Daniel Barenboim

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Daniel Barenboim
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{{redirect|Barenboim|the Soviet pianist and musicologist|Lev Barenboim|other uses|Barenboim (surname)}}

| birth_place = Buenos Aires, Argentina| death_date = | death_place =| residence =| nationality =| other_names =| ethnicity = | citizenship = Argentine, Israeli, Palestinian, Spanish| education =| alma_mater =Pianist and conducting>conductor| years_active =| employer =| organization =| known_for =| notable_works = }}| partner =| children = 2| parents =| relatives =| callsign =| awards =| signature =| signature_alt =| signature_size =weblink}}| footnotes =| box_width = embed=yes title = Daniel Barenboim's voice description = from the BBC Reith Lectures, 7 April 2006.DANIEL BARENBOIM: IN THE BEGINNING WAS SOUND REITH LECTURES>THE REITH LECTURES ACCESSDATE= 18 JANUARY 2014 DATE= 7 APRIL 2006, }}}}Daniel Barenboim, KBE ({{IPA-de|ˈbaːʁənbɔʏm|lang}}; ; born 15 November 1942) is a pianist and conductor who is a citizen of Argentina, Israel, Palestine, and Spain.The current general music director of the Berlin State Opera and the Staatskapelle Berlin, Barenboim previously served as Music Director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Orchestre de Paris and La Scala in Milan.WEB,weblink Barenboim to leave La Scala opera, 29 October 2013,, Barenboim is known for his work with the West–Eastern Divan Orchestra, a Seville-based orchestra of young Arab and Israeli musicians, and as a resolute critic of the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories.Barenboim has received many awards and prizes, including seven Grammy awards, an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire,NEWS,weblink Conductor Daniel Barenboim receives honorary knighthood, BBC News, 2011-06-24, 2015-02-08, France's Légion d'honneur both as a Commander and Grand Officier, and the German Großes Bundesverdienstkreuz and Willy Brandt Award.PRESS RELEASE,weblink SPD verleiht Internationalen Willy-Brandt-Preis an Daniel Barenboim, Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party Germany), 21 September 2011, 2015-02-08, Together with the Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said, he was given Spain's Prince of Asturias Concord Award. Barenboim is a polyglot, fluent in Spanish, Hebrew, English, French, Italian, and German. A self-described (:Category:Spinozists|Spinozist), he is significantly influenced by Spinoza's life and thought.
  • Barenboim: "...So when you play five notes, if each note had a big ego it would want to be louder than the note before. And therefore I learned from this very simple fact, that no matter how great an individual you are, music teaches you that the creativity only work in groups, and the expression of the group is very often larger than the sum of the parts. And you can draw whatever conclusions you want from this, but I think that this is a not unimportant factor. And maybe in a strange way I've found some answers to all this, not in music but in philosophy, especially from reading regularly and for many years the 'Ethics' of Spinoza. Spinoza was a religious scholar, a political architect, a philosopher, who aspired to geometric demonstration of the universe and the human being in it, and he was a biological thinker who advanced the science of emotion. And there lies of course one of the great difficulties of making music, the science of emotion." (Reith Lectures 2006: In the Beginning was Sound: Lecture 1: In the Beginning was Sound)
  • Barenboim: "...We know at least since Spinoza that joy and its variant lead to a greater functional perfection, and that sorrow and related effects are unhealthy and should therefore be avoided. But music allows us to feel pain and pleasure simultaneously, both as players, and as listeners. [...] Music to me is sound with thought, and as Spinoza believed that rationality was the saving grace of the human being, then we must learn to look at music like this too." (Reith Lectures 2006: In the Beginning was Sound: Lecture 5: The Power of Music)WEB,weblink Barenboim, Daniel, The Purpose of The State is Freedom, Daniel Barenboim (2003): "...Spinoza helps me to see myself objectively. This makes life bearable even in experiencing suffering; and with the teachings from the Ethics the world is perceived as manageable. [...] Spinoza had no particular interest in music. Nonetheless, his logic was influenced by his approach to music. My father, who studied philosophy, was the first to introduce me to Spinoza. He advised me to look at scores philosophically and rationally. Spinoza's principle that reason and emotion cannot be separated, became for me a primary approach to music. I believe that one can approach a concept and a piece of music only if the logical structure can be established simultaneously with the emotional content.",, December 2003, 29 January 2019, Barenboim, Daniel: A Life in Music [2nd ed.]. Edited by Michael Lewin, revised by Philip Huscher. (New York: Arcade Publishing, 2002)Barenboim, Daniel: Everything is Connected: The Power of Music. Edited by Elena Cheah. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2008) {{ISBN|9780297855446}}. Daniel Barenboim (2008): "...I read Spinoza's Ethics for the first time when I was thirteen years old. Of course at school we studied the Bible – which for me is the ultimate philosophical work. However, reading Spinoza opened up a new dimension for me, which is the reason for my continuing dedication to his works. Spinoza's simple principle 'man thinks' has become an existential mindset for me; my copy of his Ethics has become dog-eared and torn. For years I took it with me on my travels and in hotel rooms or intervals in concerts became absorbed by many of its principles. Spinoza's Ethics is the best training ground for the intellect, above all because Spinoza teaches the radical freedom of thought more completely than any other philosopher."


File:Daniel Barenboim Kid.jpg|thumb|Daniel Barenboim, age 11, with composer Eithan Lustig and the Gadna Youth orchestra (1953)]]Daniel Barenboim was born on 15 November 1942 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to Argentinian-Jewish parents Aida (née Schuster) and Enrique Barenboim.BOOK,weblink Who's who in Israel and in the work for Israel abroad – Itzhak Ben – Google Books,, 2014-08-01, He started piano lessons at the age of five with his mother, continuing to study with his father, who remained his only teacher. On 19 August 1950, at the age of seven, he gave his first formal concert in his hometown, Buenos Aires.WEB,weblink Daniel Barenboim: Baton charge,, 22 October 2018, In 1952, Barenboim's family moved to Israel. Two years later, in the summer of 1954, his parents took him to Salzburg to take part in Igor Markevitch's conducting classes. During that summer he also met and played for Wilhelm Furtwängler, who has remained a central musical influence and ideal for Barenboim.WEB,weblink Daniel Barenboim, Why Wilhelm Furtwängler Still Moves Us Today, Translation from an article originally published in Der Tagesspiegel, November 2004, 5 May 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 July 2011, Furtwängler called the young Barenboim a "phenomenon" and invited him to perform the Beethoven First Piano Concerto with the Berlin Philharmonic, but Barenboim's father considered it too soon after the Second World War for a child of Jewish parents to be performing in Berlin.NEWS,weblink Festrede von Daniel Barenboim beim Festakt zur Eröffnung der Salzburger Festspiele 2010, 26 July 2010, Land Salzburg, Präsidialabteilung, german, 5 May 2011, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In 1955 Barenboim studied harmony and composition with Nadia Boulanger in Paris.On 15 June 1967, Barenboim and British cellist Jacqueline du Pré were married in Jerusalem at a Western Wall ceremony, du Pré having converted to Judaism."Barenboim, Daniel", Who's Who in World Jewry. Baltimore: WWIWJ, Inc., 1987, p. 28 Acting as one of the witnesses was the conductor Zubin Mehta, a long-time friend of Barenboim. Since "I was not Jewish I had to temporarily be renamed Moshe Cohen, which made me a 'kosher witness'", Mehta recalled.Zubin Mehta, The Score of My Life. New York: Amadeus Press, 2009, pp. 90, 25–26. Du Pré retired from music in 1973, after being diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). The marriage lasted until du Pré's death in 1987.In the early 1980s, Barenboim began an affair with the Russian pianist Elena Bashkirova, with whom he had two sons born in Paris before du Pré's death: David Arthur, born 1983, and Michael, born 1985. Barenboim worked to keep his relationship with Bashkirova hidden from du Pré, and believed he had succeeded. He and Bashkirova married in 1988. Both sons are part of the music world: David is a manager-writer for the German hip-hop band Level 8, and Michael Barenboim is a classical violinist.


Barenboim holds citizenship in Argentina, Israel,WEB,weblink Conductor Barenboim to be Nobel nominee, AFP,, 15 October 2011, Argentina, Palestine,WEB, Hirsch, Yael,weblink Israeli pianist Daniel Barenboim takes Palestinian citizenship, Haaretz, 2008-01-13, 2014-08-01, and SpainNEWS, Barenboim, Daniel, 14 May 2008, 'Music gives me hope',weblink The Guardian, London, 22 November 2017, , and was the first person to hold Palestinian and Israeli citizenship simultaneously. He lives in Berlin.NEWS,weblink Israeli conductor Daniel Barenboim to perform with orchestra in Gaza, 2 May 2011, 4 May 2011, Haaretz,


(File:Daniel Barenboim - 1958.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. concert performance at age 15 (January 1958))After performing in Buenos Aires, Barenboim made his international debut as a pianist at the age of 10 in 1952 in Vienna and Rome. In 1955 he performed in Paris, in 1956 in London, and in 1957 in New York under the baton of Leopold Stokowski. Regular concert tours of Europe, the United States, South America, Australia and the Far East followed thereafter.In June 1967, Barenboim and his then-fiancée Jacqueline du Pré gave concerts in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa and Beersheba before and during the Six-Day War.Helga Dudman, "Music with much love", The Jerusalem Post, 9 June 1967, p. 5. His friendship with musicians Itzhak Perlman, Zubin Mehta, and Pinchas Zukerman, and marriage to du Pré led to the 1969 film by Christopher Nupen of their performance of the Schubert "Trout" Quintet.NEWS,weblink Why make war when you can make music?, Telegraph, Julian Lloyd Webber, 21 July 2005, 23 April 2007, London, Following his debut as a conductor with the English Chamber Orchestra in Abbey Road Studios, London, in 1966, Barenboim was invited to conduct by many European and American symphony orchestras. Between 1975 and 1989, he was music director of the Orchestre de Paris, where he conducted much contemporary music.Barenboim made his opera conducting debut in 1973 with a performance of Mozart's Don Giovanni at the Edinburgh Festival. He made his debut at Bayreuth in 1981, conducting there regularly until 1999. In 1988, he was appointed artistic and musical director of the Opéra Bastille in Paris, scheduled to open in 1990, but was fired in January 1989 by the opera's chairman Pierre Bergé.NEWS,weblink Barenboim Backlash. The CSO's Henry Fogel Defends Solti's Successor, 14 May 1989, John von Rhein, Chicago Tribune, 5 May 2011, Barenboim was named music director designate of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1989 and succeeded Sir Georg Solti as its music director in 1991, a post he held until 17 June 2006.NEWS,weblink Barenboim to Leave Chicago Symphony in 06, Backstage, AP, 26 February 2004, 5 January 2017, He expressed frustration with the need for fund-raising duties in the United States as part of being a music director of an American orchestra.NEWS,weblink Daniel and Michael Barenboim: The family that plays together ..., Duchen, Jessica, 18 July 2012, The Independent, 30 January 2018, London, File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1990-1031-018, Berlin, Besuch Weizsäcker, Kirchner, Barenboim (r.).jpg|thumb|(l-r) President of the East Berlin Jewish Community {{ill|Peter Kirchner|de}}, President of the Federal Republic of Germany Richard von Weizsäcker, and Barenboim visit Jewish cemetery in Berlin-WeissenseeBerlin-WeissenseeSince 1992, Barenboim has been music director of the Berlin State Opera and the Staatskapelle Berlin, succeeding in maintaining the independent status of the State Opera. He has tried to maintain the orchestra's traditional sound and style.NEWS,weblink Barenboim in battle to save Berlin opera house, Telegraph, Kate Connolly, 15 November 2002, 23 April 2007, London, In autumn 2000 he was made conductor for life of the Staatskapelle Berlin.NEWS,weblink Goodbye Chicago, hello world, Telegraph, Michael Henderson, 20 June 2006, 23 April 2007, London, On 15 May 2006 Barenboim was named principal guest conductor of La Scala opera house, in Milan, after Riccardo Muti's resignation.NEWS,weblink Barenboim to be La Scala's guest, The Guardian, Barbara McMahon, 16 May 2006, 23 April 2007, London, He subsequently became music director of La Scala in 2011.NEWS, Fiona Maddocks, A tale of two Italian opera cities,weblink The Observer, 2011-12-11, 2015-02-08, In 2006, Barenboim presented the BBC Reith Lectures, presenting a series of five lectures titled In the Beginning was Sound. The lectures on music were recorded in a range of cities, including London, Chicago, Berlin, and two in Jerusalem.a) NEWS,weblink Daniel in the circus lions' den, Telegraph, Michael Henderson, 1 April 2006, 23 April 2007, London, b) NEWS,weblink Maverick maestro plays a different tune, Telegraph, Kate Connolly, 9 March 2006, 23 April 2007, London, c) NEWS,weblink In the beginning, there was sound. Then came Muzak, Telegraph, Daniel Barenboim, 8 April 2006, 23 April 2007, London, d) NEWS,weblink Maestro of the Middle East, The Observer, Peter Beaumont, 2 April 2006, 23 April 2007, London, In the autumn of 2006, Barenboim gave the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard University, entitling his talk Sound and Thought.NEWS,weblink Ideas, Appassionato, Harvard Magazine, Richard Dyer, 14–15, January–February 2007, 23 April 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2007, In November 2006, Lorin Maazel submitted Barenboim's name as his nominee to succeed him as the New York Philharmonic's music director.NEWS,weblink Unprompted, Lorin Maazel Nominates His Successor, The New York Times, Daniel J. Wakin, 29 November 2006, 23 April 2007, Barenboim said he was flattered but "nothing could be further from my thoughts at the moment than the possibility of returning to the United States for a permanent position",NEWS,weblink Proposed Philharmonic Candidate Is Flattered, if Coy, The New York Times, Mark Landler, 30 November 2006, 23 April 2007, repeating in April 2007 his lack of interest in the New York Philharmonic's music directorship or its newly created principal conductor position.NEWS, Wakin, Daniel J.,weblink Philharmonic to Add a Position at the Top,, 25 April 2007, 1 September 2011, Barenboim made his conducting debut on 28 November 2008 at the Metropolitan Opera in New York for the House's 450th performance of Wagner's Tristan und Isolde.In 2009, he conducted the New Year Concert of the Vienna Philharmonic.WEB,weblink On Conducting the New Year's Day Concert with the Vienna Philharmonic, Daniel Barenboim, Wiener Philharmoniker, 4 May 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 19 July 2011, In his New Year message, he expressed the hope that 2009 would be a year for peace and for human justice in the Middle East.WEB,weblink 1 January 2009, Neujahrskonzert 2009 – Daniel Barenboims sanfte Revolution, Kleine Zeitung, German, 29 May 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2013, He conducted the Vienna Philharmonic again for New Year's Day 2014. That year construction began on the Barenboim–Said Academy in Berlin. A joint project Barenboim developed with Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said, the academy was planned as a site for young music students from the Arab world and Israel to study music and humanities in Berlin.WEB,weblink Plans for Barenboim–Said Academy in Berlin Unveiled, Rebecca Schmid, The New York Times, 6 October 2014, It opened its doors on 8 December 2016.NEWS, Smale, Alison, 9 December 2016, The Barenboim-Said Academy Opens in Berlin,weblink The New York Times, 22 November 2017, In 2015, Barenboim unveiled a new concert grand piano. Designed by Chris Maene with support from Steinway & Sons, the piano features straight parallel strings instead of the conventional diagonally-crossed strings of a modern Steinwayweblink

Musical style

Barenboim has rejected musical fashions based on current musicological research, such as the authentic performance movement. His recording of Beethoven's symphonies shows his preference for some conventional practices, rather than fully adhering to Bärenreiter's new edition (edited by Jonathan Del Mar).Barenboim's liner notes for his recording of Beethoven's symphonies, Teldec, ASIN B00004S1EV, 2000.Barenboim has opposed the practice of choosing the tempo of a piece based on historical evidence, such as the composer's metronome marks. He argues instead for finding the tempo from within the music, especially from its harmony and harmonic rhythm. He has reflected this in the general tempi chosen in his recording of Beethoven's symphonies, usually adhering to early-twentieth-century practices. He has not been influenced by the faster tempos chosen by other conductors such as David Zinman and authentic movement advocate Roger Norrington.In his recording of The Well-Tempered Clavier, Barenboim makes frequent use of the right-foot sustaining pedal, a device absent from the keyboard instruments of Bach's time (although the harpsichord was highly resonant), producing a sonority very different from the "dry" and often staccato sound favoured by Glenn Gould. Moreover, in the fugues, he often plays one voice considerably louder than the others, a practice impossible on a harpsichord. According to some scholarship, this practice began in Beethoven's time (see, for example, Matthew Dirst's book Engaging Bach). When justifying his interpretation of Bach, Barenboim claims that he is interested in the long tradition of playing Bach that has existed for two and a half centuries, rather than in the exact style of performance in Bach's time:The study of old instruments and historic performance practice has taught us a great deal, but the main point, the impact of harmony, has been ignored. This is proved by the fact that tempo is described as an independent phenomenon. It is claimed that one of Bach's gavottes must be played fast and another one slowly. But tempo is not independent! ... I think that concerning oneself purely with historic performance practice and the attempt to reproduce the sound of older styles of music-making is limiting and no indication of progress. Mendelssohn and Schumann tried to introduce Bach into their own period, as did Liszt with his transcriptions and Busoni with his arrangements. In America Leopold Stokowski also tried to do it with his arrangements for orchestra. This was always the result of "progressive" efforts to bring Bach closer to the particular period. I have no philosophical problem with someone playing Bach and making it sound like Boulez. My problem is more with someone who tries to imitate the sound of that time ...Ich bin mit Bach aufgewachsen ("I was reared on Bach"), Barenboim's liner notes for his recordings of Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. Translated by Gery Bramall.


In the beginning of his career, Barenboim concentrated on music of the classical era, as well as some romantic composers. He made his first recording in 1954. Notable classical recordings include the complete cycles of Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert's piano sonatas, Beethoven's piano concertos (with the New Philharmonia Orchestra and Otto Klemperer), and Mozart's piano concertos (conducting the English Chamber Orchestra from the piano). Romantic recordings include Brahms's piano concertos (with John Barbirolli), Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words, and Chopin's nocturnes. Barenboim also recorded many chamber works, especially in collaboration with his first wife, Jacqueline du Pré, the violinist Itzhak Perlman, and the violinist and violist Pinchas Zukerman. Noted performances include: the complete Mozart violin sonatas (with Perlman), Brahms's violin sonatas (live concert with Perlman, previously in the studio with Zukerman), Beethoven's and Brahms's cello sonatas (with du Pré), Beethoven's and Tchaikovsky's piano trios (with du Pré and Zukerman), and Schubert's Trout Quintet (with du Pré, Perlman, Zukerman, and Zubin Mehta).Notable recordings as a conductor include the complete symphonies of Beethoven, Brahms, Bruckner, Schubert, and Schumann; the Da Ponte operas of Mozart; numerous operas by Wagner, including the complete Ring Cycle; and various concertos. Barenboim has written about his changing attitude to the music of Mahler;NEWS, Daniel Barenboim,weblink Love, the hard way, The Guardian, 31 August 2001, 1 September 2011, he has recorded Mahler's Fifth, Seventh, and Ninth symphonies and Das Lied von der Erde. He has also performed and recorded the Concierto de Aranjuez by Rodrigo and Villa-Lobos guitar concerto with John Williams as the guitar soloist.By the late 1990s, Barenboim had widened his concert repertoire, performing works by baroque as well as twentieth-century classical composers. Examples include: J. S. Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier (which he has played since childhood) and Goldberg Variations, Albeniz's Iberia, and Debussy's Préludes. In addition, he turned to other musical genres, such as jazz,Stephen Moss "Daniel in the lion's den", The Guardian, 22 October 1999. and the folk music of his birthplace, Argentina. He conducted the 2006 New Year's Eve concert in Buenos Aires, in which tangos were played.WEB,weblink Barenboim anticipó su gran concierto con un ensayo en pleno Obelisco,, 2006-12-31, 2014-08-01, Barenboim has continued to perform and record chamber music, sometimes with members of the orchestras he has led. Some examples include the Quartet for the End of Time by Messiaen with members of the Orchestre de Paris during his tenure there, Richard Strauss with members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, and Mozart's Clarinet Trio with members of the Berlin Staatskapelle.To mark Barenboim's 75th birthday, Deutsche Grammophon released a box set of 39 CDs of his solo recordings,"Two Daniel Barenboim box sets to be released this November", Pianist magazine, 20 September 2017 and Sony Classical issued a box set of Barenboim's orchestral recordings on 43 CDs and three DVDs in 2017, Daniel Barenboim – A Retrospective."Daniel Barenboim – A Retrospective, The Complete Sony Recordings", Presto Classical

Conducting Wagner in Israel

{{Further|Wagner controversies#Wagner's music in Israel}}The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (then Palestine Orchestra) had performed Richard Wagner's music in Mandatory Palestine even during the early days of the Nazi era."Bronislaw Szulc at Levant Fair Concert Hall [Tel Aviv]", Palestine Post, 20 July 1938, p. 6 But after the Kristallnacht,BOOK,weblink Moshe Zuckermann, Moralische Aspekte des Israelischen Wagner-Boykotts, Chaim Gans, Verlag Wallstein Verlag, 2003, 385, Medien – Politik – Geschichte. Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, 3892446571, German, Jewish musicians avoided playing Wagner's music in Israel because of the use Nazi Germany made of the composer and because of Wagner's own anti-Semitic writings,BOOK,weblink Paul R. Mendes-Flohr, Jehuda Reinharz, The Jew in the Modern World, Oxford University Press, 1995, 230, fn1 to Richard Wagner, "Jewry in Music", translation and excerpt of "Das Judenthum in der Musik", pp. 327–331, initiating an unofficial boycott.This informal ban continued when Israel was founded in 1948, but from time to time unsuccessful efforts were made to end it.WEB,weblink Haifa Symphony Orchestra Cancels Wagnerian Concert on 'Crystal Night', Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 1963-11-12, 2014-08-01, In 1974WEB,weblink Philharmonic Drops Wagner from Program to Avoid Disturbances | Jewish Telegraphic Agency,, 1974-06-25, 2014-08-01, and again in 1981 Zubin Mehta planned to (but did not) lead the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in works of Wagner. During the latter occasion, fist fights broke out in the audience.Hugh Orgel, "Controversy Flares over Playing of Wagner's Music by the IPO", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 23 October 1981.Barenboim, who had been selected to head the production of Wagner's operas at the 1988 Bayreuth Festival,"News Brief", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 7 August 1985 had since at least 1989 publicly opposed the Israeli ban. In that year, he had the Israel Philharmonic "rehearse" two of Wagner's works.Hugh Orgel, "Israeli Philharmonic Rehearses Two Pieces of Richard Wagner", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 2 November 1989. In a conversation with Edward Said, Barenboim said that "Wagner, the person, is absolutely appalling, despicable, and, in a way, very difficult to put together with the music he wrote, which so often has exactly the opposite kind of feelings ... noble, generous, etc." He called Wagner's anti-Semitism obviously "monstrous", and feels it must be faced, but argues that "Wagner did not cause the Holocaust."In 1990, Barenboim conducted the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra in its first appearance in Israel, but he excluded Wagner's works. "Although Wagner died in 1883, he is not played [in Israel] because his music is too inextricably linked with Nazism, and so is too painful for those who suffered", Barenboim told a reporter. "Why play what hurts people?"Helen Kaye, "Berlin orchestra won't play Wagner", The Jerusalem Post International Edition, 11 November 1989, p. 7. Not long afterwards, it was announced that Barenboim would lead the Israel Philharmonic in two Wagner overtures,Hugh Orgel, "Chorus of Protest Erupts in Israel over IPO Decision to Perform Wagner", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 16 December 1991. which took place on 27 December "before a carefully screened audience."Hugh Orgel, "IPO Goes Ahead and Plays Wagner, in Guise of a Rehearsal Concert", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 29 December 1991.In 2000, the Israel Supreme Court upheld the right of the Rishon LeZion Orchestra to perform Wagner's Siegfried Idyll.News Brief, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 30 October 2000. At the Israel Festival in Jerusalem in July 2001, Barenboim had scheduled to perform the first act of Die Walküre with three singers, including tenor Plácido Domingo. However, strong protests by some Holocaust survivors, as well as the Israeli government, led the festival authorities to ask for an alternative program. (The Israel Festival's Public Advisory board, which included some Holocaust survivors, had originally approved the program.)Ohad Gozani, "Israeli battle over Wagner", The Daily Telegraph, 14 May 2001. Retrieved 1 September 2011. The controversy appeared to end in May, after the Israel Festival announced that a selection by Wagner would not be included at the 7 July concert.News Brief, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 31 May 2001; Larry Derfner, "Aryan virtues vs. musical greatness", Chicago Jewish Star, 25 May 2001, pp.7–8. Barenboim agreed to substitute music by Schumann and Stravinsky.However, at the end of the concert with the Berlin Staatskapelle, Barenboim announced that he would like to play Wagner as a second encore and invited those who objected to leave, saying, "Despite what the Israel Festival believes, there are people sitting in the audience for whom Wagner does not spark Nazi associations. I respect those for whom these associations are oppressive. It will be democratic to play a Wagner encore for those who wish to hear it. I am turning to you now and asking whether I can play Wagner." A half-hour debate ensued, with some audience members calling Barenboim a "fascist". In the end, a small number of attendees walked out and the overwhelming majority remained, applauding loudly after the performance of the Tristan und Isolde Prelude.Zipi Shohat, "Wagner gets in through the back door. Some are angry about Daniel Barenboim's decision to conduct Wagner, but call it a historic occasion nonetheless", Haaretz, 18 July 2001; Inigo Gilmore, "Barenboim shatters Israel taboo on Wagner", The Daily Telegraph, 9 July 2001; Will Hodgkinson, "Orchestral manoeuvres", The Guardian, 13 August 2004.In September 2001, a public relations associate for the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, where Barenboim was the Music Director, revealed that season ticket-holders were about evenly divided about the wisdom of Barenboim's decision to play Wagner in Jerusalem.Gila Wertheimer, "Subscribers turning a deaf ear to CSO", Chicago Jewish Star, 14 September 2001, p. 2; Letters, Chicago Jewish Star, 28 September 2001, p. 4.Barenboim regarded the performance of Wagner at the 7 July concert as a political statement. He said he had decided to defy the ban on Wagner after having a news conference he held the previous week interrupted by the ringing of a mobile phone to the tune of Wagner's "Ride of the Valkyries".Daniel Barenboim, "Those who want to leave, do so", The Guardian, 6 September 2002. "I thought if it can be heard on the ring of a telephone, why can't it be played in a concert hall?" he said.Joel Greenberg, "Playing a Bit of Wagner Sets Off an Uproar in Israel", The New York Times, 9 July 2001, p. A4; Associated Press, "Barenboim plays Wagner", Chicago Sun-Times, 8 July 2001, p. 2A.A Knesset committee subsequently called for Barenboim to be declared a persona non grata in Israel until he apologized for conducting Wagner's music.News Brief, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 25 July 2001. The move was condemned by the musical director of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra Zubin Mehta and members of Knesset.Zipi Shohat, "Mehta slams Knesset boycott of Barenboim", Haaretz, 26 July 2001. Prior to receiving the $100,000 Wolf Prize, awarded annually in Israel, Barenboim said, "If people were really hurt, of course I regret this, because I don't want to harm anyone".Jason Keyser, "Apology (sort of) delivered, now Barenboim will get prize", Chicago Sun-Times, 17 December 2003, p. 80.In 2005, Barenboim gave the inaugural Edward Said Memorial Lecture at Columbia University, entitled "Wagner, Israel and Palestine".WEB,weblink Daniel Barenboim Discusses Music As A Bridge For Peace In The Middle East,, 2014-08-01,weblink" title="">weblink 19 July 2011, yes, dmy-all, In the speech, according to the Financial Times, Barenboim "called on Israel to accept the Palestinian 'narrative even though they may not agree with it'", and said, "The state of Israel was supposed to provide the instrument for the end of anti-Semitism ... This inability to accept a new narrative has led to a new anti-Semitism that is very different from the European anti-Semitism of the 19th century."Paul Sullivan, "Daniel Barenboim at Columbia University", Financial Times, 27 January 2005, According to The New York Times, Barenboim said it was the "fear, this conviction of being yet again the victim, that does not allow the Israeli public to accept Wagner's anti-Semitism ... It is the same cell in the collective brain that does not allow them to make progress in their understanding of the needs of the Palestinian people", and also said that suicide bombings in Israel "had to be seen in the context of the historical development at which we have arrived".Daniel J. Wakin, "Barenboim Criticizes Israeli Views", The New York Times, 26 January 2005 The speech caused controversy; the Jewish Telegraphic Agency wrote that Barenboim had "compared Herzl's ideas to Wagner's; criticized Palestinian terrorist attacks but also justified them; and said Israeli actions contributed to the rise of international anti-Semitism".Rachel Pomerance, "Barenboim Comments Spark Anger As Controversy at Columbia Builds", Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 26 January 2005; Liel Lebovitz, "Maestro Maelstrom at Columbia", The Jewish Week, 28 January 2005.In March 2007, Barenboim said: "The whole subject of Wagner in Israel has been politicized and is a symptom of a malaise that goes very deep in Israeli society{{nbsp}}..."NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Musing on the Barenboim X-Factor, James R., Oestreich, James R. Oestreich, 2 March 2007, 28 March 2010, In 2010, before conducting Wagner's Die Walküre for the gala premiere of La Scala's season in Milan, he said that the perception of Wagner was unjustly influenced by the fact that he was Hitler's favourite composer: "I think a bit of the problem with Wagner isn't what we all know in Israel, anti-Semitism, etc ... It is how the Nazis and Hitler saw Wagner as his own prophet ... This perception of Hitler colors for many people the perception of Wagner ... We need one day to liberate Wagner of all this weight".Associated Press, "Israeli conductor Barenboim wants to 'liberate' Wagner from Nazi association", Haaretz, 3 December 2010.In a 2012 interview with Der Spiegel,WEB,weblink Spiegel Interview with Daniel Barenboim: 'The Germans Are Prisoners of Their Past', Der Spiegel, Barenboim said, "It saddens me that official Israel so doggedly refuses to allow Wagner to be performed – as was the case, once again, at the University of Tel Aviv two weeks ago – because I see it as a symptom of a disease. The words I'm about to use are harsh, but I choose them deliberately: There is a politicization of the remembrance of the Holocaust in Israel, and that's terrible." He also argued that after the trial of Adolf Eichmann and the Six-Day War, "a misunderstanding also arose ... namely that the Holocaust, from which the Jews' ultimate claim to Israel was derived, and the Palestinian problem had something to do with each other."He also said, thatsince the Six-Day War, Israeli politicians have repeatedly established a connection between European anti-Semitism and the fact that the Palestinians don't accept the founding of the State of Israel. But that's absurd! The Palestinians weren't primarily anti-Semitic. They just didn't accept their expulsion. But European anti-Semitism goes much further back than to the partition of Palestine and the establishment of Israel in 1948.In response to a question from the interviewer, he said he conducted Wagner with the West–Eastern Divan Orchestra because, "The musicians wanted it. I said: Sure, but we have to talk about it. It's a tricky decision." When the interviewer asked if the initiative came from Arab musicians in the orchestra, he replied, "On the contrary. It was the Israelis. The Israeli brass players."Over the years, observers of the Wagner battle have weighed in on both sides of the issue.Supporting Barenboim's position: Editorial, "Keep Wagner on the program", Chicago Sun-Times, 18 December 1991; Karl E. Meyer, "Wagner, Israel – and Herzl", The New York Times, 19 December 1991, p. A18; Leonard Bernstein, "Wagner's Music Isn't Racist", The New York Times, 26 December 1991; Editorial, "A grim Holocaust memory... but don't censor Wagner", Chicago Tribune, 10 July 2001. Opposing Barenboim's position: "Wagner in Israel", The Jewish Star, Calgary edition, 20 November 1981, p. 4; Gideon Hausner, "The case against Wagner", The Jerusalem Post International Edition, 25–31 October 1981, p. 15; Eugene Blum, "Don't play Wagner", The International Jerusalem Post, 10 November 2000; Manuela Hoelterhoff, "Should Israel Switch Off Wagner?" The Wall Street Journal, 13 July 2001, p. A10; Martin Sherman, "With friends like Daniel", The International Jerusalem Post, 20 September 2002, p. 13; Editorial, "Bye-bye, Daniel. As a high profile critic of Israel, Mr. Barenboim's departure [from the Chicago Symphony Orchestra] brings relief", Chicago Jewish Star, 23 June 2006, p. 4; Terry Teachout, "Why Israel Still Shuts Wagner Out", The Wall Street Journal, 31 January – 1 February 2009, p. W1.

Political views

(File:Daniel Barenboim.jpg|right|thumb|Daniel Barenboim leads a rehearsal of the West–Eastern Divan in Seville, Spain, 2005)(File:Diván Este-Oeste 2005.jpg|thumb|Rehearsal of the West–Eastern Divan under the lead of Daniel Barenboim, 2005)Barenboim, a supporter of human rights, including Palestinian rights, is an outspoken critic of Israel's conservative governments and the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories. In an interview with the British music critic Norman Lebrecht in 2003, Barenboim accused Israel of behaving in a manner which was, "morally abhorrent and strategically wrong", and, "putting in danger the very existence of the state of Israel."WEB,weblink Norman Lebrecht, "Daniel Barenboim – Playing Politics". ''La Scena Musicale,, 3 December 2003, 1 September 2011, In 1967, at the start of the Six-Day War, Barenboim and du Pré had performed for the Israeli troops on the front lines, as well as during the Yom Kippur War in 1973. During the Gulf War, he and an orchestra performed in Israel in gas masks.NEWS,weblink The Sunday Times, 21 August 2005, Conducting a one-man experiment in peace. Profile: Daniel Barenboim, 5 May 2011, London, Barenboim has argued publicly for a Two-state solution for Israelis and Palestinians. In a November 2014 opinion piece in The Guardian, he wrote that the "ongoing security of the state of Israel ... is only possible in the long term if the future of the Palestinian people, too, is secured in its own sovereign state. If this does not happen, the wars and history of that region will be constantly repeated and the unbearable stalemate will continue."Daniel Barenboim, "Germany must talk straight with Israel", The Guardian, 9 November 2014, URL=

West–Eastern Divan

In 1999, Barenboim and Palestinian-American intellectual Edward Said jointly founded the West–Eastern Divan Orchestra.NEWS, Suzie Mackenzie,weblink In harmony,, 5 April 2003, 1 September 2011, NEWS, Daniel Barenbolm,weblink Sound and vision,, 25 October 2004, 1 September 2011, This initiative brings together, every summer, a group of young classical musicians from Israel, the Palestinian territories and Arab countries to study, perform and to promote mutual reflection and understanding.WEB, Martin Kettle,weblink Everything to play for | Education | The Guardian,, 2001-08-03, 2014-08-01, WEB, Geraldine Bedell,weblink Daniel's codes of conduct | From the Observer | The Observer,, 2014-08-01, {{webarchive |url= |date=30 September 2007 }} Barenboim and Said jointly received the 2002 Prince of Asturias Awards for their work in "improving understanding between nations." Together they wrote the book Parallels and Paradoxes, based on a series of public discussions held at New York's Carnegie Hall.WEB,weblink Culture, Arts and Entertainment, Telegraph, 2014-01-08, 2014-08-01, In September 2005, presenting the book written with Said, Barenboim refused to be interviewed by uniformed Israel Defense Forces Radio reporter Dafna Arad, considering the wearing of the uniform insensitive for the occasion. In response, Israeli Education Minister Limor Livnat of the Likud party called him "a real Jew hater" and "a real anti-Semite".NEWS,weblink Conductor Barenboim in radio row, BBC, 3 September 2005, After being invited for the fourth time to the Doha Festival for Music and Dialogue in Qatar with the West–Eastern Divan Orchestra in 2012, Barenboim's invitation was cancelled by the authorities because of "Sensitivity to the developments in the Arab world." There had been a campaign against him in the Arab media,WEB,weblink 'Zionist' Barenboim's Qatar concert cancelled, Smadar Perry, 1 May 2012, YNetnews, 29 May 2012, accusing him of "being a Zionist".WEB,weblink view all Israeli-Arab Normalization Hits a Snag, Omar Barghouti, 28 April 2012, Al-Akhbar English, 29 May 2012, In July 2012, Barenboim and the orchestra played a pivotal role at the BBC Proms, performing a cycle of Beethoven's nine symphonies, with the Ninth timed to coincide with the opening of the London 2012 Olympic Games.NEWS, Guy Dammann, Prom 18: West–Eastern Divan Orchestra/Barenboim – review,weblink The Guardian, 2012-07-29, 2015-02-08, In addition, he was an Olympic flag carrier at the opening ceremony of the Games.NEWS, Owen Gibson, Olympic cauldron lit by sport stars of future,weblink The Guardian, 2012-07-27, 2015-02-08,

Wolf Prize

In May 2004, Barenboim was awarded the Wolf Prize at a ceremony at the Israeli Knesset. Education Minister Livnat held up the nomination until Barenboim apologized for his performance of Wagner in Israel.NEWS,weblink Ohad Gozani, Barenboim changes tune, Telegraph, 17 December 2003, London, Barenboim called Livnat's demand "politically motivated", adding "I don't see what I need to apologize about. If I ever hurt a person privately or in public, I am sorry, because I have no intention of hurting people{{nbsp}}...", which was good enough for Livnat.NEWS,weblink 16 December 2003, Daniel Barenboim to apologize, receive Wolf Award, Associated Press, Haaretz, 4 May 2011, The ceremony was boycotted by Knesset Speaker Reuven Rivlin, also a member of the Likud party.NEWS,weblink Rivlin to boycott Barenboim prize award, Gideon, Alon, 5 May 2004, Haaretz, In his acceptance speech, Barenboim expressed his opinion on the political situation, referring to the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948:I am asking today with deep sorrow: Can we, despite all our achievements, ignore the intolerable gap between what the Declaration of Independence promised and what was fulfilled, the gap between the idea and the realities of Israel? Does the condition of occupation and domination over another people fit the Declaration of Independence? Is there any sense in the independence of one at the expense of the fundamental rights of the other? Can the Jewish people whose history is a record of continued suffering and relentless persecution, allow themselves to be indifferent to the rights and suffering of a neighboring people? Can the State of Israel allow itself an unrealistic dream of an ideological end to the conflict instead of pursuing a pragmatic, humanitarian one based on social justice?weblink {{webarchive |url= |date=20 June 2006 }}Israel's President Moshe Katsav and Education Minister Livnat criticized Barenboim for his speech. Livnat accused him of attacking the state of Israel, to which Barenboim replied that he had not done so, but that he instead had cited the text of the Israeli Declaration of Independence.{{dead link|date=August 2014}}

Performing in the West Bank and Gaza Strip

Barenboim has performed several times in the West Bank: at Bir Zeit University in 1999 and several times in Ramallah.weblink {{webarchive|url= |date=19 November 2007 }}In December 2007, Barenboim and 20 musicians from England, the United States, France and Germany, and one Palestinian were scheduled to play a baroque music concert in Gaza.NEWS, Conductor Barenboim slams Israel after musician barred from entering Gaza, Associated Press, Haaretz, 17 December 2007, 17 December 2007,weblink Although they had received authorization from Israeli authorities, the Palestinian was stopped at the Israel–Gaza border and told that he needed individual permission to enter. The group waited seven hours at the border, and then canceled the concert in solidarity. Barenboim commented: "A baroque music concert in a Roman Catholic church in Gaza – as we all know – has nothing to do with security and would bring so much joy to people who live there in great difficulty."In January 2008, after performing in Ramallah, Barenboim accepted honorary Palestinian citizenship, becoming the first Jewish Israeli citizen to be offered the status. Barenboim said he hoped it would serve as a public gesture of peace. Some Israelis criticized Barenboim's decision to accept Palestinian citizenship. The parliamentary faction chairman of the Shas party demanded that Barenboim be stripped of his Israeli citizenship, but the Interior Minister told the media that "the matter is not even up for discussion".NEWS,weblink Israeli pianist Barenboim takes Palestinian passport, 14 January 2008, Ynetnews, In January 2009, Barenboim cancelled two concerts of the West–Eastern Divan Orchestra in Qatar and Cairo "due to the escalating violence in Gaza and the resulting concerns for the musicians' safety."NEWS,weblink Barenboim Cancels Middle East Concerts, Itzkoff, Dave, Dave Itzkoff, The New York Times, 6 January 2009, In May 2011, Barenboim conducted the "Orchestra for Gaza" composed of volunteers from the Berlin Philharmonic, the Berlin Staatskapelle, the Orchestra of La Scala in Milan, the Vienna Philharmonic and the Orchestre de Paris, at al-Mathaf Cultural House. The concert, held in Gaza City, was co-ordinated in secret with the United Nations. The orchestra flew from Berlin to Vienna and from there to El Arish on a plane chartered by Barenboim, entering the Gaza Strip at the Egyptian Rafah Border Crossing. The musicians were escorted by a convoy of United Nations vehicles.NEWS,weblink Mozart Leaps Perilous Hurdles to Reach an Audience in Gaza, Michael Kimmelman, 4 May 2011, 5 May 2011, The New York Times, The concert, the first performance by an international classical ensemble in the Strip, was attended by an invited audience of several hundred schoolchildren and NGO workers, who greeted Barenboim with applause.NEWS,weblink Conductor Daniel Barenboim holds Gaza 'peace concert', 3 May 2011, BBC, 4 May 2011, The orchestra played Mozart's Eine kleine Nachtmusik and Symphony No. 40, also familiar to an Arab audience as the basis of one of the songs of the famous Arab singer Fairuz. In his speech, Barenboim said: "Everyone has to understand that the Palestinian cause is a just cause therefore it can be only given justice if it is achieved without violence. Violence can only weaken the righteousness of the Palestinian cause".NEWS,weblink Daniel Barenboim brings 'solace and pleasure' to Gaza with Mozart concert. Israeli conductor voices support for non-violence and Palestinian state during performance for schoolchildren and NGO workers, Conal Urquhart, The Guardian, 3 May 2011, 4 May 2011, London,

Personal life

Daniel Barenboim met English cellist Jacqueline du Pré on Christmas Eve 1966. Shortly before the Six-Day War, they flew to Jerusalem. She converted to Judaism, and they were married on 15 June 1967WEB,weblink Jacqueline DuPré Biography,, at the Western Wall.NEWS, Ian Phillips, Classical: Defending the real Jackie,weblink The Independent, 28 May 1999, 15 June 2012, She was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in October 1973, and died in October 1987.In the early 1980s, Barenboim had a relationship with the Russian pianist Elena Bashkirova. The two lived together and had two children (David Arthur Barenboim, born in Paris in 1982, now manager–writer for hip-hop bands, and Michael Barenboim, born in Paris in 1985, now a violinist) and were married in 1988, a year after Jacqueline's death.

Awards and recognition

Honorary degrees Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording: Grammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performance: Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance: Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra): Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist(s) Performance (with orchestra): In 2009 Konex Foundation from Argentina granted him the Diamond Konex Award for Classical Music as the most important musician in the last decade in his country.In 2012, he was voted into the Gramophone Hall of Fame.WEB, Daniel Barenboim (pianist and conductor),weblink 10 April 2012,



External links

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