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{{short description|King of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah}}{{About|the biblical king|other uses}}{{Redirect|King David}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-move|small=yes}}

name David| title = | image = David SM Maggiore.jpg| caption = Statue of King David by Nicolas Cordier in the Borghese Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, Italy

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)>King of Israel| reign = ca. 1010-970 BCE| birth_place = | death_place = | burial_date =| burial_place = | predecessor = Ish-bosheth| successor = Solomon| queen = {hide}Collapsible list
| consort =| issue = {{Collapsible list
| titlestyle = font-weight: normal; background: inherit; font-style: italic; text-align: left;
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Davidic line>House of David| father = Jesse| mother = Nitzevet (Talmud)| religion = Judaism}}David (){{efn|({{IPAc-en|ˈ|d|eɪ|v|ᵻ|d}}; {{Hebrew Name|{{Hebrew|דָּוִד}}|Davīd|Dāwīḏ}}; , Dāwūd; ; ; , Dawit; , Dawitʿ; , Davidŭ; possibly meaning "beloved one"BOOK, G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament,weblink 1977, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-8028-2327-4, 158, )}} is described in the Hebrew Bible as the third king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, after Ish-bosheth. In the biblical narrative, David is a young shepherd who gains fame first as a musician and later by killing the enemy champion Goliath. He becomes a favorite of King Saul and a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan. Worried that David is trying to take his throne, Saul turns on David. After Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle, David is anointed as King. David conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city, and establishing the kingdom founded by Saul. As king, David commits adultery with Bathsheba, leading him to arrange the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite. Because of this sin, God denies David the opportunity to build the temple, and his son Absalom tries to overthrow him. David flees Jerusalem during Absalom's rebellion, but after Absalom's death he returns to the city to rule Israel. Before his peaceful death, he chooses his son Solomon as successor. He is honored in the prophetic literature as an ideal king and the forefather of a future Messiah, and many psalms are ascribed to him.Historians of the Ancient Near East agree that David probably existed around 1000 BCE, but that there is little that can be said about him as a historical figure. It was initially thought that there were no evidence outside of the Bible concerning David, but the Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase in , bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David". Ancient Near East historians generally doubt that the united monarchy as described in the Bible existed.David is richly represented in post-biblical Jewish written and oral tradition, and is discussed in the New Testament. Early Christians interpreted the life of Jesus in light of the references to the Messiah and to David; Jesus is described as being descended from David. David is discussed in the Quran and figures in Islamic oral and written tradition as well. The biblical character of David has inspired many interpretations in art and literature over centuries.

Biblical account


File:Sweet stories of God; in the language of childhood and the beautiful delineations of sacred art (1899) (14751566596).jpg|thumb|David raises the head of Goliath as illustrated by Josephine PollardJosephine PollardThe first book of Samuel portrays David as the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. His mother is not named in any book of the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael.Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bava Batra 91a When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles (4th century BCE) he was made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters, Zeruiah and Abigail. The Book of Ruth (possibly also 4th century BCE) traces his ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite.David is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage.Lemaire, Andre (1999). In Hershel Shanks, ed., Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Biblical Archaeology Society; Revised edition, {{ISBN|978-1880317549}} King Saul initially offered David his oldest daughter, Merab. David did not refuse the offer, but humbled himself in front of Saul to be considered among the King's family.WEB, 1 Samuel 18:18,weblink Saul reneged and instead gave Merab in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite.WEB, 1 Samuel 18:19,weblink Having been told that his younger daughter Michal was in love with David, Saul gave her in marriage to David upon David's payment in Philistine foreskins.WEB, 1 Samuel 18:18-27,weblink Saul became jealous of David and tried to have him killed. David escaped. Then Saul sent Michal to Galim to marry Palti, son of Laish.WEB, 1 Samuel 25:14,weblink David then took wives in Hebron, according to 2 Samuel 3; they were Ahinoam the Yizre'elite; Abigail, the wife of Nabal the Carmelite; Maacah, the daughter of Talmay, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; and Eglah. Later, David wanted Michal back and Abner, Ish-bosheth's army commander, delivered her to David, causing her husband (Palti) great grief.WEB,weblink 2 Samuel 3:14, The Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various wives and concubines. In Hebron, David had six sons: Amnon, by Ahinoam; Daniel, by Abigail; Absalom, by Maachah; Adonijah, by Haggith; Shephatiah, by Abital; and Ithream, by Eglah.{{Bibleref2|1 Chronicles|3:1–3|NIV}} By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon. David's sons born in Jerusalem of his other wives included Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada.{{Bibleref2|2 Samuel|5:14–16|NIV}} Jerimoth, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in {{Bibleref2|2 Chronicles|11:18|NIV}}. His daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is raped by her half-brother Amnon.


{{anchor|childhood|Jesse|Bethlehem|Saul rejected}}File:Samuel e david.jpg|left|thumb|Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, SyriaSyriaGod is angered when Saul, Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|13:8–14|NRSV}} and later disobeys a divine command both to kill all of the Amalekites and to destroy their confiscated property.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|15:1–28|NRSV}} Consequently, God sends the prophet Samuel to anoint a shepherd, David, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|16:1–13|NRSV}}{{anchor|At Saul's court}}After God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul, his servants recommend that he send for a man skilled in playing the lyre. A servant proposes David, whom the servant describes as "skillful in playing, a man of valor, a warrior, prudent in speech, and a man of good presence; and the Lord is with him." David enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers and plays the lyre to soothe the king.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|16:14–23|NRSV}}{{anchor|David and Goliath}}War comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|17:1–11|NRSV}} David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|17:17–37|NRSV}} Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour,{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|17:38–39|NRSV}} he kills Goliath with his sling.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|17:49–50|NRSV}} Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|17:55–56|NRSV}}File:Jusepe Leonardo 001.jpeg|thumb|Saul threatening David, by José LeonardoJosé LeonardoSaul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him ("What else can he wish but the kingdom?").{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|18:5–9|NRSV}} Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees. He goes first to Nob, where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath's sword, and then to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, and David sees that he is in danger there.{{Bibleverse|1|Samuel|21:10–11|NRSV}} He goes next to the cave of Adullam, where his family join him.{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|22:1|NKJV}} From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of Moab, but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the Forest of Hereth,{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|22:5|NKJV}} and then to Keilah, where he is involved in a further battle with the Philistines. Saul plans to besiege Keilah so that he can capture David, so David leaves the city in order to protect its inhabitants.{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|23:1–13|NKJV}} From there he takes refuge in the mountainous Wilderness of Ziph.{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|23:14|NKJV}}{{anchor|David and Jonathan}}Jonathan meets with David again and confirms his loyalty to David as the future king. After the people of Ziph notify Saul that David is taking refuge in their territory, Saul seeks confirmation and plans to capture David in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted by a renewed Philistine invasion and David is able to secure some respite at Ein Gedi.{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|23:27–29|NKJV}} Returning from battle with the Philistines, Saul heads to Ein Gedi in pursuit of David and enters the cave where, as it happens, David and his supporters are hiding, "to attend to his needs". David realises he has an opportunity to kill Saul, but this is not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul's robe, and when Saul has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to Saul as the king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and Saul recognises David as his successor.{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|24:1–22|NKJV}}A similar passage occurs in 1 Samuel 26, when David is able to infiltrate Saul's camp on the hill of Hachilah and remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his guards lie asleep. In this account, David is advised by Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but David declines, saying he will not "stretch out [his] hand against the Lord's anointed".{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|26:11|NKJV}} Saul confesses that he has been wrong to pursue David and blesses him.{{bibleverse|1|Samuel|26:25|NIV}}, NIV textIn {{bibleverse|1|Samuel|27:1–4|NKJV}}, Saul ceases to pursue David because David took refuge a secondcf. {{bibleverse|1|Samuel|21:10–15|NKJV}} time with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. Achish permits David to reside in Ziklag, close to the border between Gath and Judea, from where he leads raids against the Geshurites, the Girzites and the Amalekites, but leads Achish to believe he is attacking the Israelites in Judah, the Jerahmeelites and the Kenites. Achish believes that David had become a loyal vassal, but he never wins the trust of the princes or lords of Gath, and at their request Achish instructs David to remain behind to guard the camp when the Philistines march against Saul.{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|29:1–11|NRSV}} David returns to Ziklag.{{Bibleverse|1|Samuel|30:1|NKJV}} Jonathan and Saul are killed in battle,{{Bibleverse|1 Sam|31:1–13|NRSV}} and David is anointed king over Judah.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|2:1–4|NRSV}} In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth is murdered.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|2:8–11|NRSV}}{{anchor|Proclaimed king|Jerusalem and the Davidic covenant}}With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David is anointed king over all of Israel.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|5:1–3|NRSV}} He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|5:6–7|NRSV}} He brings the Ark of the Covenant to the city,{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|6:1–12|NRSV}} intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of David's sons.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|7:1–13|NRSV}} Nathan also prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David stating, "your throne shall be established forever".{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|7:16|NRSV}} David wins additional victories over the Philistines, Moabites, Edomites, Amalekites, Ammonites and king Hadadezer of Aram-Zobah, after which they become tributaries.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|8:1–14|NRSV}}(File:King David Bathsheba Bathing.jpg|thumb|David staring at Bathsheba bathing){{anchor|Bathsheba and Uriah the Hittite}}During a siege of the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David remains in Jerusalem. He spies a woman, Bathsheba, bathing and summons her; she becomes pregnant.BOOK, Lawrence O. Richards, Bible Reader's Companion,weblink 2002, David C Cook, 978-0-7814-3879-7, 210–, BOOK, Carlos Wilton, Lectionary Preaching Workbook: For All Users of the Revised Common, the Roman Catholic, and the Episcopal Lectionaries. Series VIII,weblink June 2004, CSS Publishing, 978-0-7880-2371-2, 189–, BOOK, David J. Zucker, The Bible's Prophets: An Introduction for Christians and Jews,weblink 10 December 2013, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 978-1-63087-102-4, 51–, The text in the Bible does not explicitly state whether Bathsheba consented to sex.2 Samuel 11:2-4BOOK, Antony F. Campbell, 2 Samuel,weblink 2005, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-8028-2813-2, 104–, BOOK, Sara M. Koenig, Isn't This Bathsheba?: A Study in Characterization,weblink 8 November 2011, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 978-1-60899-427-4, 69–, BOOK, Antony F. Campbell, Joshua to Chronicles: An Introduction,weblink 2004, Westminster John Knox Press, 978-0-664-25751-4, 161–, David calls her husband, Uriah the Hittite, back from the battle to rest, hoping that he will go home to his wife and the child will be presumed to be his. Uriah does not visit his wife, however, so David conspires to have him killed in the heat of battle. David then marries the widowed Bathsheba.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|11:14–17|NRSV}} In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that will fall upon him, stating "the sword shall never depart from your house."Some commentators believe this meant during David's lifetime. Others say it included his posterity. {{Bibleverse|2 Sam|12:8-12:10|NRSV}} When David acknowledges that he has sinned,{{bibleverse|2|Samuel|12:13|NRSV}} Nathan advises him that his sin is forgiven and he will not die,Adultery was a capital crime under Mosaic law: {{bibleverse||Leviticus|20:10|ESV}} but the child will.{{bibleverse|2|Samuel|12:14|NIV}}: NIV translation{{anchor|David's son Absalom rebels}}In fulfillment of Nathan's words, David's son Absalom, fueled by vengeance and lust for power, rebels.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|15:1–12|NRSV}} Absalom's forces are routed at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, and he is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree where, contrary to David's order, he is killed by Joab, the commander of David's army.{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|18:1–15|NRSV}} David laments the death of his favourite son: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!"{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|18:33|NRSV}} until Joab persuades him to recover from "the extravagance of his grief"Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 2 Samuel 19, accessed 12 August 2017 and to fulfil his duty to his people.{{bibleverse|2|Samuel|19:1–8}} David returns to Gilgal and is escorted across the River Jordan and back to Jerusalem by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.{{Bibleverse|2|Samuel|19:15–17|NKJV}}{{anchor|Death}}When David is old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king.{{Bibleref|1 Kings|1:1–5|NRSV}} Bathsheba and Nathan go to David and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba's son Solomon as king, according to David's earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down.{{Bibleverse|1 Kings|1:11–31|NRSV}} David dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years,{{Bibleverse|2 Sam|5:4|NRSV}} and on his deathbed counsels Solomon to walk in the ways of God and to take revenge on his enemies.{{Bibleverse|1 Kings|2:1–9|NRSV}}


File:Paris psaulter gr139 fol1v.jpg|thumb|David Composing the Psalms, (Paris Psalter]], 10th centuryBOOK,weblink The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A.D. 843-1261, Helen C. Evans, William W. Wixom, 5 March 1997, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 5 March 2018, Google Books, 86, 9780870997778, )The Book of Samuel calls David a skillful harp (lyre) player{{bibleref2|1 Samuel|16:15–18|NIV}} and "the sweet psalmist of Israel."Other translations say, "the hero of Israel's songs," "the favorite singer of Israel," "the contented psalm writer of Israel," and "Israel's beloved singer of songs." 2 Samuel 23:1. Yet, while almost half of the Psalms are headed "A Psalm of David" (also translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David's life (e.g., Psalms 3, 7, 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142),Commentary on II Samuel 22, The Anchor Bible, Vol. 9. II Samuel. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., 1984. New York: Doubleday. {{ISBN|0-385-06808-5}} the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David with certainty.Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-06-21 }}.Psalm 34 is attributed to David on the occasion of his escape from Abimelech (or King Achish) by pretending to be insane.Psalm 34, Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament, Kohlenberger, J.R, 1987. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House {{ISBN|0-310-40200-X}} According to the parallel narrative in 1 Samuel 21, instead of killing the man who had exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech allows David to depart, exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?"{{bibleref2|1 Samuel|21:15|NIV}}

History and archeology

{{see also|Historicity of the Bible}}File:JRSLM 300116 Tel Dan Stele 01.jpg|thumb|left|The Tel Dan SteleTel Dan SteleThe Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase , bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David".{{sfn|Pioske|2015|p=180}} Other scholars, such as Anson Rainey have challenged this reading,BOOK, Pioske, Daniel, 4: David's Jerusalem: The Early 10th Century BCE Part I: An Agrarian Community, David's Jerusalem: Between Memory and History,weblink Routledge Studies in Religion, 45, Routledge, 2015, 180, 9781317548911, 2016-09-17, [...] the reading of bytdwd as "House of David" has been challenged by those unconvinced of the inscription's allusion to an eponymous David or the kingdom of Judah., 2015-02-11,
but it is likely that this is a reference to a dynasty of the Kingdom of Judah which traced its ancestry to a founder named David.{{sfn|Pioske|2015|p=180}} The Mesha Stele from Moab, dating from approximately the same period, may also contain the name David in two places, although this is less certain than the mention in the Tel Dan inscription.{{sfn|Pioske|2015|p=210, fn.18}}
File:Karnak Tempel 19.jpg|thumb|200px|The Triumphal Relief of Shoshenq I near the Bubastite Portal at Karnak, depicting the god Amun-ReAmun-ReBesides the two steles, bible scholar and egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen suggests that David's name also appears in a relief of Pharaoh Shoshenq (usually identified with Shishak in the Bible, 1 Kings 14:25-27).WEB,weblink King David: A Biography (excerpt), The New York Times, McKenzei, Steven L., 2000 The relief claims that Shoshenq raided places in Palestine in 925 BCE, and Kitchen interprets one place as "Heights of David", which was in Southern Judah and the Negev where the Bible says David took refuge from Saul. The relief is damaged and interpretation is uncertain.Apart from these, all that is known of David comes from the biblical literature. The Books of Samuel were substantially composed during the time of King Josiah at the end of the 7th century BCE, extended during the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), and substantially complete by about 550 BCE, although further editing was done even after then—the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to Samuel in 1 Samuel 9 "almost certainly fixes the date of the story in the Persian or Hellenistic period".{{sfn|Auld|2003|p=219}} The authors and editors of Samuel drew on many earlier sources, including, for their history of David, the "history of David's rise" (1 Samuel 16:14–2 Samuel 5:10), and the "succession narrative" (2 Samuel 9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2).{{sfn|Knight|1991|p=853}} The Book of Chronicles, which tells the story from a different point of view, was probably composed in the period 350–300 BCE, and uses Samuel as its source.{{sfn|McKenzie|2004|p=32}}The authors and editors of Samuel and Chronicles did not aim to record history, but to promote David's reign as inevitable and desirable, and for this reason there is little about David that is concrete and undisputed.{{sfn|Moore|Kelle|2011|pp=232–233}} The archaeological evidence indicates that in the 10th century BCE, the time of David, Judah was sparsely inhabited and Jerusalem was no more than a small village; over the following century it slowly evolved from a highland chiefdom to a kingdom, but always overshadowed by the older and more powerful kingdom of Israel to the north.{{sfn|Finkelstein|Silberman|2007|pp=26–27}} The biblical evidence likewise indicates that David's Judah was something less than a full-fledged monarchy: it often calls him negid, for example, meaning "prince" or "chief", rather than melek, meaning "king"; the biblical David sets up none of the complex bureaucracy that a kingdom needs (even his army is made up of volunteers), and his followers are largely related to him and from his small home-area around Hebron.{{sfn|Moore|Kelle|2011|pp=220–221}}Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. John Bright, in his History of Israel (1981), takes Samuel at face value. Donald B. Redford, however, sees all reconstructions from biblical sources for the United Monarchy period as examples of "academic wishful thinking".Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 pp. 301–307. Thomas L. Thompson rejects the historicity of the biblical narrative: "The history of Palestine and of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel and I Kings."WEB, Thompson TL, A View from Copenhagen: Israel and the History of Palestine,weblink Amihai Mazar however, concludes that based on recent archeological findings, like those in City of David, Khirbet Qeiyafa, Tel Dan, Tel Rehov, Khirbat en-Nahas and others "the deconstruction of United Monarchy and the devaluation of Judah as a state in 9th century is unacceptable interpretation of available historic data". According to Mazar, based on archeological evidences, the United Monarchy can be described as a "state in development".BOOK, Mazar A, Archaeology and the biblical Narrative: The Case of the United Monarchy,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-06-11, Some studies of David have been written: Baruch Halpern has pictured David as a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath;Baruch Halpern, "David's Secret Demons", 2001. Review of Baruch Halpern's "David's Secret Demons". Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel those chapters which describe David as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem and makes it his capital.Finkelstein and Silberman, "David and Solomon", 2006. See review "Archaeology" magazine. Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible at Rhodes College and author of King David: A Biography, argues that David came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons.Critical Bible scholarship holds that the biblical account of David's rise to power is a political apology—an answer to contemporary charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide.BOOK, The Historical David: The Real Life of an Invented Hero, Baden, Joel, 2014-07-29, HarperCollins Publishers, 9780062188373, Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman reject the idea that David ruled over a united monarchy, suggesting instead that he ruled only as a chieftain over the southern kingdom of Judah, much smaller than the northern kingdom of Israel at that time.BOOK, Finkelstein, Israel, Silberman, Neil Asher, The Bible Unearthed. Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and The Origin of Its Sacred Texts, First Touchstone Edition 2002, 2002, 2001, Touchstone, New York, 978-0-684-86913-1, 189–190, 8. In the Shadow of Empire (842–720 BCE),weblink Archaeologically and historically, the redating of these cities from Solomon's era to the time of Omrides has enormous implication. It removes the only archeological evidence that there was ever a united monarchy based in Jerusalem and suggests that David and Solomon were, in political terms, little more than hill country chieftains, whose administrative reach remained on a fairly local level, restricted to the hill country.,weblink They posit that Israel and Judah were still polytheistic or henotheistic in the time of David and Solomon, and that much later seventh-century redactors sought to portray a past golden age of a united, monotheistic monarchy in order to serve contemporary needs.BOOK, Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts,weblink 6 March 2002, Simon and Schuster, 978-0-7432-2338-6, 23; 241–247, They note a lack of archeological evidence for David's military campaigns and a relative underdevelopment of Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, compared to a more developed and urbanized Samaria, capital of Israel.BOOK, Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts,weblink 6 March 2002, Simon and Schuster, 978-0-7432-2338-6, 158, we still have no hard archaeological evidence—despite the unparalleled biblical description of its grandeur—that Jerusalem was anything more than a modest highland village in the time of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam., "Table Two" (Finklestein and Silberman, 2002: 131).Speaking of Samaria: "The scale of this project was enormous." (Finkelstein and Silberman 2002: 181).Jacob L. Wright, Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible at Emory University, has written that the most popular legends about David, including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those living in the late Persian or Hellenistic periods.WEB,weblink

History of interpretation in the Abrahamic religions

Rabbinic Judaism

David is an important figure in Rabbinic Judaism, with many legends around him. According to one tradition, David was raised as the son of his father Jesse and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school.BOOK, The Legends of the Jews, Ginzberg, Louis, 1909, Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia, David's adultery with Bathsheba is interpreted as only an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offense by refusing to obey a direct command from the King.WEB,weblink David,, However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David expressed remorse over his transgressions and sought forgiveness. God ultimately forgave David and Bathsheba but would not remove their sins from Scripture.BOOK, Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin, 107a, In Jewish legend, David's sin with Bathsheba is the punishment for David's excessive self-consciousness who had besought God to lead him into temptation so that he might give proof of his constancy as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (who successfully passed the test) whose names later were united with God's, while David eventually failed through the temptation of a woman.BOOK, The Legends of the Jews, Ginzberg, Louis, 1909, Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia, According to midrashim, Adam gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David.Zohar Bereishis 91b Also, according to the Talmud Yerushalmi, David was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot (Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.{{cn|date=November 2018}}


{{See also|Genealogy of Jesus|Davidic line}}The concept of the Messiah is important in Christianity. Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title Messiah had it), the "son of David" became in the last two pre-Christian centuries the apocalyptic and heavenly one who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus "by means of the titles and functions assigned to David in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God and man"."David" article from Encyclopædia Britannica Online The early Church believed that "the life of David [foreshadowed] the life of Christ; Bethlehem is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the five wounds; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel, and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messiah."John Corbett (1911) King David The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company) In the Middle Ages, "Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him".BOOK, McManners, John, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity,weblink 101, 9780192854391, 2001-03-15, The linking of David to earthly kingship was reflected in European cathedral windows of the Late Middle Ages, through the device of the Tree of Jesse, its branches demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his son David, to Jesus.{{cn|date=March 2019}}Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December.Saint of the Day for December 29 at St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord.{{cn|date=January 2019}}

Middle Ages

File:Arms of Ireland (Variant 1) (Historical).svg|thumb|left|80px|Coat of arms attributed to King David by mediaeval heraldsBOOK, Lindsay of the Mount Roll, Lindsay of the Mount, Sir David, David Lyndsay, 1542,weblink Edinburgh, W. & D. Laing, (identical to the arms of Ireland)]]In European Christian culture of the Middle Ages, David was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors.David was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and Eastern Christendom. David was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers.BOOK, Garipzanov, Ildar H., The Symbolic Language of Royal Authority in the Carolingian World (c. 751–877), Brill, 978-9004166691, 128, 225, 2008, The Georgian Bagratids and the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claimed a direct biological descent from him.BOOK, Rapp, Stephen H., Jr., Imagining History at the Crossroads: Persia, Byzantium, and the Architects of the Written Georgian Past, 1997, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 528, Likewise, kings of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty frequently connected themselves to David; Charlemagne himself occasionally used the name of David as his pseudonym.


David is an important figure in Islam as one of the major prophets sent by God to guide the Israelites. David is mentioned several times in the Quran with the Arabic name داود, Dāwūd, often with his son Solomon. In the Qur'an: David killed Goliath (2:251), a giant soldier in the Philistine army. When David killed Goliath, God granted him kingship and wisdom and enforced it (38:20). David was made God's "vicegerent on earth" (38:26) and God further gave David sound judgment (21:78; 37:21–24, 26) as well as the Psalms, regarded as books of divine wisdom (4:163; 17:55). The birds and mountains united with David in uttering praise to God (21:79; 34:10; 38:18), while God made iron soft for David (34:10), God also instructed David in the art of fashioning chain-mail out of iron (21:80); an indication of the first use of wrought iron, this knowledge gave David a major advantage over his bronze and cast iron-armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David gave judgment in a case of damage to the fields (21:78) and David judged the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (38:21–23). Since there is no mention in the Qur'an of the wrong David did to Uriah nor any reference to Bathsheba, Muslims reject this narrative.Wheeler, Brannon M. (The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, "David"Muslim tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in fasting."Dawud". Encyclopedia of Islam Qur'an commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise Qur'anic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms as well as his musical and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God.Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, "Story of David"

Art and literature


(File:081.David Mourns the Death of Absalom.jpg|thumb|200px|David mourning the death of Absalom, by Gustave Doré)Literary works about David include:
  • 1681–82 Dryden's long poem Absalom and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom against King David as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion (1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis.
  • 1893 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle may have used the story of David and Bathsheba as a foundation for the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Crooked Man. Holmes mentions "the small affair of Uriah and Bathsheba" at the end of the story.BOOK,weblink The Sherlock Holmes Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained, DK, 1 October 2015, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 12 February 2018, Google Books, 9780241248331,
  • 1928 Elmer Davis's novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the biblical story of David, casting David as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David claimed the credit; and Joab, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead.
  • 1936 William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! refers to the story of Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother, Amnon.
  • 1946 Gladys Schmitt's novel David the King was a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character.
  • 1966 Juan Bosch, a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote David: Biography of a King, as a realistic portrayal of David's life and political career.
  • 1970 Dan Jacobson's The Rape of Tamar is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon.
  • 1972 Stefan Heym wrote The King David Report in which the historian Ethan compiles upon King Solomon's orders "a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse"—the East German writer's wry depiction of a court historian writing an "authorized" history, many incidents clearly intended as satirical references to the writer's own time.
  • 1974 In Thomas Burnett Swann's biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen, David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but often persecuted by it.
  • 1980 Malachi Martin's factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon.
  • 1984 Joseph Heller wrote a novel based on David called God Knows, published by Simon & Schuster. Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity—rather than the heroism—of various biblical characters is emphasized. The portrayal of David as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th-century interpretation of the events told in the Bible.
  • 1993 Madeleine L'Engle's novel Certain Women explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God through the story of King David's family and an analogous modern family's saga.
  • 1995 Allan Massie wrote King David, a novel about David's career that portrays the king's relationship to Jonathan as sexual.BOOK, O'Kane, Martin, Exum, Jo Cheryl, Beyond the Biblical Horizon: The Bible and the Arts, 86,weblink 15 August 2015, The Biblical King David and His Artistic and Literary Afterlives, 978-9004112902, 1999,weblink
  • 2015 Geraldine Brooks wrote a novel about King David, The Secret Chord, told from the point of view of the prophet Nathan.NEWS, Gilbert, Matthew, 'The Secret Chord' by Geraldine Brooks,weblink 4 October 2015, Boston Globe, 3 October 2015, NEWS, Hoffman, Alice, Geraldine Brooks reimagines King David's life in 'The Secret Chord',weblink 29 March 2018, Washington Post, 28 September 2015,



File:'David' by Michelangelo JBU0001.JPG|thumb|David by Michelangelo ]]


David has been depicted several times in films; these are some of the best-known:


  • 1976 The Story of David, a made-for-TV film with Timothy Bottoms and Keith Michell as King David at different ages.BOOK,weblink The Bible in Motion: A Handbook of the Bible and Its Reception in Film, Rhonda, Burnette-Bletsch, 12 September 2016, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2 September 2018, Google Books, 9781614513261,
  • 1997 David, a TV-film with Nathaniel Parker as King David and Leonard Nimoy as the Prophet Samuel.BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of Television Film Directors, Jerry, Roberts, 5 June 2009, Scarecrow Press, 14 February 2018, Google Books, 368, 9780810863781,
  • 1997 Max von Sydow portrayed an older King David in the TV-film Solomon, a sequel to David.BOOK,weblink Hollywood's Ancient Worlds, Jeffrey, Richards, 1 September 2008, A&C Black, 14 February 2018, Google Books, 168, 9781847250070,
  • 2009 Christopher Egan played David on Kings, a re-imagining loosely based on the biblical story.WEB,weblink David, My David, 14 February 2018,
  • King David is the focus of the second episode of History Channel's Battles BC documentary, which detailed all of his military exploits in the bible.weblink" title="">Battles BC
  • 2013 Langley Kirkwood portrayed King David in the miniseries The Bible.
  • 2016 Of Kings and Prophets in which David is played by Olly Rix


  • The traditional birthday song Las Mañanitas mentions King David as the original singer in its lyrics.
  • 1738 George Frideric Handel's oratorio Saul features David as one of its main characters.WEB, G. F. Handel's Compositions,weblink The Handel Institute, 28 September 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2013,
  • 1921 Arthur Honegger's oratorio Le Roi David with a libretto by René Morax, instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire.
  • 1964 Bob Dylan alludes to David in the last line of his song "When The Ship Comes In" ("And like Goliath, they'll be conquered").
  • 1983 Bob Dylan refers to David in his song "Jokerman" ("Michelangelo indeed could've carved out your features").BOOK,weblink Bob Dylan: Prophet, Mystic, Poet, Seth, Rogovoy, 24 November 2009, Simon and Schuster, 14 February 2018, Google Books, 237, 9781416559832,
  • 1984 Leonard Cohen's song "Hallelujah" has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba ("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses.
  • 1990 The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon, performed by Prefab Sprout on the album Jordan: The Comeback, has a reference to David ("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs").
  • 1991 "Mad About You", a song on Sting's album The Soul Cages, explores David's obsession with Bathsheba from David's perspective.WEB, Mad About You,weblink, 26 March 2017,
  • 2000 The song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat album Chinese Work Songs chronicles the duel with Goliath and contains a lament to Absalom as a bridge.WEB,weblink Lyrics Database, Little Feat website, 2017-07-11,

Musical theater

Playing cards

For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In this context, the King of Spades was often known as "David".WEB,weblink Four Kings in Deck of Cards,, "Courts on playing cards", by David Madore, with illustrations of the Anglo-American and French court cards

Image gallery

{{Gallery|height=160|align=center|mode=packed-hover|Image:Saul and David by Rembrandt Mauritshuis 621.jpg
|Rembrandt, c. 1650: Saul and David.|File:JMS - Laubhütte Fresko 4 David.jpg
|Mural of King David from an 18th-century sukkah (Jewish Museum of Franconia).|File:Paris psaulter gr139 fol7v.jpg
|Miniature from the Paris Psalter: David in the robes of a Byzantine emperor.|File:Rosselli Triunfo David.jpeg
|Matteo Rosselli The triumphant David.
}}{{Gallery|height=160|align=center|mode=packed-hover|File:Monheim Town Hall 1.JPG
|King David playing the harp, ceiling fresco from Monheim Town Hall, home of a wealthy Jewish merchant.|File:King David in Augsburg Cathedral light.JPG
|King David, stained glass windows from the Romanesque Augsburg Cathedral, late 11th century.|File:Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron.jpg
|Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron. Depicts Sir Henry Taylor, 1866.|File:The Ark Brought to Jerusalem.jpg
|The Ark is brought to Jerusalem (1896 Bible card illustration by the Providence Lithograph Company)|File:Arnold Zadikow Young David.jpg
|Arnold Zadikow, 1930: The Young David displayed in the entrance of Berlin's Jewish Museum from 1933 until its loss during the Second World War.|File:Stamp of Israel - Festivals 5721 - 0.25IL.jpg
|David on an Israeli stamp

See also





Further reading

  • BOOK, Alexander, David, Alexander, Pat, 1983, Eerdmans' Handbook to the Bible, New rev., Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich., 978-0-8028-3486-7,
  • BOOK, Auld, Graeme, 1 & 2 Samuel,weblink James D. G. Dunn and John William Rogerson, Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, Eerdmans, 2003, 9780802837110, harv,
  • BOOK, Bergen, David T., 1, 2 Samuel,weblink B&H Publishing Group, 1996, 9780805401073,
  • BOOK, Breytenbach, Andries, Past, Present, Future: The Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets, Brill, 2000, Who Is Behind The Samuel Narrative?,weblink Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy, 978-9004118713,
  • BOOK, Brettler, Mark Zvi, Introduction to the Historical Books, Coogan, Michael David, Brettler, Marc Zvi, Newsom, Carol Ann, The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, Oxford University Press, 2007,weblink harv, 9780195288803
  • BOOK, Bright, John, 1981, A History of Israel, Philadelphia, Westminster Press, 3rd, 978-0-664-21381-7,
  • BOOK, Bruce, F. F., 1963, Israel and the Nations: From the Exodus to the Fall of the Second Temple, Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans, 1026642167,
  • Coogan, Michael D. (2009) A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible in its Context Oxford University Press {{isbn|9780199740291}}
  • BOOK, Coogan, Michael David, Cultural Contexts: The Ancient Near East and Israel, Coogan, Michael David, Brettler, Marc Zvi, Newsom, Carol Ann, The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, Oxford University Press, 2007,weblink harv, 9780195288803
  • Dever, William G. (2001) What did the Bible writers know and when did they know it? William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK.
  • BOOK, Dick, Michael B, The History of 'David's Rise to Power' and the Neo-Babylonian Succession Apologies,weblink Bernard Frank Batto and Kathryn L. Roberts, David and Zion: biblical studies in honor of J.J.M. Roberts, Eisenbrauns, 2004, 9781575060927,
  • BOOK, Eynikel, Erik, Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets, Brill, 2000, The Relation Between the Eli Narrative and the Ark Narratives,weblink Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy, 978-9004118713,
  • BOOK, Finkelstein, Israel, Silberman, Neil Asher, David and Solomon: In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition, Simon and Schuster, 2007,weblink harv, 9780743243636
  • NEWS, Fridman, Julia, February 20, 2014, The Naked Truth About King David, the 8th Son,weblink Haaretz,
  • BOOK, Gordon, Robert, I & II Samuel, A Commentary,weblink Paternoster Press, 1986, 9780310230229,
  • BOOK, Green, Adam, 2007, King Saul: The True History of the First Messiah, Lutterworth Press, Cambridge, UK, 978-0718830748,
  • BOOK, Halpern, Baruch, David, Freedman, David Noel, Allen C., Myers, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Eerdmans, 2000,weblink harv, 9789053565032
  • BOOK, Halpern, Baruch, David's Secret Demons: Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King, Eerdmans, 2001,weblink 9780802827975,
  • BOOK, Harrison, R. K., 1969, An Introduction to the Old Testament, Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans, 814408043,
  • BOOK, Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm, I & II Samuel, A Commentary,weblink Westminster John Knox Press, 1964, trans. from German 1960 2nd, 9780664223182,
  • BOOK, Jones, Gwilym H, 1 and 2 Samuel,weblink John Barton and John Muddiman, The Oxford Bible Commentary, Oxford University Press, 2001, 9780198755005,
  • BOOK, Kidner, Derek, 1973, The Psalms, Downers Grove, IL, Inter-Varsity Press, 978-0-87784-868-4,weblink
  • Kirsch, Jonathan (2000) King David: the real life of the man who ruled Israel. Ballantine. {{ISBN|0-345-43275-4}}.
  • BOOK, Klein, R.W., Samuel, Books of,weblink Bromiley, Geoffrey W, The international standard Bible encyclopedia, Eerdmans, 2003, 9780802837844,
  • BOOK, Knight, Douglas A, Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomists,weblink James Luther Mays, David L. Petersen and Kent Harold Richards, Old Testament Interpretation, T&T Clark, 1995, 9780567292896,
  • BOOK, Knight, Douglas A, Sources,weblink Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard, Mercer Dictionary of the Bible, Mercer University Press, 1991, 9780865543737, harv,
  • BOOK, McKenzie, Steven L., Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries: I & II Chronicles, Abingdon Press, 2004,weblink harv, 9781426759802
  • BOOK, Moore, Megan Bishop, Kelle, Brad E., Biblical History and Israel's Past, 2011, Eerdmans,weblink 978-0-8028-6260-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Noll, K. L., 1997, The Faces of David, Sheffield, UK, Sheffield Acad. Press, 978-1-85075-659-0,
  • BOOK, Pioske, Daniel, David's Jerusalem: Between Memory and History,weblink Routledge, 2015, 9781317548911, harv,
  • BOOK, Pfoh, Emanuel, The Emergence of Israel in Ancient Palestine: Historical and Anthropological Perspectives,weblink Routledge, 2016, 9781134947751,
  • BOOK, Rosner, Steven,weblink A Guide to the Psalms of David, Outskirts Press, 2012,
  • BOOK, Schleffer, Eben, Past, Present, Future: The Deuteronomistic History and the Prophets, Brill, 2000, Saving Saul from the Deuteronomist,weblink Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy, 978-9004118713,
  • BOOK, Soggin, Alberto, Introduction to the Old Testament, Westminster John Knox Press, 1987,weblink 9780664221560,
  • BOOK, Spieckerman, Hermann, The Deuteronomistic History,weblink Leo G. Perdue, The Blackwell companion to the Hebrew Bible, Blackwell, 2001, 9780631210719,
  • BOOK, Thompson, J. A., 1986, Handbook of Life in Bible Times, Leicester, UK, Inter-Varsity Press, 978-0-87784-949-0,
  • BOOK, Tsumura, David Toshio, The First Book of Samuel,weblink Eerdmans, 2007, 9780802823595,
  • BOOK, Van Seters, John, In Search of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History, Eisenbrauns, 1997,weblink 9781575060132,
  • BOOK, Walton, John H, The Deuteronomistic History,weblink Andrew E. Hill, John H. Walton, A Survey of the Old Testament, Zondervan, 2009, 9780631210719,

External links

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