle|upright=4|A Devanagari Nepali (traditional) keyboard layout.)


This layout was used on manual typewriters when computers were not available or were uncommon. For backward compatibility some typing tools like Indic IME still provide this layout.(File:Hindi typewriter.jpg|thumb|none|middle|upright=4|A standard typewriter keyboard layout used in India.)


Such tools work on phonetic transliteration. The user writes in Roman and the IME automatically converts it into Devanagari. Some popular phonetic typing tools are Baraha IME and Google IME.
missing image!
- Bolnagri map.png -
frame|Bolnagri phonetic keyboard layout for Linux/GNOME
File:Marathi Wikipedia ULS.webm|thumb|right|300px|One can use (:MW:Universal Language Selector|ULS) (Transliteration) or (Inscript) typing options to search or edit (:mr:|Marathi Wikipedia) articles as shown in this video clip; One can click on the 'cc to change the subtitle languages to Marathi, English, Sanskrit, Kokani, Ahirani languages.]]The Mac OS X operating system includes two different keyboard layouts for Devanagari: one is much like INSCRIPT/KDE Linux, the other is a phonetic layout called "Devanagari QWERTY".Any one of Unicode fonts input system is fine for Indic language Wikipedia and other wikiprojects, including Hindi, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Nepali Wikipedia. Some people use inscript. Majority uses either Google phonetic transliteration or input facility (:MW:Universal Language Selector|Universal Language Selector) provided on Wikipedia. On Indic language wikiprojects Phonetic facility provided initially was java-based later supported by Narayam extension for phonetic input facility. Currently Indic language Wiki projects are supported by (:MW:Universal Language Selector|Universal Language Selector (ULS)), that offers both phonetic keyboard (Aksharantaran, Marathi: , Hindi: ) and InScript keyboard (Marathi: ).The Ubuntu Linux operating system supports several keyboard layouts for Devanagari, including Harvard-Kyoto, WX notation, Bolanagari and phonetic. The 'remington' typing method in Ubuntu IBUS is similar to the Krutidev typing method, popular in Rajasthan. The 'itrans' method is useful for those who know English well (and the English keyboard) but not familiar with typing in Devanagari.

See also

{{col div|colwidth=30em}} {{colend}}


  • {{Citation|last=Masica|first=Colin|authorlink=Colin Masica|year=1991|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages| place= Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-29944-2|url=
  • {hide}Citation|last=Snell|first=Rupert|year=2000|title=Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi Script|publisher=Hodder & Stoughton|isbn=978-0-07-141984-0
  • {hide}Citation|last=Salomon|first=Richard|year=2003|chapter=Writing Systems of the Indo-Aryan Languages| editor1-last= Cardona| editor1-first= George| editor2-last= Jain| editor2-first= Dhanesh|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-77294-5|pages=67–103
  • {hide}Citation|last=Verma|first=Sheela|year=2003|chapter=Magahi| editor1-last= Cardona| editor1-first= George| editor2-last= Jain| editor2-first= Dhanesh|title=The Indo-Aryan Languages|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-77294-5|pages=498–514
  • {{Citation|last=Wikner|first=Charles|year=1996|title=A Practical Sanskrit Introductory|url=

Census and catalogues of manuscripts in Devanagari

Thousands of manuscripts of ancient and medieval era Sanskrit texts in Devanagari have been discovered since the 19th century. Major catalogues and census include:
  • {{Google books|JjxFAAAAYAAJ|A Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Private Libraries}}, Medical Hall Press, Princeton University Archive
  • {{Google books|QD-Qmb2XIr8C|A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts}}, Vol 1: Upanishads, Friedrich Otto Schrader (Compiler), University of Michigan Library Archives
  • A preliminary list of the Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts, Vedas, Sastras, Sutras, Schools of Hindu Philosophies, Arts, Design, Music and other fields, Friedrich Otto Schrader (Compiler), (Devanagiri manuscripts are identified by Character code De.)
  • Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, Part 1: Vedic Manuscripts, Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari)
  • Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, Part 4: Manuscripts of Hindu schools of Philosophy and Tantra, Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari)
  • Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, Part 5: Manuscripts of Medicine, Astronomy and Mathematics, Architecture and Technical Science Literature, Julius Eggeling (Compiler), Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari)
  • {{Google books|6nooAAAAYAAJ|Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts}}, Part 6: Poetic, Epic and Purana Literature, Harvard University Archives (mostly Devanagari)
  • David Pingree (1970-1981), Census of the Exact Sciences in Sanskrit: Volumes 1 through 5, American Philosophical Society, Manuscripts in various Indic scripts including Devanagari

External links

{{Commons category multi|Devanagari stroke order|Devanagari pronunciation}}{{wikivoyage|Learning Devanagari}} {{Devanagari abugida}}{{Hindi topics}}{{Sanskrit language topics}}{{Marathi language topics}}{{list of writing systems}}

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