Democratic socialism

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Democratic socialism
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{short description|political ideology}}{{Distinguish|social democracy}}{{Socialism sidebar}}{{Social democracy sidebar|all}}Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of productionBusky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8.ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-0275968861|978-0275968861). Democratic socialism is the wing of the socialist movement that combines a belief in a socially owned economy with that of political democracy. with an emphasis on self-management and democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.Anderson and Herr, Gary L. and Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 448. ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-1412918121|978-1412918121). Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socializes the means of production, and in some versions, extends democracy to the workplace. Some holdout for a nonmarket,participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism. Democratic socialists hold that capitalism is inherently incompatible with what they hold to be the democratic values of liberty, equality and solidarity; and that these ideals can only be achieved through the realization of a socialist society. Democratic socialism can be supportive of either revolutionary or reformist politics as a means to establish socialism.Curian, Alt, Chambers, Garrett, Levi, McClain, George Thomas, James E., Simone, Geoffrey, Margaret, Paula D. (October 12, 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401.ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-1933116440|978-1933116440). Though some democratic socialists reject the revolutionary model and advocate a peaceful transformation to socialism carried out by democratic means, they also reject the social democratic view that capitalist societies can be successfully reformed through extensive state intervention within capitalism. In the view of democratic socialists, capitalism, based on the primacy of private property, generates inherent inequalities of wealth and power and a dominant egoism that are incompatible with the democratic values of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Only a socialist society can fully realize democratic practices. The internal conflicts within capitalism require a transition to socialism. Private property must be superseded by a form of collective ownership. The term "democratic socialism" is sometimes used synonymously with "socialism", but the adjective "democratic" is sometimes used to distinguish democratic socialists from Marxist–Leninist-inspired socialism which is viewed as being non-democratic in practice.Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8.ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-0275968861|978-0275968861). Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasize by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism.Curian, Alt, Chambers, Garrett, Levi, McClain, George Thomas, James E., Simone, Geoffrey, Margaret, Paula D. (October 12, 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401.ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-1933116440|978-1933116440). Democratic socialism is a term meant to distinguish a form of socialism that falls somewhere between authoritarian and centralized forms of socialism on the one hand and social democracy on the other. The rise of authoritarian socialism in the twentieth century in the Soviet Union and its sphere of influence generated this new distinction. Democratic socialists oppose the Stalinist political system and Soviet economic model, rejecting the authoritarian form of governance and highly centralized command economy that took form in the Soviet Union in the early 20th century.Prychito, David L. (July 31, 2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 72. ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-1840645194|978-1840645194). It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralized socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organization) would follow the workers’ self-management principle.Democratic socialism is further distinguished from social democracy on the basis that democratic socialists are committed to systemic transformation of the economy from capitalism to socialism, whereas social democracy is supportive of reforms to capitalism.Eatwell & Wright, Roger & Anthony (March 1, 1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies: Second Edition. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 80. ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-0826451736|978-0826451736). So too with ‘democratic socialism’, a term coined by its adherents as an act of disassociation from the twentieth-century realities of undemocratic socialism…but also, at least in some modes, intended to reaffirm a commitment to system transformation rather than a merely meliorist social democracy. In contrast to social democrats, democratic socialists believe that reforms aimed at addressing social inequalities and state interventions aimed at suppressing the economic contradictions of capitalism will only see them emerge elsewhere in a different guise. As socialists, democratic socialists believe that the systemic issues of capitalism can only be solved by replacing the capitalist system with a socialist system—i.e. by replacing private ownership with social ownership of the means of production.Anderson and Herr, Gary L. and Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications, inc. p. 447. ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-1412918121|978-1412918121). ...the division between social democrats and democratic socialists. The former had made peace with capitalism and concentrated on humanizing the system. Social democrats supported and tried to strengthen the basic institutions of the welfare state--pensions for all, public health care, public education, unemployment insurance. They supported and tried to strengthen the labor movement. The latter, as socialists, argued that capitalism could never be sufficiently humanized, and that trying to suppress the economic contradictions in one area would only see them emerge in a different guise elsewhere. (E.g., if you push unemployment too low, you'll get inflation; if job security is too strong, labor discipline breaks down.)There is considerable overlap between democratic socialists and social democrats on practical policy positions, with the former supporting social democratic positions as practical reforms within capitalism, the distinction being democratic socialists ultimately want to go beyond social democratic reform. Policies commonly supported by democratic socialists and social democrats include some degree of regulation over the economy, social insurance schemes, public pension programs, and a gradual expansion of public ownership over major industries.Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). "The Principles of Democratic Socialism". Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis, 14th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 117. ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-0495569398|978-0495569398).Democratic socialism can be characterized as follows: *Much property held by the public through a democratically elected government, including most major industries, utilities, and transportation systems *A limit on the accumulation of private property *Governmental regulation of the economy *Extensive publicly financed assistance and pension programs *Social costs and the provision of services added to purely financial considerations as the measure of efficiency. Publicly held property is limited to productive property and significant infrastructure; it does not extend to personal property, homes, and small businesses. Partly because of this overlap, some political commentators use the terms interchangeably.Because many communists now call themselves democratic socialists, it is sometimes difficult to know what a political label really means. As a result, social democratic has become a common new label for democratic socialist political parties." Lyman Tower Sargent. Contemporary Political Ideologies A Comparative Analysis Fourteenth Edition. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2009. pg. 117"Crosland’s response to 1951 was to develop his ‘revisionist’ theory of socialism, what today we call democratic socialism or ‘social democracy’. By freeing Labour from past fixations that social change had rendered redundant, and by offering fresh objectives to replace those which had already been achieved or whose relevance had faded over time, Crosland showed how socialism made sense in modern society." Peter Hain. Back to the future of socialism, Policy Press (26 January 2015). pg. 3The origins of democratic socialism can be traced to 19th-century Utopian socialist thinkers and the British Chartist movement, which differed in detail but all shared the essence of democratic decision making and public ownership in the means of production as positive characteristics of the society they advocated. In the early 20th century, the gradualist reformism promoted by the British Fabian society and Eduard Bernstein in Germany influenced the development of democratic socialism.Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). "The Principles of Democratic Socialism". Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis, 14th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 118. ISBN (Special:BookSources/978-0495569398|978-0495569398).Still, the origins of contemporary democratic socialism are best located in the early to mid-nineteenth century writings of the so-called utopian socialists, Robert Owen (1771-18588), Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Claude-Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825), and Etienne Cabet (1788-1856). All these writers proposed village communities combining industrial and agricultural production, owned in varying ways, by the inhabitants themselves. Thus the essence of early socialism was public ownership of the means of production. These theorists also included varying forms of democratic political decision making, but they all distrusted the ability of people raised under capitalism to understand what was in their own best interest.


Democratic socialism is defined as having a socialist economy in which the means of production (including wealth) are socially and collectively owned or controlled alongside a politically democratic system of government.BOOK,weblink Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, Busky, Donald F., July 20, 2000, Praeger, 978-0275968861, 7–8, Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasize by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism., Peter Hain classifies democratic socialism, along with libertarian socialism, as a form of anti-authoritarian "socialism from below" (using the term popularized by Hal Draper), in contrast to Stalinism, a variant of authoritarian state socialism. For Hain, this democratic/authoritarian divide is more important than the revolutionary/reformist divide.Peter Hain Ayes to the Left Lawrence and Wishart. In this type of democratic socialism, it is the active participation of the population as a whole and workers in particular in the management of economy that characterizes democratic socialism while nationalization and economic planning (whether controlled by an elected government or not) are characteristic of state socialism. A similar, but more complex argument is made by Nicos Poulantzas."Towards a Democratic Socialism," New Left Review I/109, May–June 1978. Draper himself uses the term "revolutionary-democratic socialism" as a type of socialism from below in his The Two Souls of Socialism and writes: "[T]he leading spokesman in the Second International of a revolutionary-democratic Socialism-from-Below [was] Rosa Luxemburg, who so emphatically put her faith and hope in the spontaneous struggle of a free working class that the myth-makers invented for her a 'theory of spontaneity{{'"}}.{{sfn|Draper|1966|loc=Chapter 7: The "Revisionist" Facade}} Similarly, about Eugene Debs he writes: {{"'}}Debsian socialism' evoked a tremendous response from the heart of the people, but Debs had no successor as a tribune of revolutionary-democratic socialism".{{sfn|Draper|1966|loc=Chapter 8: The 100% American Scene}}File:Bernstein Eduard 1895.jpg|thumb|right|Eduard Bernstein, socialist theorist within the German Social Democratic Party who proposed that socialism could be achieved by peaceful means through incremental legislative reform in democratic societies ]]Tendencies of democratic socialism follow a gradual, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism rather than a revolutionary one.This tendency is captured in this statement: Anthony Crosland "argued that the socialisms of the pre-war world (not just that of the Marxists, but of the democratic socialists too) were now increasingly irrelevant." JOURNAL, Pierson, Chris, 2005, Lost property: What the Third Way lacks, Journal of Political Ideologies, 10, 2, 145–163, 10.1080/13569310500097265, . Other texts which use the terms "democratic socialism" in this way include Malcolm Hamilton Democratic Socialism in Britain and Sweden (St Martin's Press 1989). This tendency is often invoked in an attempt to distinguish democratic socialism from Marxist–Leninist socialism as in Donald Busky's Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey,See pp. 7–8. Jim Tomlinson's Democratic Socialism and Economic Policy: The Attlee Years, 1945–1951, Norman Thomas Democratic Socialism: a new appraisal or Roy Hattersley's Choose Freedom: The Future of Democratic Socialism. A variant of this set of definitions is Joseph Schumpeter's argument, set out in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1941), that liberal democracies were evolving from "liberal capitalism" into democratic socialism, with the growth of workers' self-management, industrial democracy and regulatory institutions.See John Medearis, "Schumpeter, the New Deal, and Democracy," The American Political Science Review, 1997.For example the new version of Clause IV of the constitution of the UK Labour Party, though affirming a commitment to democratic socialism,WEB,weblink How we work – How the party works,, 31 May 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2013, dmy-all, no longer definitely commits the party to public ownership of industry: in its place it advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" along with "high quality public services ... either owned by the public or accountable to them."Scholar Lyman Tower Sargent proposes that:Another example is the Democratic Socialists of America who define socialism as a decentralized socially-owned economy, but while ultimately committed to socialism they focus their political activities on reforms within capitalism:}}}}For Labour Party (UK) politician and ex MP Peter Hain: The term is sometimes used to refer to policies within capitalism as opposed to an ideology that aims to transcend and replace capitalism, though this is not always the case. For example, Robert M. Page, a reader in Democratic Socialism and Social Policy at the University of Birmingham, writes about "transformative democratic socialism" to refer to the politics of the Clement Attlee government (a strong welfare state, fiscal redistribution and some public ownership) and "revisionist democratic socialism" as developed by Anthony Crosland and Harold Wilson:Some proponents of market socialism see it as an economic system compatible with the political ideology of democratic socialism.For example, David Miller, Market, State, and Community: Theoretical Foundations of Market Socialism (Oxford University Press, 1990). Some tendencies of democratic socialism advocate for revolution in order to transition to socialism, distinguishing it from some forms of social democracy.What is Democratic Socialism? Questions and Answers from the Democratic Socialists of America. The term "democratic socialism" can be used even another way to refer to a version of the Soviet model that was reformed in a democratic way. For example, Mikhail Gorbachev described perestroika as building a "new, humane and democratic socialism".Paul T. Christensen "Perestroika and the Problem of Socialist Renewal" Social Text 1990. Consequently, some former Communist parties have rebranded themselves as democratic socialist, as with the Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany.Philosophical support for democratic socialism can be found in the works of political philosophers like Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, among others. Honneth has put forward the view that political and economic ideologies have a social basis, that is they originate from intersubjective communication between members of a society.BOOK, Honneth, Axel, Axel Honneth, The Limits of Liberalism: On the Political-Ethical Discussion Concerning Communitarianism, 1995, Honneth, Axel, The Fragmented World of the Social, State University of New York Press, Albany, 0-7914-2300-X, 231–247, Honneth criticizes the liberal state because it assumes that principles of individual liberty and private property are ahistorical and abstract, when in fact they evolved from a specific social discourse on human activity. Contra liberal individualism, Honneth has emphasized the inter-subjective dependence between humans, that is our well-being depends on recognising others and being recognized by them. Democratic socialism with an emphasis on community and solidarity can be seen as a way of safeguarding this dependency.


19th century

Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity but the first self-conscious socialist movements developed in the 1820s and 1830s. West European social critics, including Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Louis Blanc, Charles Hall, and Saint-Simon were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution. They also, especially in the case of the Owenites, overlapped with a number of other working-class movements like the Chartists in the United Kingdom".Andrew Vincent. Modern political ideologies. Wiley-Blackwell publishing. 2010. p. 88 The Chartists gathered significant numbers around the People's Charter of 1838, which demanded the extension of suffrage to all male adults. Leaders in the movement also called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes. The very first trade unions and consumers' cooperative societies also emerged in the hinterland of the Chartist movement as a way of bolstering the fight for these demands.Nik Brandal, Øivind Bratberg and Dag Einar Thorsen. The Nordic Model of Social Democracy. Pallgrave-Macmillan. 2013. p. 20 The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based on individual talent. Count Henri de Saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term "socialism".WEB,weblink Adam Smith,, 2 June 2010, Saint-Simon was fascinated by the enormous potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism and would be based on equal opportunities.WEB,weblink 2:BIRTH OF THE SOCIALIST IDEA,, 2 June 2010, He advocated the creation of a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work. The key focus of Saint-Simon's socialism was on administrative efficiency and industrialism and a belief that science was the key to progress.Newman, Michael. (2005) Socialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|0-19-280431-6}} This was accompanied by a desire to implement a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large-scale scientific and material progress, thus embodied a desire for a more directed or planned economy. File:Chartist meeting on Kennington Common by William Edward Kilburn 1848 - restoration1.jpg|right|thumb|300px|Photograph of the Great Chartist Meeting on Kennington CommonKennington CommonIn the United Kingdom, the democratic socialist tradition was represented in particular by William Morris's Socialist League and in the 1880s by the Fabian Society and later the Independent Labour Party (ILP) founded by Keir Hardie in the 1890s, of which writer George Orwell would later be a prominent member.Donald Busky, "Democratic Socialism in Great Britain and Ireland," Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, pp. 83–5 on Morris, pp. 91–109 on Hardie and the ILP. On Morris as democratic socialist, see also volume 3 of David Reisman, ed., Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952 and E P Thompson, William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary (London: Merlin, 1977). On the ILP as democratic socialist, see also The ILP: A Very Brief History; James, David, Jowitt, Tony, and Laybourn, Keith, eds. The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party. Halifax: Ryburn, 1992. In the early 1920s, the guild socialism of G. D. H. Cole attempted to envision a socialist alternative to Soviet-style authoritarianism, while council communism articulated democratic socialist positions in several respects, notably through renouncing the vanguard role of the revolutionary party and holding that the system of the Soviet Union was not authentically socialist.On Cole as democratic socialist, see also volume 7 of David Reisman, ed, Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952. The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation which was established with the purpose of advancing the principles of socialism via gradualist and reformist means.BOOK, Cole, Margaret, The Story of Fabian Socialism, Stanford University Press, 978-0804700917, 1961, The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, most notably India and Singapore. Originally, the Fabian Society was committed to the establishment of a socialist economy, alongside a commitment to British imperialism as a progressive and modernising force.Discovering Imperialism: Social Democracy to World War I, 25 November 2011. (p. 249): "the pro-imperialist majority, led by Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw, advanced an intellectual justification for central control by the British Empire, arguing that existing institutions should simply work more 'efficiently'." Today, the society functions primarily as a think tank and is one of fifteen socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party. Similar societies exist in Australia (the Australian Fabian Society), in Canada (the Douglas-Coldwell Foundation and the now disbanded League for Social Reconstruction) and in New Zealand. In 1889 (the centennial of the French Revolution of 1789), the Second International was founded, with 384 delegates from twenty countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organisations.The Second (Socialist) International 1889–1923. Retrieved 12 July 2007. It was termed the Socialist International and Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893. Anarchists were ejected and not allowed in, mainly due to pressure from Marxists.George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (1962). pp. 263–64 It has been argued that at some point the Second International turned "into a battleground over the issue of libertarian versus authoritarian socialism. Not only did they effectively present themselves as champions of minority rights; they also provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance which was a factor in preventing the British labor movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as H. M. Hyndman". Reformism arose as an alternative to revolution. Eduard Bernstein was a leading social democrat in Germany who proposed the concept of evolutionary socialism. Revolutionary socialists quickly targeted reformism: Rosa Luxemburg condemned Bernstein's Evolutionary Socialism in her 1900 essay Social Reform or Revolution?. Revolutionary socialism encompasses multiple social and political movements that may define "revolution" differently from one another. The Social Democratic Party (SPD) in Germany became the largest and most powerful socialist party in Europe, despite working illegally until the anti-socialist laws were dropped in 1890. In the 1893 elections, it gained 1,787,000 votes, a quarter of the total votes cast, according to Engels. In 1895, the year of his death, Engels emphasised the Communist Manifesto's emphasis on winning, as a first step, the "battle of democracy".Marx, Engels, Communist Manifesto, Selected Works, p. 52

Early 20th century

The socialist industrial unionism of Daniel DeLeon in the United States represented another strain of early democratic socialism in this period. It favoured a form of government based on industrial unions, but which also sought to establish this government after winning at the ballot box.Donald Busky "Democratic Socialism in North America" Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey especially pp. 150–154. The tradition continued to flourish in the Socialist Party of America (especially under the leadership of Norman Thomas)Robert John Fitrakis, "The idea of democratic socialism in America and the decline of the Socialist Party: Eugene Debs, Norman Thomas and Michael Harrington. (Volumes I and II) {{Webarchive|url= |date=2011-07-20 }}" (January 1, 1990). ETD Collection for Wayne State University. Paper AAI9029621. See also "What is Democratic Socialism? Questions and Answers from the Democratic Socialists of America." The Socialist Party of America was formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party of America which had split from the main organization in 1899.Note that the Socialist Party of America was also known at various times in its long history as the Socialist Party of the United States (as early as the 1910s) and Socialist Party USA (as early as 1935, most common in the 1960s). The original, official name of the organization was Socialist Party of America. Eugene V. Debs twice won over 900,000 votes in presidential elections (1912 and 1920) while the party also elected two Representatives (Victor L. Berger and Meyer London), dozens of state legislators, more than a hundred mayors and countless lesser officials.James Weinstein, The Decline of Socialism in America, 1912-1925, New York: Vintage Books, 1969, pp. 116–118 (Tables 2 and 3). In Argentina the Socialist Party of Argentina was established in the 1890s led by, among others, Juan B. Justo and Nicolás Repetto, thus becoming the first mass party in the country and in Latin America. The party affiliated itself with the Second International.Rubio, José Luis. Las internacionales obreras en América. Madrid: 1971. p. 49 Between 1924 and 1940 it was a member of the Labour and Socialist International.Kowalski, Werner. Geschichte der sozialistischen arbeiter-internationale: 1923 - 19. Berlin: Dt. Verl. d. Wissenschaften, 1985. p. 286 In 1904, Australians elected Chris Watson as the first Australian Labor Party Prime Minister, becoming the first democratically elected democratic socialist. The British Labour Party first won seats in the House of Commons in 1902. The International Socialist Commission (ISC, also known as Berne International) was formed in February 1919 at a meeting in Bern by parties that wanted to resurrect the Second International.{{harvnb|Lamb|Docherty|2006|p=52}} By 1917, the patriotism of World War I changed into political radicalism in most of Europe, the United States and Australia. Other socialist parties from around the world who were beginning to gain importance in their national politics in the early 20th century included the Italian Socialist Party, the French Section of the Workers' International, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, the Swedish Social Democratic Party, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, the Socialist Party of America in the United States, the Chilean Partido Obrero Socialista.File:Eugene V. Debs, bw photo portrait, 1897.jpg|thumb|right|Eugene V. Debs, leader and presidential candidate in the early 20th century for the Socialist Party of AmericaSocialist Party of AmericaIn February 1917, revolution exploded in Russia. Workers, soldiers and peasants established soviets (councils), the monarchy fell and a provisional government convoked pending the election of a constituent assembly. Alexander Kerensky was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917. After the February Revolution of 1917 he joined the newly formed Russian Provisional Government, first as Minister of Justice, then as Minister of War, and after July as the government's second Minister-Chairman. A leader of the moderate-socialist Trudoviks faction of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, he was also vice-chairman of the powerful Petrograd Soviet. On 7 November, his government was overthrown by the Lenin-led Bolsheviks in the October Revolution. The Constituent Assembly elected Socialist-Revolutionary leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic, but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land, peace and workers' control and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. The next day, the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party listsDeclaration of the RSDLP (Bolsheviks) group at the Constituent Assembly meeting 5 January 1918 Lenin, Collected Works, Vol 26, p. 429. Lawrence and Wishart (1964) and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it.Draft Decree on the Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly Lenin, Collected Works, Vol 26, p. 434. Lawrence and Wishart (1964)Payne, Robert; "The Life and Death of Lenin", Grafton: paperback, pp. 425–40 Parties which did not want to be a part of the resurrected Second International (ISC) or Comintern formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP, also known as Vienna International/Vienna Union/Two-and-a-Half International) on 27 February 1921 at a conference in Vienna.{{harvnb|Lamb|Docherty|2006|p=177}} The ISC and the IWUSP joined to form the Labour and Socialist International (LSI) in May 1923 at a meeting in Hamburg{{harvnb|Lamb|Docherty|2006|p=197}} Left-wing groups which did not agree to the centralisation and abandonment of the soviets by the Bolshevik Party led left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks—such groups included Socialist Revolutionaries,Carr, E.H. – The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923. W. W. Norton & Company 1985. Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and anarchists.Avrich, Paul. "Russian Anarchists and the Civil War", Russian Review, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jul. 1968), pp. 296–306. Blackwell Publishing Within this left-wing discontent, the most large-scale events were the worker's Kronstadt rebellionBOOK, Guttridge, Leonard F., Mutiny: A History of Naval Insurrection,weblink 1 August 2006, Naval Institute Press, 978-1-59114-348-2, 174, BOOK, Smele, Jonathan, The Russian Revolution and Civil War 1917–1921: An Annotated Bibliography,weblink Continuum, 978-1-59114-348-2, 336, 15 June 2006, BOOK, Avrich, Paul, Kronstadt 1921, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-08721-4, and the anarchist led Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine uprising which controlled an area known as the Free Territory.Noel-Schwartz, Heather. weblink" title="">The Makhnovists & The Russian Revolution – Organization, Peasantry and Anarchism. Archived on Internet Archive. Accessed October 2010.Peter Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, PM Press (2010), p. 473.Skirda, Alexandre, Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack. AK Press, 2004, p. 34In 1922, the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the United Front, urging communists to work with rank and file Social Democrats while remaining critical of their leaders, whom they criticised for betraying the working class by supporting the war efforts of their respective capitalist classes. For their part, the social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution and later the growing authoritarianism of the communist parties. When the Communist Party of Great Britain applied to affiliate to the Labour Party in 1920, it was turned down. On seeing the Soviet State's growing coercive power in 1923, a dying Lenin said Russia had reverted to "a bourgeois tsarist machine... barely varnished with socialism".Serge, Victor, From Lenin to Stalin, p. 55 After Lenin's death in January 1924, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—then increasingly under the control of Joseph Stalin—rejected the theory that socialism could not be built solely in the Soviet Union in favour of the concept of "socialism in one country".

Mid-20th century

After World War II social democratic, socialist and labour governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via state welfare and taxation. Those parties dominated post-war politics in countries such as France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Norway. At one point, France claimed to be the world's most state-controlled capitalist country. The nationalised public utilities included Charbonnages de France (CDF), Electricité de France (EDF), Gaz de France (GDF), Air France, Banque de France and Régie Nationale des Usines Renault.WEB,weblink Les trente glorieuses: 1945–1975,, 30 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 September 2007, In 1945, the British Labour Party led by Clement Attlee was elected to office based on a radical socialist programme. The Labour government nationalised major public utilities such as mines, gas, coal, electricity, rail, iron, steel and the Bank of England. British Petroleum was officially nationalised in 1951.WEB,weblink Nationalisation of Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 1951,, 11 June 2007, 30 October 2011, Anthony Crosland said that in 1956 25% of British industry was nationalised and that public employees, including those in nationalised industries, constituted a similar proportion of the country's total employed population.Crosland, Anthony, The Future of Socialism, pp. 9, 89. (Constable, 2006) The Labour Governments of 1964–1970 and 1974–1979 intervened further."The New Commanding Height: Labour Party Policy on North Sea Oil and Gas, 1964–74" in Contemporary British History, vol., Issue 1, Spring 2002, pp. 89–118. It re-nationalised steel (1967, British Steel) after the Conservatives had denationalised it and nationalised car production (1976, British Leyland).WEB,weblink home : UK steel : EEF, UK steel, 12 September 2013, 11 October 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 23 January 2008, The National Health Service provided taxpayer-funded health care to everyone, free at the point of service.Bevan, Aneurin, In Place of Fear, 2nd ed. (MacGibbon and Kee, 1961), p. 104 Working-class housing was provided in council housing estates and university education became available via a school grant system.Beckett, Francis, Clem Attlee (Politico's, 2007) p. 247.File:Clement Attlee.png|thumb|right|Clement Attlee, democratic socialist British Prime Minister for the UK Labour Party ]]The Nordic model is the economic and social models of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland). During most of the post-war era, Sweden was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party largely in cooperation with trade unions and industry.Globalization and Taxation: Challenges to the Swedish Welfare State. By Sven Steinmo. In Sweden, the Social Democratic Party held power from 1936 to 1976, 1982 to 1991, 1994 to 2006 and 2014 to present. Tage Erlander was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and led the government from 1946 to 1969, an uninterrupted tenure of twenty-three years, one of the longest in any democracy. From 1945 to 1962, the Norwegian Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament led by Einar Gerhardsen who was Prime Minister with seventeen years in office. This particular adaptation of the mixed market economy is characterised by more generous welfare states (relative to other developed countries), which are aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy, ensuring the universal provision of basic human rights and stabilising the economy. It is distinguished from other welfare states with similar goals by its emphasis on maximising labour force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian and extensive benefit levels, large magnitude of redistribution and expansionary fiscal policy.Esping-Andersen, G. (1991). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of the excesses of Stalin's regime during the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 1956John Rettie, "The day Khrushchev denounced Stalin", BBC, 18 February 2006. as well as the revolt in Hungary,Within the Italian Communist Party (PCI) a split ensued: most ordinary members and the Party leadership, including Palmiro Togliatti and Giorgio Napolitano, regarded the Hungarian insurgents as counter-revolutionaries, as reported in l'Unità, the official PCI newspaper. The following are references in English on the conflicting positions of l'Unità, Antonio Giolitti and party boss Palmiro Togliatti, Giuseppe Di Vittorio and Pietro Nenni.However, Giuseppe Di Vittorio (chief of the Communist trade union CGIL) repudiated the leadership position as did the prominent party members Antonio Giolitti, Loris Fortuna and many other influential communist intellectuals, who later were expelled or left the party. Pietro Nenni, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party, a close ally of the PCI, opposed the Soviet intervention as well. Napolitano, elected in 2006 as President of the Italian Republic, wrote in his 2005 political autobiography that he regretted his justification of Soviet action in Hungary and that at the time he believed in party unity and the international leadership of Soviet communism.BOOK, Napolitano, Giorgio, 2005, Dal Pci al socialismo europeo. Un'autobiografia politica (From the Communist Party to European Socialism. A political autobiography), Laterza, Italian, 978-88-420-7715-2, Within the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), dissent that began with the repudiation of Stalin by John Saville and E.P. Thompson, influential historians and members of the Communist Party Historians Group, culminated in a loss of thousands of party members as events unfolded in Hungary. Peter Fryer, correspondent for the CPGB newspaper The Daily Worker, reported accurately on the violent suppression of the uprising, but his dispatches were heavily censored; Fryer resigned from the paper upon his return, and was later expelled from the Communist Party. Fryer, Peter (1957). Hungarian Tragedy. London: D. Dobson. Chapter 9 (The Second Soviet Intervention). ASIN B0007J7674. In France, moderate Communists, such as historian Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, resigned, questioning the policy of supporting Soviet actions by the French Communist Party. The French anarchist philosopher and writer Albert Camus wrote an open letter, The Blood of the Hungarians, criticising the West's lack of action. Even Jean-Paul Sartre, still a determined Communist Party member, criticised the Soviets in his article Le Fantôme de Staline, in Situations VII. Sartre, Jean-Paul (1956), L’intellectuel et les communistes français {{fr icon}}{{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Le Web de l'Humanite, 21 June 2005. Retrieved 24 October 2006. produced ideological fractures and disagreements within the communist and socialist parties of Western Europe. In the United Kingdom, the democratic socialist tradition was represented in particular by William Morris's Socialist League and in the 1880s by the Fabian Society and later the Independent Labour Party (ILP) founded by Keir Hardie in the 1890s, of which writer George Orwell would later be a prominent member.Donald Busky, "Democratic Socialism in Great Britain and Ireland," Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, pp. 83–5 on Morris, pp. 91–109 on Hardie and the ILP. On Morris as democratic socialist, see also volume 3 of David Reisman, ed., Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952 and E P Thompson, William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary (London: Merlin, 1977). On the ILP as democratic socialist, see also The ILP: A Very Brief History; James, David, Jowitt, Tony, and Laybourn, Keith, eds. The Centennial History of the Independent Labour Party. Halifax: Ryburn, 1992. During India's freedom movement, many figures on the left-wing of the Indian National Congress organized themselves as the Congress Socialist Party. Their politics and those of the early and intermediate periods of Jayaprakash Narayan's career combined a commitment to the socialist transformation of society with a principled opposition to the one-party authoritarianism they perceived in the Stalinist revolutionary model. In the post-war years, socialism became increasingly influential throughout the so-called Third World. Embracing a new Third World socialism, countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America often nationalised industries held by foreign owners. The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators, agitators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms on issues such as gay rights, abortion, gender roles and drugsCarmines, Edward G., and Geoffrey C. Layman. 1997. "Issue Evolution in Postwar American Politics." In Byron Shafer, ed., Present Discontents. NJ:Chatham House Publishers. in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist approach to social justice and focused mostly on labour unionisation and questions of social class.BOOK, Cynthia Kaufman, Ideas for Action: Relevant Theory for Radical Change,weblink 2003, South End Press, 978-0-89608-693-7, 275, Todd Gitlin, "The Left's Lost Universalism". In Arthur M. Melzer, Jerry Weinberger and M. Richard Zinman, eds., Politics at the Turn of the Century, pp. 3–26 (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).JOURNAL, Farred, Grant, Grant Farred, 2000, Endgame Identity? Mapping the New Left Roots of Identity Politics, New Literary History, 31, 4, 627–48, 20057628, 10.1353/nlh.2000.0045, The New Left rejected involvement with the labour movement and Marxism's historical theory of class struggle.Jeffrey W. Coker. Confronting American Labor: The New Left Dilemma. Univ of Missouri Press, 2002.In the United States, the New Left was associated with the Hippie movement and anti-war college campus protest movements as well as the black liberation movements such as the Black Panther Party.BOOK, Pearson, Hugh, In the Shadow of the Panther: Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America, 1994, Perseus Books, 978-0-201-48341-3, 152, While initially formed in opposition to the "Old Left" Democratic Party, groups composing the New Left gradually became central players in the Democratic coalition. The protests of 1968 represented a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterised by popular rebellions against military, capitalist and bureaucratic elites who responded with an escalation of political repression. These protests marked a turning point for the civil rights movement in the United States, which produced revolutionary movements like the Black Panther Party; the prominent civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. organised the "Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice,BOOK, The Other American: The Life of Michael Harrington, Isserman, Maurice, 281, 978-1-58648-036-3, Public Affairs, 2001, while personally showing sympathy with democratic socialism."There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism."BOOK, Liberating Visions: Human Fulfillment and Social Justice in African-American Thought, Franklin, Robert Michael, 125, Fortress Press, 1990, 978-0-8006-2392-0, In reaction to the Tet Offensive, protests also sparked a broad movement in opposition to the Vietnam War all over the United States and even into London, Paris, Berlin and Rome. Mass socialist or communist movements grew not only in the United States, but also in most European countries. The most spectacular manifestation of this were the May 1968 protests in France in which students linked up with strikes of up to ten million workers and for a few days the movement seemed capable of overthrowing the government. In many other capitalist countries, struggles against dictatorships, state repression and colonisation were also marked by protests in 1968, such as the beginning of the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico City and the escalation of guerrilla warfare against the military dictatorship in Brazil. Countries governed by communist parties had protests against bureaucratic and military elites. In Eastern Europe there were widespread protests that escalated particularly in the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia. In response, Soviet Union occupied Czechoslovakia, but the occupation was denounced by the Italian and FrenchWEB, Devlin, Kevin, Open Society Archives, Western CPs Condemn Invasion, Hail Prague Spring,weblink 20 February 2008, {{Dead link|date=November 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} communist parties and the Communist Party of Finland.

Late 20th century

In Latin America in the 1960s, a socialist tendency within the catholic church appeared which was called liberation theologyRichard P. McBrien, Catholicism (Harper Collins, 1994), chapter IV."One manifestation of this connection was liberation theology – sometimes characterised as an attempt to marry Marx and Jesus – which emerged among Roman Catholic theologians in Latin America in the 1960s." "socialism" at Encyclopedia Britannica Online. In Chile, Salvador Allende, a physician and candidate for the Socialist Party of Chile, was elected president through democratic elections in 1970. In 1973, his government was ousted by the United States-backed military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, which lasted until the late 1980s.NEWS,weblink BBC, Profile of Salvador Allende, 8 September 2003, Pinochet's regime was a leader of Operation Condor, a U.S.-backed campaign of repression and state terrorism carried out by the intelligence services of the Southern Cone countries of Latin America to eliminate suspected Communist subversion.BOOK, Blakeley, Ruth, 2009, State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South,weblink Routledge, 22 & 23, 978-0415686174, Mark Aarons (2007). "Justice Betrayed: Post-1945 Responses to Genocide." In David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (eds). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. {{ISBN|9004156917}} pp. 71BOOK, McSherry, J. Patrice, J. Patrice McSherry, Esparza, Marcia, Henry R. Huttenbach, Daniel Feierstein, State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: The Cold War Years (Critical Terrorism Studies), Chapter 5: "Industrial repression" and Operation Condor in Latin America, 107, Routledge, 2011, 978-0-415-66457-8,weblink In Jamaica, the democratic socialistWEB,weblink Michael Manley: nation-builder, Robert Buddan, Jamaica Gleaner, 8 March 2009, 11 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 January 2012, dmy-all, Michael Manley served as the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1992. According to opinion polls, he remains one of Jamaica's most popular Prime Ministers since independence.WEB,weblink Where Would Jamaica Be Without Michael Manley?, Jamaica Gleaner, 12 August 2012, 11 March 2013, File:Salvador Allende 2.jpg|thumb|upright=0.85|Salvador Allende, President of Chile and member of the Socialist Party of Chile, whose presidency and life was ended by a CIA-backed military coupBOOK, A Brief History of Neoliberalism, David Harvey (geographer), Harvey, David, 978-0199283279, Oxford University PressOxford University PressEurocommunism was a trend in the 1970s and 1980s in various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant for a Western European country and less aligned to the influence or control of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Outside Western Europe, it is sometimes called neocommunism.WEB, Webster, Dictionary, Definition of Eurocommunism,weblink Dictionary Entry, Webster's Dictionary, 9 April 2013, Some communist parties with strong popular support, notably the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) adopted Eurocommunism most enthusiastically and the Communist Party of Finland was dominated by Eurocommunists. The French Communist Party (PCF) and many smaller parties strongly opposed Eurocommunism and stayed aligned with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union until the end of the Soviet Union. In the late 1970s and in the 1980s, the Socialist International (SI) had extensive contacts and discussion with the two powers of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union, about East-West relations and arms control. Since then, the SI has admitted as member parties the Nicaraguan FSLN, the left-wing Puerto Rican Independence Party, as well as former communist parties such as the Democratic Party of the Left of Italy and the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO). The SI aided social democratic parties in re-establishing themselves when dictatorship gave way to democracy in Portugal (1974) and Spain (1975). Until its 1976 Geneva Congress, the SI had few members outside Europe and no formal involvement with Latin America.The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of South America, Routledge, 1989 The Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) was founded in 1983, Michael Harrington and socialist-feminist author Barbara Ehrenreich were elected as co-chairs of the organization. The organization does not stand its own candidates in elections but instead "fights for reforms... that will weaken the power of corporations and increase the power of working people".WEB, About DSA,weblink Democratic Socialists of America, 5 June 2017, abtdsa, The Panhellenic Socialist Movement was a social-democratic{{Citation |first1=Dionyssis G. |last1=Dimitrakopoulos |first2=Argyris G. |last2=Passas |title=The Panhellenic Socialist Movement and European integration: The primacy of the leader |work=Social democracy and European integration |publisher=Taylor & Francis |year=2011 |pages=117–156 |url=}}BOOK, Dimitri Almeida, The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus,weblink 2012, Routledge, 978-0-415-69374-5, 61, political party in Greece. PASOK was founded in Greece on 3 September 1974 by Andreas Papandreou as a democratic socialist and left-wing nationalist party,WEB, el:Καταστατικό ΠΑΣΟΚ,weblink ΠΑΣΟΚ, 10 June 2014, Greek, PDF, following the collapse of the military junta of 1967–1974. As a result of the 1981 legislative election, PASOK became Greece's first left-of-centre party to win a majority in the Hellenic Parliament. Mikhail Gorbachev wished to move the Soviet Union towards of Nordic-style social democracy, calling it "a socialist beacon for all mankind".Klein, Naomi (2008). (The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism). Picador. {{ISBN|0312427999}} p. 276Philip Whyman, Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen (2012). The Political Economy of the European Social Model (Routledge Studies in the European Economy). Routledge. {{ISBN|0415476291}} p. 108
  • "In short, Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model." Prior to its dissolution in 1991, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy in the world after the United States.WEB,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, 9 March 2008, 1990 CIA World Factbook, With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economic integration of the Soviet republics was dissolved and overall industrial activity declined substantially.Oldfield, J.D. (2000) Structural economic change and the natural environment in the Russian Federation. Post-Communist Economies, 12(1): 77–90 A lasting legacy remains in the physical infrastructure created during decades of combined industrial production practices, and widespread environmental destruction.BOOK,weblink Troubled Lands: The Legacy of Soviet Environmental Destruction (A Rand Research Study), D. J. Peterson, 1993, Westview Press, 978-0813316741, 3 April 2016, The transition to capitalism in the former Eastern bloc was accompanied by a steep fall in the standard of living; poverty and inequality rose sharply which was accompanied by the entrenchment of a newly established business oligarchy.BOOK, Scheidel, Walter, Walter Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2017, 978-0691165028, 51 & 222–223, JOURNAL, 10.1080/05775132.2015.1012402, After the Wall Fell: The Poor Balance Sheet of the Transition to Capitalism, Challenge (economics magazine), Challenge, 58, 2, 135–138, 2015, Milanović, Branko, Branko Milanović,
Many social democratic parties, particularly after the Cold War, adopted neoliberal market policies including privatisation, deregulation and financialisation. They abandoned their pursuit of moderate socialism in favour of market liberalism. By the 1980s, with the rise of conservative neoliberal politicians such as Ronald Reagan in the United States, Margaret Thatcher in Britain, Brian Mulroney in Canada and Augusto Pinochet in Chile, the Western welfare state was attacked from within, but state support for the corporate sector was maintained.Gary Teeple (2000). Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform: Into the Twenty-first Century. {{webarchive|url=|date=4 September 2015}}. University of Toronto Press. p. 47. {{ISBN|978-1-55193-026-8}} Monetarists and neoliberals attacked social welfare systems as impediments to private entrepreneurship. In the United Kingdom, Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock made a public attack against the entryist group Militant at the 1985 Labour Party conference. The Labour Party ruled that Militant was ineligible for affiliation with the Labour Party, and the party gradually expelled Militant supporters. The Kinnock leadership had refused to support the 1984–1985 miner's strike over pit closures, a decision that the party's left wing and the National Union of Mineworkers blamed for the strike's eventual defeat. In 1989 at Stockholm, the 18th Congress of the Socialist International adopted a new Declaration of Principles, saying: Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom, social justice, and solidarity. Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents, and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society.Socialist International – Progressive Politics For A Fairer World {{webarchive|url=|date=22 February 2008}}In the 1990s, the British Labour Party under Tony Blair enacted policies based on the free market economy to deliver public services via the private finance initiative. Influential in these policies was the idea of a "Third Way" which called for a re-evalutation of welfare state policies.Jane Lewis, Rebecca Surender. Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 3–4, 16. In 1995, the Labour Party re-defined its stance on socialism by re-wording Clause IV of its constitution, effectively rejecting socialism by removing all references to public, direct worker or municipal ownership of the means of production. The Labour Party stated: "The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that, by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create, for each of us, the means to realise our true potential, and, for all of us, a community in which power, wealth, and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few".WEB,weblink Labour Party Clause Four,, 30 October 2008, 2 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2007, The triumphalist attitudes of Western powers at the end of the Cold War, and the fixation with linking all leftist and socialist ideals with the excesses of Stalinism, allowed neoliberalism to fill the void, which undermined democratic institutions and reforms, leaving a trail of economic misery, unemployment, hopelessness and rising economic inequality throughout the former Eastern Bloc and much of the West in the following decades. According to Kristen R. Ghodsee, with democracy weakened and the anti-capitalist Left marginalised, the anger and resentment which followed the period of neoliberalism was channeled into extremist nationalist movements in both the former and the latter.BOOK, Ghodsee, Kristen, 2017, Red Hangover: Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism,weblink Duke University Press, xix–xx, 134, 197–200, 978-0822369493, Kristen R. Ghodsee, JOURNAL, Ghodsee, Kristen R., 4, 2, 115–142, A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism, History of the Present, 2014,weblink 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115, In addition to the desire for historical exculpation, however, I argue that the current push for commemorations of the victims of communism must be viewed in the context of regional fears of a re-emergent left. In the face of growing economic instability in the Eurozone, as well as massive anti- austerity protests on the peripheries of Europe, the “victims of communism” narrative may be linked to a public relations effort to link all leftist political ideals to the horrors of Stalinism. Such a rhetorical move seems all the more potent when discursively combined with the idea that there is a moral equivalence between Jewish victims of the Holocaust and East European victims of Stalinism. This third coming of the German Historikerstreit is related to the precariousness of global capitalism, and perhaps the elite desire to discredit all political ideologies that threaten the primacy of private property and free markets., 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115,

21st century

The Progressive Alliance is a political international founded on 22 May 2013 by political parties, the majority of whom are current or former members of the Socialist International. The organisation states the aim of becoming the global network of "the progressive", democratic, social-democratic, socialist and labour movement".WEB,weblink Basic document | Progressive Alliance,, 23 May 2013, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-05-23, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2014, dmy-all,


African socialism has been and continues to be a major ideology around the continent. In South Africa the African National Congress (ANC) abandoned its partial socialist allegiances after taking power and followed a standard neoliberal route. From 2005 through to 2007, the country was wracked by many thousands of protests from poor communities. One of these gave rise to a mass movement of shack dwellers, Abahlali baseMjondolo that despite major police suppression continues to work for popular people's planning and against the creation of a market economy in land and housing.


In Japan, the Japanese Communist Party does not advocate violent revolution, instead it proposes a "democratic revolution" to achieve "democratic change in politics and the economy". There has been a resurgent interest in the Japanese Communist Party among workers and youth due to the financial crisis of the late-2000s.NEWS, Demetriou, Danielle,weblink Japan's young turn to Communist Party as they decide capitalism has let them down,, 17 October 2008, 30 October 2011, London, "Communism on rise in recession-hit Japan", BBC, 4 May 2009In Malaysia, the Socialist Party of Malaysia got its first Member of Parliament, Dr. Jeyakumar Devaraj, after the 2008 general election. In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel. Their factories and farms account for 9% of Israel's industrial output, worth US$8 billion and 40% of its agricultural output, worth over $1.7 billion.WEB,weblink Kibbutz reinvents itself after 100 years of history,, Some Kibbutzim had also developed substantial high-tech and military industries. Also in 2010, Kibbutz Sasa, containing some 200 members, generated $850 million in annual revenue from its military-plastics industry.Bulletproof Innovation: Kibbutz-Owned Plasan Sasa's Ikea-Style, Flat-Pack Armor Kits, Nadav Shemer, Fast Company.


The United Nations World Happiness Report 2013 shows that the happiest nations are concentrated in Northern Europe, where the Nordic model of social democracy is employed, with Denmark topping the list. This is at times attributed to the success of the Nordic model in the region. The Nordic countries ranked highest on the metrics of real GDP per capita, healthy life expectancy, having someone to count on, perceived freedom to make life choices, generosity and freedom from corruption.Carolyn Gregoire (10 September 2013). The Happiest Countries In The World (INFOGRAPHIC). The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2013. Indeed, the indicators of Freedom in the World have listed Scandinavian countries as ranking high on indicators such as press and economic freedom. The objectives of the Party of European Socialists, the European Parliament's socialist and social democratic bloc, are now "to pursue international aims in respect of the principles on which the European Union is based, namely principles of freedom, equality, solidarity, democracy, respect of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and respect for the Rule of Law". As a result, today the rallying cry of the French Revolution—Liberté, égalité, fraternité—is promoted as essential socialist values.R Goodin and P Pettit (eds), A Companion to Contemporary political philosophy To the left of the PES at the European level is the Party of the European Left (PEL), also commonly abbreviated "European Left"), which is a political party at the European level and an association of democratic socialist, socialistWEB, Nordsieck, Wolfram,weblink Parties and Elections in Europe,, and communist political parties in the European Union and other European countries. It was formed in January 2004 for the purposes of running in the 2004 European Parliament elections. PEL was founded on 8–9 May 2004 in Rome.BOOK, Hudson, Kate, The New European Left: A Socialism for the Twenty-First Century?,weblink 19 June 2012, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1-137-26511-1, 46, Elected MEPs from member parties of the European Left sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) group in the European parliament. The socialist Left Party in Germany grew in popularityWEB,weblink Germany's Left Party woos the SPD,, 15 February 2008, 2 June 2010, due to dissatisfaction with the increasingly neoliberal policies of the SPD, becoming the fourth biggest party in parliament in the general election on 27 September 2009.WEB,weblink Germany: Left makes big gains in poll | Green Left Weekly,, 10 October 2009, 30 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2009, dmy-all, Communist candidate Dimitris Christofias won a crucial presidential runoff in Cyprus, defeating his conservative rival with a majority of 53%.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, Nation and World News – El Paso Times, 30 May 2012, 30 May 2012, In Denmark, the Socialist People's Party (SF) more than doubled its parliamentary representation to 23 seats from 11, making it the fourth largest party.NEWS,weblink Danish centre-right wins election, BBC News, 14 November 2007, 30 October 2011, In 2011, the Social Democrats, Socialist People's Party and the Danish Social Liberal Party formed government, after a slight victory over the main rival political coalition. They were led by Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and had the Red-Green Alliance as a supporting party. In Norway, the Red-Green Coalition consists of the Labour Party (Ap), the Socialist Left Party (SV) and the Centre Party (Sp) and governed the country as a majority government from the 2005 general election until 2013. In the Greek legislative election of January 2015, the Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) led by Alexis Tsipras won a legislative election for the first time while the Communist Party of Greece won 15 seats in parliament. SYRIZA has been characterised as an anti-establishment party,WEB,weblink Global Daily – Europe's political risks, ABN AMRO Insights, whose success has sent "shock-waves across the EU".WEB,weblink Anti-establishment parties defy EU, BBC News, File:Jeremy Corbyn leadership election rally August 2016.jpg|thumb|right|Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the UK Labour Party who won with a platform of rejection of Third Way "BlairiteBlairiteIn the United Kingdom, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers put forward a slate of candidates in the 2009 European Parliament elections under the banner of No to EU – Yes to Democracy, a broad left-wing alter-globalisation coalition involving socialist groups such as the Socialist Party, aiming to offer an alternative to the "anti-foreigner" and pro-business policies of the UK Independence Party.NEWS, Wheeler, Brian,weblink Crow launches NO2EU euro campaign, BBC News, 22 May 2009, 30 October 2011, WEB,weblink Exclusive: Tommy Sheridan to stand for Euro elections, The Daily Record, 30 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 27 September 2011, Conference: Crisis in Working Class Representation, RMT, 30 October 2011, In the following May 2010 United Kingdom general election, the Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition, launched in January 2010WEB,weblink Launch of Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition,, 12 January 2010, 30 October 2011, and backed by Bob Crow, the leader of the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers union (RMT), other union leaders and the Socialist Party among other socialist groups, stood against Labour in 40 constituencies.NEWS, Mulholland, Hélène,weblink Hard left Tusc coalition to stand against Labour in 40 constituencies, Guardian, 27 March 2010, 30 October 2011, London, WEB,weblink Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition, TUSC, 30 October 2011, The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition contested the 2011 local elections, having gained the endorsement of the RMT June 2010 conference, but gained no seats.WEB,weblink How do we vote to stop the cuts?, Socialist Party, 30 October 2011, Left Unity was also founded in 2013 after the film director Ken Loach appealed for a new party of the left to replace the Labour Party, which he claimed had failed to oppose austerity and had shifted towards neoliberalism.WEB, The Labour party has failed us. We need a new party of the left,weblink The Guardian, 4 December 2013, 25 March 2013, WEB, Seymour, Richard, Left Unity: A Report From The Founding Conference,weblink, New Left Project, 3 March 2015, WEB,weblink 'Left Unity' a New Radical Political Party of the Left, 4 December 2013, WEB,weblink RT News reports on Left Unity's founding conference, 4 December 2013, In 2015, following a defeat at the 2015 United Kingdom general election, self-described socialist Jeremy Corbyn took over from Ed Miliband as leader of the Labour Party.NEWS,weblink Jeremy Corbyn's policies: how will he lead Labour?, 12 September 2015, The Week, UK, In France, Olivier Besancenot, the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) candidate in the 2007 presidential election, received 1,498,581 votes, 4.08%, double that of the communist candidate.WEB,weblink Has France moved to the right?, Socialism Today, 30 October 2011, The LCR abolished itself in 2009 to initiate a broad anti-capitalist party, the New Anticapitalist Party, whose stated aim is to "build a new socialist, democratic perspective for the twenty-first century".NEWS,weblink Le Nouveau parti anticapitaliste d'Olivier Besancenot est lancé, Agence France-Presse, 29 June 2008, 2018-09-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-02-13, yes, On 25 May 2014, the Spanish left-wing party Podemos entered candidates for the 2014 European parliamentary elections, some of which were unemployed. In a surprise result, it polled 7.98% of the vote and thus was awarded five seats out of 54Sky news:Spanish voters punish mainstream parties {{webarchive|url= |date=9 December 2014 }}WEB,weblink Vote 2014,, while the older United Left was the third largest overall force obtaining 10.03% and 5 seats, 4 more than the previous elections.WEB, Estado, Boletín Oficial del,weblink Acuerdo de la Junta Electoral Central, por el que se procede a la publicación de los resultados de las elecciones de Diputados al Parlamento Europeo, Boletín Oficial del Estado, 12 June 2014, The current government of Portugal was established on 26 November 2015 as a Socialist Party (PS) minority government led by prime minister António Costa. Costa succeeded in securing support for a Socialist minority government by the Left Bloc (B.E.), the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP) and the Ecologist Party "The Greens" (PEV).WEB, Presidente da República indicou Secretário-Geral do PS para Primeiro-Ministro, Presidência da República,weblink 24 November 2015, 4 December 2015, pt,

The Americas and Oceania

{{see also|History of the socialist movement in the United States|Socialism in Canada}}File:Sanders presidential campaign kickoff, May 2015 Bernie Sanders (24947900505).jpg|thumb|upright=0.85|Bernie Sanders, junior Senator of Vermont and self-described democratic socialist, at his 2016 presidential campaign kickoff in May 2015]]According to a 2013 article in The Guardian, "[c]ontrary to popular belief, Americans don't have an innate allergy to socialism. Milwaukee has had several socialist mayors (Frank Zeidler, Emil Seidel and Daniel Hoan), and there is currently an independent socialist in the US Senate, Bernie Sanders of Vermont".Paul, Ari (19 November 2013). Seattle's election of Kshama Sawant shows socialism can play in America. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2014. Sanders, once mayor of Vermont's largest city, Burlington, has described himself as a democratic socialistWEB, Lerer, Lisa,weblink Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?, 16 July 2009, 19 April 2010, The Politico, WEB, Powell, Michael,weblink Exceedingly Social But Doesn't Like Parties, 6 November 2006, 26 November 2012, and has praised Scandinavian-style social democracy.Sanders, Bernie (26 May 2013). What Can We Learn From Denmark? The Huffington Post. Retrieved 19 August 2013.Sasha Issenberg (9 January 2010). "Sanders a growing force on the far, far left". Boston Globe. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  • "You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs." – Bernie Sanders In 2016, Sanders made a bid for the Democratic Party presidential candidate, thereby gaining considerable popular support, particularly among the younger generation, but lost the nomination to Hillary Clinton. In Canada, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), the precursor to the social democratic New Democratic Party (NDP), had significant success in provincial politics. In 1944, the Saskatchewan CCF formed the first socialist government in North America. At the federal level, the NDP was the Official Opposition, from 2011 through 2015.WEB,weblink PARTY STANDINGS 41st Parliament seats,
For the Encyclopedia Britannica, "the attempt by Salvador Allende to unite Marxists and other reformers in a socialist reconstruction of Chile is most representative of the direction that Latin American socialists have taken since the late 20th century. [...] Several socialist (or socialist-leaning) leaders have followed Allende's example in winning election to office in Latin American countries". Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, Bolivian President Evo Morales and Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa refer to their political programmes as socialist and Chávez adopted the term "socialism of the 21st century". After winning re-election in December 2006, Chávez said: "Now more than ever, I am obliged to move Venezuela's path towards socialism".Many Venezuelans Uncertain About Chávez' '21st century Socialism' {{webarchive |url= |date=12 July 2007 }} Chávez was also reelected in October 2012 for his third six-year term as President, but he died in March 2013 from cancer. After Chávez's death on 5 March 2013, Vice President from Chavez's party Nicolás Maduro assumed the powers and responsibilities of the President. A special election was held on 14 April of the same year to elect a new President, which Maduro won by a tight margin as the candidate of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela and he was formally inaugurated on 19 April."Nicolas Maduro sworn in as new Venezuelan president". BBC News. 19 April 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013. "Pink tide" is a term being used in contemporary 21st-century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception that leftist ideology in general and left-wing politics in particular are increasingly influential in Latin America.NEWS, Gross, Neil,weblink The many stripes of anti-Americanism – The Boston Globe,, 14 January 2007, 30 October 2011, NEWS,weblink South America's leftward sweep, BBC News, 2 March 2005, 30 October 2011, WEB, McNickle, Colin,weblinkweblink yes, 16 May 2016, Latin America's 'pragmatic' pink tide – Pittsburgh Tribune-Review,, 6 March 2005, 30 October 2011, File:Fórum Social Mundial 2008 - AL.jpg|thumb|Presidents Fernando Lugo of Paraguay, Evo Morales of Bolivia, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil, Rafael Correa of Ecuador and Hugo Chávez of Venezuela in World Social ForumWorld Social ForumForo de São Paulo is a conference of leftist political parties and other organisations from Latin America and the Caribbean. It was launched by the Workers' Party () of Brazil in 1990 in the city of São Paulo. The Forum of São Paulo was constituted in 1990 when the Brazilian Workers' Party approached other parties and social movements of Latin America and the Caribbean with the objective of debating the new international scenario after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the consequences of the implementation of what were taken as neoliberal policies adopted at the time by contemporary right-leaning governments in the region, the stated main objective of the conference being to argue for alternatives to neoliberalism.Cf. Carlos Baraibar & José Bayardi: "Foro de San Pablo ¿qué es y cuál es su historia?", 23 August 2000, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 13 February 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 March 2016, Among its member include current socialist and social-democratic parties currently in government in the region such as Bolivia's Movement for Socialism, Brazil's Workers Party, the Ecuadorian PAIS Alliance, the Venezuelan United Socialist Party of Venezuela, the Socialist Party of Chile, the Uruguayan Broad Front, the Nicaraguan Sandinista National Liberation Front and the salvadorean Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front.Australia has seen a recent increase in interest of socialism in recent years, especially amongst youth.WEB,weblink Poll shows 58% of 'Millennials' in Australia favourable to socialism, Boyle, Peter, Green Left Wiki, 22/08/2018, It is strongest in Victoria, where three socialist parties have merged into the Victorian Socialists, who aim to address problems in housing and public transportation. New Zealand has a small socialist scene, mainly dominated by Trotskyist groups. The current prime minister Jacinda Ardern has publicly condemned capitalism but describes herself as a social democrat. Melanesian Socialism developed in the 1980s, inspired by African Socialism. It aims to achieve full independence from Britain and France in Melanesian territories and creation of a Melanesian federal union. It is very popular with the New Caledonia independence movement.{{cn|date=August 2018}}

Economic positions

Democratic socialists have promoted a variety of different models of socialism ranging from market socialism where socially-owned enterprises operate in competitive markets and are in some cases self-managed by their workforce to non-market participatory socialism based on decentralized economic planning.BOOK, Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, Anderson and Herr, Gary L. and Kathryn G., SAGE Publications, 2007, 978-1412918121, 448, Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socializes the means of production, and in some versions, Workplace democracy, extends democracy to the workplace. Some holdout for a nonmarket, participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism., Historically, democratic socialism has been committed to a decentralized form of economic planning where productive units are integrated into a single organization and organized on the basis of self-management as opposed to Stalinist-style command planning.BOOK, Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism, Prychito, David L., July 31, 2002, Edward Elgar Publishing, 978-1840645194, 72, It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralized socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organization) would follow the workers' self-management principle., For example, Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas, both of whom were United States presidential candidates for the Socialist Party of America, understood socialism to be an economic system structured upon production for use and social ownership in place of the profit system and private ownership.The Socialist Party's Appeal, by Debs, Eugene. 1912. The Independent.SPEECH, Is the New Deal Socialism?, Thomas, Norman,weblink Chicago Democratic Socialists of America, 2 February 1936, 28 January 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2010, yes, dmy-all, Contemporary proponents of market socialism have argued that the major reasons for the economic shortcomings of Soviet-type planned economies was their failure to create rules and operational criteria for the efficient operation of state enterprises and the lack of democracy in the political systems that the Soviet-type economies were combined with.BOOK, Gregory and Stuart, Paul and Robert, Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First, South-Western College Pub, 2003, 0-618-26181-8, 152, socialism's contemporary supporters argue that planned socialism failed because it was based on totalitarianism rather than democracy and that it failed to create rules for the efficient operation of state enterprises.,

Parliamentary democratic socialist parties

{{see also|List of democratic socialist parties and organizations|List of democratic socialist parties which have governed}}The following is a list of socialist parties and democratic socialist parties around the world.
  • {{legend inline|FFFF00|a governing party (including as junior coalition partner)}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: center;"
!Party !Country !Date established !data-sort-type="number"|% of popular votein the latest election !data-sort-type="number"|Seats in the lower house(if bicameral)
Sandinista National Liberation FrontNicaragua}}|1961Nicaraguan general election, 2016>2016)71red|per=1}}
Movement for SocialismBolivia}}|1998Bolivian general election, 2014>2014)88red|per=1}}
PAIS AllianceEcuador}}|2006Ecuadorian general election, 2017>2017)74red|per=1}}
Labour Party (UK)>Labour PartyUnited Kingdom}}|1900United Kingdom general election, 2017>2017)262red|per=1}}
Socialist PartyPortugal}}|1973Portuguese legislative election, 2015>2015)86red|per=1}}
Inuit AtaqatigiitHTTP://WWW.PARTIES-AND-ELECTIONS.EU/GREENLAND.HTMLLAST=NORDSIECKWEBSITE=WWW.PARTIES-AND-ELECTIONS.EU, 2016-10-06, Greenland}}|1976Greenlandic general election, 2014>2014)11red|per=1}}
United Socialist PartyVenezuela}}|2007Venezuelan parliamentary election, 2015>2015)52red|per=1}}
Sinn FéinWHAT SINN FéIN STANDS FOR>URL=HTTP://WWW.SINNFEIN.IE/WHAT-SINN-FEIN-STANDS-FORPUBLISHER=SINN FéIN, Sinn Féin is a 32-County party striving for an end to partition on the island of Ireland and the establishment of a democratic socialist republic., Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Northern Ireland}}|1970Northern Ireland Assembly election, 2011>2011)29red|per=1}}
Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova>Party of SocialistsHTTP://WWW.PARTIES-AND-ELECTIONS.EU/MOLDOVA.HTML>TITLE=PARTIES AND ELECTIONS IN EUROPELAST=NORDSIECKACCESSDATE=9 NOVEMBER 2017, Moldova}}|1997Moldovan parliamentary election, 2014>2014)25red|per=1}}
Left-Green MovementWolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Iceland}}|1999Icelandic parliamentary election, 2017>2017)11red|per=1}}
Broad Front (Peru)>Broad FrontPeru}}|2013Peruvian general election, 2016>2016)20red|per=1}}
|Sinn Féin
Ireland}}|1970Irish general election, 2016>2016)23red|per=1}}
Workers' Party (Brazil)>Workers' PartyBrazil}}|1980Brazilian general election, 2014>2014)58red|per=1}}
Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey)>Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP)OZCELIK>FIRST1=BURCUURL=HTTP://CARNEGIEENDOWMENT.ORG/SADA/2015/06/11/WHAT-HDP-SUCCESS-MEANS-FOR-TURKEY/I9Q2CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE>DATE=11 JUNE 2015, The pro-Kurdish democratic socialist Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP)..., Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Turkey}}|2012Turkish general election, November 2015>11/2015)59red|per=1}}
The Left (Germany)>The Left (Die Linke)EVANS>FIRST1=ALEXURL=HTTP://WWW.THELOCAL.DE/20130916/51939DATE=16 SEPTEMBER 2013, Die Linke describe themselves as the party of democratic socialism..., Germany}}|2007German federal election, 2017>2017)69red|per=1}}
Socialist Party (Netherlands)>Socialist PartyNetherlands}}|1971Dutch general election, 2017>2017)14red|per=1}}
Socialist PartySerbia}}|1990Serbian parliamentary election, 2016>2016)20red|per=1}}
Red–Green Alliance (Denmark)>Red–Green AllianceDenmark}}|1989Danish general election, 2015>2015)14red|per=1}}
United Left (Slovenia)>United Left Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Slovenia}}|2014Slovenian parliamentary election, 2014>2014)6red|per=1}}
Left Alliance (Finland)>Left AllianceWolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Finland}}|1990Finnish parliamentary election, 2015>2015)12red|per=1}}
Left Party (Sweden)>Left PartySweden}}|1917Swedish general election, 2014>2014)21red|per=1}}
|Left Ecology Freedom/Italian LeftWolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
Italy}}|2010Italian general election, 2013>2013)37red|per=1}}
Croatian Labourists – Labour Party>Labourists – Labour PartyWolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Croatia}}|2010Croatian parliamentary election, 2011>2011)6red|per=1}}
Socialist Left Party (Norway)>Socialist LeftWolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Norway}}|1975Norwegian parliamentary election, 2013>2013)7red|per=1}}
The Left (Luxembourg)>The LeftWolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved on 30 December 2015.Luxembourg}}|1999Luxembourg general election, 2013>2013)2red|per=1}}
La France insoumiseHTTP://PARTIES-AND-ELECTIONS.EU/FRANCE.HTMLLAST=NORDSIECKDATE=2017, Parties and Elections in Europe, France}}|2016French legislative election, 2017>2017)17red|per=1}}
|Movement of Socialist Democrats
Tunisia}}|1978Tunisian parliamentary election, 2014>2014)1red|per=1}}

Notable self-described democratic socialists{{anchor|Notable democratic socialists}}


Heads of state

{{Div col}}
  • Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister of New Zealand (2017–present)WEB, Dann, Liam, Liam Dann: Not another Jacinda Ardern column,weblink NZ Herald, 10 November 2017, 6 August 2017,
  • António Costa, Prime Minister of the Republic of Portugal (2015–present)
  • Salvador Allende, President of Chile (1970–1973)BOOK, Patsouras, Louis, Marx in Context, 2005, iUniverse, 265, In Chile, where a large democratic socialist movement was in place for decades, a democratic socialist, Salvadore Allende, led a popular front electoral coalition, including Communists, to victory in 1970., BOOK, Medina, Eden, Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile, 2014, MIT Press, 39, Allende's democratic socialism., BOOK, Winn, Peter, Victims of the Chilean Miracle: Workers and Neoliberalism in the Pinochet Era, 1973–2002, 2004, Duke University Press, 16, The Allende government that Pinochet overthrew in 1973 had been elected in 1970 on a platform of pioneering a democratic road to a democratic socialism.,
  • Jacobo Árbenz, President of Guatemala (1951–1954)Stephen Schlesinger (June 3, 2011). Ghosts of Guatemala's Past. The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  • Clement Attlee, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1945–1951)BOOK, Morgan, Kenneth O., Kenneth O. Morgan, Britain Since 1945: The People's Peace, 2001, Oxford University Press, 111, The last years of Attlee's democratic socialist regime..., BOOK, Beech, Matt, Connelly, James, Hayward, Jack, The Withering of the Welfare State: Regression, The British Welfare State and its Discontents, 2012, Palgrave Macmillan, 90, Attlee's goal was a democratic socialist society...,
  • Michelle Bachelet, President of Chile (2006–2010, 2014–2018)BOOK, Livingston Hall, Anthony, The Ipinions Journal: Commentaries on Current Events, Volume 2, 2007, iUniverse, 18, Chileans elected Michelle Bachelet as their new president ... Because her advocacy of democratic socialism.,
  • David Ben-Gurion, Prime Minister of Israel (1948–1954, 1955–1963)BOOK, Gal, Allon, David Ben-Gurion and the American Alignment for a Jewish State, 1991, Indiana University Press, 216, Ben-Gurion, Zionist and socialist-democrat..., BOOK, Jones, Clive A., Soviet Jewish Aliyah, 1989-92: Impact and Implications for Israel and the Middle East, 2013, Routledge, 61, ...Mapai, the democratic socialist party of David Ben Gurion.,
  • Rómulo Betancourt, President of Venezuela (1945–1948, 1959–1964){{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan (1973–1977){{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Léon Blum, Prime Minister of France (1936–1937, 1938)NEWS, Cohen, Mitchell, Mitchell Cohen, 'Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist,' by Pierre Birnbaum,weblink New York Times, 12 June 2015, Blum declared that he was what Nazis "hated most, . . . a democratic socialist and a Jew.",
  • Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany (1969–1974)NEWS, Gress, David, Whatever Happened to Willy Brandt?,weblink Commentary (magazine), Commentary, 1 July 1983, BOOK, Sargent, Lyman, Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis, 2008, Cengage Learning, 118,
  • Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela (1999–2013)WEB, Hugo Chavez,weblink Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Campaigning as a democratic socialist, Chávez..., BOOK, Navarro, Armando, Global Capitalist Crisis and the Second Great Depression: Egalitarian Systemic Models for Change, 2012, Lexington Books, 299, – disputedBOOK, Munck, Ronaldo, Ronaldo Munck, Contemporary Latin America, 2012, Palgrave Macmillan, 119, In a broad historical sense Chávez has undoubtedly played a progressive role but he is clearly not a democratic socialist..., Patrick Iber "The Path to Democratic Socialism: Lessons from Latin America" Dissent] Spring 2016: "Most of the world's democratic socialist intellectuals have been skeptical of Latin America's examples [including Chavez and Correa), citing their authoritarian qualities and occasional cults of personality. To critics, the appropriate label for these governments is not socialism but populism."
  • Helen Clark, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1999–2008)BOOK, Brian, Edwards, Helen: Portrait of A Prime Minister, Auckland, Exisle Publishing, 2001, 0-908988-20-6,
  • Álvaro Colom, President of Guatemala (2008–2012)
  • Rafael Correa, President of Ecuador (2007–2017) – disputed
  • Alexander Dubček, leader of communist Czechoslovakia (1968–1969)
  • Peter Fraser, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1940–1949){{DNZB|Beaglehole|Tim|4f22|Fraser, Peter - Biography|12 September 2015}}
  • Mauricio Funes, President of El Salvador (2009–2014)
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet leader (1985–1991)NEWS, Sachs, Jeffrey, Jeffrey Sachs, 26 December 2011, Gorbachev and the Struggle for Democracy,weblink The Huffington Post, During his six years of rule, Gorbachev was intent on renovating Soviet socialism through peaceful and democratic means., WEB, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World by Mikhail S. Gorbachev,weblink, 1987, The more socialist democracy there is, the more socialism we will have., {{dead link |date=December 2016 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • Norman Kirk, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1972–1974){{DNZB|Bassett|Michael |5k12|Kirk, Norman Eric|8 November 2012||Michael Bassett}}
  • Fernando Lugo, President of Paraguay (2008–2012)
  • Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa (1994–1999)BOOK, Nelson Mandela, Benson, Mary, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1986, 9780140089417, 231–232, BOOK, Smith, David James, David James Smith, Young Mandela, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 2010, 978-0-297-85524-8, 231,
  • Michael Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica (1972–1980)NEWS, Taylor, Bruce M., 15 March 1989, In Jamaica, Manley's Success Will Be U.S. Gain,weblink New York Times, 17 September 2017,
  • François Mitterrand, President of France (1981–1995)BOOK, Riemer, Neal, Simon, Douglas, The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science, 1997, Rowman & Littlefield, 147, NEWS, Borsody, Stephen, In the wake of Francois Mitterrand's victory,weblink The New York Times, 29 May 1981, ...a democratic Socialist success, such as President Mitterrand's...,
  • Evo Morales, President of Bolivia (2006–present)
  • José Mujica, President of Uruguay (2010–2015)
  • Walter Nash, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1957–1960){{DNZB|Gustafson|Barry |4n2|Nash, Walter|26 August 2013||Barry Gustafson}}
  • Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India (1947–1964)BOOK, Moraes, Frank, Jawaharlal Nehru, 2007, Jaico Publishing House, 187, BOOK, Powers, Roger S., Vogele, William B., Bond, Douglas, Kruegler, Christopher, Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from Act-Up to Women's Suffrage, 1997, Taylor & Francis, 9781136764820, 347,
  • Daniel Ortega, President of Nicaragua (1985–1990, 2007–present)
  • José Ramos-Horta, President of East Timor (2007–2012)BOOK, Hoadley, J. Stephen, The Future of Portuguese Timor, 1975, Institute of Southeast Asian, 25, Ramos Horta during his December 1974 trip to Australia was careful to distinguish between Fretilin and Frelimo, arguing that his own party was a democratic socialist party....,
  • Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden (1969–1976, 1982–1986)BOOK, Hanhimäki, Jussi M., Westad, Odd Arne, The Cold War: A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, 2004, Oxford University Press, 441, Palme: Why I am a Democratic Socialist, 1982.,
  • Basdeo Panday, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1995–2001){{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Pedro Sánchez, Prime Minister of Spain (2018-present){{cn|date=August 2018}}
  • Salvador Sánchez Cerén, President of El Salvador (2014–present){{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Michael Joseph Savage, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1935–1940){{DNZB|Gustafson|Barry|4S9|Savage, Michael Joseph - Biography|11 December 2011||Barry Gustafson}}
  • Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, President of Brazil (2003–2011)
  • Sutan Sjahrir, Prime Minister of Indonesia (1945–1947)BOOK, Anwar, Rosihan, Sutan Sjahrir: True Democrat, Fighter for Humanity, 1909–1966, 2010, Penerbit Buku Kompas, 115, Sjahrir...called the ideology he had thought up and that he followed 'democratic socialism'...(sosialisme kerakyatan).,
  • Kalevi Sorsa, Prime Minister of Finland (1972–1975, 1977–1979, 1982–1987)WEB, Astikainen, Arto, Kalevi Sorsa (21.12.1930 - 16.1.2004),weblink Helsingin Sanomat, 20 January 2004, "We already are in democratic socialism. It will never be much different from this", Sorsa had said ten years earlier., {{Dead link|date=November 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • Alexis Tsipras, Prime Minister of Greece (2015)NEWS, Stone, Jon, Syriza: Everything you need to know about Greece's new Marxist governing party,weblink The Independent, 26 January 2015, ...a democratic socialist group Synaspismós, which current Syriza leader Alexis Tsipras led.,
  • Tabaré Vázquez, President of Uruguay (2005–2010, 2015–present)
  • Gough Whitlam, Prime Minister of (Australia 1972–1975){{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
{{Div col end}}

Other politicians

  • Karl Barth, Swiss Protestant theologian (1886–1968)
  • Niki Ashton, Canadian Member of Parliament for Churchill—Keewatinook Aski in Manitoba and leadership candidate in the New Democratic Party leadership election, 2017
  • Tony Benn, leading British Labour politicianBOOK, Political Ideology Today, Adams, Ian, 1993, Manchester University Press, 139, Tony Benn's socialism is distinctive in the importance he places in combining socialism with radical democracy., WEB,weblink Tony Benn: Committed Democratic Socialist, 22 April 2014, Transnational Institute,
  • Aneurin Bevan, father of the National Health ServiceBOOK, Duncan Hall, A2 Government and Politics: Ideologies and Ideologies in Action,weblink, 978-1-4477-3399-7, 46, 2011,
  • Lee Carter, elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 2017WEB,weblink How a Socialist Beat One of Virginia's Most Powerful Republicans, 9 November 2017,
  • Jeremy Corbyn, leader of the British Labour Party and leader of the Opposition (2015–present)WEB,weblink How Jeremy Corbyn Would Govern Britain, Calamur, Krishnadev, 18 August 2015,, 17 September 2017,
  • James Connolly, Irish revolutionary{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Eugene V. Debs, American union leader, five-times presidential candidate of the Socialist Party of America{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Tommy Douglas, Canadian politician, father of medicareWEB,weblink Tommy Douglas, Lovick, L.D., September 30, 2013, The Canadian Encyclopedia,
  • Michael Harrington, founder of Democratic Socialists of America
  • Obafemi Awolowo, founder of Action Group and First Premier of Western Regional Government, Nigeria]weblink
  • Denis Healey, British Labour politicianNEWS, Ryan, Craig, I'm no Bennite. But I'm increasingly tempted by Jeremy Corbyn,weblink 29 December 2015, New Statesman, 17 August 2015, NEWS, Dabby, George, Interview: Denis Healey,weblink 30 December 2015, York Vision, 29 April 2014, NEWS, HEALEY, Denis Winston (b.1917).,weblink 30 December 2015, History of Parliament,
  • Ken Livingstone, Mayor of London 2000–2008BOOK, Hill, Dave, Marxism Against Postmodernism in Educational Theory, 2002, Lexington Books, 188, Tony Benn and Ken Livingstone can be depicted as two of the leaders of the democratic socialist (or 'hard') left...,
  • Bernie Sanders, U.S. Senator from Vermont, self-described democratic socialistNEWS, Bierman, Noah, Bernie Sanders seeks to pull Democrats left in 2016 primary,weblink The Boston Globe, 12 April 2014, The lawmaker, who is possibly the most liberal of all members of Congress — and the only one to call himself a democratic socialist...,
  • Kshama Sawant, Seattle City Council memberNEWS, Jamieson, Dave, Meet The Fist-Shaking Socialist Behind America's Highest Minimum Wage,weblink The Huffington Post, 6 May 2015, ...identifies as a member of Socialist Alternative, an anti-capitalist, democratic-socialist party.,
  • Dennis Skinner, British Labour politician{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Norman Thomas, six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Neil Kinnock (self-described, in opposition to SDP defectors)BOOK, Richard Heffernan, Mike Marqusee, Defeat from the Jaws of Victory: Inside Kinnock's Labour Party,weblink 1992, Verso, 978-0-86091-561-4, 42,

Intellectuals and activists

{{Div col|colwidth=}}
  • Billy Bragg
  • Bertrand Russell, British philosopherBOOK, Bertrand Russell: A Political Life, Alan Ryan, Macmillan, 1981, 9780374528201, 87, None the less Russell joined the ILP [Independent Labour Party] and declared himself a democratic socialist, then and thereafter.,
  • John Dewey{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Barbara Ehrenreich{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Albert Einstein, German-born physicistBOOK, Isaacson, Walter, Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe, 2007, Simon & Schuster, 9780743264747, For the rest of his life Einstein would expound a democratic socialism that had a liberal, anti—authoritarian underpinning., BOOK, Calaprice, Alice, Lipscombe, Trevor, Albert Einstein: A Biography, 2005, Greenwood, 9780313330803, 61, He committed himself to the democratic- socialist goals that became popular among intellectuals in Europe at the time., who wrote about his political views in a 1949 article titled Why Socialism?
  • Erich Fromm{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Michael Harrington{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Christopher HitchensWEB, Intellect, Manufacturing, Christopher Hitchens interview on the Clintons (1999),weblink YouTube, YouTube, 14 October 2018,
  • Mary Harris Jones{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Mario Bunge{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Owen JonesJones, Owen (OwenJones84). "Modern capitalism is a sham, and why democratic socialism is our only hope" 30 October 2015, 3:41 AM
  • Helen Keller{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., African-American civil rights leaderJOURNAL, Sturm, Douglas, Martin Luther King, Jr., as Democratic Socialist, The Journal of Religious Ethics, 1990, 18, 2, 79–105, 40015109, The essay argues that King was in fact a democratic socialist..., NEWS, Osagyefo Uhuru Sekou, The radical gospel of Martin Luther King,weblink Al Jazeera, 20 January 2014, King's democratic socialism..., NEWS, Hendricks, Obery M., The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King Jr.,weblink The Huffington Post, 20 January 2014, For King the answer was democratic socialism.,
  • Naomi KleinChris Nineham (2007). The Shock Doctrine Book Review. Socialist Review. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
  • Rosa Luxemburg{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Lawrence O'Donnell, American political analyst{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • George Orwell, English novelistBOOK, Selected Writings, Orwell, George, George, Bott, 1968, 1958, Heinemann, London, 0-435-13675-5, 103, Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it. [italics from printed source],
  • Andrei Sakharov, Soviet physicist, dissident and human rights activistWEB, Andrei Sakharov,weblink Spartacus Educational, He also advocated the integration of the communist and capitalist systems to form what he called democratic socialism.,
  • Roger WatersWEB, Greene, Andy, Roger Waters on 'The Wall,' Socialism and His Next Concept Album,weblink Rolling Stone, 17 May 2016,
  • Harry S. Weeks IV, notable political activist and founder of the Wheeling, West-Virginia, Democratic-Socialist Union
  • Cornel West{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Richard D. Wolff"Young Democratic Socialists: Interview With Professor Richard Wolff" {{Webarchive|url= |date=2015-09-09 }}. Retrieved on 30 December 2015.
  • Howard Zinn"Howard Zinn's Personal Philosophy". Retrieved on 9 December 2016.
  • Yanis Varoufakis, former Greek finance minister{{Citation needed|date=April 2017}}
  • Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez,weblink "Ocasio-Cortez discusses 'Democratic Socialist' label"]."". Retrieved on August 15, 2018. American politician, educator, community organizer, and political activist
{{Div col end}}


Compatibility of "socialism" and "democracy"

Some politicians, economists, and theorists have argued that "socialism" and "democracy" are incompatible. For instance, economist Milton Friedman stated that "a society which is socialist cannot also be democratic, in the sense of guaranteeing individual freedom". Sociologist Robert Nisbet argued in 1978 that there is "not a single free socialism to be found anywhere in the world".Irving Kristol argued: "Democratic socialism turns out to be an inherently unstable compound, a contradiction in terms. Every social-democratic party, once in power, soon finds itself choosing, at one point after another, between the socialist society it aspires to and the liberal society that lathered [sic – fathered?] it". He added: "[S]ocialist movements end up [in] a society where liberty is the property of the state, and is (or is not) doled out to its citizens along with other contingent 'benefits'".Richard Pipes wrote:According to Michael Makovi: "An economic analysis of the political institutions of democratic socialism shows that democratic socialism must necessarily fail for political (not economic) reasons even if nobody in authority has ill-intentions or abuses their power".WEB, Makovi, Michael, George Orwell and the Incoherence of Democratic Socialism,weblink MPRA Paper 62527, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, 2015,


One of the major scholars who have argued that socialism and democracy are compatible is the Austrian-born American economist Joseph Schumpeter, who was hostile to socialism.BOOK, Horwitz, Morton J., Morton Horwitz, The Transformation of American Law, 1870–1960 : The Crisis of Legal Orthodoxy: The Crisis of Legal Orthodoxy, 1994, Oxford University Press, New York, 9780195092592, 255, In his book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (first published in 1942), he "emphasize[s] that political democracy was thoroughly compatible with socialism in its fullest sense, noting that he didn't believe that democracy was a good political system, but rather advocated to republican values.JOURNAL, Barrett, William, William Barrett (philosopher), Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy: A Symposium, Commentary (magazine), Commentary, 1 April 1978,weblink (archived PDF) In a 1963 address to the All India Congress Committee, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru stated: "Political Democracy has no meaning if it does not embrace economic democracy. And economic democracy is nothing but socialism".JOURNAL, S. Jafar Raza Bilgrami, Problems of Democratic Socialism, Indian Journal of Political Science, 1965, 26, 4, 26–31, 41854084, Political historian Theodore Draper wrote: "I know of no political group which has resisted totalitarianism in all its guises more steadfastly than democratic socialists".Robert Heilbroner: "There is, of course, no conflict between such a socialism and freedom as we have described it; indeed, this conception of socialism is the very epitome of these freedoms", referring to open association of individuals in political and social life; the democratization and humanization of work; and the cultivation of personal talents and creativities.Bayard Rustin wrote:Kenneth Arrow argued: "We cannot be sure that the principles of democracy and socialism are compatible until we can observe a viable society following both principles. But there is no convincing evidence or reasoning which would argue that a democratic-socialist movement is inherently self-contradictory. Nor need we fear that gradual moves in the direction of increasing government intervention will lead to an irreversible move to "serfdom" [referring to The Road to Serfdom by Friedrich Hayek]".William Pfaff wrote: "It might be argued that socialism ineluctably breeds state bureaucracy, which then imposes its own kinds of restrictions upon individual liberties. This is what the Scandinavians complain about. But Italy's champion bureaucracy owes nothing to socialism. American bureaucracy grows as luxuriantly and behaves as officiously as any other".

See also


{{Ibid|date=January 2018}}{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}


  • Logie Barrow and Ian Bullock, 'Democratic Ideas and the British Labour Movement, 1880–1914', Cambridge University Press, 1996, {{ISBN|9780521560429}}
  • Donald F. Busky, Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey Greenwood Publishing, 2000 {{ISBN|0-275-96886-3}}
  • JOURNAL, Draper, Hal, The Two Souls of Socialism,weblink 1966, New Politics, 5, 1, 57–84, harv,
  • Peter Hain. Back to the future of socialism, Policy Press (26 January 2015), {{ISBN|978-1-44732-166-8}}
  • Michael Harrington, Socialism: Past and Future, Arcade Publishing /Little, Brown, 1989.
  • Roy Hattersley Choose Freedom: The Future of Democratic Socialism, Penguin, 1987 {{ISBN|0-14-010494-1}}
  • Ralph Miliband Socialism for a Sceptical Age, Polity Press, London, 1994
  • David Reisman, ed, Democratic Socialism in Britain: Classic Texts in Economic and Political Thought, 1825–1952 Chatto and Pickering, 1996 {{ISBN|978-1-85196-285-3}}. (Includes texts by William Morris, George Bernard Shaw, GDH Cole, Richard Crossman and Aneurin Bevan.)
  • Norman Thomas Democratic Socialism: a new appraisal, League for Industrial Democracy, 1953
  • Jim Tomlinson Democratic Socialism and Economic Policy: The Attlee Years, 1945–1951 Cambridge University Press, 1997 {{ISBN|0-521-55095-5}}

External links

{{Commons category}} {{Socialism}}{{Social democracy}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Democratic socialism" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:07am EST - Mon, Nov 19 2018
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
M.R.M. Parrott