Daniel Dennett

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Daniel Dennett
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{{short description|American philosopher}}{{Use mdy dates|date=December 2013}}

Boston>Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. Analytic philosophy | New Atheism}}| institutions = Tufts University Philosophy of mind cognitive science > free will philosophy of religionN-ATHEIS FIRST=JAMES E., Taylor, }}HeterophenomenologyIntentional stanceIntuition pumpMultiple drafts modelGreedy reductionismCartesian theaterBelief in beliefFree-floating rationaleHTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.IE/BOOKS?ID=0GHQSO3BJY4C&PG=PA186&LPG=PA186&DQ=FREE+FLOATING+RATIONALE&SOURCE=BL&OTS=YMNCKRZDLQ&SIG=NU6PBYZ_13LMEIZCSQNVFEXGCXA&HL=EN&SA=X&VED=2AHUKEWIKL4GJK87YAHWDLCAKHX2WCOWQ6AEWBXOECAQQAQ#V=ONEPAGE&Q=FREE+FLOATING+RATIONALE&F=FALSEFIRST=HARRYDATE=FEBRUARY 27, 2018VIA=GOOGLE BOOKS, Top-down vs bottom-up designHTTP://PP.KPNET.FI/SEIRIOA/CDENN/COGSCIRV.HTM>TITLE=COGNITIVE SCIENCE AS REVERSE ENGINEERINGFIRST=JENNIFER M.EDITOR-FIRST=EDWARD N.DATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2018VIA=STANFORD ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY, Alternative neurosurgerweblinkBrainstorm machineDennet, Daniel (1997). "Quining Qualia". In Ned Block (ed.). The Nature of Consciousness. Cambridge: MIT Press. p. 623. ISBN 0-262-52210-1Deepitweblink Phillips Exeter Academy Harvard University > Hertford College, Oxford}}Susan Bell|1962}} Consciousness Explained (1991) Darwin's Dangerous Idea (1995) > (Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon|Breaking the Spell) (2006)}} Jean Nicod Prize (2001) Mind & Brain Prize (2011) > Erasmus Prize (2012)}}| thesis_title = The Mind and the Brain| thesis_year = 1965| doctoral_advisor= Gilbert Ryle Charles Darwin Richard Dawkins > David Hume W. V. O. Quine > Gilbert Ryle}} Richard Dawkins Sam Harris > Douglas Hofstadter Geoffrey Miller (evolutionary psychologist)>Geoffrey Miller}}| signature = Daniel Dennett signature.svg}}Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.Beardsley, T. (1996) Profile: Daniel C. Dennett â€“ Dennett's Dangerous Idea, Scientific American 274(2), 34–35.As of 2017, he is the co-director of the Center for Cognitive Studies and the Austin B. Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University. Dennett is an atheist and secularist, a member of the Secular Coalition for America advisory board,WEB,weblink Daniel Dennett,, May 24, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink February 7, 2012, yes, , and a member of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, as well as an outspoken supporter of the Brights movement. Dennett is referred to as one of the "Four Horsemen of New Atheism", along with Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, and the late Christopher Hitchens.WEB,weblink Preview: The Four Horsemen of New Atheism reunited,, Dennett is a member of the editorial board for The Rutherford Journal.WEB, Editorial board,weblink The Rutherford Journal, 19 December 2016,

Early life, education, and career

Dennett was born on March 28, 1942, in Boston, Massachusetts,WEB,weblink Goodreads Authors,,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2012, the son of Ruth Marjorie (née Leck) and Daniel Clement Dennett Jr.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers | isbn = 9781843710370 | author1 = Shook | first1 = John R | date = June 20, 2005}}WEB,weblink Daniel C. Dennett Biography, eNotes, Dennett spent part of his childhood in Lebanon, where, during World War II, his father was a covert counter-intelligence agent with the Office of Strategic Services posing as a cultural attaché to the American Embassy in Beirut.{{citation |url= |title=A Dead Spy, a Daughter's Questions and the C.I.A. |periodical=The New York Times |last=Feuer |first=Alan |publication-date=2007-10-23 |work= |accessdate=September 16, 2008}} When he was five, his mother took him back to Massachusetts after his father died in an unexplained plane crash.NEWS,weblink The semantic engineer, Andrew, Brown, April 17, 2004, The Guardian, February 1, 2010, Dennett's sister is the investigative journalist Charlotte Dennett. Dennett says that he was first introduced to the notion of philosophy while attending summer camp at age 11, when a camp counselor said to him, "You know what you are, Daniel? You're a philosopher."Dennett in conversation with Michio Kaku on Explorations {{webarchive|url= |date=July 12, 2014 }} radio program (broadcast on KPFA-FM, Berkeley, California, June 12, 2012)Dennett graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1959, and spent one year at Wesleyan University before receiving his Bachelor of Arts in philosophy at Harvard University in 1963. At Harvard University he was a student of W. V. Quine. In 1965, he received his Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy at the University of Oxford, where he studied under Gilbert Ryle and was a member of Hertford College.{{citation |url= |title=In-depth interview with Daniel Dennett |last=Spencer |first=Nick |publication-date=2013 |work= |accessdate=May 27, 2017}} His dissertation was entitled The Mind and the Brain: Introspective Description in the Light of Neurological Findings; Intentionality.WEB, Daniel C. Dennett, (1965). The mind and the brain: introspective description in the light of neurological findings: intentionality,weblink Oxford University Research Archive, Oxford University, 24 October 2017, (File:Daniel dennett Oct2008.JPG|thumb|left|Dennett in 2008)Dennett describes himself as "an autodidact—or, more properly, the beneficiary of hundreds of hours of informal tutorials on all the fields that interest me, from some of the world's leading scientists".{{Citation |last=Dennett |first=Daniel C. |editor=John Brockman |title=Curious Minds: How a Child Becomes a Scientist |origyear=2004 |date=September 13, 2005 |publisher=Vintage Books |location=New York |isbn=1-4000-7686-2 |chapter=What I Want to Be When I Grow Up }}He is the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship, two Guggenheim Fellowships, and a Fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences.WEB,weblink American Scientist, He is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism.WEB,weblink Council for Secular Humanism,, He was named 2004 Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association.WEB,weblink Humanists of the Year, American Humanist Association, In February 2010, he was named to the Freedom From Religion Foundation's Honorary Board of distinguished achievers.WEB,weblink Honorary FFRF Board Announced, August 20, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 17, 2010, In 2012, he was awarded the Erasmus Prize, an annual award for a person who has made an exceptional contribution to European culture, society or social science, "for his ability to translate the cultural significance of science and technology to a broad audience."WEB,weblink Erasmus Prize 2012 Awarded to Daniel C. Dennett, January 25, 2012, In 2018, he was awarded an honorary degree by Radboud University, located in Nijmegen, Netherlands, for his contributions to and influence on cross-disciplinary science.WEB,weblink Honorary Doctorates for Daniel Dennett, Mary Beard, Stephen Pacala and Jeroen Brouwers, 27 February 2018, Radboud University,

Philosophical views

Free will

While he is a confirmed compatibilist on free will, in "On Giving Libertarians What They Say They Want"—chapter 15 of his 1978 book BrainstormsBrainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology, MIT Press (1978), pp. 286–299—Dennett articulated the case for a two-stage model of decision making in contrast to libertarian views.While other philosophers have developed two-stage models, including William James, Henri Poincaré, Arthur Compton, and Henry Margenau, Dennett defends this model for the following reasons:Leading libertarian philosophers such as Robert Kane have rejected Dennett's model, specifically that random chance is directly involved in a decision, on the basis that they believe this eliminates the agent's motives and reasons, character and values, and feelings and desires. They claim that, if chance is the primary cause of decisions, then agents cannot be liable for resultant actions. Kane says:

Philosophy of mind

Dennett has remarked in several places (such as "Self-portrait", in Brainchildren) that his overall philosophical project has remained largely the same since his time at Oxford. He is primarily concerned with providing a philosophy of mind that is grounded in empirical research. In his original dissertation, Content and Consciousness, he broke up the problem of explaining the mind into the need for a theory of content and for a theory of consciousness. His approach to this project has also stayed true to this distinction. Just as Content and Consciousness has a bipartite structure, he similarly divided Brainstorms into two sections. He would later collect several essays on content in The Intentional Stance and synthesize his views on consciousness into a unified theory in Consciousness Explained. These volumes respectively form the most extensive development of his views.{{citation |last=Guttenplan |first=Samuel |authorlink=Samuel Guttenplan|title=A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind |publisher=Blackwell |location=Oxford |year=1994 |pages=642 |isbn=0-631-19996-9}}In chapter 5 of Consciousness Explained Dennett describes his multiple drafts model of consciousness. He states that, "all varieties of perception—indeed all varieties of thought or mental activity—are accomplished in the brain by parallel, multitrack processes of interpretation and elaboration of sensory inputs. Information entering the nervous system is under continuous 'editorial revision.'" (p. 111). Later he asserts, "These yield, over the course of time, something rather like a narrative stream or sequence, which can be thought of as subject to continual editing by many processes distributed around the brain, ..." (p. 135, emphasis in the original).In this work, Dennett's interest in the ability of evolution to explain some of the content-producing features of consciousness is already apparent, and this has since become an integral part of his program. He defends a theory known by some as Neural Darwinism. He also presents an argument against qualia; he argues that the concept is so confused that it cannot be put to any use or understood in any non-contradictory way, and therefore does not constitute a valid refutation of physicalism. His strategy mirrors his teacher Ryle's approach of redefining first person phenomena in third person terms, and denying the coherence of the concepts which this approach struggles with.Dennett self-identifies with a few terms:In Consciousness Explained, he affirms "I am a sort of 'teleofunctionalist', of course, perhaps the original teleofunctionalist'". He goes on to say, "I am ready to come out of the closet as some sort of verificationist".{{Page needed|date=September 2017}}

Evolutionary debate

Much of Dennett's work since the 1990s has been concerned with fleshing out his previous ideas by addressing the same topics from an evolutionary standpoint, from what distinguishes human minds from animal minds (Kinds of Minds), to how free will is compatible with a naturalist view of the world (Freedom Evolves).Dennett sees evolution by natural selection as an algorithmic process (though he spells out that algorithms as simple as long division often incorporate a significant degree of randomness).p. 52-60, Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life (Simon & Schuster; reprint edition 1996) ({{ISBN|0-684-82471-X}}) This idea is in conflict with the evolutionary philosophy of paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, who preferred to stress the "pluralism" of evolution (i.e., its dependence on many crucial factors, of which natural selection is only one).Dennett's views on evolution are identified as being strongly adaptationist, in line with his theory of the intentional stance, and the evolutionary views of biologist Richard Dawkins. In Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Dennett showed himself even more willing than Dawkins to defend adaptationism in print, devoting an entire chapter to a criticism of the ideas of Gould. This stems from Gould's long-running public debate with E. O. Wilson and other evolutionary biologists over human sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology, which Gould and Richard Lewontin opposed, but which Dennett advocated, together with Dawkins and Steven Pinker.Although Dennett has expressed criticism of human sociobiology, calling it a form of "greedy reductionism", he is generally sympathetic towards the explanations proposed by evolutionary psychology. Gould also is not one sided, and writes: "Sociobiologists have broadened their range of selective stories by invoking concepts of inclusive fitness and kin selection to solve (successfully I think) the vexatious problem of altruism—previously the greatest stumbling block to a Darwinian theory of social behavior. . . . Here sociobiology has had and will continue to have success. And here I wish it well. For it represents an extension of basic Darwinism to a realm where it should apply." Gould, 1980. "Sociobiology and the Theory of Natural Selection" {{webarchive|url= |date=July 15, 2007 }} In G. W. Barlow and J. Silverberg, eds., Sociobiology: Beyond Nature/Nurture? Boulder CO: Westview Press, pp. 257–269. Strong disagreements have been launched against Dennett from Gould and his supporters, who allege that Dennett overstated his claims and misrepresented Gould's to reinforce what Gould describes as Dennett's "Darwinian fundamentalism".'Evolution: The pleasures of Pluralism' â€” Stephen Jay Gould's review of Darwin's Dangerous Idea, June 26, 1997Dennett's theories have had a significant influence on the work of evolutionary psychologist Geoffrey Miller.

An account of religion and morality

File:Solidarity message to ex-Muslims - Daniel Dennett.webm|thumb|Dennett sends a solidarity message to ex-Muslims convening in London in July 2017]]In Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Dennett writes that evolution can account for the origin of morality. He rejects the idea of the naturalistic fallacy as the idea that ethics is in some free-floating realm, writing that the fallacy is to rush from facts to values.In his 2006 book, (Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon), Dennett attempts to account for religious belief naturalistically, explaining possible evolutionary reasons for the phenomenon of religious adherence.In this book he declares himself to be "a bright", and defends the term.He has been doing research into clerics who are secretly atheists and how they rationalize their works. He found what he called a "don't ask, don't tell" conspiracy because believers did not want to hear of loss of faith. That made unbelieving preachers feel isolated but they did not want to lose their jobs and sometimes their church-supplied lodgings and generally consoled themselves that they were doing good in their pastoral roles by providing comfort and required ritual.weblink, "Preachers Who Are Not Believers," Evolutionary Psychology, Vol. 8, Issue 1, March 2010, pp. 122–50, ({{ISSN|1474-7049}}). The research, with Linda LaScola, was further extended to include other denominations and non-Christian clerics.Podcast: interview with Daniel Dennett. Further developments of the research: pastors, priests, and an Imam who are closet atheists. The research and stories Dennett and LaScola accumulated during this project were published in their 2013 co-authored book, Caught in the Pulpit: Leaving Belief Behind.NEWS,weblink Caught in the Pulpit: Leaving Belief Behind -, 2014-04-22,, 2017-06-01, en-US,

Other philosophical views

He has also written about and advocated the notion of memetics as a philosophically useful tool, most recently in his "Brains, Computers, and Minds", a three-part presentation through Harvard's MBB 2009 Distinguished Lecture Series.Dennett has been critical of postmodernism, having said: Postmodernism, the school of "thought" that proclaimed "There are no truths, only interpretations" has largely played itself out in absurdity, but it has left behind a generation of academics in the humanities disabled by their distrust of the very idea of truth and their disrespect for evidence, settling for "conversations" in which nobody is wrong and nothing can be confirmed, only asserted with whatever style you can muster.Dennett, Daniel (October 19, 2013). "Dennett on Wieseltier V. Pinker in The New Republic: Let's Start With A Respect For Truth." Retrieved August 4, 2018.Dennett adopted and somewhat redefined the term "deepity", originally coined by Miriam WeizenbaumDennett, Daniel. Intuition Pumps And Other Tools for Thinking. W. W. Norton & Company, 2013 p.56. Dennett used "deepity" for a statement that is apparently profound, but is actually trivial on one level and meaningless on another. Generally, a deepity has two (or more) meanings: one that is true but trivial, and another that sounds profound and would be important if true, but is actually false or meaningless. Examples are "Que sera sera!", "Beauty is only skin deep!", "The power of intention can transform your life."WEB,weblink This column will change your life: deepities - 'A deepity isn't just any old pseudo-profound bit of drivel. It's a specific kind of statement that can be read in two different ways…', The Guardian, 25 May 2013, Oliver Burkeman, 6 February 2016, The term (Wikt:Citations:deepity#English|has been cited) many times.

Artificial intelligence

While approving of the increase in efficiency that humans reap by using resources such as expert systems in medicine or GPS in navigation, Dennett sees a danger in machines performing an ever-increasing proportion of basic tasks in perception, memory, and algorithmic computation because people may tend to anthropomorphize such systems and attribute intellectual powers to them that they do not possess.From Bacteria to Bach and Back The Evolution of Minds, Daniel C. Dennett 2017 Penguin P. 402 He believes the relevant danger from AI is that people will misunderstand the nature of basically "parasitic" AI systems, rather than employing them constructively to challenge and develop the human user's powers of comprehension.From Bacteria to Bach and Back The Evolution of Minds, Daniel C. Dennett 2017 Penguin P.402-403As given in his most recent book, From Bacteria to Bach and Back, Dennett's views stand in contradistinction to those of Nick Bostrom.From Bacteria to Bach and Back The Evolution of Minds, Daniel C. Dennett 2017 Penguin P. 400 Although acknowledging that it is "possible in principle" to create AI with human-like comprehension and agency, Dennett maintains that the difficulties of any such "strong AI" project would be orders of magnitude greater than those raising concerns have realized.From Bacteria to Bach and Back The Evolution of Minds, Daniel C. Dennett 2017 Penguin P. p164-5 and 399-400 According to Dennett, the prospect of superintelligence (AI massively exceeding the cognitive performance of humans in all domains) is at least 50 years away, and of far less pressing significance than other problems the world faces.From Bacteria to Bach and Back The Evolution of Minds, Daniel C. Dennett 2017 Penguin P.399-400

Personal life

Dennett married Susan Bell in 1962."Author Profile: Daniel Dennett." {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 4, 2016 }} Retrieved August 4, 2018. They live in North Andover, Massachusetts, and have a daughter, a son, and five grandchildren.WEB,weblink Daniel C. Dennett : Home,, Dennett is an avid sailor.NEWS,weblink Philosophy That Stirs the Waters, The New York Times, Jennifer, Schuessler, April 29, 2013,

Selected works

{{div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology (MIT Press 1981) ({{ISBN|0-262-54037-1}})
  • Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting (MIT Press 1984) â€” on free will and determinism ({{ISBN|0-262-04077-8}})
  • The Mind's I (Bantam, Reissue edition 1985, with Douglas Hofstadter) ({{ISBN|0-553-34584-2}})
  • Content and Consciousness (Routledge & Kegan Paul Books Ltd; 2nd ed. January 1986) ({{ISBN|0-7102-0846-4}})
  • {{citation|year=1996 |title=The Intentional Stance (6th printing) |place=Cambridge, Massachusetts|publisher=The MIT Press |isbn=0-262-54053-3}} (First published 1987)
  • Consciousness Explained (Back Bay Books 1992) ({{ISBN|0-316-18066-1}})
  • (Darwin's Dangerous Idea|Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life) (Simon & Schuster; reprint edition 1996) ({{ISBN|0-684-82471-X}})
  • Kinds of Minds: Towards an Understanding of Consciousness (Basic Books 1997) ({{ISBN|0-465-07351-4}})
  • Brainchildren: Essays on Designing Minds (Representation and Mind) (MIT Press 1998) ({{ISBN|0-262-04166-9}}) â€” A Collection of Essays 1984–1996
  • Freedom Evolves (Viking Press 2003) ({{ISBN|0-670-03186-0}})
  • (Sweet Dreams: Philosophical Obstacles to a Science of Consciousness) (MIT Press 2005) ({{ISBN|0-262-04225-8}})
  • (Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon) (Penguin Group 2006) ({{ISBN|0-670-03472-X}}).
  • Neuroscience and Philosophy: Brain, Mind, and Language (Columbia University Press 2007) ({{ISBN|978-0-231-14044-7}}), co-authored with Max Bennett, Peter Hacker, and John Searle
  • Science and Religion (Oxford University Press 2010) ({{ISBN|0-199-73842-4}}), co-authored with Alvin Plantinga
  • Intuition Pumps And Other Tools for Thinking (W. W. Norton & Company – May 6, 2013) ({{ISBN|0-393-08206-7}})
  • Caught in the Pulpit: Leaving Belief Behind (Pitchstone Publishing — December, 2013) ({{ISBN|978-1634310208}}) co-authored with Linda LaScola
  • Inside Jokes: Using Humor to Reverse-Engineer the Mind (MIT Press – 2011) ({{ISBN|978-0-262-01582-0}}), co-authored with Matthew M. Hurley and Reginald B. Adams Jr.
  • (From Bacteria to Bach and Back: The Evolution of Minds) (W. W. Norton & Company – February 2017) ({{ISBN|978-0-393-24207-2}})
{{div col end}}

See also



Further reading

{{div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • John Brockman (1995). The Third Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster. {{ISBN|0-684-80359-3}} (Discusses Dennett and others).
  • Andrew Brook and Don Ross (editors) (2000). Daniel Dennett. New York: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|0-521-00864-6}}
  • Daniel C. Dennett (1997), weblink" title="">"Chapter 3. True Believers: The Intentional Strategy and Why it Works", in John Haugeland, Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, Artificial Intelligence. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. {{ISBN|0-262-08259-4}} (reprint of 1981 publication).
  • Matthew Elton (2003). Dennett: Reconciling Science and Our Self-Conception. Cambridge, U.K: Polity Press. {{ISBN|0-7456-2117-1}}
  • P.M.S. Hacker and M.R. Bennett (2003) Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience. Oxford, and Malden, Mass: Blackwell {{ISBN|1-4051-0855-X}} (Has an appendix devoted to a strong critique of Dennett's philosophy of mind)
  • Don Ross, Andrew Brook and David Thompson (editors) (2000) Dennett's Philosophy: A Comprehensive Assessment Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. {{ISBN|0-262-18200-9}}
  • John Symons (2000) On Dennett. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company. {{ISBN|0-534-57632-X}}
{{div col end}}

External links

{{sisterlinks|d=Q215263|s=Author:Daniel Clement Dennett|c=Category:Daniel Dennett|v=no|voy=no|b=no|m=no|mw=no|species=no|n=no|wikt=no}}
  • Daniel Dennett at Tufts University
  • BOOK,weblink Inside Jokes: Using Humor to Reverse-Engineer the Mind, Matthew M., Hurley, Daniel C., Dennett, Reginald B., Adams, Jr, MIT Press, 9780262015820, 2011,
  • {{imdb name|0219356}}
  • WEB,weblink Scientific American Frontiers, Daniel Dennett, PBS, yes, January 24, 2001,weblink" title="">weblink
  • weblink" title="">Searchable bibliography of Dennett's works
  • JOURNAL,weblink Intuition Pumping, 3AM Magazine, June 3, 2013, Richard, Marshal, July 12, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2015, yes,
{{Dennett|state=expanded}}{{Evolutionary psychology}}{{Analytic philosophy}}{{Philosophy of religion}}{{Consciousness}}{{Authority control}}

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