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Demographics of New Brunswick

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Demographics of New Brunswick
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New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, and the only officially bilingual province (French and English) in the country. The provincial Department of Finance estimates that the province's population in 2006 was 729,997 of which the majority is English-speaking but with a substantial (32%) French-speaking minority of mostly Acadian origin.First Nations in New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet). The first European settlers, the Acadians are descendants of French colonists of Acadia, a French colony in what is today Nova Scotia. The Acadians were expelled by the British (1755) for refusing to take an oath of allegiance to King George II which drove several thousand French residents into exile in North America, the UK and France during the French and Indian War. American Acadians, who wound up in Louisiana and other parts of the American South, are often referred to as Cajuns.Many of the English-Canadian population of New Brunswick are descended from Loyalists who fled the American Revolution. This is commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit ("hope was restored"). There is also a significant population with Irish ancestry, especially in Saint John and the Miramichi Valley. People of Scottish descent are scattered throughout the Province with higher concentrations in the Miramichi and in Campbellton. A small population of Danish origin may be found in New Denmark in the northwest of the province.

Population

City Metropolitan Areas{| class"wikitable sortable"

!City!2011!2006!Land Area km²!Density /km²
Greater Moncton >|57.6
Greater Saint John >|38.0
Greater Fredericton >|19.3
Greater Bathurst, New Brunswick>Greater Bathurst 33,48434,1062,292.8014.6
Greater Miramichi, New Brunswick>Greater Miramichi 28,11528,7737,578.303.7
Greater Edmundston >|23.9
Greater Campbellton, New Brunswick>Greater Campbellton 17,84217,8781,629.9410.9
">

Cities and towns{| class"wikitable sortable"|+

! Town !! Population (2011) !! Population Ranking !! Land Area km² !! Area Ranking !! Density /km² !! Density Ranking
Bathurst, New Brunswick>Bathurst 12,275 9 91.86 6 133.6 24
Beresford, New Brunswick>Beresford 4,351 20 19.20 17 226.6 18
Bouctouche, New Brunswick>Bouctouche 2,423 26 18.34 19 132.1 25
Campbellton, New Brunswick>Campbellton 7,385 12 18.66 18 395.7 9
Caraquet >| 35
Dalhousie, New Brunswick>Dalhousie 3,512 24 14.51 23 242.1 17
Dieppe, New Brunswick>Dieppe 23,310 4 54.11 11 430.8 6
Edmundston >| 23
Florenceville-Bristol >| 29
Fredericton >| 7
Grand Bay–Westfield >| 33
Grand Falls, New Brunswick>Grand Falls 5,706 14 18.05 20 315.9 13
Hampton, New Brunswick>Hampton 4,292 22 21.00 16 204.3 21
Hartland, New Brunswick>Hartland 947 35 9.63 30 98.4 31
Lamèque, New Brunswick>Lamèque 1,432 31 12.45 28 115.1 27
Miramichi, New Brunswick>Miramichi 17,811 7 179.93 2 99.0 30
McAdam, New Brunswick>McAdam 1,404 32 14.47 24 97.02 32
Moncton >| 2
Nackawic, New Brunswick>Nackawic 1,049 34 8.40 32 124.9 26
Oromocto >| 8
Quispamsis >| 14
Richibucto, New Brunswick>Richibucto 1,286 33 11.83 27 108.7 28
Riverview, New Brunswick>Riverview 19,128 5 33.88 13 564.6 1
Rothesay, New Brunswick>Rothesay 11,947 10 34.77 12 343.6 12
Sackville, New Brunswick>Sackville 5,558 15 74.32 7 74.8 34
Saint Andrews, New Brunswick>Saint Andrews 1,889 28 8.35 33 226.2 19
Saint John, New Brunswick>Saint John 70,063 1 315.82 1 221.8 20
Saint-Léonard, New Brunswick>Saint-Léonard 1,343 32 5.20 34 258.3 16
Saint-Quentin, New Brunswick>Saint-Quentin 2,095 27 4.30 35 486.7 3
Shediac >| 4
Shippagan, New Brunswick>Shippagan 2,603 25 9.94 29 261.9 15
St. George, New Brunswick>St. George 1,543 30 16.13 21 95.6 32
St. Stephen, New Brunswick>St. Stephen 4,817 19 13.45 24 358.0 11
Sussex, New Brunswick>Sussex 4,312 21 9.03 31 477.4 5
Tracadie–Sheila >| 22
Woodstock, New Brunswick>Woodstock 5,254 16 13.41 25 391.7 10

Population of New Brunswick since 1851{| class"wikitable"

!Year!Population!Five Year % change!Ten Year % change!Rank AmongProvinces
|4
|4
|4
|4
|4
|4
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
|8
Source: Statistics Canada Population urban and rural, by province and territory (New Brunswick) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061231170533weblink |date=2006-12-31 }}. Statistics Canada, 2005.Canada's population {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081104230200weblink |date=November 4, 2008 }}. Statistics Canada. Last accessed September 28, 2006.">

Ethnic origin{| class"wikitable" align"left"

bgcolor="#CCCCCC"!Ethnic Origin!Population!Percent
|English Canadian / Canadien|415,810|57.78%
French people>French|193,470|26.8%
English people>English|165,235|22.96%
Irish people>Irish|135,835|18.87%
Scottish people>Scottish|127,635|17.73%
Ethnic German>German|27,490|3.82%
|Acadian|26,220|3.64%
|First Nations|23,815|3.31%
Dutch people>Dutch (Netherlands)|13,355|1.86%
Welsh people>Welsh|7,620|1.06%
Italian people>Italian|5,610|0.78%
Métis people (Canada)>Métis|4,955|0.69%
United Empire Loyalist>American (USA)|3,925|0.55%
Danish people>Danish|3,390|0.47%
The information at the left is from Statistics Canada Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census) Percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses e.g. "Danish-Canadian" generates an entry in both the category "Danish" and the category "Canadian". Groups with more than 3,000 responses are included.{{clear}}">

Visible minorities and Aboriginals{| class"wikitable"

! colspan=4 | Visible minority and Aboriginal population (Canada 2006 Census)
! colspan="2" | Population group!! Population !! % of total population
European Canadian 688,655 '''{{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}'''
Visible minority groupSource:Brunswick&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=, Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory South Asian 1,960 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Chinese Canadian > 2450 1 }}
Black Canadians > 4455 1 }}
Filipino Canadian>Filipino 530 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Latin American Canadian>Latin American 720 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Arab Canadians>Arab 840 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Southeast Asian > 445 1 }}
Western Asia>West Asian 550 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Korean Canadian>Korean 625 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Japanese Canadians>Japanese 170 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
150 1 }}
Multiracial>Multiple visible minority 455 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Total visible minority population 13,345 '''{{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}'''
Aboriginal peoples in Canada groupSource:Brunswick&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=, Aboriginal Population Profile from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Province/Territory >First Nations > 12385 1 }}
Métis people (Canada)>Métis 4,270 {{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}
Inuit > 185 1 }}
710 1 }}
100 1 }}
Total Aboriginal population 17,650 '''{{Percentage 719650 | 1 }}'''
Total population 719,650 100%

Languages

{{bar boxWEBSITE=STATCAN.GC.CAACCESSDATE=15 OCTOBER 2019, 9 August 2019, |titlebar=#ddd|left1=Language|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|English only|red|57.15}}{{bar percent|French only|blue|8.58}}{{bar percent|English and French|purple|33.95}}{{bar percent|Neither English nor French|green|0.32}}}}Compared to other provinces, New Brunswick has a relatively even split of French and English population.As a comparison, the minority language communities of Ontario and Quebec (Franco-Ontarians and English-speaking Quebecers respectively) make up less than 10% of those provinces' populations.WEB,weblink Population by mother tongue, by province and territory, excluding institutional residents (2011 Census) (New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario), Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics, www.statcan.gc.ca, 2016-05-05, With both official language communities so strongly represented, New Brunswick is home to both French and English language hospitals and healthcare networks, school systems, universities, and media. The province also has a relatively high proportion of people who state that they can speak both official languages, with about 246,000 people, or 33.2% of the population reporting the ability to speak both English and French (though Francophones make up two-thirds of those who are bilingual).WEB,weblink 2014–2015 Annual Report, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages of New Brunswick, 39, Language policy remains a perennial issue in New Brunswick society and politics. Recurring debates have arisen in regards to interpretation of the provincial bilingualism policy, duality (the system of parallel French and English speaking public services), and specifics of implementation. The extent of the provincial policy on bilingualism means that a new row is never far off in the New Brunswick news cycle.WEB,weblink New Brunswick still debating language issues after 50 years of bilingualism {{!, Toronto Star|website=thestar.com|access-date=2016-05-05}}WEB,weblink Liberals, PCs show fissures over bilingualism controversy, www.cbc.ca, 2016-05-05, The French-speaking community continues to advocate for full funding of French-language public services and fair representation in public sector employment, while some Anglophones (and Francophones) fear that the system of duality is financially inefficient and its extent is not worthwhile, or that the provincial governments targets for bilingualism in public employment are hurting their chances to work for the government, as Anglophones are less likely than Francophones to be proficient enough in both official languages to use them in employment.The province's bilingual status is enshrined in both provincial and federal law. The Canadian Constitution makes specific mention of New Brunswick's bilingual status and defines the spirit of implementation as one based on both community and individual rights (in contrast with the constitutional protections for the other provinces that is limited to individuals, though this extends to "community" issues in terms of provision of schooling etc.). The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms has a number of New Brunswick specific articles and makes specific mention of New Brunswick in each section relating to language (ex. Section 18 has two paragraphs, the first regarding bilingual publication of the Canadian Parliaments work and laws, the second specifying that New Brunswick's legislature will publish its work in both French and English). Of particular interest is Article 16.1, which declares that the French and English speaking communities of New Brunswick have equal rights and privileges, including community specific educational and cultural institutions. This specific distinction of linguistic community is important in that it recognizes not only the rights of individuals to use their language, but also demands that the two official language communities have their specific institutions upheld.The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 751,171. Of the 731,855 single responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were:Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2011 Census)New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. During the 19th century Scottish Gaelic was also spoken in the Campbellton and Dalhousie area. The language died out as a natively-spoken language in the province in the early 20th century.In 2012, New Brunswick francophones scored lower on the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies than their anglophone counterparts in New Brunswick.WEB,weblink Study: The literacy skills of New Brunswick francophones, 2016-09-19, Statistics Canada, 2016-09-21, (File:Nouveau-Brunswick langues.PNG|thumb|Mother tongue in New Brunswick, Statistics Canada, 2006. Red: majority English, less than 33% French. Blue: majority French, less than 33% English. Yellow: majority English; more than 33% French. Green: majority French, more than 33% English. Grey: no data available)The 2011 Canadian census showed a population of 751,171. Of the 731,855 singular responses to the question concerning mother tongue the most commonly reported languages were: {| class="wikitable" ! Ranking! Language! Population! Percentage |1.
English language>English|479,930|65.58%
|2.
French language>French|233,530|31.90%
|3.|Algonquian languages|2,125|0.29%
|
Mi'kmaq language>Mi'kmaq|2,115 |0.29%
||Cree language|10|0.001%
|4.
Chinese language>Chinese|1,825|0.25%
|
Standard Mandarin>Mandarin|405|0.06%
|
Standard Cantonese>Cantonese|225|0.03%
|
Taiwanese Minnan>Taiwanese|5|0.001%
|5.
Korean language>Korean|1,810|0.25%
|6.
German language>German|1,805|0.25%
|7.|Arabic|1,325|0.18%
|8.
Spanish language>Spanish|1,135|0.16%
|9.
Dutch language>Dutch (Nederlands)|925|0.13%
|10.
Tagalog language>Tagalog|585|0.08%
|11.
Hindustani language>Hindustani|455|0.06%
||Hindi|250|0.03%
||Urdu|205|0.03%
|12.
Persian language>Persian|450|0.06%
|13.
Italian language>Italian|440|0.06%
|14.
Romanian language>Romanian|420|0.06%
|15.
Russian language>Russian|355|0.05%
|16.
Vietnamese language>Vietnamese|285|0.04%
|17.
Serbo-Croatian>Serbo-Croatian languages|280|0.04%
|
Serbian language>Serbian|120|0.02%
|
Croatian language>Croatian|75|0.01%
|
Bosnian language>Bosnian|40|0.01%
|18.
Polish language>Polish|255|0.03%
|19.|Scandinavian languages|235|0.03%
|
Danish language>Danish|145|0.01%
|
Norwegian language>Norwegian|45|0.01%
|
Swedish language>Swedish|45|0.01%
|20.
Portuguese language>Portuguese|220|0.03%
|21.|Bantu languages|200|0.03%
|
Swahili language>Swahili|140|0.02%
|22.
Bengali language>Bengali |180|0.02%
|23.
Hungarian language>Hungarian (Magyar)|155|0.02%
|24.
Greek language>Greek|140|0.02%
Note: "n.i.e.": not included elsewhereThere were also 45 single-language responses for Gujarati; 135 for Niger-Congo languages n.i.e.; 70 for Creole; 95 for Non-verbal languages (Sign languages); 115 for Japanese; 30 for Indo-Iranian languages n.i.e.; 5 for Somali; 20 for Sinhala (Sinhalese); and 40 for Malayalam. New Brunswick's official languages are shown in bold. (Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.)

Migration

Immigration

The 2006 Canadian census counted a total of 28,395 immigrants living in New Brunswick.The most commonly reported origins for these immigrants were:Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (8) and Place of Birth (261) (2006 Census){| class="wikitable"|1.|United States|8,660
|2.|United Kingdom|5,205
|3.|Germany|1,770
|4.|Netherlands|995
|5.|China|925
|6.|India|600
|7.|Italy|405
|8.|South Korea|370
|9.|former Yugoslavia|355
|10.|Philippines|350
|11.|France|320
|12.|Iran|265
|13.|Lebanon|220
|14.|Pakistan|205
There were also 195 immigrants from the Democratic Republic of Congo; 180 from Vietnam; 170 from Colombia; 165 each from Hungary and Romania; 155 each from Belgium and El Salvador; 140 each from Greece and Ireland (Éire); 125 from Poland; 120 each from Afghanistan and South Africa; 115 from Ukraine; 110 from Guyana; 105 each from Denmark and from Trinidad and Tobago; and 100 from Austria.

Internal migration

(File:Net_cumulative_interprovincial_migration,_1997_to_2017,_as_a_share_of_population,_2016.png|thumb|Net cumulative interprovincial migration per Province from 1997 to 2017, as a share of population of each Provinces)A total of 64,205 people moved to New Brunswick from other parts of Canada between 1996 and 2006 while 83,240 people moved in the opposite direction. These movements resulted in a net outmigration of 8,410 people to Alberta, 4,330 to Ontario, 2,930 to Nova Scotia, and 1,995 to Quebec. During this period there was a net outmigration of 2,125 francophones to Quebec, 1,460 francophones going to Ontario, 1,355 to Alberta and 145 to Nova Scotia; and also a net influx of 240 anglophones from Quebec. (All net inter-provincial movements of more than 500 persons and official minority movements of more than 100 persons are given.)Province or Territory of Residence 5 Years Ago (14), Mother Tongue (8), Age Groups (16) and Sex (3) (2006 Census) {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090211032212weblink |date=February 11, 2009 }}Province or Territory of Residence 5 Years Ago (14), Mother Tongue (8), Age Groups (16) and Sex (3) (2001 census)

Religion

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:right"weblink NHSNewBrunswick2011, 2.statcan.ca, 2014-05-17,
! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"|2001! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"|20111
! Number !! % !! Number !! %
!align=left |Total Population || 719,715 || 100 || 735,835 || 100
!align=left |Christian ||647,295 || 89.9 ||616,910|| 83.8
- Total Catholic2 386,035 53.6 366,155 49.8
- Total Protestant 260,695 36.2 249,820 34.0
- Baptists in Canada>| 9.6
- United Church of Canada 69,2359.6 54,270 7.4
- Anglican Church of Canada58,210 8.1 51,365 7.0
- Pentecostal20,150 2.8 18,435 2.5
- Protestant, Other3 24,200 2.6 45,910 6.2
- Presbyterianism>| 1.1
- Lutheranism>| 0.1
- Eastern Orthodox Church4>| 0.1
!align=left|No Religious Affiliation|| 56,440|| 7.8 || 111,435 || 15.1
!align=left| Other || 5,295 || 0.7 || 7,495 || 1.0
- Islam>| 0.4
- Other Religions5 1,970 0.3 1,915 0.3
- Judaism>| 0.1
- Buddhism>| 0.1
- Hinduism>| 0.1
- Aboriginal Spirituality360 0.1 525 0.1
1 The 2011 data is from the National Household Survey and so numbers are estimates.2Includes Roman Catholic and Ukrainian Catholic3 Includes persons who report only "Protestant" and those who report "Christian", and those who report "Apostolic", "Born-again Christian" and "Evangelical" and those who report from all Protestant denominations with less than 0.05% of the population including those who report "Christian Reformed Church and those who report "Methodist" and those who report "Mennonite" and those who report "Christian Missionary Alliance" and those who report "Brethren in Christ" and those who report "Evangelical Missionary Church"4 Includes persons who report "Orthodox". Also includes Greek Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Bulgarian Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox and Macedonian Orthodox5 Includes persons who report all Religions with less than 0.05% of the population including Pagan, Wiccan and Sikh as well as persons who report only "non-denominational".

See also

{{Canada provinces map|align=right|prefix=Demographics of|map=NB-Canada-province.png|caption=Demographics of Canada's provinces and territories}}

References

{{reflist}}{{Subdivisions of New Brunswick}}{{Canada topic|Demographics of}}{{People of Canada}}

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